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Sample records for cosmic dust impacts

  1. Impact ionization experiments with porous cosmic dust particle analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Veerle; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Hillier, Jon; Fielding, Lee; Lovett, Joseph; Armes, Steven; Fechler, Nina; Srama, Ralf; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hornung, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Impact ionization experiments have been performed since more than 40 years for calibration of cosmic dust instruments using a linear Van de Graaff dust accelerator. Such an accelerator can accelerate conductive dust particles of sizes between ca. a few tens of microns, and a micron in size to speeds up to 80 km/s depending on particle size. Many different materials have been used for instrument calibration, from iron in the earlier days to carbon, metal-coated minerals and most recently, minerals coated with conductive polymers. While different materials with different densities have been used for instrument calibration, no comparative analysis has been made yet of compact particles versus porous or fluffy particles of the same material. Porous or fluffy particles are increasingly found to be present in the solar system, e.g. dust from comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko or aggregate grains from the plumes of Enceladus and recently also indications were found for low-density interstellar dust (ISD) from ISD data and trajectory simulations. These recalibrations are thus relevant for estimations of the size distributions of interplanetary and interstellar dust. In this talk we report about the calibrations being performed at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility for investigating the influence of particle density on the impact ionization charge after impact. We use the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser as an impact target. We then explain the experiment set-up, the preparation of the materials and the materials used. We elaborate on the technical challenges, and finally about the current status of the research at this stage. We conclude the talk with the relevance of the study, being the potential influence of such calibrations on the estimates of the mass distributions of interstellar and interplanetary dust.

  2. The impact of cosmic dust on supernova cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano

    2006-10-01

    Extinction by intergalactic grey dust introduces a magnitude redshift-dependent offset in the standard-candle relation of supernova Type Ia. This leads to overestimated luminosity distances compared to a dust-free universe. Quantifying the amplitude of this systematic effect is crucial for an accurate determination of the dark energy parameters. In this paper, we model the grey dust extinction in terms of the star formation history of the Universe and the physical properties of the dust grains. We focus on a class of cosmic dust models which satisfy current observational constraints. These can produce an extinction as large as 0.08 mag at z = 1.7 and potentially disrupt the dark energy parameter inference from future SN surveys. In particular depending on the dust model, we find that an unaccounted extinction can bias the estimation of a constant dark energy equation of state w by shifting its best-fitting value up to 20 per cent from its true value. Near-IR broad-band photometry will hardly detect this effect, while the induced decrement of the Balmer lines requires high signal-to-noise spectra. Indeed, IR-spectroscopy will be needed for high-redshift SNe. Cosmic dust extinction may also cause a detectable violation of the distance-duality relation. A more comprehensive knowledge of the physics of the intergalactic medium is necessary for an accurate modelling of intergalactic dust. Due to the large magnitude dispersion current luminosity distance measurements are insensitive to such possible extinction effects. In contrast, these must be taken into account if we hope to disclose the true nature of dark energy with the upcoming generation of SN Ia surveys.

  3. Calibration of impact ionization cosmic dust detectors: first tests to investigate how the dust density influences the signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin Sterken, Veerle; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Hillier, Jon; Fielding, Lee; Lovett, Joseph; Armes, Steven; Fechler, Nina; Srama, Ralf; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hornung, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Impact ionization experiments have been performed since more than 40 years for calibrating cosmic dust detectors. A linear Van de Graaff dust accelerator was used to accelerate the cosmic dust analogues of submicron to micron-size to speeds up to 80 km s^-1. Different materials have been used for calibration: iron, carbon, metal-coated minerals and most recently, minerals coated with conductive polymers. While different materials with different densities have been used for instrument calibration, a comparative analysis of dust impacts of equal material but different density is necessary: porous or aggregate-like particles are increasingly found to be present in the solar system: e.g. dust from comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko [Fulle et al 2015], aggregate particles from the plumes of Enceladus [Gao et al 2016], and low-density interstellar dust [Westphal 2014 et al, Sterken et al 2015]. These recalibrations are relevant for measuring the size distributions of interplanetary and interstellar dust and thus mass budgets like the gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud.We report about the calibrations that have been performed at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility for investigating the influence of particle density on the impact ionization charge. We used the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer for the target, and compared hollow versus compact silica particles in our study as a first attempt to investigate experimentally the influence of dust density on the signals obtained. Also, preliminary tests with carbon aerogel were performed, and (unsuccessful) attempts to accelerate silica aerogel. In this talk we explain the motivation of the study, the experiment set-up, the preparation of — and the materials used, the results and plans and recommendations for future tests.Fulle, M. et al 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 802, Issue 1, article id. L12, 5 pp. (2015)Gao, P. et al 2016, Icarus, Volume 264, p. 227-238Westphal, A. et al 2014, Science

  4. The Cosmic Dust Analyzer for Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, James G.; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    1996-01-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) is designed to characterize the dust environment in interplanetary space, in the Jovian and in the Saturnian systems. The instrument consists of two major components, the Dust Analyzer (DA) and the High Rate Detector (HRD). The DA has a large aperture to provide a large cross section for detection in low flux environments. The DA has the capability of determining dust particle mass, velocity, flight direction, charge, and chemical composition. The chemical composition is determined by the Chemical Analyzer system based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The DA is capable of making full measurements up to one impact/second. The HRD contains two smaller PVDF detectors and electronics designed to characterize dust particle masses at impact rates up to 10(exp 4) impacts/second. These high impact rates are expected during Saturn ring, plane crossings.

  5. Calibration of the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simolka, J.; Srama, R.; Albin, T.; Bugiel, S.; Kempf, S.; Li, Y.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Postberg, F.

    2015-10-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft detects micron and sub-micron sized particles in the Saturn environment since 2004. The impact ionization based instrument measures the positive and negatives charges of the impact plasma generated by striking particles. This signals yield the impact velocity and the particle mass. Therefor the instrument needs to be carefully calibrated. Calibration is performed utilizing the dust accelerator facility in Heidelberg which is able to accelerate micron and sub-micron sized dust particles to velocities relevant in space. Particles on circular orbits in Saturn's ring plane allow cross calibration of the dust telescope since their velocity and mass range is well known. However, since the initial calibration the scientific knowledge of the local dust environment has drastically improved (thanks to Cassini). At the same time laboratory testing facilities evolved over the years and allow a better recreation of actual conditions nowdays. Especially a larger variety of dust types particularly of mineral compositions is available nowadays.

  6. Cosmic dust in the earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Plane, John M C

    2012-10-01

    This review discusses the magnitude of the cosmic dust input into the earth's atmosphere, and the resulting impacts from around 100 km to the earth's surface. Zodiacal cloud observations and measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector indicate a daily mass input of interplanetary dust particles ranging from 100 to 300 tonnes, which is in agreement with the accumulation rates of cosmic-enriched elements (Ir, Pt, Os and super-paramagnetic Fe) in polar ice cores and deep-sea sediments. In contrast, measurements in the middle atmosphere - by radar, lidar, high-flying aircraft and satellite remote sensing - indicate that the input is between 5 and 50 tonnes per day. There are two reasons why this huge discrepancy matters. First, if the upper range of estimates is correct, then vertical transport in the middle atmosphere must be considerably faster than generally believed; whereas if the lower range is correct, then our understanding of dust evolution in the solar system, and transport from the middle atmosphere to the surface, will need substantial revision. Second, cosmic dust particles enter the atmosphere at high speeds and undergo significant ablation. The resulting metals injected into the atmosphere are involved in a diverse range of phenomena, including: the formation of layers of metal atoms and ions; the nucleation of noctilucent clouds, which are a sensitive marker of climate change; impacts on stratospheric aerosols and O(3) chemistry, which need to be considered against the background of a cooling stratosphere and geo-engineering plans to increase sulphate aerosol; and fertilization of the ocean with bio-available Fe, which has potential climate feedbacks.

  7. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Morrison, D.

    1990-02-01

    The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.

  8. COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak

    2013-10-20

    The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly.

  9. Cosmic dust or other similar outer-space particles location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aver, S.

    1973-01-01

    Cosmic dust may be serious radiation hazard to man and electronic equipment caught in its path. Dust detector uses two operational amplifiers and offers narrower areas for collection of cosmic dust. Detector provides excellent resolution as result of which recording of particle velocities as well as positions of their impact are more accurately determined.

  10. Cosmic dust detection by the Cluster spacecraft: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaverka, Jakub; De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Hamrin, Maria; Kero, Johan; Mann, Ingrid; Norberg, Carol; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Pitkänen, Timo

    2016-04-01

    There are several different techniques that are used to measure cosmic dust entering the Earth's atmosphere such as space-born dust detectors, meteor and HPLA radars, and optical methods. One complementary method could be to use electric field instruments initially designed to measure electric waves. A plasma cloud generated by a hypervelocity dust impact on a spacecraft body can be detected by the electric field instruments commonly operated on spacecraft. Since Earth-orbiting missions are generally not equipped with conventional dust detectors, the electric field instruments offer an alternative method to measure the Earth's dust environment. We present the first detection of dust impacts on one of the Earth-orbiting Cluster satellites with the Wideband Data Plasma Wave Receiver (WBD). We first describe the concept of dust impact ionization and of the impact detection. Based on these considerations the mass and the velocity of the impinging dust grains can be estimated from the amplitude of the Cluster voltage pulses. In the case of the Cluster instrument an automatic gain control adjusts the dynamic range of the recorded signals. Depending on the gain level the impact signal can both be affected by saturation or be too weak for analysis. We describe how this influences the duty cycle of the impact measurements. We finally discuss the suitability of this method for monitoring dust fluxes near Earth and compare it with other methods.

  11. Pallene dust torus observations by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiß, M.; Srama, R.; Sun, K.-L.; Seiler, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Kempf, S.; Spahn, F.

    2014-04-01

    The ISS cameras on-board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along the orbit of Pallene [1]. It is believed that the source of the torus is the moon Pallene itself, where dust particles are ejected from its surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here, we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on-board of the spacecraft Cassini which confirm the existence of a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled by a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km, respectively, and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 · 10-3m-3.

  12. Silica Aerogel Captures Cosmic Dust Intact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mesostructure of silica aerogel resembles stings of grapes, ranging in size from 10 to 100 angstrom. This fine mesostructure transmits nearly 90 percent of incident light in the visible, while providing sufficiently gentle dissipation of the kinetric energy of hypervelocity cosmic dust particles to permit their intact capture. We introduced silica aerogel in 1987 as capture medium to take advantage of its low density, fine mesostruicture and most importantly, its transparency, allowing optical location of captured micron sized particles.

  13. Intact capture of cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this development effort is to capture dust particles at hypervelocities intact and unmelted in order to preserve volatile organics. At the same time, the capture process must minimize any organic elemental or compound contamination to prevent any compromise of exobiological analyses. Inorganic silicate aerogel has been developed as a successful capture medium to satisfy both requirements of intact capture and minimal organic contamination. Up to 6 km/s, silicate projectiles from a few microns up to 100 microns have been captured intact without any melting and with minimal loss of mass. Carbon in silicate aerogel can be reduced to less than 1 part in 1000 and hydrogen 3 parts in 1000 when baked in air. Under controlled inert gas environments, additional hydrocarbon reduction can be achieved.

  14. Collection of cosmic dust in earth orbit for exobiological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogleman, Guy; Huntington, Judith L.; Carle, Glenn C.

    1989-01-01

    Two proposed NASA exobiology flight experiments are described in terms of the approaches to cosmic dust collection and the issues addressed by the analysis of the samples. A passive collector is planned for use with the Cosmic Dust Collection Facility, and an active system is described for attachment to the Space Station Freedom payload. Exobiological study of cosmic dust could provide insights on organic chemistry in the grains and on the relative abundances of biogenic elements in interstellar, cometary, and meteoric samples.

  15. Reanalysis of porous chondritic cosmic dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapisinsky, I.; Figusch, V.; Ivan, J.; Izdinsky, K.; Zemankova, M.

    2001-10-01

    The particles reanalysed in this study were obtained from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Cosmic Dust Collection. The reanalysis of the particle L2008 P9 indicates typical assemblage of olivine - pyroxene. This sample can be classified as a chondritic porous IDP with the metallic phase grain containing essential amount of nickel and copper (the latter element is most probably due to instrumental artefact). The chemical composition of the particle L2011 S5 corresponds mostly to an assemblage of pyroxene phase - (Mg,Fe,Ni)SiO_3 roughly 75 wt.% and a sulphide phase - probably pyrrhotite (Fe,Ni)S about 25 wt.%.

  16. Mining cosmic dust from the blue ice lakes of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurette, M.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fehrenback, L.; Hammer, C.; Jehano, C.; Thomsen, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material, most of which invisible settles to Earth's surface as dust particles smaller than a millimeter in size were investigated. Particles of 1/10 millimeter size fall at a rate of one/sq m/yr collection of extraterrestrial dust is important because the recovered cosmic dust particles can provide important information about comets. Comets are the most important source of dust in the solar system and they are probably the major source of extraterrestrial dust that is collectable at the Earth's surface. A new collection site for cosmic dust, in an environment where degradation by weathering is minimal is reported. It is found that the blue ice lakes on the Greenland ice cap provide an ideal location for collection of extraterrestrial dust particles larger than 0.1 mm in size. It is found that the lakes contain large amounts of cosmic dust which is much better preserved than similar particles recovered from the ocean floor.

  17. The simulation of cosmic dust collection process with little damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Danming; Li, Yali; Wu, Qingxiao; Dai, Peng

    2016-07-01

    To built a cosmic dust collector according to a predetermined concept, mateirals that can be used to buffer the poential high speed collision of the cosmic dust have been studied. In this study, aerogel was chosen as an ideal buffer material and analyzed with SPH modeling method which is embedded in ABAQUS FE code. This report presents the interactions of cosmic dust, varing composition, shape and velocity, with the buffer material. The results show that cosmic dust that moves at 6 Km/s or less can be captured with minor damage to the buffer material of certain length. The simulation provides favorable technical support for the structural design of the cosmic dust collector.

  18. Lunar soil movement registered by the Apollo 17 cosmic dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, O. E.; Wolf, H.; Rhee, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment of the Apollo 17 flight mission, placed in the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon. The objective of the experiment was to measure impact parameters of cosmic dust on the lunar surface. Preliminary data analysis led to the recognition that the bulk of events recorded by the LEAM experiment are not signatures of hypervelocity cosmic dust particles as expected, but are induced signatures of electrostatically charged and transported lunar fines.

  19. Time of flight mass spectra of ions in plasmas produced by hypervelocity impacts of organic and mineralogical microparticles on a cosmic dust analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsworthy, B. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.; Armes, S. P.; Khan, M. A.; Lascelles, S. F.; Green, S. F.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Srama, R.; Bigger, S. W.

    2003-10-01

    The ionic plasma produced by a hypervelocity particle impact can be analysed to determine compositional information for the original particle by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Such methods have been adopted on interplanetary dust detectors to perform in-situ analyses of encountered grains, for example, the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA). In order to more fully understand the data returned by such instruments, it is necessary to study their response to impacts in the laboratory. Accordingly, data are shown here for the mass spectra of ionic plasmas, produced through the acceleration of microparticles via a 2 MV van de Graaff accelerator and their impact on a dimensionally correct CDA model with a rhodium target. The microparticle dusts examined have three different chemical compositions: metal (iron), organic (polypyrrole and polystyrene latex) and mineral (aluminosilicate clay). These microparticles have mean diameters in the range 0.1 to 1.6 mu m and their velocities range from 1-50 km s-1. They thus cover a wide range of compositions, sizes and speeds expected for dust particles encountered by spacecraft in the Solar System. The advent of new low-density, microparticles with highly controllable attributes (composition, size) has enabled a number of new investigations in this area. The key is the use of a conducting polymer, either as the particle itself or as a thin overlayer on organic (or inorganic) core particles. This conductive coating permits efficient electrostatic charging and acceleration. Here, we examine how the projectile's chemical composition influences the ionic plasma produced after the hypervelocity impact. This study thus extends our understanding of impact plasma formation and detection. The ionization yield normalized to particle mass was found to depend on impact speed to the power (3.4 +/- 0.1) for iron and (2.9 +/- 0.1) for polypyrrole coated polystyrene and aluminosilicate clay. The ioization signal rise time was found to

  20. Ion implantation effects in 'cosmic' dust grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Meunier, R.; Jouffrey, B.; Jouret, C.

    1974-01-01

    Cosmic dust grains, whatever their origin may be, have probably suffered a complex sequence of events including exposure to high doses of low-energy nuclear particles and cycles of turbulent motions. High-voltage electron microscope observations of micron-sized grains either naturally exposed to space environmental parameters on the lunar surface or artificially subjected to space simulated conditions strongly suggest that such events could drastically modify the mineralogical composition of the grains and considerably ease their aggregation during collisions at low speeds. Furthermore, combined mass spectrometer and ionic analyzer studies show that small carbon compounds can be both synthesized during the implantation of a mixture of low-energy D, C, N ions in various solids and released in space by ion sputtering.

  1. In situ dust measurements by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer in 2014 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, R.

    2015-10-01

    Today, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is operated continuously for 11 years in orbit around Saturn. Many discoveries like the Saturn nanodust streams or the large extended Ering were achieved. CDA provided unique results regarding Enceladus, his plume and the liquid water below the icy crust. In 2014 and 2015 CDA focuses on extended inclination and equatorial scans of the ring particle densities. Furthermore, scans are performed of the Pallene and Helene regions. Special attention is also given to the search of the dust cloud around Dione and to the Titan region. Long integration times are needed in order to characterize the flux and composition of exogenous dust (including interstellar dust) or possible retrograde dust particles. Finally, dedicated observation campaigns focus on the coupling of nanodust streams to Saturn's magnetosphere and the search of possible periodicities in the stream data. Saturn's rotation frequency was identified in the impact rate of nanodust particles at a Saturn distance of 40 Saturn radii. A special geometry in 2014-065 lead to an occultation of the dust stream by the moon Titan and its atmosphere when Titan crossed the line-of-sight between Saturn and Cassini. Here, CDA pointed towards Saturn for the measurement of stream particles. Around closest approach when Cassini was behind Titan, the flux of stream particles went down to zero (Fig. 1). This "dust occultation" is a new method to analyse the properties of the stream particles (speed, composition, mass) or the properties of Titans atmosphere (density). Furthermore, the particle trajectories can be constrained for a better analysis of their origin. In the final three years CDA performs exogenous and interstellar dust campaigns, studies of the composition and origin of Saturn's main rings by unique ring ejecta measurements, long-duration nano-dust stream observations, high-resolution maps of small moon orbit crossings, studies of the dust cloud around Dione and studies

  2. Compositional Analysis of Interstellar Dust as seen by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiege, K.; Trieloff, M.; Guglielmino, M.; Hillier, J.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Blum, J.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate constraints on the composition of interstellar dust (ISD) grains, obtained via impact ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy with the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. 25 ISD candidates have been extracted from the vast Cassini CDA data set, based on the evaluation of their dynamical properties. To derive chemical composition from time-of-flight mass spectra of high energy particle impacts, we calibrated the laboratory unit of the CDA [1], and the high resolution Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA) [2] with a specifically manufactured orthopyroxene dust analogue. For particle impact simulations we utilized a 2MV Van de Graaff accelerator at Heidelberg [3]. The dust analogue material was analyzed by geochemical standard techniques (scanning electron microscope - SEM; electron microprobe analysis - EMPA), and ground to sub-micron size and coated with a conductive Pt-layer for the acceleration through an electromagnetic field [4]. We inferred sensitivity coefficients for impact ionization TOF mass spectra, so that mass spectra from the CDA and LAMA could be compared with with typical compositions of terrestrial and cosmochemically relevant silicate minerals, and bulk compositions.The suite of ISD canditates can be divided into a Mg-rich fraction with low Ca-content and a Mg-rich fraction with higher Ca-content. Comparing the ISD candidate compositions to cosmochemically relevant reservoirs, it can be shown that the Mg-dominated ISD candidate data plot close to a solar or cosmic composition (CI), possibly slightly volatile depleted. References:[1]R. Srama, et al., The Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer. Space Sci. Rev., 114: 465-518 ( 2004). [2] R. Srama, et al., Laboratory Tests of the Large Area Mass Analyser. Dust in Planetary Systems, 643:209-212 (2007). [3]A. Mocker, et al., A 2mv van de graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research. Rev. Sci. Instr. (2011), [4] J. K

  3. The Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser CDA - A 10 year exploration of Saturn's dust environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after seven years of cruise phase. Since then, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) was operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by its magnetosphere to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and an their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring (at least twice as large as previously known) allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturns E ring describing the observed properties. Cassini performed shadow crossings in the ring plane and dust grain charges were measured in shadow regions delivering important data for dust-plasma interaction studies. In the last years, dedicated measurement campaigns were executed by CDA to monitor the flux of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles reaching Saturn.

  4. NASA Now: Origins and Evolution of the Universe: Cosmic Dust

    NASA Video Gallery

    This episode of NASA Now highlights recently discovered wonders of the universe as well as common cosmic dust. Discover how these microscopic particles floating in space could hold the key to the o...

  5. Cosmic dust synthesis by accretion and coagulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praburam, G.; Goree, J.

    1995-01-01

    The morphology of grains grown by accretion and coagulation is revaled by a new laboratory method of synthesizing cosmic dust analogs. Submicron carbon particles, grown by accretion of carbon atoms from a gas, have a spherical shape with a cauliflower-like surface and an internal micro-structure of radial columns. This shape is probably common for grains grown by accretion at a temperature well below the melting point. Coagulated grains, consisting of spheres that collided to form irregular strings, were also synthesized. Another shape we produced had a bumpy non- spherical morphology, like an interplanetary particle collected in the terrestrial stratosphere. Besides these isolated grains, large spongy aggregates of nanometer-size particles were also found for various experimental conditions. Grains were synthesized using ions to sputter a solid target, producing an atomic vapor at a low temperature. The ions were provided by a plasma, which also provided electrostatic levitation of the grains during their growth. The temporal development of grain growth was studied by extinguishing the plasma after various intervals.

  6. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to

  7. A New Laboratory For Terahertz Characterization Of Cosmic Analog Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Thushara; Liu, Lunjun; Breyer, Fiona; Schonert, Ryan; O'Shea, Kyle; Roesner, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    Most studies conducted with observatories such as ALMA, SOFIA, PLANCK, and Herschel will benefit from knowledge of (1) the predominant cosmic dust species in various environments and (2) the mm/sub-mm optical properties of cosmic dusts, including the temperature dependent-emissivity and spectral index. We have undertaken two efforts to enable the laboratory study of cosmic analogs dusts in the frequency range 60-2000 GHz. They are: (1) the construction of a novel compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) design coupled to a dry 4-K cryostat which houses a cooled sample exchanger (filter wheel) and a bolometer. (2) The production of Mg- and Fe-rich silicate dusts using sol-gel methods; various tests to determine their physical and chemical properties; embedding of samples in LDPE pellets for insertion into the novel FTS. This presentation will focus on the current status of the apparatus and data from its first few months of use.

  8. Pristine Stratospheric Collections of Cosmic Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1981, NASA has routinely collected interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in the stratosphere by inertial impact onto silicone oil-coated flat plate collectors deployed on the wings of high-altitude aircraft [1]. The highly viscous oil traps and localizes the particles, which can fragment during collection. Particles are removed from the collectors with a micromanipulator and washed of the oil using organic solvents, typically hexane or xylene. While silicone oil is an efficient collection medium, its use is problematic. All IDPs are initially coated with this material (polydimethylsiloxane, n(CH3)2SiO) and traces of oil may remain after cleaning. The solvent rinse itself is also a concern as it likely removes indigenous organics from the particles. To avoid these issues, we used a polyurethane foam substrate for the oil-free stratospheric collection of IDPs.

  9. Progress toward a cosmic dust collection facility on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, Ian D. R. (Editor); Carey, William C. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Scientific and programmatic progress toward the development of a cosmic dust collection facility (CDCF) for the proposed space station is documented. Topics addressed include: trajectory sensor concepts; trajectory accuracy and orbital evolution; CDCF pointing direction; development of capture devices; analytical techniques; programmatic progress; flight opportunities; and facility development.

  10. Cosmic Dust Collection Facility: Scientific objectives and programmatic relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Fred (Editor); Brownlee, D. E.; Bunch, T. E.; Grounds, D.; Grun, E.; Rummel, Y.; Quaide, W. L.; Walker, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The science objectives are summarized for the Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) on Space Station Freedom and these objectives are related to ongoing science programs and mission planning within NASA. The purpose is to illustrate the potential of the CDCF project within the broad context of early solar system sciences that emphasize the study of primitive objects in state-of-the-art analytical and experimental laboratories on Earth. Current knowledge about the sources of cosmic dust and their associated orbital dynamics is examined, and the results are reviewed of modern microanalytical investigations of extraterrestrial dust particles collected on Earth. Major areas of scientific inquiry and uncertainty are identified and it is shown how CDCF will contribute to their solution. General facility and instrument concepts that need to be pursued are introduced, and the major development tasks that are needed to attain the scientific objectives of the CDCF project are identified.

  11. Cosmic Ornament of Gas and Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 4-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Silicon Gas Figure 2 Argon Figure 3 Dust Collection Figure 4

    This beautiful bulb might look like a Christmas ornament but it is the blown-out remains of a stellar explosion, or supernova. Called Cassiopeia A, this supernova remnant is located about 10,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way galaxy. The remains are shown here in an infrared composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Silicon gas is blue and argon gas is green, while red represents about 10,000 Earth masses worth of dust. Yellow shows areas where red and green overlap.

    The fact that these two features line up (as seen in yellow in the combined view) tells astronomers that the dust, together with the gas, was created in the explosion. This is the best evidence yet that supernovae are a significant source of dust in the early universe something that was postulated before, but not proven. Dust in our young universe is important because it eventually made its way into future stars, planets and even people.

    In figure 1, the upper left panel is a composite made up of three infrared views shown in the remaining panels. The bottom left view (figure 3) shows argon gas (green) that was synthesized as it was ejected from the star. The upper right panel (figure 2) shows silicon gas (blue) deep in the interior of the remnant. This cooler gas, called the unshocked ejecta, was also synthesized in the supernova blast. The bottom right view (figure 4) shows a collection of dust (red), including proto-silicates, silicate dioxide and iron oxide.

    The data for these images were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light apart to reveal the fingerprints of molecules and elements. In total, Spitzer collected separate 'spectra' at more than 1,700 positions across

  12. Counter data of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer aboard the Cassini spacecraft and possible “dust clouds” at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalisi, Emil; Srama, Ralf; Grün, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    We present the impact rates of dust particles recorded by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) aboard the Cassini spacecraft. The “dust counters” evaluate the quality of an impact and give rise to the apparent density of dust particles in space. The raw data is pre-selected and refined to a new structure that serves to a better investigation of densities, flows, and properties of interplanetary dust grains. Our data is corrected for the dead time of the instrument and corresponds to an assumed Kepler orbit (pointing of the sensitive area). The processed data are published on the website for the Magnetosphere and Plasma Science (MAPSview), where it can be correlated with other Cassini instruments. A sample is presented for the Titan flyby on DOY 250/2006. We find that the dust density peaks at two times, at least, in a void region between Titan and Rhea. Such features may point to extended clouds of small particles drifting slowly in space. These density clouds seem to be stable for as long as several months or few years before dispersing.

  13. Mathematical model of formation of Kordylewski cosmic dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sal'nikova, T. V.; Stepanov, S. Ya.

    2015-07-01

    The question of occurrence of cosmic dust clouds, which were found by Kordylewski in 1961 in the vicinity of libration point L 5 of the Earth-Moon system, still causes debates and concern. We explain theoretically the phenomenon of the apparent vanishing and appearance of the Kordylewski cosmic dust clouds in the vicinity of triangular libration points L 4 and L 5 of the Earth-Moon system. The possibility of occurrence of two such clouds rotating around libration points L 4 and two clouds rotating around point L 5 is shown and optimal times for their observation from the Earth are determined. The investigation is performed based on analysis of a stable periodic motion in a planar restricted circular problem of three bodies, Earth-Moon—Particle, allowing for perturbations from the Sun under the assumption that the orbits of the Earth and Moon are circular and lie in one plane.

  14. Detection of the Cosmic Dust and Micrometeorites in Sediments Using Their Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, D. M.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Pechersky, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    Shown reliability of using magnetic properties (Curie temperature) for identification of cosmic dust and micrometeorites in sediments (Atlantic Ocean, Lake Baikal, Mongolian, Austrian, Russian sedimentary outcrops).

  15. Flux and composition of interstellar dust at Saturn from Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, N; Postberg, F; Fiege, K; Trieloff, M; Kimura, H; Sterken, V J; Hsu, H-W; Hillier, J; Khawaja, N; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G; Blum, J; Burton, M; Srama, R; Kempf, S; Gruen, E

    2016-04-15

    Interstellar dust (ISD) is the condensed phase of the interstellar medium. In situ data from the Cosmic Dust Analyzer on board the Cassini spacecraft reveal that the Saturnian system is passed by ISD grains from our immediate interstellar neighborhood, the local interstellar cloud. We determine the mass distribution of 36 interstellar grains, their elemental composition, and a lower limit for the ISD flux at Saturn. Mass spectra and grain dynamics suggest the presence of magnesium-rich grains of silicate and oxide composition, partly with iron inclusions. Major rock-forming elements (magnesium, silicon, iron, and calcium) are present in cosmic abundances, with only small grain-to-grain variations, but sulfur and carbon are depleted. The ISD grains in the solar neighborhood appear to be homogenized, likely by repeated processing in the interstellar medium.

  16. Flux and composition of interstellar dust at Saturn from Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, N; Postberg, F; Fiege, K; Trieloff, M; Kimura, H; Sterken, V J; Hsu, H-W; Hillier, J; Khawaja, N; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G; Blum, J; Burton, M; Srama, R; Kempf, S; Gruen, E

    2016-04-15

    Interstellar dust (ISD) is the condensed phase of the interstellar medium. In situ data from the Cosmic Dust Analyzer on board the Cassini spacecraft reveal that the Saturnian system is passed by ISD grains from our immediate interstellar neighborhood, the local interstellar cloud. We determine the mass distribution of 36 interstellar grains, their elemental composition, and a lower limit for the ISD flux at Saturn. Mass spectra and grain dynamics suggest the presence of magnesium-rich grains of silicate and oxide composition, partly with iron inclusions. Major rock-forming elements (magnesium, silicon, iron, and calcium) are present in cosmic abundances, with only small grain-to-grain variations, but sulfur and carbon are depleted. The ISD grains in the solar neighborhood appear to be homogenized, likely by repeated processing in the interstellar medium. PMID:27081064

  17. Cosmic Impacts, Cosmic Catastrophes. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1990-01-01

    Examined is the science of catastrophism and its role in planetary and earth science. The effects of impacts on earth with extraterrestrial origins are discussed. Perspectives on the age and dynamics of the earth's crust are presented. (CW)

  18. Laboratory calibration of the cassini cosmic dust analyser (CDA) using new, low density projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsworthy, B. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.; Green, S. F.; Leese, M. R.; McBride, N.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Müller, M.; Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Armes, S. P.; Khan, M. A.

    The Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA), developed from the Galileo and Ulysses dust instruments with the addition of a Chemical Analyser, is currently travelling outward from the Earth (collecting data from March 1999 onward) to the Saturnian system (arrival 2004) via Jupiter. The Chemical Analyser will provide information on the elemental composition of impacting micrometeoroids through impact ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A rigorous calibration programme primarily focussed upon the Chemical Analyser is in progress at the University of Kent at Canterbury. A 2-MV Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and CDA laboratory model are used to simulate impacts. Acceleration of revolutionary low density, polymer dust particles has enabled an insight into the response of CDA to molecularly bonded material with increasing event velocity. These conducting polymer coated polystyrene latex particles represent significantly better analogues for carbonaceous cosmic grains than more traditionally accelerated projectiles (e.g. iron) and have enabled complex organic spectra to be produced in the laboratory. The current status of an ongoing programme is reported. Three samples are presented, two polypyrrole coated latexes of differing size and one PEDOT-coated latex sample.

  19. Effects of dust enrichment on oxygen fugacity of cosmic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedkin, Alexei V.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    The degree to which dust enrichment enhances the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of a system otherwise solar in composition depends on the dust composition. Equilibrium calculations were performed at 10-3 bar in systems enriched by a factor of 104 in two fundamentally different types of dust to investigate the iron oxidation state in both cases. One type of dust, called SC for solar condensate, stopped equilibrating with solar gas at too high a temperature for FeO or condensed water to be stabilized in any form, and thus has the composition expected of a nebular condensate. The other has CI chondrite composition, appropriate for a parent body that accreted from SC dust and low-temperature ice. Upon total vaporization at 2300 K, both systems have high fO2, >IW. In the SC dust-enriched system, FeO of the bulk silicate reaches ~10 wt% at 1970 K but decreases to <1 wt% below 1500 K. The FeO undergoes reduction because consumption of gaseous oxygen by silicate recondensation causes a precipitous drop in fO2. Thus, enrichment in dust having the composition of likely nebular condensates cannot yield a sufficiently oxidizing environment to account for the FeO contents of chondrules. The fO2 of the system enriched in water-rich, CI dust, however, remains high throughout condensation, as gaseous water remains uncondensed until very low temperatures. This allows silicate condensates to achieve and maintain FeO contents of 27-35 wt%. Water-rich parent bodies are thus excellent candidate sources of chondrule precursors. Impacts on such bodies may have created the combination of high dust enrichment, total pressure, and fO2 necessary for chondrule formation.

  20. On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Nesvorný, D.; Janches, D.

    2015-08-01

    The size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the Earth's atmosphere is uncertain. Here we show that the relative concentrations of metal atoms in the upper mesosphere, and the surface accretion rate of cosmic spherules, provide sensitive probes of this distribution. Three cosmic dust models are selected as case studies: two are astronomical models, the first constrained by infrared observations of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud and the second by radar observations of meteor head echoes; the third model is based on measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector. For each model, a Monte Carlo sampling method combined with a chemical ablation model is used to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Mg, and Ca above 60 km and cosmic spherule production rate. It appears that a significant fraction of the cosmic dust consists of small (<5 µg) and slow (<15 km s-1) particles.

  1. On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo‐Sánchez, J. D.; Feng, W.; Nesvorný, D.; Janches, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the Earth's atmosphere is uncertain. Here we show that the relative concentrations of metal atoms in the upper mesosphere, and the surface accretion rate of cosmic spherules, provide sensitive probes of this distribution. Three cosmic dust models are selected as case studies: two are astronomical models, the first constrained by infrared observations of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud and the second by radar observations of meteor head echoes; the third model is based on measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector. For each model, a Monte Carlo sampling method combined with a chemical ablation model is used to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Mg, and Ca above 60 km and cosmic spherule production rate. It appears that a significant fraction of the cosmic dust consists of small (<5 µg) and slow (<15 km s−1) particles. PMID:27478282

  2. Space science applications for conducting polymer particles: synthetic mimics for cosmic dust and micrometeorites.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee A; Hillier, Jon K; Burchell, Mark J; Armes, Steven P

    2015-12-11

    Over the last decade or so, a range of polypyrrole-based particles have been designed and evaluated for space science applications. This electrically conductive polymer enables such particles to efficiently acquire surface charge, which in turn allows their acceleration up to the hypervelocity regime (>1 km s(-1)) using a Van de Graaff accelerator. Either organic latex (e.g. polystyrene or poly(methyl methacrylate)) or various inorganic materials (such as silica, olivine or pyrrhotite) can be coated with polypyrrole; these core-shell particles are useful mimics for understanding the hypervelocity impact ionisation behaviour of micro-meteorites (a.k.a. cosmic dust). Impacts on metal targets at relatively low hypervelocities (<10 km s(-1)) generate ionic plasma composed mainly of molecular fragments, whereas higher hypervelocities (>10 km s(-1)) generate predominately atomic species, since many more chemical bonds are cleaved if the particles impinge with higher kinetic energy. Such fundamental studies are relevant to the calibration of the cosmic dust analyser (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft, which was designed to determine the chemical composition of Saturn's dust rings. Inspired by volcanism observed for one of the Jupiter's moons (Io), polypyrrole-coated sulfur-rich latexes have also been designed to help space scientists understand ionisation spectra originating from sulfur-rich dust particles. Finally, relatively large (20 μm diameter) polypyrrole-coated polystyrene latexes have proven to be useful for understanding the extent of thermal ablation of organic projectiles when fired at ultralow density aerogel targets at up to 6.1 km s(-1) using a Light Gas Gun. In this case, the sacrificial polypyrrole overlayer simply provides a sensitive spectroscopic signature (rather than a conductive overlayer), and the scientific findings have important implications for the detection of organic dust grains during the Stardust space mission.

  3. Space science applications for conducting polymer particles: synthetic mimics for cosmic dust and micrometeorites.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee A; Hillier, Jon K; Burchell, Mark J; Armes, Steven P

    2015-12-11

    Over the last decade or so, a range of polypyrrole-based particles have been designed and evaluated for space science applications. This electrically conductive polymer enables such particles to efficiently acquire surface charge, which in turn allows their acceleration up to the hypervelocity regime (>1 km s(-1)) using a Van de Graaff accelerator. Either organic latex (e.g. polystyrene or poly(methyl methacrylate)) or various inorganic materials (such as silica, olivine or pyrrhotite) can be coated with polypyrrole; these core-shell particles are useful mimics for understanding the hypervelocity impact ionisation behaviour of micro-meteorites (a.k.a. cosmic dust). Impacts on metal targets at relatively low hypervelocities (<10 km s(-1)) generate ionic plasma composed mainly of molecular fragments, whereas higher hypervelocities (>10 km s(-1)) generate predominately atomic species, since many more chemical bonds are cleaved if the particles impinge with higher kinetic energy. Such fundamental studies are relevant to the calibration of the cosmic dust analyser (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft, which was designed to determine the chemical composition of Saturn's dust rings. Inspired by volcanism observed for one of the Jupiter's moons (Io), polypyrrole-coated sulfur-rich latexes have also been designed to help space scientists understand ionisation spectra originating from sulfur-rich dust particles. Finally, relatively large (20 μm diameter) polypyrrole-coated polystyrene latexes have proven to be useful for understanding the extent of thermal ablation of organic projectiles when fired at ultralow density aerogel targets at up to 6.1 km s(-1) using a Light Gas Gun. In this case, the sacrificial polypyrrole overlayer simply provides a sensitive spectroscopic signature (rather than a conductive overlayer), and the scientific findings have important implications for the detection of organic dust grains during the Stardust space mission. PMID:26458233

  4. Polarization of cosmic dust simulated with the rough spheroid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Das, Himadri Sekhar; Dubovik, Oleg; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Yang, Ping

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic dust is a polydisperse mixture of irregular, often aggregated, particles. Previous attempts have tried to simulate polarimetric properties of this dust using aggregate dust models, but it has not been possible to consider particle sizes larger than a couple of microns due to limitations of computer memory and processing power. Attempts have also been made to replace aggregates by polydisperse regular particles (spheres, spheroids, cylinders), but those models could not consistently reproduce the observed photopolarimetric characteristics. In this study, we introduce to the astronomical community the software package developed by Dubovik et al. (2006) for modeling light scattering by a polydisperse mixture of randomly oriented smooth and rough spheroids of a variety of aspect ratios. The roughness of spheroids is defined by a normal distribution of the surface slopes, and its degree depends on the standard deviation of the distribution (which is zero for smooth surface and greater than zero for rough surface). The pre-calculated kernels in the software package allow for fast, accurate, and flexible modeling of different size and shape distributions. We present our results of a systematic investigation of polarization obtained with the rough and smooth spheroid models; we study differences in their phase angle dependence and how those differences change with the particle size distribution. We found that the difference between smooth and rough particles increases with increasing effective size parameter and affects mainly the value and position of the maximum polarization. Negative polarization was found to be typical only for silicate-like refractive indexes and only when the particles have size parameters within 2.5-25. As an example of an application of the rough spheroid model, we made computations for rough spheroids that have a size distribution and composition typical for cometary dust. We found that a mixture of porous rough spheroids made of absorbing

  5. Highlights and discoveries of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) during its 15 years of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Kempf, S.; Postberg, F.; Albin, T.; Auer, S.; Altobelli, N.; Beckmann, U.; Bugiel, S.; Burton, M.; Economou, T.; Fliege, K.; Grande, M.; Gruen, E.; Guglielmino, M.; Hillier, J. K.; Schilling, A.; Schmidt, J.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Trieloff, M.

    2014-04-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after seven years of cruise phase. Today, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. During the cruise phase CDA measured the interstellar dust flux at one AU distance from the Sun, the charge and composition of interplanetary dust grains and the composition of the Jovian nanodust streams. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by its magnetosphere to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and an their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the icy crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturn's E ring describing the observed properties. The measured dust density profiles in the dense E ring revealed geometric asymmetries. Cassini performed shadow crossings in the ring plane and dust grain charges were measured in shadow regions delivering important data for dust-plasma interaction studies. In the last years, dedicated measurement campaigns were executed by CDA to monitor the flux of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles reaching

  6. Microanalytical study of some cosmic dust discovered in sea-floor sediments in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shijie, Z.; Hanchang, P.; Zhong, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The study of cosmic dust can provide useful data in the investigation of the origin of the Earth and the evolution of celestial bodies. Three types of cosmic dust (ferriginous, siliceous, and glassy) were discovered in the seafloor sediments near China. Their chemical composition and microstructure were examined by X-ray diffraction, fractography, and electron microscopy. The major mineral in an iron-containing cosmic dust is magnetite. The silicate spheres contain sundry metals and metal oxides. Glassy microtektites are similar in composition to tektites, and are found in all the major meteorite areas worldwide.

  7. Laboratory Studies of Optical Characteristics and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    Information about the optical characteristics and physical processes involving cosmic dust particles is vital for interpretation of astronomical observations and an understanding of the formation and processing of dust in the evolutionary cycle of matter in the interstellar medium. Cosmic dust particles are formed in a variety of astrophysical environments such as in cool stellar outflows and circumstellar envelopes. Definitive knowledge of the nature, composition, and physical processes of cosmic dust grains, however, can only be inferred from astronomical observations through laboratory experiments on the analogs of hypothesized dust particles and with modeling calculations. Laboratory investigations of the nature, composition, and optical characteristics of cosmic dust particles are being, carried out at many institutions with a variety of experimental techniques. Despite a wealth of available data, however, many basic issues remain unresolved. An experimental facility based on suspension of dust particles in electrodynamic balance in a pressure/temperature controlled environment in a cavity has been operational at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently being employed for studies of dust particle charging mechanisms using electron beams and with UV radiation. In this paper, we discuss two general classes of experiments under planning stages that may be simultaneously carried out on this facility for cosmic dust investigations (i) Infrared optical characteristics (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) of the analogs of hypothesized of cosmic dust particles, such as natural and synthetic amorphous silicates with varying compositions, amorphous carbon grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and icy core-mantle particles etc. The initial spectral range under consideration is 1-25 micrometers, to be extended to the far infrared region in the future (ii) Condensation of volatile gases on nucleus dust particles to be

  8. Kent in space: Cosmic dust to space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J. A. M.

    1994-10-01

    The dusty heritage of the University of Kent's Space Group commenced at Jodrell Bank, Cheshire, U.K., the home of the largest steerable radio telescope. While Professor Bernard Lovell's 250 ft. diameter telescope was used to command the U.S. deep space Pioneer spacecraft, Professor Tony McDonnell, as a research student in 1960, was developing a space dust detector for the US-UK Ariel program. It was successful. With a Ph.D. safely under the belt, it seemed an inevitable step to go for the next higher degree, a B.T.A.] Two years with NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, provided excellent qualifications for such a graduation ('Been to America'). A spirited return to the University of Kent at Canterbury followed, to one of the green field UK University sites springing from the Robbins Report on Higher Education. Swimming against the current of the brain drain, and taking a very considerable reduction in salary, it was with some disappointment that he found that the UK Premier Harold Wilson's 'white-hot technological revolution' never quite seemed to materialize in terms of research funding] Research expertise, centered initially on cosmic dust, enlarged to encompass planetology during the Apollo program, and rightly acquired international acclaim, notching up a history of space missions over 25 years. The group now comprises 38 people supported by four sources: the government's Research Councils, the University, the Space Agencies and Industry. This paper describes the thrust of the group's Research Plan in Space Science and Planetology; not so much based on existing international space missions, but more helping to shape the direction and selection of space missions ahead.

  9. Cosmic dust investigations II. Instruments for measurement of particle trajectory, velocity and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1989-07-01

    A series of experiments have been completed using accelerator dust particles in the mass range ~10-9-10-6 g and velocity range ~2-12 km/s to measure the velocity loss and degree of fragmentation for dust particles penetrating 6 and 28 μm thick polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors. These measurements prove that even for a ratio of PVDF foil thickness to particle diameter as large as 0.6, the velocity loss and fragmentation is far less than expected from earlier reports in the literature. For example, for 28 μm thick PVDF foils the velocity loss is ~ 20%, the fraction of particles suffering serious fragmentation is ~ 50% and the angular dispersion or ``spray angle'' of the fragments from the incident particle direction is <= 3°. For 6 μm thick foils the velocity loss is <= 5%. These experiments are based on an extension of our earlier work which showed that two PVDF foils spaced a given distance apart could provide accurate time-of-flight (TOF) information due to the fast pulse rise time of PVDF detector response. We also report on our present state of development of PVDF position-sensing detectors which identify the x, y coordinates of particle impact, using detector and electronic pulse techniques adapted from our semiconductor position-sensing cosmic-ray detectors. Typical position errors of ~ 1 mm are readily achieved. Finally, we have combined the above developments into a dust-particle telescope which accurately (~ 1° angular accuracy) measures the trajectory of the incident particle as well as its mass and incident velocity, irrespective of whether it is a charged or neutral particle. We discuss how this practical dust telescope can be combined with dust capture cells for space flight and later recovery for laboratory determination of elemental and isotopic composition of captured dust. We also describe a simpler trajectory array based on discrete mosaics of thin detectors which would measure trajectories with a mean angular error of ~ 4°. We

  10. Comet Dust After Deep Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    When the Deep Impact Mission hit Jupiter Family comet 9P/Tempel 1, an ejecta crater was formed and an pocket of volatile gases and ices from 10-30 m below the surface was exposed (A Hearn et aI. 2005). This resulted in a gas geyser that persisted for a few hours (Sugita et al, 2005). The gas geyser pushed dust grains into the coma (Sugita et a1. 2005), as well as ice grains (Schulz et al. 2006). The smaller of the dust grains were submicron in radii (0-25.3 micron), and were primarily composed of highly refractory minerals including amorphous (non-graphitic) carbon, and silicate minerals including amorphous (disordered) olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 and pyroxene (Fe,Mg)SiO3 and crystalline Mg-rich olivine. The smaller grains moved faster, as expected from the size-dependent velocity law produced by gas-drag on grains. The mineralogy evolved with time: progressively larger grains persisted in the near nuclear region, having been imparted with slower velocities, and the mineralogies of these larger grains appeared simpler and without crystals. The smaller 0.2-0.3 micron grains reached the coma in about 1.5 hours (1 arc sec = 740 km), were more diverse in mineralogy than the larger grains and contained crystals, and appeared to travel through the coma together. No smaller grains appeared at larger coma distances later (with slower velocities), implying that if grain fragmentation occurred, it happened within the gas acceleration zone. These results of the high spatial resolution spectroscopy (GEMINI+Michelle: Harker et 4. 2005, 2006; Subaru+COMICS: Sugita et al. 2005) revealed that the grains released from the interior were different from the nominally active areas of this comet by their: (a) crystalline content, (b) smaller size, (c) more diverse mineralogy. The temporal changes in the spectra, recorded by GEMIM+Michelle every 7 minutes, indicated that the dust mineralogy is inhomogeneous and, unexpectedly, the portion of the size distribution dominated by smaller grains has

  11. Laboratory investigation of antenna signals from dust impacts on spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Collette, Andrew; Malaspina, David M.; Thayer, Frederick

    2016-04-01

    Electric field and plasma wave instruments act as dust detectors picking up voltage pulses induced by impacts of particulates on the spacecraft body. These signals enable the characterization of cosmic dust environments even with missions without dedicated dust instruments. For example, the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed the first detection of dust particles near Uranus, Neptune, and in the outer solar system [Gurnett et al., 1987, 1991, 1997]. The two STEREO spacecraft observed distinct signals at high rate that were interpreted as nano-sized particles originating from near the Sun and accelerated to high velocities by the solar wind [MeyerVernet et al, 2009a, Zaslavsky et al., 2012]. The MAVEN spacecraft is using the antennas onboard to characterize the dust environment of Mars [Andersson et al., 2014] and Solar Probe Plus will do the same in the inner heliosphere. The challenge, however, is the correct interpretation of the impact signals and calculating the mass of the dust particles. The uncertainties result from the incomplete understanding of the signal pickup mechanisms, and the variation of the signal amplitude with impact location, the ambient plasma environment, and impact speed. A comprehensive laboratory study of impact generated antenna signals has been performed recently using the IMPACT dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado. Dust particles of micron and submicron sizes with velocities of tens of km/s are generated using a 3 MV electrostatic analyzer. A scaled down model spacecraft is exposed to the dust impacts and one or more antennas, connected to sensitive electronics, are used to detect the impact signals. The measurements showed that there are three clearly distinct signal pickup mechanisms due to spacecraft charging, antenna charging and antenna pickup sensing space charge from the expanding plasma cloud. All mechanisms vary with the spacecraft and antenna bias voltages and, furthermore, the latter two

  12. Large-scale traces of Solar system cold dust on cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, M.; Burigana, C.; Gruppuso, A.; Finelli, F.; Diego, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    We explore the microwave anisotropies on large angular scales produced by the emission from cold and large dust grains, expected to exist in the outer parts of the Solar system, using a simple toy model for this diffuse emission. Its amplitude is constrained in the far-IR by the COBE data and is compatible with simulations found in the literature. We analyse the templates derived after subtracting our model from the WMAP ILC 7-yr maps and investigate on the cosmological implications of such a possible foreground. The anomalies related to the low quadrupole of the angular power spectrum, the two-point correlation function, the parity and the excess of signal found in the ecliptic plane are significantly alleviated. An impact of this foreground on some cosmological parameters characterizing the spectrum of primordial density perturbations, relevant for on-going and future cosmic microwave background anisotropy experiments, is found.

  13. The concept of a facility for cosmic dust research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Juergen; Cabane, Michel; Fonda, Mark; Giovane, Frank; Gustafson, Bo A. S.; Keller, Horst U.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Levasseur-Regourd, Any-Chantal; Worms, Jean-Claude; Nuth, Joseph A.; Rogers, Fred

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for the development of a permanently operating facility for the experimental investigation of cosmic dust-related phenomena onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. Potential applications for this facility are the convection-free nucleation of dust grains, studies of coagulation and aggregation phenomena in a microgravity environment, investigations of heat transport through, and dust emissions from, high-porosity cometary analogs, and experiments on the interaction of very fluffy dust grains with electromagnetic radiation and with low pressure gas flows. Possible extensions of such a facility are towards aerosol science and colloidal plasma research.

  14. Instrumentation for near-Earth measurement of orbital debris and cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuzzolino, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Dust instrumentation based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust sensor arrays is described which will measure the masses, fluxes, velocities, and trajectories of orbital debris particles and natural micrometeoroids. Orbital debris particles are distinguished from natural particles (cosmic dust) by means of the velocity/trajectory information. The instrumentation will measure particle trajectory with a mean error of approximately 7 degrees (for isotropic flux) and is designed for measurements over the particle diameter range of approximately 2 to 200 micro-m. For future missions having Earth-return capabilities, arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the PVDF trajectory system would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust.

  15. How large is the cosmic dust flux into the Earth's atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, John; Janches, Diego; Gomez-Martin, Juan Carlos; Bones, David; Diego Carrillo-Sanchez, Juan; James, Sandy; Nesvorny, David; Pokorny, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic dust particles are produced in the solar system from the sublimation of comets as they orbit close to the sun, and also from collisions between asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter. Current estimates of the magnitude of the cosmic dust input rate into the Earth's atmosphere range from 2 to well over 100 tons per day, depending on whether the measurements are made in space, in the middle atmosphere, or at the surface in polar ice cores. This nearly 2 order-of-magnitude discrepancy indicates that there are serious flaws in the interpretation of observations that have been used to make the estimates. Dust particles enter the atmosphere at hyperthermal velocities (11 - 72 km s ^{-1}), and mostly ablate at heights between 80 and 120 km in a region of the atmosphere known as the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT). The resulting metal vapours (Fe, Mg, Si and Na etc.) then oxidize and recondense to form nm-size particles, termed "meteoric smoke". These particles are too small to sediment downwards. Instead, they are transported by the general circulation of the atmosphere, taking roughly 5 years to reach the surface. There is great interest in the role smoke particles play as condensation nuclei of noctilucent ice clouds in the mesosphere, and polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere. Various new estimates of the dust input will be discussed. The first is from a zodiacal dust cloud model which predicts that more than 90% of the dust entering the atmosphere comes from Jupiter Family Comets; this model is constrained by observations of the zodiacal cloud using the IRAS, COBE and Planck satellites. The cometary dust is predicted to mostly be in a near-prograde orbit, entering the atmosphere with an average velocity around 14 km s ^{-1}. The total dust input should then be about 40 t d ^{-1}. However, relatively few of these particles are observed, even by the powerful Arecibo 430 MHz radar. Coupled models of meteoroid differential ablation

  16. Do some of the sub-micrometer cosmic dust particles come from the sun.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemenway, C. L.; Erkes, J. W.; Greenberg, J. M.; Hallgren, D. S.; Schmalberger, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of cosmic dust particles collected at altitudes of 80 to 120 km over White Sands, New Mexico, and at times of noctilucent clouds over Kiruna, Sweden, indicate that an anomalously high atomic weight contribution is present within those particles collected at Kiruna. The elements observed are inconsistent with an origin due to atomic bomb fallout, meteoroidal crumbling, lunar ejecta, or comets. Many of these heavy elements may be stable in particulate form at the relatively high temperatures found in the coolest regions of the solar atmosphere. Some implications of the sun as the source of a significant component of cosmic dust are discussed.

  17. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  18. SN Dust Yields: Fallback, Metallicity and Rotation Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marassi, Stefania; Schneider, Raffaella; Limongi, Marco; Chieffics, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Dust is an important ingredient in astrophysical environments as it regulates the physical and chemical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Sites of dust formation are the expanding ejecta of core-collapse SNe. The amount of dust freshly condensed in SN explosions and surviving the subsequent passage of the reverse shock is a key quantity to assess the role of SNe as cosmic dust factories. Dust production in SNe depends on the SN type and on the physical properties of the stellar progenitor, such as its mass, ejecta temperature profile, metallicity and explosion energy. Using detailed pre-supernova and supernova explosion models for rotating and non-rotating progenitors with masses ranging between 13 to 120 M⊙ and metallicities in the range 0 < Z/Z⊙ < 1 (Limongi & Chieffi 2012, Limongi & Chieffi, in preparation), we investigate dust formation in SN ejecta. We follow nucleation and grain growth, taking into account the evolution of newly condensed grains and their partial destruction through the passage of the reverse shock in the supernova remnant. We assess the impact of stellar rotation and metallicity on the temperature and density profiles of the ejecta, and, as a consequence, on the resulting grain size distribution. Extending the models to the metal-free (Pop III) supernovae, we compute the mass-dependent dust and metal yields and we predict the chemical composition of star forming regions where second generation, low-mass stars form. We then compare the model predictions to the observed surface elemental abundances of carbon-normal and carbon-enhanced metal poor stars, and derive interesting constraints of the mass of Pop III stars and on the properties of the first SNe.

  19. Atmospheric Dust Impacts on Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K. R.; Chen, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Doney, S.; Post, A.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric dust deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the ocean. It likely enhances ocean productivity and carbon sequestration, thus influencing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. We used well-characterized aerosol samples in incubation experiments to examine the effect of aerosol on phytoplankton growth and species distribution. Not all dust stimulates growth. The response of phytoplankton to aerosol additions depends on specific aerosol chemistry. Moreover, different species within the phytoplankton community respond differently to dust additions. The variability in the response to dust deposition may account for change in predicted distribution of oceanic primary production. To more accurately predict the impacts of expected future changes in dust deposition on climate global climate models must include these variable and complex interactions between aerosols and marine phytoplankton.

  20. Adsorption of Acetylene and Formation of Benzene on Cosmic Dust in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankland, Victoria; James, Alexander; Carrillo Sanchez, Juan; Mangan, Thomas; Willacy, Karen; Plane, John

    2016-04-01

    The formation of the haze layers and tholins in Titan's atmosphere is unclear. One potential mechanism is that small precursors, such as acetylene (C2H2), adsorb onto un-ablated cosmic dust particles as they sediment through Titan's atmosphere. The uptake coefficient of C2H2 onto cosmic dust analogues was measured using low temperature dual flow tube apparatus. Synthesized olivines analogues (Mg2-2nFe2nSiO4 where 1 ≥ n ≥ 0) were used to represent the cosmic dust particles based on investigations of cometary dust. The results indicated that the adsorption of C2H2 was independent of the Mg:Fe ratio in the dust analogue with the mean uptake coefficient (at 181 K) as 1.7 × 10-4. In some cases, the uptake experiments were left until the surface had become saturated with C2H2. Here, a small benzene (C6H6) mass trace was detected indicating that cyclotrimerzation of C2H2 into C6H6 was occurring on the surface. Further experiments using ultrahigh vacuum apparatus were used to confirm this observation. The rate of C6H6 (formed through C2H2 cyclotrimerization) desorbing from un-ablated cosmic dust particles sedimenting through Titan's atmosphere was explored using a 1D model. The results revealed that this heterogeneous formation and desorption route was competitive with gaseous C6H6 formation rates suggesting that the dust could be acting as a seed for the formation of complex organic molecules (such as PAHs) and tholins and, through this, the formation of the haze layers.

  1. Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic Rays Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic RaysModulation B. K. Tiwari Department of Physics, A. P. S. University, Rewa (M.P.), btiwari70@yahoo.com Cosmic rays (CRs) flux at earth is modulated by the heliosphereric magnetic field and the structure of the heliosphere, controls by solar outputs and their variability. Sunspots numbers (SSN) is often treated as a primary indicator of solar activity (SA). GCRs entering the helioshphere are affected by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind speed, their modulation varies with the varying solar activity. The observation based on data recoded from Omniweb data Centre for solar- interplanetary activity indices and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) data from neutron monitors of different cut-off rigidities(Rc) (Moscow Rc=2.42Gv and Oulu Rc=0.80Gv). During minimum solar activity periodof solar cycle 23/24, the sun is remarkably quiet, weakest strength of the IMF and least dense and slowest, solar wind speed, whereas, in 2003, highest value of yearly averaged solar wind speed (~568 Km/sec) associated with several coronal holes, which generate high speed wind stream has been recorded. It is observed that GCRs fluxes reduces and is high anti-correlated with SSN (0.80) and IMF (0.86). CRI modulation produces by a strong solar flare, however, CME associated solar flare produce more disturbance in the interplanetary medium as well as in geomagnetic field. It is found that count rate of cosmic ray intensity and solar- interplanetary parameters were inverse correlated and solar indices were positive correlated. Keywords- Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Sunspot number (SSN), Solar activity (SA), Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

  2. The Distortion of the Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum Due to Intergalactic Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imara, Nia; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Infrared emission from intergalactic dust might compromise the ability of future experiments to detect subtle spectral distortions in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the early universe. We provide the first estimate of foreground contamination of the CMB signal due to diffuse dust emission in the intergalactic medium. We use models of the extragalactic background light to calculate the intensity of intergalactic dust emission and find that emission by intergalactic dust at z ≲ 0.5 exceeds the sensitivity of the planned Primordial Inflation Explorer to CMB spectral distortions by 1-3 orders of magnitude. In the frequency range ν = 150-2400 GHz, we place an upper limit of 0.06% on the contribution to the far-infrared background from intergalactic dust emission.

  3. Reduction and analysis of data from cosmic dust experiments on Mariner 4, OGO 3, and Lunar Explorer 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis of data from the cosmic dust experiment on three NASA missions is discussed. These missions were Mariner IV, OGO III, and Lunar Explorer 35. The analysis effort has included some work in the laboratory of the physics of microparticle hypervelocity impact. This laboratory effort was initially aimed at the calibration and measurements of the different sensors being used in the experiment. The latter effort was conducted in order to better understand the velocity and mass distributions of the picogram sized ejecta particles.

  4. Electrodynamic Balance for Studies of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the formation and distribution of interstellar, interplanetary, and planetary dust grains, and their physical, chemical and optical characteristics provide valuable information about many issues dealing with the origin and formation of the solar system bodies, interplanetary and interstellar environments as well as various industrial processes. Understanding the microphysics of individual grains and their interaction with the surrounding, environment is key to properly model various conditions and interpret existing data. The theory and models of individual dust grains are well developed for environments that vary from dense planetary atmospheres to dusty plasmas to diffuse environments such as interplanetary space. However, experimental investigations of individual dust grains in equilibrium are less common, perhaps due to the difficulty of these experiments. Laboratory measurements of dust grains have primarily measured ensemble properties or transient properties of single grains. A technique developed in the 1950's for ion spectroscopy, generally referred to as a quadrupole trap has recently been employed as an electrodynamic balance to investigate single micron-sized dust grains and for atmospheric aerosol research. A description of the theoretical basis and the experimental setup of the electrodynamic balance being developed in our laboratory are given. This laboratory technique lends itself to many applications that relate to planetary atmospheres, heliospheric environments, pre-stellar and pre-planetary conditions, and industrial settings. We present results from some recent experiments carried out to investigate the equilibrium potential of dust grains exposed to far ultraviolet light or to an electron beam. Some future experiments using an electrodynamic balance to investigate the optical characteristics, and condensation process involving dust grains in various astrophysical environments are discussed.

  5. Astroelectrochemistry: the role of redox reactions in cosmic dust chemistry.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Daren J; Holt, Katherine B

    2010-04-01

    We propose that redox reactions on the surface of interstellar dust grains contribute to the synthesis of some polyatomic species that have been identified by spectroscopic signatures. Most of the dust is found in clouds along with a rich abundance of molecular and atomic species, creating a thermodynamically distinct region in the interstellar medium (ISM) where chemistry can be supported. Using knowledge of redox process at the solid/liquid interface, a hypothesis is presented for processing mechanisms involving electron transfer between surface adsorbed species and the solid dust grains found in the ISM. The hypothesis is based on the interaction of dust grains with electromagnetic radiation and plumes of ionised gas, which electrostatically charge dust grains leading to an adjustment of the Fermi energy of electrons on the surface of individual grains. This process is equivalent to applying an external electrochemical potential to an electrode, to drive redox chemistry on an electrode surface in electrolysis or dynamic electrochemistry. Here the individual grains act as 'single electrode' electrochemical reactors in the gas phase. In this paper we highlight a gap in understanding of redox reactions at the solid/gas interface, which is potentially a very fruitful and interesting area of research. PMID:20237693

  6. Astroelectrochemistry: the role of redox reactions in cosmic dust chemistry.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Daren J; Holt, Katherine B

    2010-04-01

    We propose that redox reactions on the surface of interstellar dust grains contribute to the synthesis of some polyatomic species that have been identified by spectroscopic signatures. Most of the dust is found in clouds along with a rich abundance of molecular and atomic species, creating a thermodynamically distinct region in the interstellar medium (ISM) where chemistry can be supported. Using knowledge of redox process at the solid/liquid interface, a hypothesis is presented for processing mechanisms involving electron transfer between surface adsorbed species and the solid dust grains found in the ISM. The hypothesis is based on the interaction of dust grains with electromagnetic radiation and plumes of ionised gas, which electrostatically charge dust grains leading to an adjustment of the Fermi energy of electrons on the surface of individual grains. This process is equivalent to applying an external electrochemical potential to an electrode, to drive redox chemistry on an electrode surface in electrolysis or dynamic electrochemistry. Here the individual grains act as 'single electrode' electrochemical reactors in the gas phase. In this paper we highlight a gap in understanding of redox reactions at the solid/gas interface, which is potentially a very fruitful and interesting area of research.

  7. Carbon and silicate grains in the laboratory as analogues of cosmic dust.

    PubMed

    Mennella, V; Brucato, J R; Colangeli, L

    2001-03-15

    Carbon and silicate grains are the two main components of cosmic dust. There is increasing spectroscopic evidence that their composition varies according to the cosmic environment and the experienced processing. Irradiation from ultraviolet photons and cosmic rays, as well as chemical interactions with the interstellar gas play a crucial role for grain transformation. The study of 'laboratory analogues' represents a powerful tool to better understand the nature and evolution of cosmic materials. In particular, simulations of grain processing are fundamental to outline an evolutionary pathway for interstellar particles. In the present work, we discuss the ultraviolet and infrared spectral changes induced by thermal annealing, ultraviolet irradiation, ion irradiation and hydrogen atom bombardment in carbon and silicate analogue materials. The laboratory results give the opportunity to shed light on the long-standing problems of the attribution of ultraviolet and infrared interstellar spectral features.

  8. Cosmic reionization on computers. Ultraviolet continuum slopes and dust opacities in high redshift galaxies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting UV and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are notmore » fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future JWST data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.« less

  9. Neutral Hydrogen Structures Trace Dust Polarization Angle: Implications for Cosmic Microwave Background Foregrounds.

    PubMed

    Clark, S E; Hill, J Colin; Peek, J E G; Putman, M E; Babler, B L

    2015-12-11

    Using high-resolution data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI (GALFA-Hi) survey, we show that linear structure in Galactic neutral hydrogen (Hi) correlates with the magnetic field orientation implied by Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission. The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. At high Galactic latitudes, where the Planck data are noise dominated, the Hi data provide an independent constraint on the Galactic magnetic field orientation, and hence the local dust polarization angle. We detect strong cross-correlations between template maps constructed from estimates of dust intensity combined with either Hi-derived angles, starlight polarization angles, or Planck 353 GHz angles. The Hi data thus provide a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. PMID:26705622

  10. On the Size of the Cosmic Dust Input to the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Janches, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Gardner, C. S.; Marsh, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Current estimates of the magnitude of the cosmic dust input range from 2 to over 100 tons per day (t d-1), depending on whether the measurements are made in space, in the middle atmosphere, or in polar ice cores. This nearly 2 order-of-magnitude discrepancy indicates that there are flaws in perhaps both the interpretation of the experimental observations and the atmospheric models that have been used to make the estimates. This paper will describe three new estimates of the dust input, and attempt to reconcile them. The first is a zodiacal dust cloud model which predicts that more than 90% of the dust entering the atmosphere comes from Jupiter Family Comets, and that the dust is mostly in a near-prograde orbit and should enter the atmosphere with an average velocity around 14 km s-1. However, relatively few of these slow particles are observed, even by the powerful Arecibo 430 MHz radar. Using coupled models of meteoroid differential ablation, ionization and radar detection to compute the probability of detecting a specified meteoroid in the Arecibo beam, an upper limit to the cosmic dust input of 16 t d-1 has been obtained from the radar obsevations. The second method is to use lidar measurements of the vertical Na atom flux at the Starfire Optical Range, combined with predictions of the relative geographic variations of the key wave-induced vertical transport processes from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The estimated global influx of cosmic dust is then 50 ± 13 t d-1. The final method is to model several of the mesospheric metal layers - Na, Fe, K and Ca - using WACCM with a full treatment of the gas-phase chemistry of these metals, together with the explicit formation and growth of meteoric smoke particles. The absolute densities of the metal layers can be satisfactorily modelled with a dust input of up to 25 t d-1 if the dust mass and velocity distribution is that predicted by the zodiacal dust cloud model referred to above.

  11. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  12. Constraining the Origin of Impact Craters on Al Foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, Rhonda M.; Achilles, Cheri; Allen, Carlton; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, Sasa; Bassim, Nabil; Bastien, Ron S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary examination (PE) of the aerogel tiles and Al foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector has revealed multiple impact features. Some are most likely due to primary impacts of interstellar dust (ISD) grains, and others are associated with secondary impacts of spacecraft debris, and possibly primary impacts of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) [1, 2]. The current focus of the PE effort is on constraining the origin of the individual impact features so that definitive results from the first direct laboratory analysis of contemporary ISD can be reported. Because crater morphology depends on impacting particle shape and composition, in addition to the angle and direction of impact, unique particle trajectories are not easily determined. However, elemental analysis of the crater residues can distinguish real cosmic dust from the spacecraft debris, due to the low cosmic abundance of many of the elements in the spacecraft materials. We present here results from the elemental analysis of 24 craters and discuss the possible origins of 4 that are identified as candidate ISD impacts

  13. Hyper-velocity impact experiments with electrostatic dust accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocker, Anna; Aust, Thomas; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hillier, Jonathan; Hornung, Klaus; Li, Yan-Wei; Strack, Heiko; Ralf, Srama

    2015-06-01

    Hypervelocity impacts (HVI) of micrometer-sized particles play an important role in a variety of fields such as the investigation of matter at extreme pressures and temperatures, shock waves in solid bodies, planetology and cosmic dust. The physical phenomena occurring upon impact are fragmentation and cratering, shock waves, the production of neutral and ionized gas, and light flashes. Advanced analysis techniques promise new insights into short time-scale high-pressure states of matter, requiring the production of high speed projectiles. Electrostatic accelerators act as a source of micrometer and sub-micrometer particles as projectiles for HVI experiments. This paper describes an HVI facility, capable of accelerating particles to over 100 km/s, currently located at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, together with planned improvements. The facility is about to be relocated to the University of Stuttgart. This is an opportunity to enhance the facility to meet the requirements of future experimental campaigns, necessary to better understand the micrometeoroid hypervelocity impact process and develop new in situ dust experiments. We will present the design of the new facility and the planned enhancements, including new diagnostic apparatus.

  14. Helium-3 from the mantle - Primordial signal or cosmic dust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Don L.

    1993-01-01

    Helium-3 in hotspot magmas has been used as unambiguous evidence for the existence of a primordial, undegassed reservoir deep in the Earth's mantle. However, a large amount of helium-3 is delivered to the Earth's surface by interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Recycling of deep-sea sediments containing these particles to the mantle, and eventual incorporation in magma, can explain the high helium-3/helium-4 ratios of hotspot magmas. Basalts with high helium-3/helium-4 ratios may represent degassing of helium introduced by ancient (probably 1.5 to 2.0 billion years old) pelagic sediments rather than degassing of primordial lower mantle material brought to the surface in plumes. Influx of IDPs can also explain the neon and siderophile compositions of mantle samples.

  15. Dust impact signals on the wind spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze waveforms recorded by the Time Domain Sampler of the WAVES experiment on Wind which are similar to impulsive waveforms observed by the S/WAVES experiment on STEREO. These have been interpreted as dust impacts by Meyer-Vernet et al. and M. L. Kaiser and K. Goetz and extensively analyzed by Zaslavsky et al. The mechanism for coupling the emission to the antennas to produce an electrical signal is still not well understood, however. One suggested mechanism for coupling of the impact to the antenna is that the spacecraft body changes potential with respect to the surrounding plasma but the antennas do not (the body mechanism). Another class of mechanisms, with several forms, is that the charge of the emitted cloud interacts with the antennas. The Wind data show that both are operating. The time domain shapes of the dust pulses are highly variable but we have little understanding of what provides these shapes. One feature of the STEREO data has been interpreted as impacts from high velocity nanoparticles entrained by the solar wind. We have not found evidence for fast nanodust in the Wind data. An appreciable fraction of the impacts observed on Wind is consistent with interstellar dust. The impact rates do not follow a Poisson distribution, expected for random independent events, and this is interpreted as bunching. We have not succeeded in relating this bunching to known meteor showers, and they do not repeat from 1 year to the next. The data suggest bunching by fields in the heliosphere.

  16. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik Alexander; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations with the most powerful facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, with a particular focus on new observations obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). These studies cover a broad range in galaxy properties, and provide a detailed comparison of the physical conditions in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei hosts within the first billion years of cosmic time. Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation also includes the first direct, systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  17. Uptake of acetylene on cosmic dust and production of benzene in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankland, Victoria L.; James, Alexander D.; Sánchez, Juan Diego Carrillo; Mangan, Thomas P.; Willacy, Karen; Poppe, Andrew R.; Plane, John M. C.

    2016-11-01

    A low-temperature flow tube and ultra-high vacuum apparatus were used to explore the uptake and heterogeneous chemistry of acetylene (C2H2) on cosmic dust analogues over the temperature range encountered in Titan's atmosphere below 600 km. The uptake coefficient, γ, was measured at 181 K to be (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10-4, (1.9 ± 0.4) × 10-4 and (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10-4 for the uptake of C2H2 on Mg2SiO4, MgFeSiO4 and Fe2SiO4, respectively, indicating that γ is independent of Mg or Fe active sites. The uptake of C2H2 was also measured on SiO2 and SiC as analogues for meteoric smoke particles in Titan's atmosphere, but was found to be below the detection limit (γ < 6 × 10-8 and < 4 × 10-7, respectively). The rate of cyclo-trimerization of C2H2 to C6H6 was found to be 2.6 × 10-5 exp(-741/T) s-1, with an uncertainty ranging from ± 27 % at 115 K to ± 49 % at 181 K. A chemical ablation model was used to show that the bulk of cosmic dust particles (radius 0.02-10 μm) entering Titan's atmosphere do not ablate (< 1% mass loss through sputtering), thereby providing a significant surface for heterogeneous chemistry. A 1D model of dust sedimentation shows that the production of C6H6via uptake of C2H2 on cosmic dust, followed by cyclo-trimerization and desorption, is probably competitive with gas-phase production of C6H6 between 80 and 120 km.

  18. Laboratory Studies of the Optical Properties and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Witherow, W. K.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory facility for conducting a variety of experiments on single isolated dust particles of astrophysical interest levitated in an electrodynamics balance has been developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The objective of the research is to employ this experimental technique for studies of the physical and optical properties of individual cosmic dust grains of 0.1-100 micron size in controlled pressure/temperatures environments simulating astrophysical conditions. The physical and optical properties of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains of known composition and size distribution will be investigated by this facility. In particular, we will carry out three classes of experiments to study the micro-physics of cosmic dust grains. (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains to determine the photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) in the 1-30 micron region using infrared diode lasers and measuring the scattered radiation. (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the condensation of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres. The condensation experiments will involve levitated nucleus dust grains of known composition and initial mass (or m/q ratio), cooled to a temperature and pressure (or scaled pressure) simulating the astrophysical conditions, and injection of a volatile gas at a higher temperature from a controlled port. The increase in the mass due to condensation on the particle will be monitored as a function of the dust particle temperature and the partial pressure of the injected volatile gas. The measured data will permit determination of the sticking coefficients of volatile gases and growth rates of dust particles of astrophysical interest. Some preliminary results based on

  19. An Apparent Redshift Dependence of Quasar Continuum: Implication for Cosmic Dust Extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Shen, Shiyin; Shao, Zhengyi; Yin, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the luminosity and redshift dependence of the quasar continuum by means of the composite spectrum using a large non-BAL radio-quiet quasar sample drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Quasar continuum slopes in the UV-Opt band are measured at two different wavelength ranges, i.e., αν12 (1000 ˜ 2000 Å) and αν24 (2000 ˜ 4000 Å) derived from a power-law fitting. Generally, the UV spectra slope becomes harder (higher αν) toward higher bolometric luminosity. On the other hand, when quasars are further grouped into luminosity bins, we find that both αν12 and αν24 show significant anti-correlations with redshift (i.e., the quasar continuum becomes redder toward higher redshift). We suggest that the cosmic dust extinction is very likely the cause of this observed αν - z relation. We build a simple cosmic dust extinction model to quantify the observed reddening tendency and find an effective dust density nσv ˜ 10-5h Mpc-1 at z < 1.5. The other possibilities that could produce such a reddening effect have also been discussed.

  20. AN APPARENT REDSHIFT DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR CONTINUUM: IMPLICATION FOR COSMIC DUST EXTINCTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Shen, Shiyin; Shao, Zhengyi; Yin, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the luminosity and redshift dependence of the quasar continuum by means of the composite spectrum using a large non-BAL radio-quiet quasar sample drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Quasar continuum slopes in the UV-Opt band are measured at two different wavelength ranges, i.e., α{sub ν12} (1000 ∼ 2000 Å) and α{sub ν24} (2000 ∼ 4000 Å) derived from a power-law fitting. Generally, the UV spectra slope becomes harder (higher α{sub ν}) toward higher bolometric luminosity. On the other hand, when quasars are further grouped into luminosity bins, we find that both α{sub ν12} and α{sub ν24} show significant anti-correlations with redshift (i.e., the quasar continuum becomes redder toward higher redshift). We suggest that the cosmic dust extinction is very likely the cause of this observed α{sub ν} − z relation. We build a simple cosmic dust extinction model to quantify the observed reddening tendency and find an effective dust density nσ{sub v} ∼ 10{sup −5}h Mpc{sup −1} at z < 1.5. The other possibilities that could produce such a reddening effect have also been discussed.

  1. The episodic influx of tin-rich cosmic dust particles during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaViolette, Paul A.

    2015-12-01

    was found to contain tin-rich particles with a similar platy morphology and to have Sn and Pb weight abundances averaging 39% and 7.5% respectively, again approximating the interstellar Sn:Pb ratio. The relative absence of cosmic microspheres and the unmelted appearance of the tin-rich particles in both of these samples suggests that these particles entered the Earth's atmosphere at low velocity, implicating a gradual accumulation of dust from a dispersed state in the near Earth space environment. The unusual enhancement of Sn and Pb could be explained if these dust particles were originally present in the solar system's interstellar environment in a superconducting native metal state and were preferentially concentrated through Meissner effect forces by the passage of cosmic ray driven hydromagnetic shocks which may also have transported them into the solar system. The 49 kyrs BP event is estimated to have lasted over 6 years and to have deposited dust onto the Earth at a rate 104-105 times higher than present rates. This had a significant cooling effect on climate and resulted in a transient 33 fold increase in snow accumulation. Future discovery of these events in ice cores at other locations should void any lingering thoughts that this heavy metal enhancement may be due to sample contamination.

  2. Physics of sub-micron cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory tests with simulated micrometeoroids to measure the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. Equations for ablation path length for electrically accelerated micrometeoroids entering a gas target are developed which yield guidelines for the laboratory measurement of the heat transfer coefficient. Test results are presented for lanthanum hexaboride (LaB sub 6) microparticles in air, argon, and oxygen targets. The tests indicate the heat transfer coefficient has a value of approximately 0.9 at 30 km/sec, and that it increases to approximately unity at 50 km/sec and above. Test results extend to over 100 km/sec. Results are also given for two types of small particle detectors. A solid state capacitor type detector was tested from 0.61 km/sec to 50 km/sec. An impact ionization type detector was tested from 1.0 to 150 km/sec using LaB sub 6 microparticles.

  3. Mass Influx of Cosmic Dust Estimated From Vertical Transport of Meteoric Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Alan Z.; Guo, Yafang; Gardner, Chester S.

    2016-04-01

    The mesospheric metal layers are formed by the vaporization of high-speed cosmic dust particles in the lower thermosphere and upper mesosphere. The vaporized atoms and ions are transported downward by waves and turbulence to chemical sinks below 85 km, where they form stable compounds. These compounds condense onto meteoric smoke particles and are then transported to the winter pole where they eventually settle onto the surface. The downward fluxes of the metal atoms are directly related to their meteoric influxes and chemical loss rates. In this paper we use Doppler lidar measurements of Na and Fe fluxes made by the University of Illinois and University of Colorado groups, and a chemical ablation model (CABMOD) developed at the University of Leeds, to constrain the velocity/mass distribution of the meteoroids entering the atmosphere and to derive an improved estimate for the global influx of cosmic dust. We find that the particles responsible for injecting a large fraction of the ablated material into the Earth's upper atmosphere, enter at relatively slow speeds and originate primarily from the Jupiter Family of Comets. The global mean Na influx is 21,500±1,100 atoms/cm2/s, which equals 372±18 kg/d for the global input of Na vapor and 186±24 t/d for the global influx of cosmic dust. The global mean Fe influx is 131,000±36,000 atoms/cm2/s, which equals 5.5±1.5 t/d for the global input of Na vapor.

  4. Cosmic dust analog simulation in a microgravity environment: The STARDUST program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, F.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Nuth, J.; Stephens, J. R.; Bussoletti, E.; Carotenuto, L.; Colangeli, L.; Dell'aversana, P.; Mele, F.; Mennella, V.

    1995-01-01

    We have undertaken a project called STARDUST which is a collaboration with Italian and American investigators. The goals of this program are to study the condensation and coagulation of refractory materials from the vapor and to study the properties of the resulting grains as analogs to cosmic dust particles. To reduce thermal convective currents and to develop valuable experience in designing an experiment for the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility aboard Space Station, Freedom we have built and flown a new chamber to study these processes under periods of microgravity available on NASA's KC-135 Research Aircraft. Preliminary results from flights with magnesium and zinc are discussed.

  5. Cosmic dust analog simulation in a microgravity environment: the STARDUST program.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, F; Lilleleht, L U; Nuth, J; Stephens, J R; Bussoletti, E; Carotenuto, L; Colangeli, L; Dell'Aversana, P; Mele, F; Mennella, V; Mirra, C

    1995-03-01

    We have undertaken a project called STARDUST which is a collaboration with Italian and American investigators. The goals of this program are to study the condensation and coagulation of refractory materials from the vapor and to study the properties of the resulting grains as analogs to cosmic dust particles. To reduce thermal convective currents and to develop valuable experience in designing an experiment for the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility aboard Space Station Freedom we have built and flown a new chamber to study these processes under periods of microgravity available on NASA's KC-135 Research Aircraft. Preliminary results from flights with magnesium and zinc are discussed.

  6. Cosmic dust collection with a sub-satellite tethered to a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corso, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The number concentration and density of 1 micron and submicron sized grains in interplanetary space, as well as their relation to the larger zodical dust particles, and the importance of the Beta meteoroid phenomenon are currently being questioned. The best approach to collecting large numbers of intact micron and submicron sized cosmic dust particles in real time while avoiding terrestrial and man made contamination would be to employ a tethered subsatellite from a space station down into the Earth's atmosphere. Such a subsatellite tied to the space shuttle by a 100 km long tether is being developed. It is also possible that a permanent space station would allow the use of a tether even longer that 100 km. It should be noted that the same tethered collectors could also be employed to study the composition and flux of man made Earth orbiting debris in any direction within 100 km or so of the space station.

  7. Cosmic dust collection with a sub satellite tethered to a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corso, George J.

    1987-01-01

    The number concentration and density of 1 micron and submicron sized grains in interplanetary space, as well as their relation to the larger zodical dust particles, and the importance of the beta meteoroid phenomenon are currently being questioned. The best approach to collecting large numbers of intact micron and submicron sized cosmic dust particles in real time while avoiding terrestrial and man made contamination would be to employ a tethered subsatellite from a space station down into the earth's atmosphere. Such a subsatellite tied to the space shuttle by a 100 km long tether is being developed. It is also possible that a permanent space station would allow the use of a tether even longer than 100 km. It should be noted that the same tethered collectors could also be employed to study the composition and flux of man made earth orbiting debris in any direction within 100 km or so of the space station.

  8. New low-Ni (igneous?) particles among the C and C? types of cosmic dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.; Kloeck, W.

    1993-03-01

    Low-Ni particles with major element abundances, optical properties, and morphologies sufficiently similar to chondritic interplanetery dust particles (IDP's) to receive JSC Cosmic Dust Catalog classifications of C or C?-types were shown to have trace element contents and mineralogies similar to igneous material. Examination of the JSC Catalog EDX spectra by Cooke et al. has shown that 13 percent of the C-type and 38 percent of the C?-type particles are potentially low-Ni particles. Two new low-Ni particles were identified, and it was shown that an additional fragment from the L2002*C cluster has an igneous composition. A newly analyzed fragment of the W7066*A cluster has a chondritic composition. The W7066*A cluster is important because it has yielded a fragment of igneous composition and another fragment having high concentrations of He and Ne suggesting an extraterrestrial origin.

  9. Laboratory Studies of the Optical Properties and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Craven, Paul D.; Spann, James F.; Tankosic, Dragana; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory facility for levitating single isolated dust particles in an electrodynamics balance has been developing at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for conducting a variety of experimental, of astrophysical interest. The objective of this research is to employ this innovative experimental technique for studies of the physical and optical properties of the analogs of cosmic grains of 0.2-10 micron size in a chamber with controlled pressure/temperatures simulating astrophysical environments. In particular, we will carry out three classes of experiments to investigate the microphysics of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains. (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains to determine the photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. These measurements will provide the much-needed photoelectric emission data relating to individual particles as opposed to that for the bulk materials available so far. (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles obtained by irradiating the particles with radiation from tunable infrared diode lasers and measuring the scattered radiation. Specifically, the complex refractive indices, the extinction coefficients, the scattering phase functions, and the polarization properties of single dust grains of interest in interstellar environments, in the 1-25 micron spectral region will be determined. (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the deposition of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres. The increase in the mass or m/q ratio due to condensation on the particle will be monitored as a function of the dust particle temperature and the partial pressure of the injected volatile gas. The measured data wild permit determination of the sticking efficiencies of volatile gases of astrophysical interest. Preliminary results based on photoelectric emission experiments on 0.2-6.6 micron

  10. Photoelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. a.; Camata, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much different from the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approx. 0.09-5 micrometer radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with ultraviolet radiation at 120-160 nm wavelengths. The measured yields are found to be substantially higher than the bulk values given in the literature and indicate a size dependence with larger particles having order-of-magnitude higher values than for submicron-size grains.

  11. Phototelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. A.; Camata, R. P.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and the equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much higher than the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approximately 0.09 to 8 microns radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with W radiation at 120 to 160 nm wavelengths. The measured values and the size dependence of the yields are found to be substantially different from the bulk values given in the literature.

  12. Hydrocarbon analogs of cosmic dust to trace the solid carbon abundance in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadallah, Kamel A. K.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral changes of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) could show variable distributions of solid carbon abundance in the interstellar medium (ISM). The variable optical properties of HAC analogs, produced by the laser ablation in a high vacuum, depends on the variation in its atomic and electronic structures. The fraction of hydrogen atoms in HAC increases proportionally with the laser's power. The available solid carbon tied up in the interstellar HAC, being the carrier of the interstellar 3.4 μ m and 4.6 μ m-1 bands, is indicated by the strength of these bands. Comparing the strength of these bands with those of laboratory data indicates that the amount of carbon in HAC analogs is not inherently sufficient. The lack in the solid carbon (locked solid carbon) in these analogs can be analytically estimated to facilitate the simulation of cosmic carbon dust. The results show a reduction in the locked solid carbon when the fraction of hydrogen atoms in HAC analogs increases. When this fraction becomes approximately 0.52 relative to the total number of hydrogen and carbon atoms, there is no lack of carbon in HAC analogs. The interstellar distribution of variable solid carbon abundance is attributed to the modification of cosmic HAC, which occurs as a result of the variation in its hydrogen atom fraction and the UV processing taking place in the interstellar environments. This distribution reveals more solid carbon abundances reside in the dust phase and may assist in resolving the carbon crisis.

  13. Trace Elements in Chondritic Cosmic Dust: Volatile Correlation with CA Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1992-07-01

    Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF) allows high-sensitivity element abundance measurements from Cr to Br. Although abundances in individual chondritic cosmic dust particles generally scatter from 1/3xCI to 3xCI abundances (Flynn and Sutton, 1992a), enrichments are more common than depletions. We previously reported average compositions of 18 (Flynn and Sutton, 1991) and 24 (Flynn and Sutton, 1992b) chondritic cosmic dust particles showing volatile enrichments. Jessberger et al. (1991) reported similar results for 8 particles. Their average composition of 42 chondritic particles follows the previous trend. Each element from Cr to Br having a nebula condensation temperature lower than 1277 K is enriched over its CI meteorite concentration, generally by about the same factor as the depletion from CI exhibited by CII or CIII meteorites. Although many particles are volatile rich, two types have lower volatile contents. Low-Zn particles probably lost much of their initial Zn during atmospheric entry heating (Flynn and Sutton, 1992a; Flynn et al., 1992). Some low-Zn particles, presumably the most extremely heated survivors, are also depleted in other volatile elements (Cu, Ga, Ge, and Se). Since 10 low-Zn particles are included in the 42, the calculated average abundances may be lower than pre-atmospheric values, especially for very volatile elements. We have noted that Cu/Fe versus Se/Fe in almost all chondritic cosmic dust particles plots on the volatile-rich extension of the line defined by these ratios in the CI, CII, and CIII meteorites (Flynn and Sutton, 1992b). The eight particles that fall within the chondritic range (Cu/Fe and Se/Fe both <1.2 x CI) show much smaller deviations from CI for other elements. Their average volatile trace element content falls between CI and CII, except for a large Br enrichment. Schramm et al. (1989) indicate the porous (generally anhydrous) and smooth (generally hydrated) cosmic dust particles form two chemical groups, with Ca

  14. Cosmic Dust Catalog. Volume 15; Particles from Collectors L2036 and L2021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, J.; Watts, L.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Wentworth , S.; Dodson , A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially designed dust collectors are prepared for flight and processed after flight in an ultraclean (Class-100) laboratory constructed for this purpose at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Particles are individually retrieved from the collectors, examined and cataloged, and then made available to the scientific community for research. Cosmic dust thereby joins lunar samples and meteorites as an additional source of extraterrestrial materials for scientific study. This catalog summarizes preliminary observations on 468 particles retrieved from collection surfaces L2021 and L2036. These surfaces were flat plate Large Area Collectors (with a 300 cm2 surface area each) which was coated with silicone oil (dimethyl siloxane) and then flown aboard a NASA ER-2 aircraft during a series of flights that were made during January and February of 1994 (L2021) and June 7 through July 5 of 1994 (L2036). Collector L2021 was flown across the entire southern margin of the US (California to Florida), and collector L2036 was flown from California to Wallops Island, VA and on to New England. These collectors were installed in a specially constructed wing pylon which ensured that the necessary level of cleanliness was maintained between periods of active sampling. During successive periods of high altitude (20 km) cruise, the collectors were exposed in the stratosphere by barometric controls and then retracted into sealed storage container-s prior to descent. In this manner, a total of 35.8 hours of stratospheric exposure was accumulated for collector L2021, and 26 hours for collector L2036.

  15. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; Kapitzke, M.; Moes, T.; Steel, D.; Williams, T.; Gearheart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  16. Impact-Mobilized Dust in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemtchinov, I. V.; Shuvalov, V. V.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    We consider dust production and entrainment into the atmosphere of Mars by impacts. Numerical simulations based on the multidimensional multimaterial hydrocode were conducted for impactors 1 to 100 m in size and velocities 11 and 20 kilometers per second. The size distribution of particles was based on experimentrr wing TNT explosions. Dust can be mobilized even when the impactor does not reach the ground through the release of energy in the atmosphere, We found that the blast produced winds entrained dust by a mechanism similar to boundary layer winds as determined from the wind-tunnel tests. For a l-m radius stony asteroid releasing its energy in the atmosphere the lifted mass of dust is larger than that in a typical dust devil and could trigger local dust storms, For a 100-m-radius meteoroid the amount of injected dust is comparable with the tota! mass of a global dust storm.

  17. The IAA cosmic dust laboratory: Experimental scattering matrices of clay particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Ramos, J. L.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results of measurements on solid particles performed at the Instituto de Astrofı´sica de Andalucı´a (IAA) cosmic dust laboratory located in Granada, Spain. The laboratory apparatus measures the complete scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle of aerosol particles. The measurements can be performed at a wavelength ( λ) of 483, 488, 520, 568, or 647 nm in the scattering angle range from 3° to 177°. Results of special test experiments are presented which show that our experimental results for scattering matrices are not significantly contaminated by multiple scattering and that the sizes/shapes of the particles do not change during the measurements. Moreover, the measured scattering matrix for a sample of green clay particles is compared with measurements previously performed in the Amsterdam light scattering setup for the same sample. New measurements on a white clay sample at 488 and 647 nm are also presented. The apparatus is devoted to experimentally studying the angle dependence of scattering matrices of dust samples of astrophysical interest. Moreover, there is a great interest in similar studies of aerosols that can affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere of the Earth and other planets such as silicates, desert dust, volcanic ashes, and carbon soot particles.

  18. Impact of Lunar Dust on the Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Vondrak, R. R.; Farrell, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From the Apollo era it is known that dust on the Moon can cause serious problems for exploration activities. Such problems include adhering to clothing and equipment, reducing external visibility on landings, and causing difficulty to breathing and vision within the spacecraft. An important step in dealing with dust-related problems is to understand how dust grains behave in the lunar environment. All astronauts who walked on the Moon reported difficulties with lunar dust. Eugene Cernan, commander of Apollo 17, stated that one of the most aggravating, restricting facets of lunar surface exploration is the dust and its adherence to everything no matter what kind of material, whether it be skin, suit material, metal, no matter what it be and it's restrictive friction-like action to everything it gets on. Dust has also been highlighted as a priority by the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG): 1A. Characterize both aeolian dust and particulates that would be kicked up from the martian regolith by surface operations of a human mission with fidelity sufficient to establish credible engineering simulation labs and/or software codes on Earth. We shall briefly describe the properties of lunar dust and its impact on the Apollo astronauts, and then summarize three main problems areas for understanding its behavior: Dust Adhesion and Abrasion, Surface Electric Fields and Dust Transport. These issues are all inter-related and must be well understood in order to minimize the impact of dust on lunar surface exploration.

  19. Chemical characterization of seven Large Area Collector particles by SXRF. [cosmic dust composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Optical microscopy and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) are used to analyze the chemical composition of seven dark-appearing cosmic-dust particles obtained in the stratosphere during NASA Johnson Large Area Collector flights. The experimental setup and procedures are outlined, and the results are presented in extensive tables. Three of the particles had abundances similar to those of chondrites (except for low Ca values in one particle); two had a metallic appearance and spectra dominated by Fe and Zn; one contained Cu and Cr plus small amounts of Fe and Zn; and one had igneous-type abundances of minor and trace elements while containing all of the elements seen in chondritic particles, suggesting it may be of extraterrestrial origin.

  20. Purity and cleanness of aerogel as a cosmic dust capture medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Fleming, R. H.; Lindley, P. M.; Craig, A. Y.; Blake, D.

    1994-01-01

    The capability for capturing micrometeoroids intact through laboratory simulations and in space in passive underdense silica aerogel offers a valuable tool for cosmic dust research. The integrity of the sample handling medium can substantially modify the integrity of the sample. Intact capture is a violent hypervelocity event: the integrity of the capturing medium can cause even greater modification of the sample. Doubts of the suitability of silica aerogel as a capture medium were raised at the 20th LPSC, and questions were raised again at the recent workshop on Particle Capture, Recovery, and Velocity Trajectory Measurement Technologies. Assessment of aerogel's volatile components and carbon contents have been made. We report the results of laboratory measurements of the purity and cleanliness of silica aerogel used for several Sample Return Experiments flown on the Get Away Special program.

  1. An overview of the cosmic dust analogue material production in reduced gravity: the STARDUST experience.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, F; Lilleleht, L U; Nuth, J; Stephens, J R; Bussoletti, E; Colangeli, L; Mennella, V; Dell'Aversana, P; Mirra, C

    1993-01-01

    The formation, properties and chemical dynamics of microparticles are important in a wide variety of technical and scientific fields including synthesis of semiconductor crystals from the vapour, heterogeneous chemistry in the stratosphere and the formation of cosmic dust surrounding the stars. Gravitational effects on particle formation from vapors include gas convection and buoyancy and particle sedimentation. These processes can be significantly reduced by studying condensation and agglomeration of particles in microgravity. In addition, to accurately simulate particle formation near stars, which takes place under low gravity conditions, studies in microgravity are desired. We report here the STARDUST experience, a recent collaborative effort that brings together a successful American program of microgravity experiments on particle formation aboard NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft and several Italian research groups with expertise in microgravity research and astrophysical dust formation. The program goal is to study the formation and properties of high temperature particles and gases that are of interest in astrophysics and planetary science. To do so we are developing techniques that are generally applicable to study particle formation and properties, taking advantage of the microgravity environment to allow accurate control of system parameters.

  2. An overview of the cosmic dust analogue material production in reduced gravity: the STARDUST experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, F.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Nuth, J.; Stephens, J. R.; Bussoletti, E.; Colangeli, L.; Mennella, V.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Mirra, C.

    1993-01-01

    The formation, properties and chemical dynamics of microparticles are important in a wide variety of technical and scientific fields including synthesis of semiconductor crystals from the vapour, heterogeneous chemistry in the stratosphere and the formation of cosmic dust surrounding the stars. Gravitational effects on particle formation from vapors include gas convection and buoyancy and particle sedimentation. These processes can be significantly reduced by studying condensation and agglomeration of particles in microgravity. In addition, to accurately simulate particle formation near stars, which takes place under low gravity conditions, studies in microgravity are desired. We report here the STARDUST experience, a recent collaborative effort that brings together a successful American program of microgravity experiments on particle formation aboard NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft and several Italian research groups with expertise in microgravity research and astrophysical dust formation. The program goal is to study the formation and properties of high temperature particles and gases that are of interest in astrophysics and planetary science. To do so we are developing techniques that are generally applicable to study particle formation and properties, taking advantage of the microgravity environment to allow accurate control of system parameters.

  3. Cosmic meteor dust: potentially the dominant source of bio-available iron in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Marsh, D. R.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Fentzke, J.; Lopez-Rosado, R.; Behrenfeld, M.

    2012-12-01

    Johnson, 2001 [Johnson, Kenneth. S. (2001), Iron supply and demand in the upper ocean: Is extraterrestrial dust a significant source of bioavailable iron?, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(1), 61-63, doi:10.1029/2000GB001295], first suggested that meteoric particulate flux could be a significant source of bio-available iron, particularly in regions with little or no eolean sources, such as the Southern Ocean. While these calculations raised intriguing questions, there were many large unknowns in the input calculations between meteor flux and bio-available ocean molecular densities. There has been significant research in the intervening decade on related topics, such as the magnitude (~200 ktons per year) and composition of the meteoric flux, its atmospheric evaporation, transport, mesospheric formation of potentially soluble meteoric smoke, and extraterrestrial iron isotope identification. Paramount of these findings are recent NCAR WACCM atmosphere model results demonstrating that the majority of meteoric constituents are transported towards the winter poles and the polar vortex. This may lead to a focusing of meteoritic iron deposition towards the Southern Ocean. We present a proposed research plan involving Southern Ocean sample collection and analysis and atmospheric and biological modeling to determine both the current relevance of meteoric iron, and examine the past and future consequences of cosmic dust under a changing climate.

  4. a Search for the Cosmic Dust Increment to Aerosol Particles at the Geographic South Pole.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Robert Edward

    1988-12-01

    An electrostatic precipitation (ESP) particle collector was constructed and deployed to sample the South Pole, Antarctica atmosphere for submicron-size cosmic dust particles. It was in operation between December, 1983 and January, 1987 at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Clean Air Facility (CAF). The collector is most efficient for particles in the 0.3 mu m size range. An arrangement of isolation shutters and removable sampling plates allows for sample transfer, without contamination, to a remote laboratory for individual particle characterization by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) for elemental analysis and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) for crystallographic identifications. Beside the readily identifiable contaminants, including sulfuric acid droplets that make up a significant background and sooty carbonaceous-type material, a variety of rod-shaped grains and spheres have been noted. In addition, an iron-containing mineral has been observed as fragile filamentary or needle-like crystalline aggregates. Some rather rare particles that display single element EDS signature peaks of Ti, Cr, Co, Mg, Si, and Pb and a possible Cr, Fe intermetallic or mineral particle also have been observed. While it would not be surprising for cosmic dust grains to be small in size and to have simple compositions, any concrete evidence of an extraterrestrial origin for any of these grains is lacking. Two other types of particles show a stronger possibility of cosmic origin. These are an Al, Fe particle collected during a Perseids Meteor Event and a unique particle that contains Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe and Ni in chondritic proportions. After completion of the particle collection program, the collector was shut down and returned to the laboratory for evaluation. An area of one of the stainless steel plates from the first chamber of the collector, the particle -charging section, was

  5. Separating Continental Mineral Dust from Cosmic Dust using Platinum Group Element Concentrations and Osmium Isotopes in Ancient Polar Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, J. H.; Jackson, B.; Osterberg, E. C.; Sharma, M.

    2015-12-01

    The platinum group element (PGEs: Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, and Ru) accumulation in ancient polar archives have been argued to trace cosmic dust and "smoke" from larger meteors but the PGE concentration data lack specificity. For example, the extent to which the terrestrial volcanism/dust has contributed to the PGE inventory of polar ice cannot be readily evaluated. Since the Os isotope compositions (187Os/188Os ratio) of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources are distinctly different from each other, the PGE concentrations when combined with Os isotope composition have the potential to untangle contributions from these sources. Platinum group element concentration determinations in polar ice cores are highly challenging due to their extremely low concentrations (down to 10-15 g/g or fg/g). Here, a new procedure is presented that allows PGEs and Os isotope compositions to be determined from a ~50 g sample of polar ice. Decontaminated ice-melt is spiked with 101Ru, 106Pd, 190Os, 191Ir, and 198Pt and frozen at -20 °C in quartz-glass ampoules. A mixture of purified HNO3 and H2O2 is then added and the sample is heated to 300 °C at 128bar using a High Pressure Asher. This allows all spikes to be equilibrated with the sample PGEs and all Os species are oxidized to OsO4. The resulting OsO4 is extracted using distillation, purified, and measured using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. PGEs are then separated and purified using two stage column chromatography and their concentrations determined by isotope dilution using a triple quadruople inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer coupled to an Apex de-solvation nebulizer. The developed method was applied to modern Greenland firn and snow. The PGE concentrations of the firn are 4.0 fg/g for Ir, 20 fg/g for Ru, 590 fg/g for Pt, 38 fg/g for Pd, and 1.3 fg/g for Os, while those of the snow are 3.0 fg/g for Ir, 53 fg/g for Ru, 360 fg/g for Pt, 32 fg/g for Pd, and 0.4 fg/g for Os, respectively. A comparison

  6. The impacts of Middle East dust on Indian summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Q.; Yang, Z. L.; Wei, J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem), the impact of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall was studied. Eight numerical experiments were conducted to take into account uncertainties related to dust-absorbing properties, various assumptions used in calculating aerosol optical depth (AOD), and various radiation schemes. In order to obtain reasonable dust emission, model-simulated AOD and radiation forcing at the top of the atmosphere were compared with multiple satellite- and surface-based observations. Consistent with observations, modeled results show heavy dust loadings in the Arabian Peninsula and Pakistan, which can be transported through long distance to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Peninsula. By heating the atmosphere in the lower troposphere over the Iranian Plateau, these dust aerosols result in strengthened Indian summer monsoon circulations, which in turn transport more water vapor to the Indian Peninsula. The model shows that northern India becomes wetter during the monsoon season in dust cases than non-dust cases. Further observational analyses show an increasing trend in AOD over the Arabian Peninsula, which corresponds to an increasing trend of rainfall in northern India during summer monsoon seasons from 2000 to 2013. These observed trends of AOD and rainfall are consistent with the model-simulated positive relationship between Middle East dust and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Our results highlight long-term (decadal) impacts of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer rainfall.

  7. Tungsten dust impact on ITER-like plasma edge

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D. Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2015-01-15

    The impact of tungsten dust originating from divertor plates on the performance of edge plasma in ITER-like discharge is evaluated using computer modeling with the coupled dust-plasma transport code DUSTT-UEDGE. Different dust injection parameters, including dust size and mass injection rates, are surveyed. It is found that tungsten dust injection with rates as low as a few mg/s can lead to dangerously high tungsten impurity concentrations in the plasma core. Dust injections with rates of a few tens of mg/s are shown to have a significant effect on edge plasma parameters and dynamics in ITER scale tokamaks. The large impact of certain phenomena, such as dust shielding by an ablation cloud and the thermal force on tungsten ions, on dust/impurity transport in edge plasma and consequently on core tungsten contamination level is demonstrated. It is also found that high-Z impurities provided by dust can induce macroscopic self-sustained plasma oscillations in plasma edge leading to large temporal variations of edge plasma parameters and heat load to divertor target plates.

  8. Tungsten dust impact on ITER-like plasma edge

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2015-01-12

    The impact of tungsten dust originating from divertor plates on the performance of edge plasma in ITER-like discharge is evaluated using computer modeling with the coupled dust-plasma transport code DUSTT-UEDGE. Different dust injection parameters, including dust size and mass injection rates, are surveyed. It is found that tungsten dust injection with rates as low as a few mg/s can lead to dangerously high tungsten impurity concentrations in the plasma core. Dust injections with rates of a few tens of mg/s are shown to have a significant effect on edge plasma parameters and dynamics in ITER scale tokamaks. The large impact of certain phenomena, such as dust shielding by an ablation cloud and the thermal force on tungsten ions, on dust/impurity transport in edge plasma and consequently on core tungsten contamination level is demonstrated. Lastly, it is also found that high-Z impurities provided by dust can induce macroscopic self-sustained plasma oscillations in plasma edge leading to large temporal variations of edge plasma parameters and heat load to divertor target plates.

  9. Cosmic Impacts: The DoomsDay Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    1998-07-01

    Recent science fiction movies (Deep Impact and Armageddon) have brought public attention to the threat of possible impacts from space. Just how real is this threat and what would be the consequences of such an impact? Can we do anything to prevent it? The survival of civilization may depend on it.

  10. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  11. Polyvinylidene fluoride dust detector response to particle impacts.

    PubMed

    James, D; Hoxie, V; Horanyi, M

    2010-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors have flown on many space missions since their first use on the Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft. The fundamental operating principle of these detectors is the production of a charge upon impact by a hypervelocity dust particle. This measured signal, N, depends on the speed, v, and mass, m, of the particle. The relationship between N, v, and m was first empirically derived by Simpson and Tuzzolino. All of the PVDF dust instruments prior to the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission use their formula for the calibration of the detectors. This paper provides additional dust impact calibration data, proposes a modification in the exponents for m and v, and investigates the relationship between detector temperature and detector signal.

  12. Plasma produced by impacts of fast dust particles on a thin film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried

    1994-01-01

    The thin-film impact plasma detector was pioneered by Berg for detecting small cosmic dust particles and measuring their approximate velocities in a time-of-flight configuration. While Berg's device was highly successful in establishing the flux of interplanetary dust, the accuracy of measuring the velocities of individual particles was a moderate 18 percent in magnitude and 27 degrees in angle. A much greater accuracy of less than or equal to 1 percent in determining the velocity components appears desirable in order to associate a particle with its parent body. In order to meet that need, research was initiated to determine if a thin-film detector can be designed to provide such accurate velocity measurements. Previous laboratory investigations of the impact plasma uncovered two difficulties: (1) solid or liquid spray is ejected from a primary impact crater and strikes neighboring walls where it produces secondary impact craters and plasma clouds; as a result, both quantity and time of detection of the plasma can vary significantly with the experiment configuration. Particles from an accelerator rarely have speeds v greater than or equal to 10-15 km/s, while cosmic dust particles typically impact at v = 10-72 km/s. The purpose of the tests discussed in this paper was to resolve the two difficulties mentioned. That is, the experiment configuration was designed to reduce the contribution of plasma from secondary impacts. In addition, most particles with v less than or equal to 25 km/s and all particles with v less than or equal to 10 km/s were eliminated from the beam.

  13. Metamorphism of Cosmic Dust: Processing from Circumstellar Outflows to the Cometary Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III

    1997-01-01

    Nucleation is a non-equilibrium process: the products of this process are seldom the most thermodynamically stable condensates but are instead those which form fastest. It should therefore not be surprising that grains formed in a circumstellar outflow will undergo some degree of metamorphism if they are annealed or are exposed to a chemically active reagent. Metamorphism of refractory particles continues in the interstellar medium (ISM) where the driving forces are sputtering by cosmic ray particles, annealing by high energy photons and grain destruction in supernova generated shocks. Studies of the depletion of the elements from the gas phase of the interstellar medium tell us that if grain destruction occurs with high efficiency in the ISM, then there must be some mechanism by which grains can be formed in the ISM. Various workers have shown that refractory mantles could form on refractory cores by radiation processing of organic ices. A similar process may operate to produce refractory inorganic mantles on grain cores which survived the supernova shocks. Most grains in a cloud which collapses to form a star will be destroyed; many of the surviving grains will be severely processed. Grains in the outermost regions of the nebula may survive relatively unchanged by thermal processing or hydration. It is these grains which we hope to find in comets. However, only those grains encased in ice at low temperature can be considered pristine since a considerable degree of hydrous alteration might occur in a cometary regolith if the comet enters the inner solar system. Some discussion of the physical, chemical and isotopic properties of a refractory grain at each stage of its life cycle will be attempted based on the limited laboratory data available to date. Suggestions will be made concerning the types of experimental data which are needed in order to better understand the processing history of cosmic dust.

  14. Hypervelocity dust impacts on the Wind spacecraft: Correlations between Ulysses and Wind interstellar dust detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, S. R.; Malaspina, David M.; Andersson, Laila; Horanyi, Mihaly

    2015-09-01

    The Wind spacecraft is positioned just sunward of Earth at the first Lagrange point, while the Ulysses spacecraft orbits above and below the ecliptic plane crossing the ecliptic as far from the Sun as the orbit of Jupiter (˜5 AU). While Wind does not carry a dedicated dust detector, we demonstrate the ability of Wind electric field measurements to detect hypervelocity dust impacts through their impact plasma signatures. Interstellar dust (ISD) and interplanetary dust particles are differentiated based on a yearly modulation of the ISD flux. Measurements of ISD flux variation by Wind are found to be in good agreement with ISD flux variation measured by Ulysses. While measurements of the ISD flow direction through the Solar System determined by Wind could not be directly compared to those from Ulysses, strong variation in ISD flow direction was observed during similar time periods by both spacecraft.

  15. Polarized polymer films as electronic pulse detectors of cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of dust particle detector has been developed which consists of a polarized film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) having conducting electrons on its surface and operating with no bias voltage. Here, the response characteristics of PVDF detectors with areas in the range 4-150 sq cm and thickness in the range 2-28 microns to iron particles accelerated to velocities in the range 1-12 km/s are reported. The discussion also covers the mechanism of detection, fast pulse response, noise characteristics, and the dependence of the detector signal amplitude on particle mass and velocity. The detectors exhibit long-term stability and can be operated for extended periods of time over the temperature range -50 to +50 C; their response to dust particle impacts is unaffected by high background fluxes of charged particles.

  16. Tungsten dust impact on ITER-like plasma edge

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2015-01-12

    The impact of tungsten dust originating from divertor plates on the performance of edge plasma in ITER-like discharge is evaluated using computer modeling with the coupled dust-plasma transport code DUSTT-UEDGE. Different dust injection parameters, including dust size and mass injection rates, are surveyed. It is found that tungsten dust injection with rates as low as a few mg/s can lead to dangerously high tungsten impurity concentrations in the plasma core. Dust injections with rates of a few tens of mg/s are shown to have a significant effect on edge plasma parameters and dynamics in ITER scale tokamaks. The large impactmore » of certain phenomena, such as dust shielding by an ablation cloud and the thermal force on tungsten ions, on dust/impurity transport in edge plasma and consequently on core tungsten contamination level is demonstrated. Lastly, it is also found that high-Z impurities provided by dust can induce macroscopic self-sustained plasma oscillations in plasma edge leading to large temporal variations of edge plasma parameters and heat load to divertor target plates.« less

  17. Nanoflow Separation of Amino Acids for the Analysis of Cosmic Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2008-01-01

    The delivery of amino acids to the early Earth by interplanetary dust particles, comets, and carbonaceous meteorites could have been a significant source of the early Earth's prebiotic organic inventory. Amino acids are central to modern terrestrial biochemistry as major components of proteins and enzymes and were probably vital in the origin of life. A variety of amino acids have been detected in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison, many of which are exceptionally rare in the terrestrial biosphere including a-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline. AIB has also been detected in a small percentage of Antarctic micrometeorite grains believed to be related to the CM meteorites We report on progress in optimizing a nanoflow liquid chromatography separation system with dual detection via laser-induced-fluorescence time of flight mass spectrometry (nLC-LIF/ToF-MS) for the analysis of o-phthaldialdehydelN-acetyl-L-cysteine (OPA/NAC) labeled amino acids in cosmic dust grains. The very low flow rates (<3 micro-L/min) of nLC over analytical LC (>0.1 ml/min) combined with <2 micron column bead sizes has the potential to produce efficient analyte ionizations andchromatograms with very sharp peaks; both increase sensitivity. The combination of the selectivity (only primary amines are derivatized), sensitivity (>4 orders of magnitude lower than traditional GC-MS techniques), and specificity (compounds identities are determined by both retention time and exact mass) makes this a compelling technique. However, the development of an analytical method to achieve separation of compounds as structurally similar as amino acid monomers and produce the sharp peaks required for maximum sensitivity is challenging.

  18. Far-Reaching Impacts of African Dust- A Calipso Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Prospero, Joseph; Omar, Ali; Remer, Lorraine; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhibo

    2014-01-01

    African dust can transport across the tropical Atlantic and reach the Amazon basin, exerting far-reaching impacts on climate in downwind regions. The transported dust influences the surface-atmosphere interactions and cloud and precipitation processes through perturbing the surface radiative budget and atmospheric radiative heating and acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Dust also influences biogeochemical cycle and climate through providing nutrients vital to the productivity of ocean biomass and Amazon forests. Assessing these climate impacts relies on an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition. Currently model simulations show extremely large diversity, which calls for a need of observational constraints. Kaufman et al. (2005) estimated from MODIS aerosol measurements that about 144 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 50 Tg of dust into the Amazon in 2001. This estimated dust import to Amazon is a factor of 3-4 higher than other observations and models. However, several studies have argued that the oversimplified characterization of dust vertical profile in the study would have introduced large uncertainty and very likely a high bias. In this study we quantify the trans-Atlantic dust transport and deposition by using 7 years (2007-2013) observations from CALIPSO lidar. CALIPSO acquires high-resolution aerosol extinction and depolarization profiles in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. The unique CALIPSO capability of profiling aerosols above clouds offers an unprecedented opportunity of examining uncertainties associated with the use of MODIS clear-sky data. Dust is separated from other types of aerosols using the depolarization measurements. We estimated that on the basis of 7-year average, 118142 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 3860 Tg of dust into the Amazon basin. Substantial interannual variations are observed during the period, with the maximum to minimum ratio of about 1

  19. Ice Target and Gas Target Experiments in the IMPACT Dust Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsat, T. L.; Collette, A.; Dee, R.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; James, D.; Janches, D.; Kempf, S.; Plane, J. M. C.; Shu, A. J.; Simolka, J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thomas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The dust accelerator facility at the SSERVI Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) is presently implementing two major target upgrades: a cryogenic ice target and a high-pressure gas target. The ice target consists of a LN2 cryogenic system connected to both a water-ice deposition system as well as a movable freezer/holder for a pre-mixed liquid cartridge. Planned experiments include the bombardment of a variety of frozen targets and simulated ice/regolith mixtures, and the assessment of all impact products (solid ejecta, gas, plasma) as well as spectroscopy of both the impact-produced light flashes and the reflected spectra (UV, visible, IR). Such measurements are highly relevant to both physical and chemical surface modification of airless bodies due to micrometeoroid impacts. The gas target consists of a differentially pumped chamber kept at moderate background pressures, such that high-velocity (~10 km/s) micrometeoroids are completely ablated within 10's of cm (i.e. within the measurement chamber). The chamber is configured with segmented electrodes to perform a spatially-resolved measurement of charge production during ablation, and localized light-collection optics enable an assessment of the light production (luminous efficiency). Such studies are critical to the understanding of past and future ground-based measurements of meteor ablation in Earth's atmosphere, which in turn can potentially provide the best estimates of the interplanetary dust particle flux.

  20. Physical vapor deposition synthesis of amorphous silicate layers and nanostructures as cosmic dust analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sio, A.; Tozzetti, L.; Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, A.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Della Ventura, G.; Zhao, Haifeng; Pan, Zhiyun; Li, Wenjie; Guan, Yong; Pace, E.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmic dust grains (CD) are part of the evolution of stars and planetary systems and pervade the interstellar medium. Thus, their spectral signature may be used to deduce the physical features of the observed astronomical objects or to study many physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium. However, CD samples are available only from sample-and-return space missions. Thus, they are rare and not sufficient to be used to perform laboratory experiments of astrophysical interest, such as to produce reference spectra. In this contribution, we describe a new physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique that allows the production of amorphous samples with controlled chemical and morphological characteristics. In particular, this technique was developed to grow uniform or microstructured layers of Mg-Fe amorphous silicates (olivine or pyroxene) that are materials of wide interest for laboratory experiments. We discuss the first results that were achieved by applying this new synthesis method. The layers were studied by combining infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray spectroscopy. The X-ray microscopy was used for the first time to characterize the internal structure of the grains in these synthetic samples. Finally, future improvements of the technique and foreseen applications are discussed.

  1. Extraction and microanalysis of cosmic dust captured during sample return missions: laboratory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, G. A.; Kearsley, A. T.; Butterworth, A. L.; Bland, P. A.; Burchell, M. J.; McPhail, D. S.; Chater, R.; Grady, M. M.; Wright, I. P.

    2004-01-01

    Particles of cometary and asteroidal origin collected at source using dedicated capture cell technologies will be returned to Earth within the next 8 years. Furthermore, coincidental capture of interplanetary dust particles will occur on the exposed surfaces of the Genesis spacecraft. Laboratory simulations using both light-gas-gun and Van de Graaff accelerators have impacted dust analogues at velocities ranging from 5 km s -1 to ca. 72 km s -1 into comparable silicon and aerogel targets. Analysis of the impacts on silicon has shown complete spallation of impact residues for silicate projectiles of 38-53 μm in diameter, however craters formed by 1 μm iron projectiles show that near-intact residues can be preserved. An olivine grain embedded in aerogel has been characterized in situ using Raman micro-spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments have shown that analytical scanning electron microscopy can also be used to characterize embedded grains. Development of a novel particle extraction methodology using a 266 nm UV laser micro-dissection system has resulted in the recovery of an olivine grain. The extracted particle was then "cleaned up" using focused ion beam (FIB) milling to remove excess aerogel that was fused on the grain surface.

  2. Translational anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation and far-infrared emission by galactic dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The predicted emission spectrum of galactic dust at about 10 K is compared with the spectrum of 2.8-K universal blackbody radiation and with the spectrum of the anisotropy expected in the 2.8-K radiation due to motion of earth with respect to the coordinate system in which the radiation was last scattered. The extremely anisotropic galactic-dust emission spectrum may contribute a significant background to anisotropy measurements which scan through the galactic plane. The contamination would appear in an 8-mm scan around the celestial equator, for example, as a spurious 200 km/s velocity toward declination 0 deg, right ascension 19 hr, if predictions are correct. The predicted spectrum of dust emission in the galactic plane at longitudes not exceeding about 30 deg falls below the total 2.8-K cosmic background intensity at wavelengths of at least 1 mm.

  3. Removing dust impact for visual navigation in Mars landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Cao, Yunfeng; Ding, Meng; Zhuang, Likui

    2016-01-01

    Visual navigation has received more and more attention in Mars landing. However, dust devils are active on Mars. The dust will make a great influence on visual navigation during the landing phase. In this paper, a simple but effective approach was proposed to remove the dust impact for visual navigation in Mars landing. This method was based on a model which was widely used to describe the scene radiance that was affected by different weather conditions. First the calculation method of transmission parameter was deduced from this model. Then the value of the global atmospheric light was estimated through the detection of most dust-opaque region. After all unknown variables were determined, the clear image was recovered by the corresponding formula and calculation method. For it is difficult to obtain the decent images that appear while the Mars rover enters the landing phase, a simulated dust environment was created in the lab and some images affected by dust were obtained to check the validity of this method. From the results of the experiments, the proposed approach can effectively eliminate the dust influences and provide clearer pictures. The clear images help to provide more precise data for visual navigation.

  4. Temperature Spectra of Interstellar Dust Grains Heated by Cosmic Rays. I. Translucent Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Juris

    2016-06-01

    Heating of whole interstellar dust grains by cosmic-ray (CR) particles affects the gas-grain chemistry in molecular clouds by promoting molecule desorption, diffusion, and chemical reactions on grain surfaces. The frequency of such heating, f T , s-1, determines how often a certain temperature T CR, K, is reached for grains hit by CR particles. This study aims to provide astrochemists with a comprehensive and updated data set on CR-induced whole-grain heating. We present calculations of f T and T CR spectra for bare olivine grains with radius a of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μm and such grains covered with ice mantles of thickness 0.1a and 0.3a. Grain shape and structure effects are considered, as well as 30 CR elemental constituents with an updated energy spectrum corresponding to a translucent cloud with A V = 2 mag. Energy deposition by CRs in grain material was calculated with the srim program. We report full T CR spectra for all nine grain types and consider initial grain temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. We also provide frequencies for a range of minimum T CR values. The calculated data set can be simply and flexibly implemented in astrochemical models. The results show that, in the case of translucent clouds, the currently adopted rate for heating of whole grains to temperatures in excess of 70 K is underestimated by approximately two orders of magnitude in astrochemical numerical simulations. Additionally, grains are heated by CRs to modest temperatures (20-30 K) with intervals of a few years, which reduces the possibility of ice chemical explosions.

  5. Impact of Asia Dust Aerosols on Regional Environment and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    East Asia is a major dust source in the world and has great impacts on regional climate in Asia, where the large arid and semi-arid regions are. In this study, the typical transport paths of East Asia dust, which affect regional and global climates, are demonstrated and numerous effects of dust aerosols on clouds and precipitation primarily over East Asian arid and semi-arid regions are discussed. Compared with the dust aerosols of Saharan, those of East Asian are more absorptive of solar radiation, and can influence the cloud properties not only by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei but also through changing the relative humidity and stability of the atmosphere (via semi-direct effect). Converting visible light to thermal energy, dust aerosols can burn clouds to produce a warming effect on climate, which is opposite to the first and second indirect effects of aerosols. Over Asia arid and semi-arid regions, the positive feedback in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction may aggravate drought in its inner land. Impact of Asia dust on regional environment, especially on haze weather, are also presented in this talk.

  6. Composition of Plasma Formed from Hypervelocity Dust Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, N.; Close, S.; Rymer, A. M.; Mocker, A.

    2012-12-01

    Dust impacts can occur on all solar system bodies but are especially prevalent in the case of the Saturnian moons that are near or within the dust torus produced by Enceladus's plumes. Depending on the mass and charge on these plume particles, they will be influenced by both gravitational and electrodynamic forces, resulting in a range of possible impact speeds on the moons. The plasma formed upon impact can have very different characteristics depending on impact speed and on the electric field due to surface charging at the impact point. Through recent tests conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics using a Van de Graaff dust accelerator, iron dust particles were electrostatically accelerated to speeds of 3-65 km/s and impacted on a variety of target materials including metallic and glassy surfaces. The target surfaces were connected to a biasing supply to represent surface charging effects. Because of the high specific kinetic energy of the dust particles, upon impact they vaporize along with part of the target surface and a fraction of this material is ionized forming a dense plasma. The impacts produced both positive and negative ions. We made measurements of the net current imparted by this expanding plasma at a distance of several centimeters from the impact point. By setting the bias of the target, we impose an electric field on the charge population, allowing a measurement of plasma composition through time of flight analysis. The figure shows representative measurements of the net current measured by a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) from separate 18 and 19 km/s impacts of 7 fg particles on a glassy surface that was negatively and positively biased, respectively. This target was an optical solar reflector donated by J. Likar of Lockheed Martin for these experiments. These results show that ions of both positive and negative charge can be formed through the mechanism of dust impacts, and has implications on the surface plasma environment

  7. Estimating the Global Cosmic Dust Input from Lidar Observations of the Vertical Fluxes of Mesospheric Na and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Marsh, D. R.; Plane, J. M.; Liu, A. Z.; Chu, X.; Huang, W.; Vargas, F.

    2013-12-01

    Current estimates of the global influx of cosmic dust are highly uncertain. Most approaches involve making a variety of assumptions based upon an incomplete understanding or knowledge of the crucial ablation, atmospheric transport and surface deposition processes. Cosmic dust is the source of the metal layers in the mesopause region. Once the metal atoms are ablated from the dust particles, they are transported downward below the mesopause, where they are eventually converted to stable compounds. These compounds either form or condense on meteoric smoke particles that settle into the lower atmosphere and are eventually deposited on the Earth's surface. The production of the metal atoms by ablation, mostly above 90 km, is balanced by their downward transport and complete removal near 80 km by chemical processes. The abundances of the mesospheric metals are directly related to their influx (atoms/cm2/s) and their lifetime, which is a function of the speed of downward transport to their chemical sinks. Consequently, the cosmic influxes of atomic Na and Fe should be equal to their vertical fluxes in the region below their nominal ablation altitudes and above their chemical sinks. The vertical gravity wave fluxes of Na and temperature have been measured between 85 and 100 km with Doppler lidars at the Starfire Optical Range, NM, Haleakala, Maui, Table Mountain, CO and Cerro Pachon, Chile. In addition Fe fluxes have also been measured at Table Mountain, CO. We use these observations to estimate the global influx of these species and of the total ablated mass. We discuss the limitations of extrapolating point measurements to obtain the global influx and describe how current global circulation models such as WACCM can help reduce the uncertainties.

  8. Cosmic dust in the atmosphere and in the interplanetary space at 1 AU today and in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechtig, H.

    1973-01-01

    A description of techniques used in recent experiments to detect and analyze cosmic dust and micrometeorites is given and the results both from the study of lunar crater statistics and from in situ measurements are reviewed. The results from lunar crater statistics show an agreement with the results obtained from in situ measurements in interplanetary space and derived from zodiacal light measurements. The near earth results show an enhancement in the flux numbers. This can be caused either by secondary lunar debris or by disintegration of low density fireballs in the outer atmosphere.

  9. Measurement and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: Overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanré, D.; Haywood, J.; Pelon, J.; LéOn, J. F.; Chatenet, B.; Formenti, P.; Francis, P.; Goloub, P.; Highwood, E. J.; Myhre, G.

    2003-09-01

    Aerosols are known to be important in determining Earth's radiative balance. Dust aerosols are of particular interest since, in addition to their scattering and absorbing properties that affect the solar radiation, they also perturb the terrestrial radiation. Recent studies have shown that a significant proportion of mineral dust in the atmosphere may be of anthropogenic origin, and therefore they may have an important role in climate change by exerting a significant radiative forcing. However, the optical and radiative properties of dust are not yet very well-determined, and even the sign of the resulting forcing is still questionable. The Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) was designed to better determine the parameters that are relevant for computing the direct radiative effect. Two aircraft combining in situ and remote sensing instruments were coordinated with satellite overpasses and ground-based observations during the experiment, which was based in the Cape Verde area during the period 19-29 September 2000. These in situ and remotely sensed data provide new valuable information on the microphysical, optical properties, and radiative effects of a large mineral dust outbreak. In addition, a global chemical transport model was used for assessing the radiative impact of these events, which are shown to be important on regional and global scales.

  10. Potential Impacts of Saharan Dust on the African Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.; El-Askary, H. M.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Yue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The largest dust source in the world is the Sahara desert, which occupies most of the northern half of Africa. A recent international modeling experiment conducted under the auspices of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AEROCOM) initiative estimated that the annual dust generation from the Sahara and its peripheries is in the range of 400 to 2200 Tg yr-1. It is estimated that about 240±80 Tg yr-1 of the dust leaves the western shores of Africa on its way across the Atlantic. Therefore, a majority of the dust emitted from and around the Sahara remains and circulates within Africa, potentially affecting the environment, air quality, and human health, among other effects. Given the apparent scarcity of ground-based air-quality monitoring networks in Africa, we are exploring approaches that utilize satellite measurements and regional models to estimate the air-quality impacts of aerosols (particularly those of biomass burning and dust) in northern Hemisphere Africa. Some of the model simulations evaluated using ground-based and satellite observations show that the regional models deliver a high performance in capturing the mixing and transport of biomass-burning (smoke) and dust aerosols. In this presentation, we will share our preliminary results and future perspectives.

  11. Cosmic Impacts and Climates of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K.

    2008-12-01

    Cosmic impacts have an unsavory reputation in Earth science from their frequent use as dei ex machinis. But unwelcome as they may be, they do happen, and Earth, Venus, and Mars have all seen bigger impacts than the K/T event. The lunar crater record indicates that impacts were big and frequent when Earth was young. Impacts coeval with the lunar basins would have had drastic effects on Earth. The faint early Sun suggests that without an abundant greenhouse gas (e.g., 3 bars of CO2 would suffice), early Earth would have been very cold and icebound, a Hadean snowball. A Hadean snowball would differ from Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic snowballs in that geothermal heat flow would surely have been high enough on a wide enough scale that the ice could not everywhere have been thick. If there were a Hadean snowball, impacts like those the late bombardment would have melted the ice, and so created transient "impact springs." Because Venus's atmosphere is very thick, only the biggest impacts can change it. Under current conditions the most interesting possibility is a big wet impact adding enough water to the atmosphere to ramp up the greenhouse effect. The effect of adding water to Venus's atmosphere has been discussed previously in the context of giant volcanoes. For Mars the chief effect of the late bombardment on the climate may be existential: impact erosion has been a leading hypothesis to explain why Mars has a thin atmosphere. A more controversial suggestion is that the evidence for warm wet climates on ancient Mars is really just another aspect of the impact cratering record. Impacts are capable of recycling and vaporizing buried martian volatiles --- water in particular --- but it remains to be shown that they do so often enough, or that the effects last long enough, to account for the apparent endurance of warm wet episodes.

  12. Capture of cosmic dusts and exposure of organics on the International Space Station: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei

    Finding of a wide variety of organic compounds contained in extraterrestrial bodies such as carbonaceous chondrites and comets suggested that they were important materials for the first life on the Earth. Cosmic dusts (interplanetary dust particles; IDPs) were believed to have been important carriers of extraterrestrial organics, since IDPs could deliver organics to the primitive Earth more safely than asteroids and comets. Since most IDPs have been collected in such terrestrial environments as ocean sediments, Antarctic ices, and air in stratosphere, it is difficult to judge whether biooranics found in IDPs were extraterrestrial origins or not. Thus it would be of importance to collect IDPs out of the terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission by utilizing the Exposed Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM/EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two types of experiments will be done in the Tanpopo Mission: Capture experiments and exposure experiments. In order to collect cosmic dusts (including IDPs) on the ISS, we are going to use extra-low density aerogel, since both cosmic dusts and ISS are moving at 8 km s-1 or over. We have developed novel aerogel whose density is 0.01 g cm-3. After the return of the aerogel blocks after 1 to a few years’ stay on JEM/EF, organic compounds in the captured dusts will be characterized by a wide variety of analytical techniques including FT-IR, XANES, and MS. Amino acid enantiomers will be determined after HF digestion and acid hydrolysis. A number of amino acids were detected in water extract of carbonaceous chondrites. It is controversial whether meteorites contain free amino acids or amino acid precursors. When dusts are formed from meteorites or comets in interplanetary space, they are exposed to high-energy particles and photons. In order to evaluate stability and possible alteration of amino acid-related compounds, we chose amino acids (glycine and isovaline) and hydantoins (precursors of amino

  13. The impacts of mineral dust on organized mesoscale deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigel, Robert Brian

    The overarching goal of this research is to investigate how mineral dust can impact organized deep moist convection using numerical modeling. This is achieved through four modeling studies that each address a different aspect of organized mesoscale DMC. The first study uses the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate a supercell storm in order to examine the pathways in which mineral dust is entrained into DMC. This is achieved by simulating a supercell within three commonly observed dust regimes. Results indicate that the supercell in EXP-BACKGROUND ingests large dust concentrations ahead of the rear-flank downdraft (RFD) cold pool. Conversely, dust lofted by the cold pool in EXP-STORM is ingested by the supercell in relatively small amounts via a narrow corridor generated by turbulent mixing between the RFD cold pool and ambient air. The addition of a convergence boundary in EXP-BOUNDARY is found to act as an additional source of dust for the supercell and represents the case between EXP-BACKGROUND and EXP-STORM. Results demonstrate the importance of using an appropriate dust parameterization when modeling DMC, especially within more arid regions. The second study utilizes an idealized simulation of a nocturnal squall line to assess and isolate the individual responses in a squall line that arise (1) from radiation, (2) from dust altering the microphysics, as well as (3) from the synergistic effects between (1) and (2). To accomplish these tasks, we again use RAMS set up as a cloud-resolving model (CRM). Results indicate that RADIATION acts to increase precipitation, intensify the cold pool, and enhance the mesoscale organization of the squall line due to radiation-induced changes in the microphysics that appear to initiate from cloud top cooling. Conversely, DUST MICRO decreases precipitation, weakens the cold pool, and weakens the mesoscale organization of the squall line due to an enhancement of the warm rain process. SYNERGY shows little

  14. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W Bruce; Janecky, David R; Forte, Maurizio; Barrientos, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools based on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.

  15. Impact Produced and Mobilized Dust in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtchinov, I. V.; Shuvalov, V. V.; Greeley, R.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this work is to study possible mechanisms of new dust production and existing dust entrainment after impacts of meteoroids onto Mars and to assess the possible relationship to dust clouds. We use detailed numerical simulations based on the SOVA multi-dimensional multi-material hydrocode [1]. In the first run of simulations, partially described in [2], only the dust ejected from the crater was taken into account. In the process of ejection soil density decreases near the cavity boundary. At the moment when the density falls below some critical value the solid material is replaced by a set of discrete particles (dust, boulders) of equivalent mass [3]. The distribution of particles by sizes was taken according experimental data obtained in the course of large-scale TNT and nuclear explosions on the Earth's ground [4]. The radius of impactor was varied from 1 to 100 m. The lowest value corresponds to high strength meteoroids passing through the rarefied Martian atmosphere without substantial fragmentation and deceleration. The impact velocity was taken to be 11 and 20 km/s. In all the variants the mass of the dust ejected from the forming craters was about 10 M, where M is the impactor mass. It was suggested [5] that the dust may be mobilized even if the impactor does not reach the ground surface. To check this idea the code was modified to take into account blast produced impulsive winds blowing the preexisting dust from the surface by mechanism similarly to that of the stationary winds [6]. Turbulent viscosity and diffusion were taken into acount. Some portions of dust are deposited on the surface due to gravity. The particles striking the surface increase a flux of the suspended dust. The saltation thresholds were taken according [7-8]. For a 1 m radius stony asteroid releasing its energy (0.15 kt TNT) at an altitude of about 100 m above the surface after first two seconds the mass of the dust in the air was 3.5 M, and after 15 s it decreased to 2

  16. Volatile Acquisition During Early Terrestrial Accretion — Constraints from Implanted Solar Neon in Cosmic Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M.; Gail, H.-P.; Hopp, J.; Ott, U.; Trieloff, M.

    2016-08-01

    Implanted Ne-B in particles with large surface/volume ratio has to be considered as source for terrestrial noble gases. Significant contributions of irradiated dust during Earth's accretion possibly explain the solar Ne signature of Earth's mantle.

  17. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavryčuk, V.

    2016-06-01

    Current theories assume that the low intensity of the stellar extragalactic background light (stellar EBL) is caused by finite age of the Universe because the finite-age factor limits the number of photons that have been pumped into the space by galaxies and thus the sky is dark in the night. We oppose this opinion and show that two main factors are responsible for the extremely low intensity of the observed stellar EBL. The first factor is a low mean surface brightness of galaxies, which causes a low luminosity density in the local Universe. The second factor is light extinction due to absorption by galactic and intergalactic dust. Dust produces a partial opacity of galaxies and of the Universe. The galactic opacity reduces the intensity of light from more distant background galaxies obscured by foreground galaxies. The inclination-averaged values of the effective extinction AV for light passing through a galaxy is about 0.2 mag. This causes that distant background galaxies become apparently faint and do not contribute to the EBL significantly. In addition, light of distant galaxies is dimmed due to absorption by intergalactic dust. Even a minute intergalactic opacity of 1 × 10^{-2} mag per Gpc is high enough to produce significant effects on the EBL. As a consequence, the EBL is comparable with or lower than the mean surface brightness of galaxies. Comparing both extinction effects, the impact of the intergalactic opacity on the EBL is more significant than the obscuration of distant galaxies by partially opaque foreground galaxies by factor of 10 or more. The absorbed starlight heats up the galactic and intergalactic dust and is further re-radiated at IR, FIR and micro-wave spectrum. Assuming static infinite universe with no galactic or intergalactic dust, the stellar EBL should be as high as the surface brightness of stars. However, if dust is considered, the predicted stellar EBL is about 290 nW m^{-2} sr^{-1}, which is only 5 times higher than the observed

  18. Elastic-plastic adhesive impacts of tungsten dust with metal surfaces in plasma environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; De Angeli, M.; Bykov, I.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Brochard, F.; Ripamonti, D.; den Harder, N.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-08-01

    Dust-surface collisions impose size selectivity on the ability of dust grains to migrate in scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas and to adhere to plasma-facing components. Here, we report first experimental evidence of dust impact phenomena in plasma environments concerning low-speed collisions of tungsten dust with tungsten surfaces: re-bouncing, adhesion, sliding and rolling. The results comply with the predictions of the model of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres employed in the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe for sub- to several meters per second impacts of micrometer-range metal dust.

  19. Dust productivity and impact collision of the asteroid (596) Scheila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslusan, L.; Ivanova, O.; Husarik, M.; Svoren, J.; Krisandova, Z. Seman

    2016-06-01

    Photometric observations of asteroid (596) Scheila were obtained during and after its 2010 outburst. The estimated radius of the body (spherical approximation of the asteroidal body) was 51.2±3.0 km and 50.6±3.0 km for different methods. The ejected dust mass from the asteroid ranged from 2.5 ×107 to 3.4 ×107 kg for different methods. An impact mechanism for triggering Scheila's activity is discussed. A few days before the impact, Scheila passed through the corridors of two potential cometary streams.

  20. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to

  1. Trace element content of chondritic cosmic dust: Volatile enrichments, thermal alterations, and the possibility of contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.

    1993-03-01

    Trace element abundances in 51 chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP's) were measured by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). The data allow us to determine an average composition of chondritic IDP's and to examine the questions of volatile loss during the heating pulse experienced on atmospheric entry and possible element addition due to contamination during atmospheric entry, stratospheric residence, and curation.

  2. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Christopher L.

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the component of the interstellar medium (ISM) that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We here present results that demonstrate the capability of the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA) to detect the cold ISM and dust in ``normal'' galaxies at redshifts z=5-6. We also show detailed studies of the ISM in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies out to z>6 with ALMA, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). These observations place some of the most direct constraints on the dust-obscured fraction of the star formation history of the universe at z>5 to date, showing that ``typical'' galaxies at these epochs have low dust content, but also that highly-enriched, dusty starbursts already exist within the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  3. Cometary Dust Characteristics: Comparison of Stardust Craters with Laboratory Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Graham, G. A.; Horz, F.; Wozniakiewicz, P. A.; Cole, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium foils exposed to impact during the passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet Wild 2 have preserved a record of a wide range of dust particle sizes. The encounter velocity and dust incidence direction are well constrained and can be simulated by laboratory shots. A crater size calibration programme based upon buckshot firings of tightly constrained sizes (monodispersive) of glass, polymer and metal beads has yielded a suite of scaling factors for interpretation of the original impacting grain dimensions. We have now extended our study to include recognition of particle density for better matching of crater to impactor diameter. A novel application of stereometric crater shape measurement, using paired scanning electron microscope (SEM) images has shown that impactors of differing density yield different crater depth/diameter ratios. Comparison of the three-dimensional gross morphology of our experimental craters with those from Stardust reveals that most of the larger Stardust impacts were produced by grains of low internal porosity.

  4. In-situ dust detection as a tool to study dust-plasma interactions in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, R.; Hsu, H. W.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Postberg, F.; Kempf, S.

    2014-12-01

    The unique results of the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer onboard Cassini revealed the potential of in-situ dust detection for the study of dust-plasma interactions. In-situ techniques are charge induction, impact ionization, momentum transfer, foil depolarization, light scattering or mass spectrometry. Modern instruments like dust telescopes or the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard Cassini combine different methods in one sensor. This paper gives an overview about in-situ dust measurements in space using direct detection methods. A focus is given to charge induction and impact ionization and their measurement thresholds are described. Major CDA discoveries are summarized and new results of nano-dust stream measurements in the outer Saturnian system are presented. These data show periodicities related to Saturn and its moons, leading to a deeper understanding of nano-dust origins and dynamics in Saturn's magnetosphere.

  5. The radiation-induced rotation of cosmic dust particles: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misconi, N. Y.; Ratcliff, K. F.

    1981-01-01

    A crossed beam, horizontal optical trap, used to achieve laser levitation of particles in an effort to determine how solar radiation produces high spin rate in interplanetary dust particles, is described. It is suggested that random variations in albedo and geometry give rise to a nonzero effective torque when the influence of a unidrectional source of radiaton (due to the Sun) over the surface of a interplanetary dust particle is averaged. This resultant nonzero torque is characterized by an asymmetry factor which is the ratio of the effective moment arm to the maximum linear dimension of the body and is estimated to be 5 X 10 to the minus four power. It is hoped that this symmetry factor, which stabilizes the nonstatistical response of the particle, can be measured in a future Spacelab experiment.

  6. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation of Micron Size Cosmic Dust Grains with Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E.; Weingartner, J.; Witherow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment along the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approx. 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  7. Dust Devil Sediment Transport: From Lab to Field to Global Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martina; Jemmett-Smith, Bradley C.; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Knippertz, Peter; Lemmon, Mark T.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Neakrase, Lynn D. V.; Newman, Claire; Patel, Manish R.; Reiss, Dennis; Spiga, Aymeric; Whelley, Patrick L.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of dust aerosols on the climate and environment of Earth and Mars is complex and forms a major area of research. A difficulty arises in estimating the contribution of small-scale dust devils to the total dust aerosol. This difficulty is due to uncertainties in the amount of dust lifted by individual dust devils, the frequency of dust devil occurrence, and the lack of statistical generality of individual experiments and observations. In this paper, we review results of observational, laboratory, and modeling studies and provide an overview of dust devil dust transport on various spatio-temporal scales as obtained with the different research approaches. Methods used for the investigation of dust devils on Earth and Mars vary. For example, while the use of imagery for the investigation of dust devil occurrence frequency is common practice for Mars, this is less so the case for Earth. Modeling approaches for Earth and Mars are similar in that they are based on the same underlying theory, but they are applied in different ways. Insights into the benefits and limitations of each approach suggest potential future research focuses, which can further reduce the uncertainty associated with dust devil dust entrainment. The potential impacts of dust devils on the climates of Earth and Mars are discussed on the basis of the presented research results.

  8. Sensitivity of regional dust modelling to the wind speed and the emissions schemes: Impact on the hourly dust previsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.

    2008-12-01

    The mineral dust emissions are highly sensitive to the surface characteristics and the wind speed. For global and climatological studies, the associated potential uncertainty may lead to large errors in the dust amount budget. The wind speed having really an hourly variability, this study first quantify the impact of using two meteorological datasets to model hourly dust emissions, over several months. Coupled to a sensitivity analysis on the emissions schemes themselves, quantification of the variabitily due to meteorological and emissions input parameters is quantified. The same modelling system was used for daily forecast in the framework of the AMMA experiment. Each day, the model CHIMERE-DUST forecasted dust concentrations over the whole North-Atlantic, Europe and northern Africa. First , an evaluation of the model is performed in analysis mode: hourly comparisons are done between surface AERONET optical thickness measurements, OMI satellite (aerosol index) measurements and concentrations and modelled optical thicknesses with CHIMERE-DUST. The accuracy and spread between measurements and model are quantified and discussed in term of the most important dust events observed during the first short observation period of the AMMA experiment, over the western Africa. Using the same comparisons criteria, the second step consist in the same type of calculations but with the 'forecasted' meteorological and dust concentrations fields. The model skill is evaluate in term of capability to forecast (i) the surface wind speed (the key process for dust emissions), (ii) the dust emissions (depending on the wind speed as well as numerous others uncertain parameters, including threshold values on the friction velocity) and (iii) the transport of aerosols from source to remote areas (depending of horizontal transport, convection etc.).

  9. Impacts of Asian dust events on atmospheric fungal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Eun Mi; Kim, Yong Pyo; Jeong, Kweon; Kim, Ik Soo; Eom, Suk Won; Choi, Young Zoo; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2013-12-01

    The composition of atmospheric fungi in Seoul during Asian dust events were assessed by culturing and by molecular methods such as mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and internal transcribed spacer cloning (ITS cloning). Culturable fungal concentrations in the air were monitored from May 2008 to July 2011 and 3 pairs of ITS clone libraries, one during Asian dust (AD) day and the other during the adjacent non Asian dust (NAD) day for each pair, were constructed after direct DNA extraction from total suspended particles (TSP) samples. In addition, six aeroallergenic fungi in the atmosphere were also assessed by MSQPCR from October, 2009 to November, 2011. The levels of the airborne culturable fungal concentrations during AD days was significantly higher than that of NAD days (P < 0.005). In addition, the correlation of culturable fungal concentrations with particulate matters equal to or less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) concentrations was observed to be high (0.775) for the AD days while correlation coefficients of PM10 as well as other particulate parameters with airborne fungal concentrations were significantly negative for the NAD days during intensive monitoring periods (May to June, 2008). It was found that during AD days several airborne allergenic fungal levels measured with MSQPCR increased up to 5-12 times depending on the species. Comparison of AD vs. NAD clones showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in all three cases using libshuff. In addition, high proportions of uncultured soil fungus isolated from semi-arid regions were observed only in AD clone libraries. Thus, it was concluded that AD impacts not only airborne fungal concentrations but also fungal communities.

  10. Experimental simulation of the atmospheric ablation of cosmic dust particles: implications for HPLA radar and lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Martin, Juan Carlos; Bones, David; Diego Carrillo Sanchez, Juan; James, Alexander; Janches, Diego; Plane, John

    2016-04-01

    The inner solar system is full of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) originating from cometary trails and collisions between asteroids. The entry and evaporation of IDPs in planetary atmospheres is related to a variety of phenomena including formation of mesospheric metal layers and clouds and stratospheric aerosol chemistry. The estimated mass flux into the Earth's Atmosphere from modelling of Zodiacal Cloud observations combined with results from our chemical ablation model (CABMOD) is consistent with the deposition rate of cosmic spherules on the ice caps. However, the fluxes derived from modelling HPLA radar observations, which also uses CABMOD, are significantly lower. In addition, all models underestimate the observed Na/Fe ratio in metal layers observed by LIDAR, and the radar-based model in particular does not predict differential ablation. In order to address these inconsistencies, we have built a laboratory meteor ablation simulator, which enables us to observe and characterise the ablation of metal atoms from meteoritic IDP analogues. CABMOD can be then benchmarked against the laboratory data. In this presentation, the implications of our experimental results for the interpretation of radar field observations, mass flux estimates and modelling of metal layers will be discussed.

  11. Characterization of space dust using acoustic impact detection.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Robert D; Giovane, Frank; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, Mark J; Cole, Michael J; Williams, Earl G; Lagakos, Nicholas; Sadilek, Albert; Anderson, Christopher R

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes studies leading to the development of an acoustic instrument for measuring properties of micrometeoroids and other dust particles in space. The instrument uses a pair of easily penetrated membranes separated by a known distance. Sensors located on these films detect the transient acoustic signals produced by particle impacts. The arrival times of these signals at the sensor locations are used in a simple multilateration calculation to measure the impact coordinates on each film. Particle direction and speed are found using these impact coordinates and the known membrane separations. This ability to determine particle speed, direction, and time of impact provides the information needed to assign the particle's orbit and identify its likely origin. In many cases additional particle properties can be estimated from the signal amplitudes, including approximate diameter and (for small particles) some indication of composition/morphology. Two versions of this instrument were evaluated in this study. Fiber optic displacement sensors are found advantageous when very thin membranes can be maintained in tension (solar sails, lunar surface). Piezoelectric strain sensors are preferred for thicker films without tension (long duration free flyers). The latter was selected for an upcoming installation on the International Space Station. PMID:27586768

  12. Characterization of space dust using acoustic impact detection.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Robert D; Giovane, Frank; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, Mark J; Cole, Michael J; Williams, Earl G; Lagakos, Nicholas; Sadilek, Albert; Anderson, Christopher R

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes studies leading to the development of an acoustic instrument for measuring properties of micrometeoroids and other dust particles in space. The instrument uses a pair of easily penetrated membranes separated by a known distance. Sensors located on these films detect the transient acoustic signals produced by particle impacts. The arrival times of these signals at the sensor locations are used in a simple multilateration calculation to measure the impact coordinates on each film. Particle direction and speed are found using these impact coordinates and the known membrane separations. This ability to determine particle speed, direction, and time of impact provides the information needed to assign the particle's orbit and identify its likely origin. In many cases additional particle properties can be estimated from the signal amplitudes, including approximate diameter and (for small particles) some indication of composition/morphology. Two versions of this instrument were evaluated in this study. Fiber optic displacement sensors are found advantageous when very thin membranes can be maintained in tension (solar sails, lunar surface). Piezoelectric strain sensors are preferred for thicker films without tension (long duration free flyers). The latter was selected for an upcoming installation on the International Space Station.

  13. Light scattering by clouds of cosmic dust analogues with carbonaceous compounds (PROGRA2 experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, Edith; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lasue, Jeremie

    Carbonaceous compounds are found in numerous clouds of solid particles in the Solar System (e.g. Cometary comae, Interplanetary dust, Titan's aerosols). Fluffy aggregates of submicron sized grains and more compact particles up to some tens of micrometers were present in the particles captured by the Stardust mission in the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 [1]. Complex organic refractories were found in the particles together with silicates [2,3], while CHON particles were detected by mass spectrometer, as previously by Vega 1 and Giotto at 1P/Halley [4,5]. Titan's aerosols are complex organics (CxNyHz) and their light scattering properties can only be interpreted if they present a fluffy aggregates structure [6]. The light scattered by the dust particles is partially linearly polarized with a polarization degree depending on the physical properties of the dust and on the geometry (phase angle) and wavelength of observations [7]. Laboratory scattering measurements with the PROGRA2 experiment [8] (in A300- CNES and ESA dedicated microgravity flights or on ground for low density particles) offer an alternative to simulate the scattering properties of real particles particularly for structures too large or too complex to be handled easily by numerical simulations. Experimental simulations have been performed on numerous samples underlying the characteristics of the polarimetric phase curves such as maximum and minimum polarization as a function of the properties of the particles (grains and particles size, structure, refractive index) [9,10]. These results were used to interpret variations in polarization in cometary comae [11,12] or in the Titan's atmosphere [13]. In this presentation we emphasize the optical properties due to the presence of organics and C-bearing materials and compare them to the optical properties of more transparent materials included or not in organics. Finally we give some examples of application to the interpretation of Solar System dust observations

  14. Saltation Impact as a Means for Raising Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted under atmospheric pressures appropriate for Earth and Mars to determine the efficiency of sand in saltation as a means for raising dust into the atmosphere under wind speeds which would otherwise be too low for dust entrainment. Experiments involving intimate mixtures of sand and dust (1:1 ratio by mass) showed that after an initial flurry of activity of a few seconds duration, the bed stabilized with little movement of either sand or dust. In contrast, sands set into saltation upwind fro= dust beds were efficient in injecting the dust into suspension, with low-pressure Martian conditions being some five times more efficient than terrestrial conditions. This result is attributed to the higher kinetic energies of the saltating grains on Mars, which is a consequence of the higher velocities of the grains. These results suggest that sands saltating across dust beds on Mars are an effective means for setting dust into suspension.

  15. POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DUST SUPPRESSANTS: "ADVOIDING ANOTHER TIMES BEACH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, there has been an increased use of chemical dust suppressants such as i water, salts, asphalt emulsion, vegetable oils, molasses, synthetic polymers, mulches, and lignin 1 products. Dust suppressants abate dust by changing the physical properties of the soil s...

  16. Metamorphism of cosmic dust: Processing from circumstellar outflows to the cometary regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III

    1989-01-01

    Metamorphism of refractory particles continues in the interstellar medium (ISM) where the driving forces are sputtering by cosmic ray particles, annealing by high energy photons, and grain destruction in supernova generated shocks. Studies of the depletion of the elements from the gas phase of the interstellar medium tell us that if grain destruction occurs with high efficiency in the ISM, then there must be some mechanism by which grains can be formed in the ISM. Most grains in a cloud which collapses to form a star will be destroyed; many of the surviving grains will be severely processed. Grains in the outermost regions of the nebula may survive relatively unchanged by thermal processing or hydration. It is these grains which one hopes to find in comets. However, only those grains encased in ice at low temperature can be considered pristine since a considerable degree of hydrous alteration might occur in a cometary regolith if the comet enters the inner solar system. The physical, chemical and isotopic properties of a refractory grain at each stage of its life cycle will be discussed.

  17. Impacts of dust storms on PCDD/Fs and regulated harmful matter in a basin area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzi-yi; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Chen, Yan-Min; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the relationship between the high levels of dust particles and the concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/F during dust storm episodes. However, they did not investigate the impact of dust storm on basin areas. This present study shows the dust storm effect on regulated harmful matter and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in basin areas. The results indicate that the average PM 10 (aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), SO 2 (sulfur dioxide), NO 2 (nitrogen oxides), CO (carbon monoxide) and O 3 (ozone) levels during the dust storm were 5.14, 2.30, 1.44, 1.40 and 1.41 times higher than those before the dust storm, respectively. Mean PCDD/F concentrations during the dust storm (0.958 pg Nm -3; 0.0484 pg I-TEQ Nm -3) were significantly higher than those before the dust storm (0.240 pg Nm -3; 0.00705 pg I-TEQ Nm -3). The PCDDs concentration during the dust storm was 1.84 times larger than that before the dust storm, and the PCDFs concentration was 10.2 times larger. Therefore, the dominant contribution of PCDD/Fs concentration during dust storm in the basin areas of northern Taiwan is PCDFs. OCDD concentration measured before dust storm was the highest among the seventeen investigated PCDD/F congeners, accounting for about 64.6% of the total concentration. However, OCDD concentration measured during the dust storm was comparable with the OCDF among the seventeen investigated PCDD/F congeners, accounting for about 24.5% (OCDD) and 22.9% (OCDF) of the total concentration. The above results indicate that the impact of a dust storm on regulated harmful matter and PCDD/F concentrations in the basin area is significant. An investigation of the health risk from dust storms in basin areas is needed.

  18. Laboratory far-infrared spectroscopy of terrestrial sulphides to support analysis of cosmic dust spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R. E.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. E.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.

    2012-03-01

    As an aid in interpreting data from space far-infrared (far-IR) missions, such as the Herschel Space Observatory with its Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, this paper presents spectroscopic studies of selected naturally occurring terrestrial sulphide minerals in the wavelength range 15-250 μm. The data can also be used to support the return from other, both past and planned, IR space missions, such as the Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer, SOFIA, SPiCA and Millimetron. In this study, we present far-IR spectra for 11 natural sulphide minerals in the form of dispersed powders of micron particle dimensions. Samples of various sulphides from the American Museum of Natural History mineral collection were selected based on criteria of diversity and potential astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric interplanetary dust particle samples, or in meteorites. Mineral species include digenite, galena, alabandite, sphalerite, wurtzite, covellite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite and stibnite. Most of the sulphides examined possess prominent and characteristic features in the far-IR range. Spectra obtained are compared to those available from previous studies. Far-IR peak frequencies and mass absorption coefficient values are tabulated. Effects of particle size distribution, low temperature, and provenance on IR spectra are demonstrated for selected samples.

  19. High-energy Electron Irradiation of Interstellar Carbonaceous Dust Analogs: Cosmic-ray Effects on the Carriers of the 3.4 μm Absorption Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maté, Belén; Molpeceres, Germán; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH3 and CH2 in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH3 and CH2 by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons. The decay of the band intensity versus electron fluence reflects a-C:H dehydrogenation, which is well described by a model assuming that H2 molecules, formed by the recombination of H atoms liberated through CH bond breaking, diffuse out of the sample. The CH bond destruction rates derived from the present experiments are in good accordance with those from previous ion irradiation experiments of HAC. The experimental simplicity of electron bombardment has allowed the use of higher-energy doses than in the ion experiments. The effects of cosmic rays on the aliphatic components of cosmic dust are found to be small. The estimated cosmic-ray destruction times for the 3.4 μm band carriers lie in the 108 yr range and cannot account for the disappearance of this band in dense clouds, which have characteristic lifetimes of 3 × 107 yr. The results invite a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms of CH bond formation and breaking in the intermediate region between diffuse and dense clouds.

  20. Regional variability in dust-on-snow processes and impacts in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skiles, S. McKenzie; Painter, Thomas H.; Belnap, Jayne; Holland, Lacey; Reynolds, Richard; Goldstein, Harland; Lin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dust deposition onto mountain snow cover in the Upper Colorado River Basin frequently occurs in the spring when wind speeds and dust emission peaks on the nearby Colorado Plateau. Dust loading has increased since the intensive settlement in the western USA in the mid 1880s. The effects of dust-on-snow have been well studied at Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA) in the San Juan Mountains, CO, the first high-altitude area of contact for predominantly southwesterly winds transporting dust from the southern Colorado Plateau. To capture variability in dust transport from the broader Colorado Plateau and dust deposition across a larger area of the Colorado River water sources, an additional study plot was established in 2009 on Grand Mesa, 150 km to the north of SBBSA in west central, CO. Here, we compare the 4-year (2010–2013) dust source, deposition, and radiative forcing records at Grand Mesa Study Plot (GMSP) and Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), SBBSA's subalpine study plot. The study plots have similar site elevations/environments and differ mainly in the amount of dust deposited and ensuing impacts. At SASP, end of year dust concentrations ranged from 0.83 mg g−1 to 4.80 mg g−1, and daily mean spring dust radiative forcing ranged from 50–65 W m−2, advancing melt by 24–49 days. At GMSP, which received 1.0 mg g−1 less dust per season on average, spring radiative forcings of 32–50 W m−2 advanced melt by 15–30 days. Remote sensing imagery showed that observed dust events were frequently associated with dust emission from the southern Colorado Plateau. Dust from these sources generally passed south of GMSP, and back trajectory footprints modelled for observed dust events were commonly more westerly and northerly for GMSP relative to SASP. These factors suggest that although the southern Colorado Plateau contains important dust sources, dust contributions from other dust sources contribute to dust loading in this region

  1. Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron size dust grains with unusually high adhesive characteristics. The dust grains observed to be levitated and transported on the lunar surface are believed to have a hazardous impact on the robotic and human missions to the Moon. The observed dust phenomena are attributed to the lunar dust being charged positively during the day by UV photoelectric emissions, and negatively during the night by the solar wind electrons. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena, with the uncertainty of dust charging processes and the equilibrium potentials of the individual dust grains. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual dust grains are substantially different from those determined from measurements made on bulk materials that are currently available. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at MSFC for investigating the charging and optical properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present the laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by a low energy electron beam. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission process are discussed.

  2. A Miniature Mass Spectrometer for High-Flux Cosmic Dust Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, D. E.; Manning, H. L. K.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    We designed a novel mass spectrometer for in situ characterization of micro-particulates in regions of high concentration, such as a comet fly-by, planetary ring, or impact-generated plume. This device is based on novel ion optics that allow high performa

  3. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, P.; Chakraborty, A.; Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with a plan to create a large database in future. This application also has an option where users can compile and run the scattering code directly for aggregates in GUI environment. The JaSTA aims to provide convenient and quicker data analysis of the optical properties which can be used in different fields like planetary science, atmospheric science, nano science, etc. The current version of this software is developed for the Linux and Windows platform to study the light scattering properties of small aggregates which will be extended for larger aggregates using parallel codes in future. Catalogue identifier: AETB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571570 No. of bytes in distributed program

  4. Impact of Lunar Dust on the Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Vondrak, R. R.; Farrell, W. M.

    2004-12-01

    From the Apollo era it is known that dust grains on the Moon can cause serious problems for exploration activities. Such problems include adhering to clothing and equipment, reducing external visibility on landings, and causing difficulty to breathing and vision within the spacecraft. An important step in dealing with dust-related problems is to understand how dust grains behave in the lunar environment. The electrostatic charging of dust grains and the lunar surface by interaction with the local plasma environment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar UV and X-rays is a likely cause of some of these problems. It can also act as a mechanism for transporting dust away from the surface, as the like-charged surface and dust act to repel each other. There is much evidence to suggest that sunlight scattered at the terminators, as observed by surface landers and astronauts in orbit, is caused by "dust clouds" composed of ˜0.1 \\mum grains at altitudes of ˜1-100 km. In order to explain these observations, we propose a dynamic "fountain" model in which charged dust grains follow ballistic trajectories, subsequent to being accelerated upwards through a narrow sheath region by the surface electric field. These dust grains could affect the optical quality of the lunar environment for astronomical observations and interfere with exploration activities.

  5. Disturbance to desert soil ecosystems contributes to dust-mediated impacts at regional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the regional scale of impacts arising from disturbance to desert soil ecosystems. Deserts occupy over one-third of the Earth’s terrestrial surface, and biological soil covers are critical to stabilization of desert soils. Disturbance to these can contribute to massive destabilization and mobilization of dust. This results in dust storms that are transported across inter-continental distances where they have profound negative impacts. Dust deposition at high altitudes causes radiative forcing of snowpack that leads directly to altered hydrological regimes and changes to freshwater biogeochemistry. In marine environments dust deposition impacts phytoplankton diazotrophy, and causes coral reef senescence. Increasingly dust is also recognized as a threat to human health.

  6. The Biogeochemical Impact of Global and Local Dust on Hawaiian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O. A.; Kurtz, A. C.; Derry, L. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wiegand, B.

    2003-12-01

    Hawaii is distant from continental sources of dust, yet there is abundant evidence that continental dust accumulates in soils on stable land surfaces. The physical evidence for dust accumulation is a dark grayish purple horizon that resides just below the O horizon; it is evident to a trained eye in 20 ky soils but becomes quite obvious in 150 ky soils. The continental dust contains about 20% quartz and a greater amount of mica, minerals that are not found in the local basalt and tephra. Thus presence of quartz and mica in Hawaiian soils identifies present, and in the case of buried horizons, past stable surfaces. In older soils near surface soil horizons can contain up to 30% quartz after 150 ky of accumulation. Soils on older lava flows do not necessarily contain greater amounts of dust because chemical and physical erosion removes variable amounts from different landscape positions. In soils older than 20 ky there is a progressive increase in the quartz to mica ratio suggesting that mica is preferentially weathered in locations where physical erosion is limited. In addition to mineralogy, the isotopes of Sr and Nd provide distinctive indications of dust contribution to soil profiles because the mantle-derived lavas have different isotopic signatures that the more highly evolved continental components. In horizons greatly impacted by dust the basaltic derived Sr and Nd signatures are nearly completely overprinted by continental signatures. Strontium concentrations are highly depleted due to leaching whereas Nd is less labile. Using quartz and Nd as tracers of continental dust we calculate a minimum long-term dust accumulation rate of 125 mg/cm2/ky. Dust has a profound effect on the budgets of elements that are susceptible to leaching losses and becomes the dominant source of labile nutrients, Si and P in the oldest, most intensely weathered soils. We calculate a dust-derived P input flux of 0.8 mg/cm2/ky and a dust-derived Si input flux of 35 mg/cm2/ky. Leaching

  7. Simulation of the Radiative Impact of High Dust Loading during a Dust Storm in March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated a severe dust storm that developed over vast areas of the Middle East on 18-19 March 2012 and affected Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Egypt, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Israel, and Pakistan. The visible aerosol optical depth recorded by the AERONET station on the KAUST campus (22.30o N 39.10o E) during the storm reached 4.5, exceeding the average level by an order of magnitude. To quantify the effects of the dust on atmospheric radiation and dynamics, we analyzed available ground-based and satellite observations and conducted numerical simulations using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem). The model was able to reproduce the spatial and temporal patterns of the aerosol optical depths (AOD) observed by airborne and ground-based instruments. The major dust sources included river valleys of lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, desert areas in Kuwait, Iran, United Arab Emirates, central Arabia including Rub' al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna, as well as the Red Sea coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The total amount of dust generated across the entire domain during the period of the simulation reached 93.76 Mt; 73.04 Mt of dust was deposited within the domain; 6.56 Mt of dust sunk in the adjacent sea waters, including 1.20 Mt that sedimented into the Red Sea. The model predicted a well-mixed boundary layer expanding up to 3.5 km in the afternoon. Some dust plumes were seen above the Planetary Boundary layer. In our simulations, mineral dust heated the lower atmosphere with a maximum heating rate of 9 K/day. The dust storm reduced the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface to a maximum daily average value of -134 Wm-2 and the daily averaged long-wave forcing at the surface increased to 43 Wm-2. The combined short-wave cooling and long-wave warming effects of dust aerosols caused significant reduction in the surface air temperature -6.7 K at 1200 UTC on 19 March 2013.

  8. Saharan dust event impacts on cloud formation and radiation over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, M.; Nenes, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.; Barahona, D.; Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Kottmeier, C.; Blahak, U.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the impact of mineral dust particles on clouds, radiation and atmospheric state during a strong Saharan dust event over Europe in May 2008, applying a comprehensive online-coupled regional model framework that explicitly treats particle microphysics and chemical composition. Sophisticated parameterizations for aerosol activation and ice nucleation, together with two-moment cloud microphysics are used to calculate the interaction of the different particles with clouds depending on their physical and chemical properties. The impact of dust on cloud droplet number concentration was found to be low, with just a slight increase in cloud droplet number concentration for both uncoated and coated dust. For temperatures lower than the level of homogeneous freezing, no significant impact of dust on the number and mass concentration of ice crystals was found, though the concentration of frozen dust particles reached up to 100 l-1 during the ice nucleation events. Mineral dust particles were found to have the largest impact on clouds in a temperature range between freezing level and the level of homogeneous freezing, where they determined the number concentration of ice crystals due to efficient heterogeneous freezing of the dust particles and modified the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Our simulations show that during the dust events, ice crystals concentrations were increased twofold in this temperature range (compared to if dust interactions are neglected). This had a significant impact on the cloud optical properties which caused a reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation at the surface up to -75 W m-2 in areas with high dust concentrations. Including the direct interaction of dust with radiation caused an additional reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation which was found to be in the order of -40 to -80 W m-2. In contrast to the aerosol-cloud interaction only simulation, the incoming long-wave radiation at the surface was increased

  9. Dust on Snow Processes and Impacts in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiles, M.; Painter, T. H.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    In the Upper Colorado River Basin episodic deposition of mineral dust onto mountain snow cover frequently occurs in the spring when wind speeds and dust emission peaks on the nearby Colorado Plateau, and deposition rates have increased since the intensive settlement in the western USA in the mid 1880s. Dust deposition darkens the snow surface, and accelerates snowmelt through reduction of albedo and further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grain size. Observation and modeling of dust-on-snow processes began in 2005 at Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA) in the San Juan Mountains, CO, work which has shown that dust advances melt, shifts runoff timing and intensity, and reduces total water yield. The consistency of deposition and magnitude of impacts highlighted the need for more detailed understanding of the radiative impacts of dust-on-snow in this region. Here I will present results from a novel, high resolution, daily snow property dataset, collected at SBBSA over the 2013 ablation season, to facilitate physically based radiative transfer and snowmelt modeling. Measurements included snow albedo and vertical profiles of snow density, optical snow grain size, and dust/black carbon concentrations. This dataset was used to assess the relationship between episodic dust events, snow grain growth, and albedo over time, and observe the relation between deposited dust and melt water. Additionally, modeling results include the determination of the regionally specific dust-on-snow complex refractive index and radiative forcing partitioning between dust and black carbon, and dust and snow grain growth.

  10. Impacts of fast meteoroids and the separation of dust particles from the surface of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, S. I.; Golub', A. P.; Lisin, E. A.; Izvekova, Yu. N.; Atamaniuk, B.; Dol'nikov, G. G.; Zakharov, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    The possibility of the separation of dust particles owing to impacts of micrometeoroids on the surface of the Moon has been discussed. It has been shown that this effect is significant and should be taken into account when determining the number of particles rising over the surface of the Moon at the formation of a plasma-dust system. The average number of regolith particles leaving the surface of the Moon owing to the impacts of fast meteoroids has been determined for various altitudes over the Moon. The size distribution function of particles leaving the surface of the Moon because of impacts of meteoroids has been determined. It has been shown that impacts of meteoroids constitute an important source of dust microparticles in the plasma-dust system over the surface of the Moon.

  11. Saharan dust event impacts on cloud formation and radiation over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, M.; Nenes, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.; Barahona, D.; Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Kottmeier, C.; Blahak, U.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the impact of mineral dust particles on clouds, radiation and atmospheric state during a strong Saharan dust event over Europe in May 2008, applying a comprehensive online-coupled regional model framework that explicitly treats particle microphysics and chemical composition. Sophisticated parameterizations for aerosol activation and ice nucleation, together with two-moment cloud microphysics are used to calculate the interaction of the different particles with clouds depending on their physical and chemical properties. The impact of dust on cloud droplet number concentration was found to be low, with just a slight increase in cloud droplet number concentration for both uncoated and coated dust. For temperatures lower than the level of homogeneous freezing, no significant impact of dust on the number and mass concentration of ice crystals was found, though the concentration of frozen dust particles reached up to 100 l-1 during the ice nucleation events. Mineral dust particles were found to have the largest impact on clouds in a temperature range between freezing level and the level of homogeneous freezing, where they determined the number concentration of ice crystals due to efficient heterogeneous freezing of the dust particles and modified the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Our simulations show that during the dust events, ice crystals concentrations were increased twofold in this temperature range (compared to if dust interactions are neglected). This had a significant impact on the cloud optical properties, causing a reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation at the surface up to -75 W m-2. Including the direct interaction of dust with radiation caused an additional reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation by 40 to 80 W m-2, and the incoming long-wave radiation at the surface was increased significantly in the order of +10 W m-2. The strong radiative forcings associated with dust caused a reduction in surface temperature in the order

  12. Saharan Dust Event Impacts on Cloud Formation and Radiation over Western Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, M.; Nenes, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.; Barahona, D.; Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Kottmeier, C.; Blahak, U.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of mineral dust particles on clouds, radiation and atmospheric state during a strong Saharan dust event over Europe in May 2008, applying a comprehensive online-coupled regional model framework that explicitly treats particle-microphysics and chemical composition. Sophisticated parameterizations for aerosol activation and ice nucleation, together with two-moment cloud microphysics are used to calculate the interaction of the different particles with clouds depending on their physical and chemical properties. The impact of dust on cloud droplet number concentration was found to be low, with just a slight increase in cloud droplet number concentration for both uncoated and coated dust. For temperatures lower than the level of homogeneous freezing, no significant impact of dust on the number and mass concentration of ice crystals was found, though the concentration of frozen dust particles reached up to 100 l-1 during the ice nucleation events. Mineral dust particles were found to have the largest impact on clouds in a temperature range between freezing level and the level of homogeneous freezing, where they determined the number concentration of ice crystals due to efficient heterogeneous freezing of the dust particles and modified the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Our simulations show that during the dust events, ice crystals concentrations were increased twofold in this temperature range (compared to if dust interactions are neglected). This had a significant impact on the cloud optical properties, causing a reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation at the surface up to -75Wm-2. Including the direct interaction of dust with radiation caused an additional reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation by 40 to 80Wm-2, and the incoming long-wave radiation at the surface was increased significantly in the order of +10Wm-2. The strong radiative forcings associated with dust caused a reduction in surface temperature in the order of -0

  13. Physics of spacecraft-based interplanetary dust collection by impact into low-density media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William W.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    A spacecraft encountering an interplanetary dust particle (IDP) at a relative velocity of several kilometers per second may be used to capture that particle for in situ analysis or for analysis upon Earth return. In this paper we study the impact of a dust particle into a low-density medium (i.e., a foam) such that the foam dissipates the kinetic energy of impact over a sufficient distance to stop the particle without destroying it.

  14. The impact of superstructures in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Stéphane; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian

    2016-10-01

    In 2008, Granett et al. claimed a direct detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect, through the stacking of CMB patches at the positions of identified superstructures. Additionally, the high amplitude of their measured signal was reported to be at odds with predictions from the standard model of cosmology. However, a closer inspection of these results prompts multiple questions, more specifically about the amplitude and significance of the expected signal. We propose here an original theoretical prediction of the iSW effect produced by such superstructures. We use simulations based on GR and the LTB metric to reproduce cosmic structures and predict their exact theoretical iSW effect on the CMB. The amplitudes predicted with this method are consistent with the signal measured when properly accounting the contribution of the non-negligible (and fortuitous) primordial CMB fluctuations to the total signal. It also highlights the tricky nature of stacking measurements and their interpretation.

  15. Impact of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-wave background

    SciTech Connect

    Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2008-10-15

    We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-wave background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational waves is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.

  16. Impact of interacting dark sector on Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown earlier that an arc-like pattern found on the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) may result from the decay of dark matter particles initiating near particle horizon in the Q-phase of the interacting cosmological constant (ICC) model. In the present work, an investigation is made into how the corresponding decay of such dark matter particles might influence these signatures, in view of the recent data on CMBR and the diffuse glow of the anomalous microwave radiation. We also discuss the constraints on such decay imposed by the interaction of the cosmological constant with the background. These predictions made in the ICC model can be verified in the concordance space of multiple observations.

  17. Impact of cosmic rays on stratospheric chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Müller, Rolf

    2003-08-01

    Dissociation induced by cosmic rays of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and HCl on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) has been suggested as playing a significant role in causing the ozone hole. However, observed stratospheric CFC distributions are inconsistent with a destruction of CFC on PSC surfaces and no significant correlation exists between ozone levels and cosmic-ray activity inside the polar regions. Model simulations indicate that this mechanism can have only a limited impact on chemical ozone loss and thus on the recovery of stratospheric ozone.

  18. Charged dust in the outer planetary magnetospheres. III - Satellite impact geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. R.; Mendis, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Interplanetary dust grains entering the Jovian plasmasphere become charged, and those in a certain size range get magneto-gravitationally trapped in the corotating plasmasphere. The trajectories of such dust grains intersect the orbits of one or more of the Galilean satellites. Orbital calculations of micron sized dust grains show that they impact the outermost satellite Callisto predominantly on its leading face, while they impact the inner three - Io, Europa and Ganymede - predominantly on the trailing face. These results are offered as an explanation of the observed brightness asymmetry between the leading and trailing faces of the outer three Galilean satellites. The albedo of Io is likely to be determined by its volcanism.

  19. The global distribution of mineral dust and its impacts on the climate system: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choobari, O. Alizadeh; Zawar-Reza, P.; Sturman, A.

    2014-03-01

    Mineral dust aerosols, the tiny soil particles suspended in the atmosphere, have a key role in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrological cycle through their radiative and cloud condensation nucleus effects. Current understanding of spatial and temporal variations of mineral dust, as well as its impacts on the climate system and cloud properties is outlined. Mineral dust aerosols are blown into the atmosphere mainly from arid and semi-arid regions where annual rainfall is extremely low and substantial amounts of alluvial sediment have been accumulated over long periods. They are subject to long-range transport of an intercontinental scale, including North African dust plumes over the Atlantic Ocean, summer dust plumes from the Arabian Peninsula over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean and spring dust plumes from East Asia over the Pacific Ocean. Mineral dust aerosols influence the climate system and cloud microphysics in multiple ways. They disturb the climate system directly by scattering and partly absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation, semi-directly by changing the atmospheric cloud cover through evaporation of cloud droplets (i.e. the cloud burning effect), and indirectly by acting as cloud and ice condensation nuclei, which changes the optical properties of clouds (i.e. the first indirect effect), and may decrease or increase precipitation formation (i.e. the second indirect effect). Radiative forcing by mineral dust is associated with changes in atmospheric dynamics that may change the vertical profile of temperature and wind speed, through which a feedback effect on dust emission can be established.

  20. Impact of surface properties on the dust grain charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlů, J.; Richterová, I.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Dust grains are common in the space environment and being immersed in plasma, they become charged. It is well known that a motion of grains in space is driven mainly by electrodynamic forces and thus the grain charge is important for processes like the coagulation or dust cloud formations. Among other charging currents, emission processes are very important for setting the dust charge. It is believed that emission processes are connected exclusively with surface properties of dust grains but it is not evident for the surfaces covered by a very thin layer of different material (e.g., oxidized metal). For this reason, we investigate surface effects experimentally. Our experiment is based on an 3D electrodynamic trap. We caught a single dust grain for several days inside the vacuum vessel and exposed it to the electron/ion beam and studied charging/discharging processes. We have chosen spherically shaped melamine formaldehyde resin grains of a diameter 2.35 μm either with a clean surface or covered with a thin nickel film. An advantage of these samples is that the properties of bulk and surface materials are completely different. The effect of a surface modification was studied for ion and electron field emissions. We determined field intensities needed for significant emission currents as well as effective work functions for charged dust grains of particular material.

  1. Dissipation of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves on Energetic Particles: Impact on Interstellar Turbulence and Cosmic Ray Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ptuskin, V.S.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Jones, F.C.; Strong, A.W.; Zirakashvili, V.N.; /Troitsk, IZMIRAN /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2006-01-17

    The physical processes involved in diffusion of Galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar medium are addressed. We study the possibility that the nonlinear MHD cascade sets the power-law spectrum of turbulence which scatters charged energetic particles. We find that the dissipation of waves due to the resonant interaction with cosmic ray particles may terminate the Kraichnan-type cascade below wavelengths 10{sup 13} cm. The effect of this wave dissipation has been incorporated in the GALPROP numerical propagation code in order to asses the impact on measurable astrophysical data. The energy-dependence of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient found in the resulting self-consistent model may explain the peaks in the secondary to primary nuclei ratios observed at about 1 GeV/nucleon.

  2. Impact and monitoring of dust storms in Taklimakan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G. G.; Li, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Taklimakan is China's largest, driest, and warmest desert in total area of 338000km^2 with perimeter of 436 km, it is also known as one of the world's largest shifting-sand deserts. Fully 85 percent of the total area consists of mobile, crescent-shaped sand dunes and are virtually devoid of vegetation. The abundant sand provides material for frequent intense dust storms. The Taklimakan desert fills the expansive Tarim Basin between the Kunlun Mountains and the Tibet Plateau to the south and the Tian Shan Mountains to the north. The Tarim River flows across the basin from west-to-east. In these places, the oases created by fresh surface water support agriculture. Studies outside Xinjiang indicated that 80% dust source of storms was from farmland. Dust storms in the Tarim Basin occur for 20 to 59 days, mainly in spring every year. However, little effort was taken to investigate soil wind erosion and dust emission around the desert. Quantitative understanding of individual dust events in the arid Taklimakan desert, for example, the dust emission rates and the long-range transport, are still incomplete. Therefore, the dust events were observed through routine satellite sensors, lidar instruments, airborne samplers, and surface-based aerosol monitors. Soil wind erosion and suspended particulates emission of four major dust storms from the desert and the typical oasis farmlands at the north rim of the desert were measured using creep sampler, BSNE and TSP at eight heights in 2012. In addition, Aqua satellite AOD data, the NAAPS Global Aeosol model, the CALIPSO satellite products, EPA's AirNow AQI of PM2.5 and HYSPLIT Back Trajectory model were applied to analyze dust transport across the Pacific. Four significant dust storms were observed at the north rim of Taklimakan desert in the spring, 2012. During those events, predominant wind direction ranged from 296 to 334°, wind speed over 7 m/s at 2 m lasted for 471-1074 min, gust wind speed ranged from 11-18m/s. It was

  3. Aeolian dust experiment on climate impact: An overview of Japan China joint project ADEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, M.; Shi, G. Y.; Uno, I.; Yabuki, S.; Iwasaka, Y.; Yasui, M.; Aoki, T.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Kurosaki, Y.; Masuda, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Matsuki, A.; Sakai, T.; Takemi, T.; Nakawo, M.; Seino, N.; Ishizuka, M.; Satake, S.; Fujita, K.; Hara, Y.; Kai, K.; Kanayama, S.; Hayashi, M.; Du, M.; Kanai, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Shen, Z.; Zhou, H.; Abe, O.; Nagai, T.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Chiba, M.; Suzuki, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate Impact (ADEC) was initiated in April 2000 as a joint five-year Japan-China project. The goal was to understand the impact of aeolian dust on climate via radiative forcing (RF). Field experiments and numerical simulations were conducted from the source regions in northwestern China to the downwind region in Japan in order to understand wind erosion processes temporal and spatial distribution of dust during their long-range transportation chemical, physical, and optical properties of dust and the direct effect of radiative forcing due to dust. For this, three intensive observation periods (IOP) were conducted from April 2002 to April 2004. The in situ and network observation results are summarized as follows: (1) In situ observations of the wind erosion process revealed that the vertical profile of moving sand has a clear size dependency with height and saltation flux and that threshold wind velocity is dependent on soil moisture. Results also demonstrated that saltation flux is strongly dependent on the parent soil size distribution of the desert surface. (2) Both lidar observations and model simulations revealed a multiple dust layer in East Asia. A numerical simulation of a chemical transport model, CFORS, illustrated the elevated dust layer from the Taklimakan Desert and the lower dust layer from the Gobi Desert. The global-scale dust model, MASINGAR, also simulated the dust layer in the middle to upper free troposphere in East Asia, which originated from North Africa and the Middle East during a dust storm in March 2003. Raman lidar observations at Tsukuba, Japan, found the ice cloud associated with the dust layer at an altitude of 6 to 9 km. Analysis from lidar and the radio-sonde observation suggested that the Asian dust acted as ice nuclei at the ice-saturated region. These results suggest the importance of dust's climate impact via the indirect effect of radiative forcing due to the activation of dust into ice nuclei

  4. Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: Impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. Dust plumes frequently cover huge areas of the earth; they are one of the most prominent and commonly visible features in satellite imagery. Dust is believed to play a role in many biogeochemical processes, but the importance of dust in these processes is not well understood because of the dearth of information about the global distribution of dust and its physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This paper describes some features of the large-scale distribution of dust and identifies some of the geological characteristics of important source areas. The transport of dust from North Africa is presented as an example of possible long-range dust effects, and the impact of African dust on environmental processes in the western North Atlantic and the southeastern United States is assessed. Dust transported over long distances usually has a mass median diameter <10 μm. Small wind-borne soil particles show signs of extensive weathering; consequently, the physical and chemical properties of the particles will greatly depend on the weathering history in the source region and on the subsequent modifications that occur during transit in the atmosphere (typically a period of a week or more). To fully understand the role of dust in the environment and in human health, mineralogists will have to work closely with scientists in other disciplines to characterize the properties of mineral particles as an ensemble and as individual particles especially with regard to surface characteristics. PMID:10097049

  5. Long-Range Transport of Mineral Dust in the Global Atmosphere: Impact of African Dust on the Environment of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    1999-03-01

    Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. Dust plumes frequently cover huge areas of the earth; they are one of the most prominent and commonly visible features in satellite imagery. Dust is believed to play a role in many biogeochemical processes, but the importance of dust in these processes is not well understood because of the dearth of information about the global distribution of dust and its physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This paper describes some features of the large-scale distribution of dust and identifies some of the geological characteristics of important source areas. The transport of dust from North Africa is presented as an example of possible long-range dust effects, and the impact of African dust on environmental processes in the western North Atlantic and the southeastern United States is assessed. Dust transported over long distances usually has a mass median diameter <10 μ m Small wind-borne soil particles show signs of extensive weathering; consequently, the physical and chemical properties of the particles will greatly depend on the weathering history in the source region and on the subsequent modifications that occur during transit in the atmosphere (typically a period of a week or more). To fully understand the role of dust in the environment and in human health, mineralogists will have to work closely with scientists in other disciplines to characterize the properties of mineral particles as an ensemble and as individual particles especially with regard to surface characteristics.

  6. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  7. Impact of surface properties on the dust grain charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlu, J.; Richterova, I.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.

    Dust grains are common in the space environment and being embosomed with plasma they become charged. It is well known that a motion of grains in the space is driven mainly by electrodynamic forces and thus the grain charge is of a significant importance for processes like the coagulation or dust cloud formations. Among others, emission processes are very important for setting of the dust charge. It is believed that emission processes are connected exclusively with surface properties of dust grains but it is not evident for the surfaces covered by a very thin layer of different material (e.g., oxidized metal). For this reason, we investigate surface effects experimentally. Our experiment is based on an electrodynamic trap. We can catch a single dust grain for several days inside the vacuum vessel and exposed it by the electron/ion beam and study charging/discharging processes. We have chosen spherically shaped melamine formaldehyde resin grains of a diameter 2.5 μm either with a clean surface or covered with a thin film from different metals. An advantage of these samples is that the properties of bulk and surface materials are completely different. The effect of surface modification was studied for several types of emissions, including secondary electron emission and field emissions.

  8. Dust plumes over the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans: Climatology and radiative impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aihua; Ramanathan, V.; Li, Fang; Kim, Dohyeong

    2007-08-01

    Multiple satellite data sets in conjunction with the Monte Carlo Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation (MACR) model are employed to determine climatological distributions and radiative impacts of dust plumes over the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. Three target regions, namely the Yellow Sea (YS), Arabian Sea (AS), and Saharan Coast (SC), are examined for quantitative comparisons of dust properties and their impacts on climate. Twenty year averaged Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data clearly show the peak dust season for the three target regions, March-April-May for YS and June-July-August for AS and SC. Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) modeled dust AOD fraction and Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) large-mode AOD ratio are adopted to evaluate the dust fraction estimate. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol extinction coefficient data are used to define the vertical distribution of dust. The elevated dust plumes are detected by subtracting the non-dust-season values from dust season values of SAGE II data, showing extinction peak around ˜4 km over AS and SC. Over YS, dust plumes are found presenting multilayered structure. The shortwave (SW) forcing of dust, although moderated by the longwave (LW) effect, dominates the net effects (SW + LW) of dust plumes. Under clear-sky (i.e., cloudless) conditions, dust plumes reduce about 5.9 W m-2, 17.8 W m-2, and 14.2 W m-2 regional and seasonal mean radiative flux reaching the surface over YS, AS, and SC, respectively. Of the three regions, dust plumes over AS have the largest effect on atmospheric heating owing to a lower single-scattering albedo and the relatively large dust loading. The maximum SW heating occurs over AS with the value around +0.5 K/day inside the dust layer at ˜4 km. The LW effect results in strong cooling throughout the dust layer and moderate heating below the

  9. Microparticle impact calibration of the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary space (ALADDIN) onboard the solar power sail demonstrator IKAROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Takayuki; Cole, Michael J.; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Iwai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Srama, Ralf; Yano, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    The Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary space (ALADDIN) is an array of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based dust detectors aboard the solar power sail demonstrator named IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun). The total sensor area of ALADDIN (0.54 m2) is the world's largest among the past PVDF-based dust detectors. IKAROS was launched in May 2010 and then ALADDIN measured cosmic dust impacts for 16 months while orbiting around between 0.7 and 1.1 AU. The main scientific objective of ALADDIN is to reveal number density of ≥10-μm-sized dust in the zodiacal cloud with much higher time-space resolution than that achieved by any past in-situ measurements. The distribution of ≥10-μm-sized dust can be also observed mainly with the light scattering by optical instruments. This paper gives the scientific objectives, the instrumental description, and the results of microparticle impact calibration of ALADDIN conducted in ground laboratories. For the calibration tests we used Van de Graaf accelerators (VdG), two-stage light gas guns (LGG), and a nano-second pulsed Nd:YAG laser (nsPL). Through these experiments, we obtained depolarization charge signal caused by hypervelocity impacts or laser irradiation using the flight spare of 20-μm-thick PVDF sensor and the electronics box of ALADDIN. In the VdG experiment we accelerated iron, carbon, and silver microparticles at 1-30 km/s, while in the LGG experiment we performed to shoot 100's-μm-sized particles of soda-lime glass and stainless steel at 3-7 km/s as single projectile. For interpolation to ≥10-μm size, we irradiated infrared laser at the energy of 15-20 mJ directly onto the PVDF sensor. From the signal analysis, we developed a calibration law for estimation of masses of impacted dust particles. The dynamic range of ALADDIN corresponds from 9×10-14 kg to 2×10-10 kg (4-56 μm in diameter at density of 2.0 g/cm3) at the expected impact velocity of 10 km/s at 1 AU

  10. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  11. Potential impacts of dust on precipitation in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, V.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    The SW United States has huge demands on water resources. Colorado River Basin (CRB) is potentially affected by aerosol pollution and dust acting as cloud-nucleating aerosol as well as impacting snowpack albedo. Dust can affect precipitation processes. Considering that the basis behind cloud seeding is to enhance precipitation by enhancing IN concentrations we anticipate that dust serving as IN will enhance precipitation in wintertime orographic clouds. Dust serving as GCCN should enhance precipitation, thus support the activity of IN. Dust functioning as CCN will work in opposition to its activity as GCCN and IN and suppress precipitation. We anticipate that this would be the case for wintertime orographic clouds as well. We intend to examine the combined effects of dust serving as IN, GCCN, and CCN on precipitation and on water resources in the CRB for the period of Oct to Apr from 2005-2008. Dust will be initialized from the GEOS-chem model for the shorter runs. For the entire seasonal runs for the four years the GEOS-chem would be nudged to obtain the dust fields. The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System version 6.0 is used for the simulation. The 32km North American Regional Reanalysis is used for model initialization. RAMS spec: (Grid1=36 km, 85×75 points, Grid 3=3 km; 146×150 points, 45 stretch levels, 75 m at surface to 800 m aloft, Two-moment bin-emulating microphysics, DeMott et al., 2010, heterogeneous ice nucleation). Preliminary results correspond to two 48-hour periods, (Apr 12 and Apr 29 2005) in the San Juan region in the Rocky Mountains. Dust serving as CCN acts to enhance ice particle riming along with dust acting as GCCN, and since dust enhances IN, total precipitation is enhanced in a dustier atmosphere.

  12. Lunar Dust Grain Charging by Electron Impact: Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Space Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F.

    2010-08-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 μm size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  13. Lunary Dust Grain Charging by Electron Impact: Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Crave, P. D.; LeClair, A.; Spann, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEES). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/ planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEES discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  14. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.

    2010-08-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 {mu}m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  15. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  16. Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2011-03-01

    The radiative forcing of dust and its impact on precipitation over the West Africa monsoon (WAM) region is simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem). During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to AOD over West Africa. In the standard simulation, on 24-hour domain average, dust has a cooling effect (-6.11 W/m2) at the surface, a warming effect (6.94 W/m2) in the atmosphere, and a relatively small TOA forcing (0.83 W/m2). Dust modifies the surface energy budget and atmospheric diabatic heating and hence causes lower atmospheric cooling in the daytime but warming in the nighttime. As a result, atmospheric stability is increased in the daytime and reduced in the nighttime, leading to a reduction of late afternoon precipitation by up to 0.14 mm/hour (30%) and an increase of nocturnal and early morning precipitation by up to 0.04 mm/hour (23%) over the WAM region. Dust-induced reduction of diurnal precipitation variation improves the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation when compared to measurements. However, daily precipitation is only changed by a relatively small amount (-0.14 mm/day or -4%). On the other hand, sensitivity simulations show that, for weaker-to-stronger absorbing dust, dust longwave warming effect in the nighttime surpasses its shortwave cooling effect in the daytime at the surface, leading to a less stable atmosphere associated with more convective precipitation in the nighttime. As a result, the dust-induced change of daily WAM precipitation varies from a significant reduction of -0.40 mm/day (-12%, weaker absorbing dust) to a small increase of 0.05 mm/day (1%, stronger absorbing dust). This variation originates from the competition between dust impact on daytime and nighttime precipitation, which depends on dust shortwave absorption. Dust reduces the diurnal variation of precipitation regardless of its absorptivity, but more reduction is associated with stronger absorbing dust.

  17. GIADA - Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator - Onboard Rosetta spacecraft: Extended calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, V.; Sordini, R.; Accolla, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Rotundi, A.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Fulle, M.; Mazzotta-Epifani, E.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Morales, R.; Cosi, M.

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long tradition of dust instruments flown on-board space mission, the largest number of these can be considered unique as they used different detection techniques. GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator), is one of the dust instruments on-board the Rosetta spacecraft and is devoted to measure the dust dynamical parameters in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It couples two different techniques to measure the mass and speed of individual dust particles. We report here the results of an extended calibration activity carried-out, during the hibernation phase of the Rosetta mission, on the GIADA Proto Flight Model (PFM) operative in a clean room in our laboratory. The main aims of an additional calibration campaign are: to verify the algorithms and procedures for data calibration developed before Rosetta launch; to improve the comprehension of GIADA response after the increased knowledge on cometary dust, e.g. the composition of dust particles after Stardust mission. These calibration improvements implied a final step, which consisted in defining transfer functions to correlate the new calibration curves obtained for the GIADA PFM to those to be used for GIADA onboard the Rosetta spacecraft. The extended calibration activity allowed us to analyze GIADA data acquired in the 67P/C-G coma permitting to infer additional information on cometary dust particles, e.g. density and tensile strength.

  18. Biogeochemical Impact of Long-Range Transported Dust over Northern South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, S. H.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport and impact of Asian dust aerosols have been well documented (e.g., results from ACE-Asia and regional follow-on campaigns), but little is known about dust invasion to the South China Sea (SCS). On 19-21 March 2010, a fierce Asian dust storm affected large areas from the Gobi deserts to the West Pacific, including Taiwan and Hong Kong. As a pilot study of the 7-SEAS (Seven South East Asian Studies) in the northern SCS, detailed characteristics of long-range transported dust aerosols were first observed by a comprehensive set of ground-based instruments deployed at the Dongsha islands (20deg42'52" N, 116deg43'51" E). Aerosol measurements such as particle mass concentrations, size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and vertical profiles help illustrate the evolution of this dust outbreak. Our results indicate that these dust particles were mixed with anthropogenic and marine aerosols, and transported near the surface. Satellite assessment of biogeochemical impact of dust deposition into open oceans is hindered by our current inability in retrieving areal dust properties and ocean colors over an extensive period of time, particularly under the influence of cloudy conditions. In this paper, we analyze the changes of retrieved Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration over the northern SCS, considered as oligotophic waters in the spring, from long-term SeaWiFS measurements since 1997. Over the past decade, six long-range transported dust events are identified based on spatiotemporal evolutions of PM10 measurements from regional monitoring stations, with the aid of trajectory analysis. Multi-year composites of Chl-a imagery for dust event and non-dust background during March-April are applied to overcome insufficient retrievals of Chl-a due to cloudy environment. Due to anthropogenic modification within a shallow boundary layer off the densely populated and industrial southeast coast of China, the iron ion activation of deliquescent dust

  19. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination II: Curating the Interstellar Dust Collector, Picokeystones, and Sources of Impact Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Gainsforth, Zack; Butterworth, Anna L.; Bastien, Ronald K.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the inherent difficulties that arise during "ground truth" characterization of the Stardust interstellar dust collector. The challenge of identifying contemporary interstellar dust impact tracks in aerogel is described within the context of background spacecraft secondaries and possible interplanetary dust particles and beta-meteoroids. In addition, the extraction of microscopic dust embedded in aerogel is technically challenging. Specifically, we provide a detailed description of the sample preparation techniques developed to address the unique goals and restrictions of the Interstellar Preliminary Exam. These sample preparation requirements and the scarcity of candidate interstellar impact tracks exacerbate the difficulties. We also illustrate the role of initial optical imaging with critically important examples, and summarize the overall processing of the collection to date.

  20. The Impact of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment During the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Hermalyn, B.; Sarantos, M.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system are anticipated to result in enhancements in the both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams expected to be incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission, and their anticipated effects on the lunar environment.

  1. Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Bergmann, D; Chuang, C; Bench, G; Cliff, S; Kelly, P; Perry, K; VanCuren, T

    2005-02-10

    It has been well documented that spectacular dust storms in Asia (e.g. the events in 1998 and 2001) can affect the USA through long-range transport of dust across the Pacific. However, our observations and modeling show that the majority of dust at sites in Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps (Northern California) in spring 2002 (a year with no spectacular Asian dust events) is still from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. We implemented the interactive dust emission algorithm of Ginoux et al. (2004) into the LLNL 3-D global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transport model (IMPACT), then ran the model using a separate tracer for each dust emission region, using hi-resolution (1 x 1 degree) meteorological data from the NASA GMAO GEOS-3 assimilation system for 2001 and 2002. We also experimentally analyzed size- and time-resolved aerosol samples at Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps in the spring of 2002, which were taken as part of NOAA's ITCT 2k2 measurement campaign. The model-predicted time-series of soil dust over Northern California agrees remarkably well with our measurements, with a strong temporal correlation between the observations and intercontinental transport of dust across the Pacific in the model. Hence, we conclude that the majority of dust we sampled in Northern California in spring 2002, with aerodynamic diameters of 0.56-5 microns, is from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. The strong correlations also strongly validate atmospheric transport in the IMPACT model over the Northern Pacific in spring.

  2. Natural variability versus human impact: Hydroclimate variability and the role of agriculture in changing dust emissions from Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Samuel; Kamber, Balz; McGowan, Hamish; Hooper, James; Zawadzki, Atun

    2016-04-01

    Broad-scale dust emissions play an important role in Earth systems, for example influencing oceanic productivity via phytoplankton fertilisation. Existing palaeo dust records show that dust emissions vary significantly in time, implying its impact is similarly variable. There remains, however, a paucity of records which quantify variability in dust emissions. This study presents continuous, Holocene-aged, records of dust emissions from Australia, an important global dust source. Records demonstrate that rates of dust export have varied by 8-30 times over the mid to late Holocene. This variability is largely attributed to hydroclimate variability and its associated feedbacks within dust source areas. Significantly, however, a major disruption of dust emission rates is recorded in the past 200 years when dust emissions increased by between 2-10 times rates of natural variability in dust export. This change is concomitant with the arrival of Europeans in Australia and is primarily attributed to the development of agriculture which resulted in unprecedented environmental change in Australia's arid interior. This result broadly accords with the few other existing empirical dust records which both pre-date and post-date the onset of agriculture in various arid and semi-arid regions. Collectively, these records imply the impact of dust in Earth systems has changed as a result of agricultural development.

  3. The Impact of African Dust on PM10 Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados and Miami have yielded a broad picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin. These measurements show that in summer the aerosol mass is often dominated by dust. At such times over 90% of the dust mass is comprised of particles less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter and thus fits the EPA criteria for PM10. A number of sites in the Caribbean monitor PM10 using the same instrumentation commonly deployed in European and United States networks. By comparing data from individual islands that have multiple monitoring sites (e.g., Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe), it is shown that during dust events PM10 concentrations track very closely and that local sources have a minor impact on PM10 above about 15 to 20 μg m-3. Moreover the PM10 measurements are coherent with the movement of dust clouds over the islands as observed by satellites. In this way dust movement can be tracked at PM10 sites along the Gulf and southeast coasts of the United States. To assess the specific impact of African dust on PM10 in the region, I compare the daily records of dust measurements at Miami and Barbados with concurrent measurements made at proximate PM10 sites. I then use these relationships and the long term dust measurements at Barbados and Miami to assess the long-term variability of PM10 across the region. At Barbados the record goes back 50 years and provides a basis of assessing the effects of climate variability on PM10 transport. This study shows that there is great variability on scales ranging from daily to decadal. The impact of the droughts in the 1970s and 1980s was particularly significant. Across the Caribbean, the rates of exceedances of the WHO PM10 guideline is comparable to those observed in many major urban areas in Europe and the US. The dominance of dust in large PM10 events and the absence of major pollution sources on many islands offers the opportunity to study the health impacts of desert dust in

  4. Ancient micronauts: interplanetary transport of microbes by cosmic impacts.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L

    2009-06-01

    Recent developments in microbiology, geophysics and planetary sciences raise the possibility that the planets in our solar system might not be biologically isolated. Hence, the possibility of lithopanspermia (the interplanetary transport of microbial passengers inside rocks) is presently being re-evaluated, with implications for the origin and evolution of life on Earth and within our solar system. Here, I summarize our current understanding of the physics of impacts, space transport of meteorites, and the potentiality of microorganisms to undergo and survive interplanetary transfer. PMID:19464895

  5. Capture of Cometary Dust Grains in Impacts at 6.1 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N.; Kearsley, A.; Wozniakiewicz, P.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 collected grains of cometary dust freshly ejected from the comet during a fly-by at a speed of 6.1 km s-1. These were captured on aluminum foils and in blocks of silica aerogel. The dust underwent a severe shock during capture. The nature of the shock process depends on the properties of the dust and the collecting media. On the aluminium, the shock process and impact damage is typical of that between high-density (or hard materials) at high velocity, resulting in craters lined with impactor residues. The peak shock pressures are estimated at 60-80 GPa. Two main crater types are seen, simple bowl shaped and multiple pit craters: these reflect the degree of consolidation of the original dust grain. Capture in the low density aerogel was via a more gradual slowing of the dust grains accompanied by a variety of effects on the grains (complete break up of weak grains vs. ablation of well consolidated grains). The relation between the structure of the dust grains and the resulting impact features in both collector materials is discussed.

  6. The use of EAF dust in cement composites: assessment of environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Tina; Milacic, Radmila; Murko, Simona; Vahcic, Mitja; Mladenovic, Ana; Suput, Jerneja Strupi; Scancar, Janez

    2009-07-15

    Electric arc filter dust (EAF dust) is a waste by-product which occurs in the production of steel. Instead of being disposed of, it can be used in cement composites for civil engineering, and for balances in washing machines. To estimate the environmental impact of the use of EAF dust in cement composites leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground cement composites, and cement composites with addition of 1.5% of EAF dust by mass were studied. The concentrations of total Cr and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 175 days. At the end of the experiment the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in leachates. The results indicated that Cr in leachates was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. No leaching of Cr(VI) was observed in aqueous leachates from compact cement composites and compact cement composites to which different quantities of EAF dust have been added. In ground cement composites and in ground cement composites with addition of EAF dust, Cr(VI) was leached with water in very low concentrations up to 5 microg L(-1). Cr(VI) concentrations were higher in salt water leachates. In compact and ground cement composites with addition of EAF dust Cr(VI) concentrations were 40 and 100 microg L(-1), respectively. It was experimentally found that addition of EAF dust had almost no influence on leaching of Cr(VI) from cement composites. Leaching of Cr(VI) originated primarily from cement. Leaching of other metals from composites investigated did not represent an environmental burden. From the physico-mechanical and environmental aspects EAF dust can be used as a component in cement mixtures.

  7. The composition and plasma signature of a large dust impact on the Giotto spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Goldstein, B.E. ); Balsiger, H. ); Coates, A.J. ); Curdt, W.; Keller, H.U. ); Neubauer, F.M. ); Perry, C. Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton ); Zarnecki, J. )

    1991-08-01

    At about 14,800 km from the comet Halley nucleus, on the inbound leg, at least six of the sensors onboard the Giotto spacecraft observed an unusual, brief ({approximately}3 to 500 ms) event: The ion mass spectrometer data show a brief flow of energetic (up to several hundred electron volts) plasma consisting of protons, water group, and heavier ions. The Johnstone plasma analyzer data show a short burst of plasma, while the dust impact detector system data show an impact event in four of its detectors The magnetometer signature of the event shows two brief dips in the field. The sudden change in the spacecraft attitude and spin rate observed by the camera at that same time has been interpreted as the result of a large ({ge} 5 mg) dust particle impact on the front bumper shield of the spacecraft. In addition, at about the same time the spacecraft star-tracker suffered damage. Here the authors give the first report combining direct measurements of the composition and dynamics of a dust impact plasma cloud, the dust particle mass and the location of the impact on the spacecraft. Analysis of the data indicate that the impacting particle was water or ice-bearing, possibly loosely compacted, and was composed of one or more of: carbon, nitrogen, and silicon.

  8. The composition and plasma signature of a large dust impact on the Giotto spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balsiger, H.; Coates, A. J.; Curdt, W.

    1991-01-01

    At about 14,800 km from the Comet Halley nucleus, on the inbound leg, at least six of the sensors onboard the Giotto spacecraft observed an unusual, brief (about 30 to 500 ms) event: the ion-mass spectrometer data show a brief flow of energetic (up to several hundred electron volts) plasma consisting of protons, water group, and heavier ions. The Johnstone plasma analyzer data show a short burst of plasma, while the dust impact detector system data show an impact event in four of its detectors. The magnetometer signature of the event shows two brief dips in the field. The sudden change in the spacecraft attitude and spin rate observed by the camera at that same time has been interpreted as the result of a large (5 mg or more) dust-particle impact on the front bumper shield of the spacecraft. In addition, at about the same time the spacecraft star-tracker suffered damage. The report combines direct measurements of the composition and dynamics of a dust-impact plasma cloud, the dust particle mass, and the location of the impact on the spacecraft. Analysis of the data indicate that the impacting particle was water or ice-bearing, possibly loosely compared, and was composed of one or more of: carbon, nitrogen, and silicon.

  9. Cassini RPWS Measurement of Dust Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kempf, S.; Hsu, S.; Sakai, S.; Morooka, M.; Wahlund, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument can detect dust impacts when voltage pulses induced by the impact charges are observed in the wideband receiver. The size of the voltage pulse is proportional to the mass of the impacting dust particle. Based on the data collected during the E-ring crossings and Enceladus flybys, we show that the size distribution of the dust particles can be characterized as dn/dr ∝ rμ, where μ~-4. We compare the density of dust particles above a certain size threshold calculated from the impact rate with the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) High Rate Detector (HRD) data. When the monopole antenna is connected to the wideband receiver, the polarity of the dust impact signal is determined by the spacecraft potential and the location of the impact (on the spacecraft body or the antenna). Because the effective area of the antenna is relatively easy to estimate, we use the polarity ratio of the dust impacts to infer the effective area of the spacecraft body. RPWS onboard dust detection data is analyzed, from which we infer the sign of the spacecraft potential and the dust density within Saturn's magnetosphere. A new phenomenon called dust ringing has been found to reveal the electron density inside the Enceladus plume. The ringing frequencies, interpreted as the local plasma frequencies, are consistent with the values measured by other methods, i.e., Langmuir probe and upper hybrid resonance.

  10. Defending Cultural Assets Against a Cosmic Impact Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, James; Camacho, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid or comet impacts on Earth have the potential to destroy humanity's cultural heritage, ranging from local regions to total obliteration. Fortunately we now have means to cope with this hazard -- if and only if we devote resources to finding, intercepting and deflecting threatening objects. Early preparations have already begun. Under auspices of the UN's Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) an International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and a Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG) have been set up. Upon validation of a threat by IAWN and SMPAG, agencies with capacity, funding and authority to launch intercept missions are to act. A model for this is the existing arrangement for organizing and dispatching UN peacekeeping forces. In this paper we describe current technical options and needed policy and legal developments to enable the world to divert threats and, if that fails or is impossible, to save lives through evacuation and civil defense. In parallel with those efforts, we advocate the creation of safe archives as backup for lost cultural treasures.

  11. Impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanski, R.; Sivakumar, M. V. K.

    2009-03-01

    This paper will give an overview of the various impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and then address the potential applications of a Sand and Dust Storm Warning System (SDSWS) for agricultural users. Sand and dust storms have many negative impacts on the agricultural sector including: reducing crop yields by burial of seedlings under sand deposits, the loss of plant tissue and reduced photosynthetic activity as a result of sandblasting, delaying plant development, increasing end-of-season drought risk, causing injury and reduced productivity of livestock, increasing soil erosion and accelerating the process of land degradation and desertification, filling up irrigation canals with sediments, covering transportation routes, affecting water quality of rivers and streams, and affecting air quality. One positive impact is the fertilization of soil minerals to terrestrial ecosystems. There are several potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS. The first is to alert agricultural communities farmers to take preventive action in the near-term such as harvesting maturing crops (vegetables, grain), sheltering livestock, and strengthening infrastructure (houses, roads, grain storage) for the storm. Also, the products of a SDSWS could be used in for monitoring potential locust movement and post-storm crop damage assessments. An archive of SDSWS products (movement, amount of sand and dust) could be used in researching plant and animal pathogen movement and the relationship of sand and dust storms to disease outbreaks and in developing improved soil erosion and land degradation models.

  12. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Natalie; Kloster, Silvia; Engelstaedter, S.; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Mukhopadhyay, S.; McConnell, J. R.; Albani, S.; Doney, Scott C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Curran, M. A. J.; Flanner, Mark G.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Mayewski, P. A.; Neff, Jason; Rothenberg, D.; Thomas, E.; Thornton, Peter E; Zender, Charlie S.

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  13. Impacts of long range transported dust and biological particles on clouds and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.; Creamean, J.; Suski, K. J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Fitzgerald, E.; DeMott, P. J.; Cazorla, A.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols play a profound role in impacting cloud properties and precipitation processes. Some studies suggest air pollution aerosols suppress orographic precipitation, whereas other studies show a precipitation enhancement during periods with long range dust transport. To gain a more complete understanding of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions, we have performed two field studies, CalWater and ICE-T, probing clouds over California and the Caribbean. Ground and aircraft measurements were used to characterize the sources of aerosols seeding clouds and the resulting impact on cloud microphysics. This presentation will focus on how dust and biological aerosols transported from the Sahara, Middle East, and Asia appeared in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated ice nuclei (IN) concentrations. Our results suggest that dust and biological IN are persistent components of the upper atmosphere and thus could be playing important roles in affecting orographic precipitation processes over many regions of the world.

  14. Mineral Dust Impact on Short- and Long-Wave Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-wave spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-wave radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative impact. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.

  15. Direct climate effect of black carbon in China and its impact on dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Chen, Wen; Liao, Hong

    2010-04-01

    Dust storms originating in the Gobi desert and the surrounding areas critically impact weather, climate, and public health in China and neighboring Pacific Rim countries. In the decades between 1954 and 2007, reports of annual dust storm occurrences and the corresponding amount of total precipitation at 753 Chinese meteorological sites show a reduction in the occurrence and intensity of dust storms and clearly demonstrate an inverse relationship between the two. The correlation between dust storm occurrence and temperature in northwestern China also displays a negative trend but is less significant. Using a global climate model, we demonstrate that increased loading of light-absorbing aerosols in China, particularly black carbon (BC), is the primary reason for precipitation and temperature increases over northwestern China, and the consequence of reductions in dust storm frequency and intensity. The model-simulated precipitation and temperature changes over northwestern China compare reasonably well with observed trends when a certain portion of BC has been added to the model, which significantly affects regional climate patterns through the heating of the air column. In addition to a reduction in dust storm intensity/frequency in response to an increase in BC, the model has also reproduced the substantial variability in precipitation which has been observed in other regions of China.

  16. Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ming

    2012-09-26

    Dust aerosols have been regarded as effective ice nuclei (IN), but large uncertainties regarding their efficiencies remain. Here, four years of collocated CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements are used to quantify the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds (MSSCs) over the ‘dust belt’. The results show that the dusty MSSCs have an up to 20% higher mixed-phase cloud occurrence, up to 8 dBZ higher mean maximum Ze (Ze_max), and up to 11.5 g/m2 higher ice water path (IWP) than similar MSSCs under background aerosol conditions. Assuming similar ice growth and fallout history in similar MSSCs, the significant differences in Ze_max between dusty and non-dusty MSSCs reflect ice particle number concentration differences. Therefore, observed Ze_max differences indicate that dust could enhance ice particle concentration in MSSCs by a factor of 2 to 6 at temperatures colder than -12°C. The enhancements are strongly dependent on the cloud top temperature, large dust particle concentration and chemical compositions. Finally, these results imply an important role of dust particles in modifying mixed-phase cloud properties globally.

  17. Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM) measurements at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Albin, Thomas; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Flandes, Alberto; Hirn, Attila; Kobayashi, Masanori; Loose, Alexander; Péter, Attila; Podolak, Morris

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae carries the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME). DIM employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by submillimeter- and millimeter-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma. Aims: The DIM sensor measures dynamical data such as flux and the directionality of the impacting particles. Mass and speed of the particles can be constrained assuming density and elastic particle properties. Methods: DIM was operated during three mission phases of Philae at the comet: (1) before the separation of Philae from Rosetta at distances of about 9.6 km, 11.8 km, and 25.3 km from the nucleus barycenter. In this mission phase particles released from the nucleus on radial trajectories remained undetectable because of significant obscuration by the structures of Rosetta, and no dust particles were indeed detected; (2) during Philae's descent to its nominal landing site Agilkia, DIM detected one approximately millimeter-sized particle at a distance of 5.0 km from the nucleus' barycenter, corresponding to an altitude of 2.4 km from the surface. This is the closest ever dust detection at a cometary nucleus by a dedicated in situ dust detector; and (3) at Philae's final landing site, Abydos, DIM detected no dust impact which may be due to low cometary activity in the vicinity of Philae or due to shading by obstacles close to Philae, or both. Results: Laboratory calibration experiments showed that the material properties of the detected particle are compatible with a porous particle having a bulk density of approximately 250 kg m-3. The particle could have been lifted off the comet's surface by sublimating water ice.

  18. Simulating black carbon and dust in snow and their climatic impact over Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Hu, Z.; Huang, J.; Qian, Y.; Leung, L. R.; Huang, M.; Jin, J.; Flanner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Current models still have large uncertainties in estimating the impacts of light absorbing aerosols on climate. Light absorbing aerosols can affect climate through radiative effects in both atmosphere and snowpack (hereafter atmospheric-effect and snow-effect, respectively). Both effects, to some extent, have been investigated in previous studies, but few have compared the two effects and their interaction with climate. In addition, most previous studies used models with relatively coarse spatial resolutions (1~2 degrees) that may not be able to resolve climate extremes and mountain snowpack. In this study, a state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes a sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes for climate study. The coupled model is configured at a relatively high spatial resolution (0.25 degree) to simulate black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations in snow and their climatic impact over Eurasia for 2006-2010. The simulations are evaluated with various observations including some extensive field measurements over North China. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively) are consistent with observations to within the uncertainty ranges of observations. BCS and DSTS introduce similar radiative warming in the snowpack, which is comparable to the magnitude of surface radiative cooling due to BC and dust in the atmosphere. The impact of BC and dust in the snowpack and in the atmosphere on the variability of regional hydrological cycle and temperature is characterized separately by sequentially "disconnecting" specific BC and dust forcing in the atmosphere and in the snowpack. This study represents an effort in using a regional modeling framework with a relatively high resolution to simulate BC and dust in snowpack and their climatic impact.

  19. Impact of the Desert Dust on the Summer Monsoon System over Southwestern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-04-24

    The radiative forcing of dust emitted from the Southwest United States (US) deserts and its impact on monsoon circulation and precipitation over the North America monsoon (NAM) region are simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem) for 15 years (1995-2009). During the monsoon season, dust has a cooling effect (-0.90 W m{sup -2}) at the surface, a warming effect (0.40 W m{sup -2}) in the atmosphere, and a negative top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) forcing (-0.50 W m{sup -2}) over the deserts on 24-h average. Most of the dust emitted from the deserts concentrates below 800 hPa and accumulates over the western slope of the Rocky Mountains and Mexican Plateau. The absorption of shortwave radiation by dust heats the lower atmosphere by up to 0.5 K day{sup -1} over the western slope of the Mountains. Model sensitivity simulations with and without dust for 15 summers (June-July-August) show that dust heating of the lower atmosphere over the deserts strengthens the low-level southerly moisture fluxes on both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It also results in an eastward migration of NAM-driven moisture convergence over the western slope of the Mountains. These monsoonal circulation changes lead to a statistically significant increase of precipitation by up to {approx}40% over the eastern slope of the Mountains (Arizona-New Mexico-Texas regions). This study highlights the interaction between dust and the NAM system and motivates further investigation of possible dust feedback on monsoon precipitation under climate change and the megadrought conditions projected for the future.

  20. The impact of a realistic vertical dust distribution on the simulation of the Martian General Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.; Newman, Claire E.; Talaat, Elsayed R.; Waugh, Darryn W.; McConnochie, Timothy H.

    2013-05-01

    Limb-scanning observations with the Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have identified discrete layers of enhanced dust opacity well above the boundary layer and a mean vertical structure of dust opacity very different from the expectation of well-mixed dust in the lowest 1-2 scale heights. To assess the impact of this vertical dust opacity profile on atmospheric properties, we developed a TES limb-scan observation-based three-dimensional and time-evolving dust climatology for use in forcing general circulation models (GCMs). We use this to force the MarsWRF GCM and compare with simulations that use a well-mixed (Conrath-ν) vertical dust profile and Mars Climate Database version 4 (MCD) horizontal distribution dust opacity forcing function. We find that simulated temperatures using the TES-derived forcing yield a 1.18 standard deviation closer match to TES temperature retrievals than a MarsWRF simulation using MCD forcing. The climatological forcing yields significant changes to many large-scale features of the simulated atmosphere. Notably the high-latitude westerly jet speeds are 10-20 m/s higher, polar warming collar temperatures are 20-30 K warmer near northern winter solstice and tilted more strongly poleward, the middle and lower atmospheric meridional circulations are partially decoupled, the migrating diurnal tide exhibits destructive interference and is weakened by 50% outside of equinox, and the southern hemisphere wave number 1 stationary wave is strengthened by up to 4 K (45%). We find the vertical dust distribution is an important factor for Martian lower and middle atmospheric thermal structure and circulation that cannot be neglected in analysis and simulation of the Martian atmosphere.

  1. Dust Telescopes and Active Dust Collectors: Linking Dust to Their Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, K. J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.; Postberg, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cosmic dust particles from remote sites and times are treasures of information. By determining the dust particles' source and their elemental properties, we can learn about the environments, where they were formed and processed. Born as stardust in the cool atmospheres of giant stars or in novae and supernovae explosions, the particles are subsequently modified in the interstellar medium. Interplanetary dust that originates from comets and asteroids represents even more processed material at different stages of Solar System evolution. Interstellar and interplanetary dust particles from various sources can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. The newly developed instruments Dust Telescope and Active Dust Collector are able to determine the origin of dust particles and provide their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) [1] together with an analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 µm in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 [2]. The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential to

  2. The Impact of Desert Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Global and West African Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Dezfuli, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Desert dust aerosols exert a radiative forcing on the atmosphere, influencing atmospheric temperature structure and modifying radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface. As dust aerosols perturb radiative fluxes, the atmosphere responds by altering both energy and moisture dynamics, with potentially significant impacts on regional and global precipitation. Global Climate Model (GCM) experiments designed to characterize these processes have yielded a wide range of results, owing to both the complex nature of the system and diverse differences across models. Most model results show a general decrease in global precipitation, but regional results vary. Here, we compare simulations from GFDL's CM2Mc GCM with multiple other model experiments from the literature in order to investigate mechanisms of radiative impact and reasons for GCM differences on a global and regional scale. We focus on West Africa, a region of high interannual rainfall variability that is a source of dust and that neighbors major Sahara Desert dust sources. As such, changes in West African climate due to radiative forcing of desert dust aerosol have serious implications for desertification feedbacks. Our CM2Mc results show net cooling of the planet at TOA and surface, net warming of the atmosphere, and significant increases in precipitation over West Africa during the summer rainy season. These results differ from some previous GCM studies, prompting comparative analysis of desert dust parameters across models. This presentation will offer quantitative analysis of differences in dust aerosol parameters, aerosol optical properties, and overall particle burden across GCMs, and will characterize the contribution of model differences to the uncertainty of forcing and climate response affecting West Africa.

  3. Cosmic voids in coupled dark energy cosmologies: the impact of halo bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollina, Giorgia; Baldi, Marco; Marulli, Federico; Moscardini, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the properties of cosmic voids in standard and coupled dark energy cosmologies. Using large numerical simulations, we investigate the effects produced by the dark energy coupling on three statistics: the filling factor, the size distribution and the stacked profiles of cosmic voids. We find that the bias of the tracers of the density field used to identify the voids strongly influences the properties of the void catalogues, and, consequently, the possibility of using the identified voids as a probe to distinguish coupled dark energy models from the standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology. In fact, on one hand coupled dark energy models are characterized by an excess of large voids in the cold dark matter distribution as compared to the reference standard cosmology, due to their higher normalization of linear perturbations at low redshifts. Specifically, these models present an excess of large voids with Reff > 20, 15, 12h-1 Mpc , at z = 0, 0.55, 1, respectively. On the other hand, we do not find any significant difference in the properties of the voids detected in the distribution of collapsed dark matter haloes. These results imply that the tracer bias has a significant impact on the possibility of using cosmic void catalogues to probe cosmology.

  4. Impact of cement dust pollution on Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae): A potential bioindicator species.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Considering the impacts caused to vegetation in the vicinity of cement factories, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of cement dust on the structural organization and physiological/biochemical traits of Cedrela fissilis leaflets, a woody species native to tropical America. Plants were exposed to 2.5 or 5 mg cm-2 cement dust applied to the leaf surface, to the soil or simultaneously to the leaf surface and the soil.. Leaves of shoot-treated plants exhibited chlorosis, marginal and inter veins necrosis, diminished thickness, epidermal cells less turgid, cellular collapse, obstructed stomata, senescence, rolling and some abscission. In few cases, individual death was recorded. Cement dust-treated plants also presented decreased amount of photosynthetic pigments and iron (Fe) and increase in calcium (Ca) levels. The cement crust formed in leaves surface blocked from 30 to 50% of the incoming light and reduced the stomatal conductance and the potential quantum yield of photosystem II. Control or soil-treated plants did not exhibit morphophysiological changes throughout the experiment. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase increased in leaves of plants upon treatment with 2.5 mg cm(-2) cement dust, independent of the site application. Overall, these results indicate that C. fissilis is highly sensitive to cement dust at the initial stage of development.

  5. Modeling analysis of secondary inorganic aerosols over China: pollution characteristics, and meteorological and dust impacts

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao; Wang, Shuxiao; Chang, Xing; Cai, Siyi; Xing, Jia; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) are the predominant components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and have significant impacts on air quality, human health, and climate change. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) was modified to incorporate SO2 heterogeneous reactions on the surface of dust particles. The revised model was then used to simulate the spatiotemporal characteristics of SIA over China and analyze the impacts of meteorological factors and dust on SIA formation. Including the effects of dust improved model performance for the simulation of SIA concentrations, particularly for sulfate. The simulated annual SIA concentration in China was approximately 10.1 μg/m3 on domain average, with strong seasonal variation: highest in winter and lowest in summer. High SIA concentrations were concentrated in developed regions with high precursor emissions, such as the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta, Sichuan Basin, and Pearl River Delta. Strong correlations between meteorological factors and SIA pollution levels suggested that heterogeneous reactions under high humidity played an important role on SIA formation, particularly during severe haze pollution periods. Acting as surfaces for heterogeneous reactions, dust particles significantly affected sulfate formation, suggesting the importance of reducing dust emissions for controlling SIA and PM2.5 pollution. PMID:27782166

  6. Impact of cement dust pollution on Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae): A potential bioindicator species.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Considering the impacts caused to vegetation in the vicinity of cement factories, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of cement dust on the structural organization and physiological/biochemical traits of Cedrela fissilis leaflets, a woody species native to tropical America. Plants were exposed to 2.5 or 5 mg cm-2 cement dust applied to the leaf surface, to the soil or simultaneously to the leaf surface and the soil.. Leaves of shoot-treated plants exhibited chlorosis, marginal and inter veins necrosis, diminished thickness, epidermal cells less turgid, cellular collapse, obstructed stomata, senescence, rolling and some abscission. In few cases, individual death was recorded. Cement dust-treated plants also presented decreased amount of photosynthetic pigments and iron (Fe) and increase in calcium (Ca) levels. The cement crust formed in leaves surface blocked from 30 to 50% of the incoming light and reduced the stomatal conductance and the potential quantum yield of photosystem II. Control or soil-treated plants did not exhibit morphophysiological changes throughout the experiment. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase increased in leaves of plants upon treatment with 2.5 mg cm(-2) cement dust, independent of the site application. Overall, these results indicate that C. fissilis is highly sensitive to cement dust at the initial stage of development. PMID:27243585

  7. Assessments for the impact of mineral dust on the meningitis incidence in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiny, Nadège; Chiapello, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Recently, mineral dust has been suspected to be one of the important environmental risk factor for meningitis epidemics in West Africa. The current study is one of the first which relies on long-term robust aerosol measurements in the Sahel region to investigate the possible impact of mineral dust on meningitis cases (incidence). Sunphotometer measurements, which allow to derive aerosol and humidity parameters, i.e., aerosol optical thickness, Angström coefficient, and precipitable water, are combined with quantitative epidemiological data in Niger and Mali over the 2004-2009 AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program period. We analyse how the extremely high aerosol loads in this region may influence both the calendar (onset, peaks, end) and the intensity of meningitis. We highlight three distinct periods: (i) from November to December, beginning of the dry season, humidity is weak, there is no dust and no meningitis cases; (ii) from January to April, humidity is still weak, but high dust loads occur in the atmosphere and this is the meningitis season; (iii) from May to October, humidity is high and there is no meningitis anymore, in presence of dust or not, which flow anyway in higher altitudes. More specifically, the onset of the meningitis season is tightly related to mineral dust flowing close to the surface at the very beginning of the year. During the dry, and the most dusty season period, from February to April, each meningitis peak is preceded by a dust peak, with a 0-2 week lead-time. The importance (duration, intensity) of these meningitis peaks seems to be related to that of dust, suggesting that a cumulative effect in dust events may be important for the meningitis incidence. This is not the case for humidity, confirming the special contribution of dust at this period of the year. The end of the meningitis season, in May, coincides with a change in humidity conditions related to the West African Monsoon. These results, which are

  8. Tracking eolian dust with helium and thorium: Impacts of grain size and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, David; Winckler, Gisela; Borunda, Alejandra; Serno, Sascha; Anderson, Robert F.; Recasens, Cristina; Bory, Aloys; Gaiero, Diego; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kaplan, Michael; McManus, Jerry F.; Revel, Marie; Sun, Youbin

    2016-02-01

    Reconstructions of the deposition rate of windblown mineral dust in ocean sediments offer an important means of tracking past climate changes and of assessing the radiative and biogeochemical impacts of dust in past climates. Dust flux estimates in ocean sediments have commonly been based on the operationally defined lithogenic fraction of sediment samples. More recently, dust fluxes have been estimated from measurements of helium and thorium, as rare isotopes of these elements (He-3 and Th-230) allow estimates of sediment flux, and the dominant isotopes (He-4 and Th-232) are uniquely associated with the lithogenic fraction of marine sediments. In order to improve the fidelity of dust flux reconstructions based on He and Th, we present a survey of He and Th concentrations in sediments from dust source areas in East Asia, Australia and South America. Our data show systematic relationships between He and Th concentrations and grain size, with He concentrations decreasing and Th concentrations increasing with decreasing grain size. We find consistent He and Th concentrations in the fine fraction (<5 μm) of samples from East Asia, Australia and Central South America (Puna-Central West Argentina), with Th concentrations averaging 14 μg/g and He concentrations averaging 2 μcc STP/g. We recommend use of these values for estimating dust fluxes in sediments where dust is dominantly fine-grained, and suggest that previous studies may have systematically overestimated Th-based dust fluxes by 30%. Source areas in Patagonia appear to have lower He and Th contents than other regions, as fine fraction concentrations average 0.8 μcc STP/g and 9 μg/g for 4He and 232Th, respectively. The impact of grain size on lithogenic He and Th concentrations should be taken into account in sediments proximal to dust sources where dust grain size may vary considerably. Our data also have important implications for the hosts of He in long-traveled dust and for the 3He/4He ratio used for

  9. Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunch, Ted E.; Hermes, Robert E.; Moore, Andrew M.T.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Weaver, James C.; Wittke, James H.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Bischoff, James L.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Howard, George A.; Kimbel, David R.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Lipo, Carl P.; Sakai, Sachiko; Revay, Zsolt; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B.; Kennett, James P.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that fragments of an asteroid or comet impacted Earth, deposited silica-and iron-rich microspherules and other proxies across several continents, and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling episode 12,900 years ago. Although many independent groups have confirmed the impact evidence, the hypothesis remains controversial because some groups have failed to do so. We examined sediment sequences from 18 dated Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) sites across three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia), spanning 12,000 km around nearly one-third of the planet. All sites display abundant microspherules in the YDB with none or few above and below. In addition, three sites (Abu Hureyra, Syria; Melrose, Pennsylvania; and Blackville, South Carolina) display vesicular, high-temperature, siliceous scoria-like objects, or SLOs, that match the spherules geochemically. We compared YDB objects with melt products from a known cosmic impact (Meteor Crater, Arizona) and from the 1945 Trinity nuclear airburst in Socorro, New Mexico, and found that all of these high-energy events produced material that is geochemically and morphologically comparable, including: (i) high-temperature, rapidly quenched microspherules and SLOs; (ii) corundum, mullite, and suessite (Fe3,/sup>Si), a rare meteoritic mineral that forms under high temperatures; (iii) melted SiO2 glass, or lechatelierite, with flow textures (or schlieren) that form at > 2,200 °C; and (iv) particles with features indicative of high-energy interparticle collisions. These results are inconsistent with anthropogenic, volcanic, authigenic, and cosmic materials, yet consistent with cosmic ejecta, supporting the hypothesis of extraterrestrial airbursts/impacts 12,900 years ago. The wide geographic distribution of SLOs is consistent with multiple impactors.

  10. Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Ted E; Hermes, Robert E; Moore, Andrew M T; Kennett, Douglas J; Weaver, James C; Wittke, James H; DeCarli, Paul S; Bischoff, James L; Hillman, Gordon C; Howard, George A; Kimbel, David R; Kletetschka, Gunther; Lipo, Carl P; Sakai, Sachiko; Revay, Zsolt; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B; Kennett, James P

    2012-07-10

    It has been proposed that fragments of an asteroid or comet impacted Earth, deposited silica- and iron-rich microspherules and other proxies across several continents, and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling episode 12,900 years ago. Although many independent groups have confirmed the impact evidence, the hypothesis remains controversial because some groups have failed to do so. We examined sediment sequences from 18 dated Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) sites across three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia), spanning 12,000 km around nearly one-third of the planet. All sites display abundant microspherules in the YDB with none or few above and below. In addition, three sites (Abu Hureyra, Syria; Melrose, Pennsylvania; and Blackville, South Carolina) display vesicular, high-temperature, siliceous scoria-like objects, or SLOs, that match the spherules geochemically. We compared YDB objects with melt products from a known cosmic impact (Meteor Crater, Arizona) and from the 1945 Trinity nuclear airburst in Socorro, New Mexico, and found that all of these high-energy events produced material that is geochemically and morphologically comparable, including: (i) high-temperature, rapidly quenched microspherules and SLOs; (ii) corundum, mullite, and suessite (Fe(3)Si), a rare meteoritic mineral that forms under high temperatures; (iii) melted SiO(2) glass, or lechatelierite, with flow textures (or schlieren) that form at > 2,200 °C; and (iv) particles with features indicative of high-energy interparticle collisions. These results are inconsistent with anthropogenic, volcanic, authigenic, and cosmic materials, yet consistent with cosmic ejecta, supporting the hypothesis of extraterrestrial airbursts/impacts 12,900 years ago. The wide geographic distribution of SLOs is consistent with multiple impactors.

  11. Curation of Microscopic Astromaterials by NASA: "Gathering Dust Since 1981"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. R.; Bastien, R. K.; Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the philosophy that "Small is Beautiful", NASA has been collecting and curating microscopic astromaterials since 1981. These active collections now include interplanetary dust collected in Earth's stratosphere by U-2, ER-2 and WB-57F aircraft (the Cosmic Dust Program - our motto is "Gathering dust since 1981"), comet Wild-2 coma dust (the Stardust Mission), modern interstellar dust (also the Stardust Mission), asteroid Itokawa regolith dust (the Hayabusa Mission - joint curation with JAXA-ISAS), and interplanetary dust impact features on recovered portions of the following spacecraft: Skylab, the Solar Maximum Satellite, the Palapa Satellite, the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), the MIR Space Station, the International Space Station, and the Hubble Space Telescope (all in the Space Exposed Hardware Laboratory).

  12. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features from very small particles (less than 3 microns in diameter) on several of the electro-active dust sensors used in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microscope. The same analytical techniques were applied to impact and containment features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on tray B12. Very little unambiguously identifiable impactor debris was found in the central craters or shatter zones of small impacts in this crystalline surface. The surface contamination, ubiquitous on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility, has greatly complicated data collection and interpretation from microparticle impacts on all surfaces.

  13. What is the impact of Harmattan surges on desert dust emission in North Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Stephanie; Kaplan, Michael L.; Knippertz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Desert dust aerosols have important implications in the Earth system, but their emission amount has a large model uncertainty. Improving the most important meteorological processes for dust-emitting winds helps to reduce this uncertainty. However, the dominant meteorological mechanisms for the large dust emission during spring remain unclear. This time of year is characterized by mobile, long-lived cyclones and Harmattan surges which are capable to uplift dust aerosol for long-range atmospheric transport. Emission near to the centre of mobile, long-lived cyclones are associated with a small mass of dust emission over the northern Sahara in spring, despite their most frequent occurrence in this season. Harmattan surges are proposed to be more efficient in emitting dust aerosol in spring. These events manifest themselves as a postfrontal strengthening of near-surface winds with a continental impact on dust emission. The present study shows the first long-term climatology of dust emission associated with Harmattan surges over North Africa. Using a newly-developed automated identification, Harmattan surges are statistically analysed in 32 years of ERA-Interim re-analysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The results show 34 events per year in the annual mean. Spring is herein the most active season with the largest mean number and duration of Harmattan surges, in contrast to summer with virtually no activity. The offline dust emission model by Tegen et al (2002) is used to calculate emissions with ERA-Interim data. Combining these results with the Harmattan surges allows a first quantitative estimate of the associated emission mass. The results highlight that a fraction of 32 % of the total emission is associated with these events, annually and spatially averaged across North Africa. This amount exceeds the annual mean contribution of nocturnal low-level jets to dust emission, which is known as one of the most important drivers for North

  14. Cassini dust measurements at Enceladus and implications for the origin of the E ring.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Frank; Schmidt, Jürgen; Albers, Nicole; Hörning, Marcel; Makuch, Martin; Seiss, Martin; Kempf, Sascha; Srama, Ralf; Dikarev, Valeri; Helfert, Stefan; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Krivov, Alexander V; Sremcevic, Miodrag; Tuzzolino, Anthony J; Economou, Thanasis; Grün, Eberhard

    2006-03-10

    During Cassini's close flyby of Enceladus on 14 July 2005, the High Rate Detector of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer registered micron-sized dust particles enveloping this satellite. The dust impact rate peaked about 1 minute before the closest approach of the spacecraft to the moon. This asymmetric signature is consistent with a locally enhanced dust production in the south polar region of Enceladus. Other Cassini experiments revealed evidence for geophysical activities near Enceladus' south pole: a high surface temperature and a release of water gas. Production or release of dust particles related to these processes may provide the dominant source of Saturn's E ring.

  15. Characteristics of re-suspended road dust and its impact on the atmospheric environment in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lihui; Zhuang, Guoshun; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Ying; Li, Juan

    A sampling campaign of re-suspended road dust samples from 53 sites that could cover basically the entire Beijing, soil samples from the source regions of dust storm in August 2003, and aerosol samples from three representative sites in Beijing from December 2001 to September 2003, was carried out to investigate the characteristics of re-suspended road dust and its impact on the atmospheric environment. Ca, S, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd were far higher than its crustal abundances and Ca 2+, SO 42-, Cl -, K +, Na +, NO 3- were major ions in re-suspended road dust. Al, Ti, Sc, Co, and Mg in re-suspended road dust were mainly originated from crustal source, while Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb were mainly derived from traffic emissions and coal burning, and Fe, Mn, and Cd were mainly from industrial emissions, coal combustion and oil burning. Ca 2+ and SO 42- mainly came from construction activities, construction materials and secondary gas-particle conversions, Cl - and Na + were derived from industrial wastewater disposal and chemical industrial emissions, and NO 3- and K + were from vehicle emissions, photochemical reactions of NO X, biomass and vegetable burning. The contribution of mineral aerosol from inside Beijing to the total mineral aerosols was ˜30% in spring of 2002, ˜70% in summer of 2002, ˜80% in autumn of 2003, ˜20% in PM 10 and ˜50% in PM 2.5, in winter of 2002. The pollution levels of the major pollution species, Ca, S, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn, and Cd in re-suspended road dust reached ˜76%, ˜87%, ˜75%, ˜80%, ˜82%, ˜90%, ˜45%, ˜51%, and ˜94%, respectively. Re-suspended road dust from the traffic and construction activities was one of the major sources of pollution aerosols in Beijing.

  16. Dust Particle Release from the Lunar Surface: Influence of Adhesion and Meteoroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Golub', Anatoliy; Izvekova, Yulia; Lisin, Evgeniy; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Dolnikov, Gennadiy; Zakharov, Aleksandr; Zelenyi, Lev

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that for consideration of dust particle release from the lunar surface one has to take into account (among other effects) both adhesion and meteoroid impacts. The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion intensity on the Moon is discussed. The rate of meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface per unit area is determined. The strength of the regolith due to the adhesion effect is estimated. The processes occurring when a high-speed meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface are described. In particular, the characteristic parameters of zones of evaporation of the substance, its melting, destruction of particles constituting lunar regolith, their irreversible deformations, and elastic deformation of the regolith substance are found. A possibility of the rise of micrometer-sized dust particles above the lunar surface is shown. It is demonstrated that most of the particles rising over lunar surface due to the meteoroid impact originates from the elastic deformation zone. The number of dust particles raised over the lunar surface as result of a meteoroid impact is estimated. The size-distribution function of particles released from the lunar surface due to meteoroid impacts is determined. It is noted that micrometeoroid impacts can result in rise of dust particles of the size of a few μm up to an altitude of about 30 cm that explains the effect of "horizon glow" observed by Surveyor lunar lander. This work was carried out as part of the Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium program no. 7 and was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects nos. 15-02-05627, 15-32-21159) and the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2), as well as NCN grant Rezonans 2012/07/B/ST9/04414.

  17. Meteoroid impacts and dust particles over the surface of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Lisin, Evgeny; Golub', Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that for consideration of dust particle release from the lunar surface one has to take into account (among other effects) both adhesion and meteoroid impacts. The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion intensity on the Moon is discussed. The rate of meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface per unit area is determined. The strength of the regolith due to the adhesion effect is estimated. The processes occurring when a high-speed meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface are described. In particular, the characteristic parameters of zones of evaporation of the substance, its melting, destruction of particles constituting lunar regolith, their irreversible deformations, and elastic deformation of the regolith substance are found. A possibility of the rise of micrometer-sized dust particles above the lunar surface is shown. It is demonstrated that most of the particles rising over lunar surface due to the meteoroid impact originates from the elastic deformation zone. The number of dust particles raised over the lunar surface as result of meteoroid impacts is calculated. The size-distribution function of particles released from the lunar surface due to meteoroid impacts is determined. It is noted that micrometeoroid impacts can result in rise of dust particles of the size of a few micrometers up to an altitude of about 30 cm that explains the effect of ``horizon glow" observed by Surveyor lunar lander. This work was supported in part by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (under Fundamental Research Program No. 7, ``Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Solar System Objects and Stellar Planet Systems. Transient Explosion Processes in Astrophysics" and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 15-02-05627-a). Y.N. Izvekova is supported also within the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  18. Deposition of Asian Dust in the Tahoe Basin and the Impact of Climate Patterns on Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Jason

    Routine monitoring of fine aerosols in the Lake Tahoe basin began with the Tahoe Regional Planning Association (TRPA) in 1988 (Molenar et. al., 1994). During this time two sites of aerosol impact analysis were chosen based on prior work done by the ARB (Cahill et. al., 1997). These sites included Bliss SP, which is located near Emerald Bay at 200 m Lake Tahoe. Aerosols deposited at the Bliss SP site during each spring from 1988 to 2004, were predominately from sources outside of the Lake Tahoe basin and contained signatures from an "unknown north Sacramento Valley source" (Cahill and Cliff, 2002). The aerosols amounted to about ½ of all fine soil seen at South Lake Tahoe. With a better knowledge regarding the efficiency of the transport of fine aerosol plumes across the Pacific Ocean to North American combined with the presence of Asian dust signatures at other sites including Crater Lake and the Yukon, it was now determined that the source of fine particles to the Lake Tahoe basin was possibly Asian in origin. For this study, aerosols were collected during spring 2006, which coincides with the annual peak of Asian dust transport toward North America. Aerosols were collected at the TERC Tahoe Fish Hatchery, a relatively pollution free site northeast of Tahoe City. Aerosol collections at this site were done on an offshore pier, which reduced the amount of contamination for shore sources of aerosols and pollution such as road dust. The result was the identification of Asian dust signatures in aerosol deposition data for the period of April 28 to May 15, 2006. Such dust plumes were identified using HYSPLIT trajectories. Chemical signatures were also used including the Fe/Ca ratio, which is unique in Asian dust plumes. The particulate matter in these dust plumes produce a regional haze across the Lake Tahoe basin, which could impact incoming solar radiation. Furthermore, deposition of particles from the aerosol plume into the lake not only contributed to suspended

  19. Dust and polluted aerosol impacts on diazotrophy during a mesocosm experiment in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahav, Eyal; Herut, Barak; Liu, Hongbin; Guo, Cui; Cheung, Isaac; Psarra, Stella; Lagaria, Anna; Tsiola, Anastasia; Tsagaraki, Tanya; Pitta, Paraskevi; Mulholland, Margaret; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric inputs of nutrients via dust and aerosols to the surface ocean layer are considered to contribute greatly to dinitrogen (N2) fixation and to primary productivity. N2 fixation rates in the Mediterranean Sea are typically low and the parameters limiting this process are still unclear. Addition of dust analogs to a mesocosm experiment in the Western Mediterranean Sea (DUNE) enhanced N2 fixation by 3 to 5 fold. However, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, an area highly exposed to Saharan dust and aerosol, the impact of these inputs on N2 fixation from onboard microcosm experiment are unclear and inconclusive. We examined the influence of Saharan dust (1.6 mg L-1) and polluted aerosol (1 mg L-1) additions on diazotroph populations and N2 fixation rates in nine 3 m3 mesocosms (MESOAQUA project) using the enriched seawater method of 15N uptake. The enrichments induced an immediate 2-4 fold increase in N2 fixation (measured from 6 to 48 h after enrichments). After 4 days, N2 fixation rates returned to their background level and no significant change was observed relative to the control mesocosms. The increase in N2 fixation rates were reflected in the differential composition of diazotrophs. Dust enrichment enhanced the abundance of the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp., while aerosol addition predominantly enhanced the presence of heterotrophic diazotrophs including Pseudomonas and Desulfovibrio. Our results indicate that sources of nutrients supplied via Saharan dust and polluted aerosol pulses to the stratified surface Eastern Mediterranean waters could increase the contribution of diazotrophs and N2 fixation in these ultraoligotrophic waters and impact productivity and biogeochemical cycling.

  20. The impacts of optical properties on radiative forcing due to dust aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Shi, G. Y.; Li, S. Y.; Li, W.; Wang, B.; Huang, Y. B.

    2006-05-01

    There are large uncertainties in the quantitative assessment of radiative effects due to atmospheric dust aerosol. The optical properties contribute much to those uncertainties. The authors perform several sensitivity experiments to estimate the impacts of optical characteristics on regional radiative forcing in this paper. The experiments involve in refractive indices, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and optical depth. An updated dataset of refractive indices representing East Asian dust and the one recommended by the World Meteorology Organization (WMO) are contrastively analyzed and used. A radiative transfer code for solar and thermal infrared radiation with detailed aerosol parameterization is employed. The strongest emphasis is on the refractive indices since other optical parameters strongly depend on it, and the authors found a strong sensitivity of radiative forcing on refractive indices. Studies show stronger scattering, weaker absorption and forward scattering of the East Asian dust particles at solar wavelengths, which leads to higher negative forcing, lower positive forcing and bigger net forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) than that of the WMO dust model. It is also found that the TOA forcings resulting from these two dust models have opposite signs in certain regions, which implies the importance of accurate measurements of optical properties in the quantitative estimation of radiative forcing.

  1. Identification of Impact Craters in Foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, R. M.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Heck, P. R.; Hillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Sandford, S. A.; Tsou, P.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collection tray provides the first opportunity for the direct laboratory-based measurement of contemporary interstellar dust. The total exposed surface of the tray was approximately 0.1 square meters, including 153 square centimeters of Al foil in addition to the silica aerogel tiles that are the primary collection medium. Preliminary examination of aerogel tiles has already revealed 16 tracks from particle impacts with an orientation consistent with an interstellar origin, and to date four of the particles associated with these tracks have a composition consistent with an extraterrestrial origin. Tentative identification of impact craters on three foil samples was also reported previously. Here we present the definitive identification of 20 impact craters on five foils.

  2. First discovery of the organic materials in deep-sea iron cosmic spherule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanchang, Peng; Peicang, XU

    1993-01-01

    The dust impact mass analyzer (PUMA) carried by the spacecraft Vega 1, Vega 2 and Giotto has provided the first direct measurements of the physical and chemical properties of cometary dust. The results indicate that most of the cometary dust particles are rich in light elements such as H, C, N, and O, suggesting the validity of models that describe the cometary dust as including organic material. Up to now, there were none found with the organic material from the deep-sea cosmic spherules. We have determined this from the deep-sea iron cosmic spherules collected from the North Pacific. An iron cosmic spherule (382 microns in diameter) was determined by the Laser Raman Microprobe.

  3. Detailed cloud resolving model simulations of the impacts of Saharan air layer dust on tropical deep convection - Part 1: Dust acts as ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Min, Q.; Li, R.; Teller, A.; Joseph, E.; Morris, V.

    2010-05-01

    Observational studies suggest that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), an elevated layer (850-500 hPa) of Saharan air and mineral dust, has strong impacts on the microphysical as well as dynamical properties of tropical deep convective cloud systems along its track. In this case study, numerical simulations using a two-dimensional Detailed Cloud Resolving Model (DCRM) were carried out to investigate the dust-cloud interactions in the tropical deep convection, focusing on the dust role as Ice Nuclei (IN). The simulations showed that mineral dust considerably enhanced heterogeneous nucleation and freezing at temperatures warmer than -40 °C, resulting in more ice hydrometeors number concentration and reduced precipitating size of ice particles. Because of the lower in the saturation over ice as well as more droplet freezing, total latent heating increased, and consequently the updraft velocity was stronger. On the other hand, the increased ice deposition consumed more water vapor at middle troposphere, which induces a competition for water vapor between heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing and nucleation. As a result, dust suppressed the homogeneous droplet freezing and nucleation due to the heterogeneous droplet freezing and the weakened transport of water vapor at lower stratosphere, respectively. These effects led to decreased number concentration of ice cloud particles in the upper troposphere, and consequently lowered the cloud top height during the stratus precipitating stage. Acting as IN, mineral dust also influenced precipitation in deep convection. It initiated earlier the collection because dust-related heterogeneous nucleation and freezing at middle troposphere occur earlier than homogeneous nucleation at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the convective precipitation was suppressed by reduced collection of large graupel particles and insufficient fallout related to decreased sizes of precipitating ice hydrometeors. On the contrary, dust increased the

  4. Characterization and radiative impact of dust aerosols over northwestern part of India: a case study during a severe dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Atinderpal; Tiwari, Shani; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan; Tiwari, Suresh; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Rastogi, Neeraj; Singh, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    The present study focused on examining the impact of a severe dust storm (DS) on aerosol properties over Patiala (30.33°N, 76.4°E), a site located in the northwestern part of India during 20th-23rd March, 2012. On 20th March, average PM10 mass concentration increased abruptly from 182 to 817 µg m-3 along with significant increase in the number density of coarser particles (diameter >0.45 µm). During DS, spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases significantly with more increase at longer wavelengths resulting in weak wavelength dependence (AOD at 380 nm increases by ~210 % and at 870 nm by ~270 % on 20th March). Significant decrease in Ångström exponent (AE; α 380-870) from 0.56 to 0.11 and fine-mode fraction (FMF; PM2.5/PM10) from 0.49 to 0.25 indicates dominance of coarser particles over the station. Net short wave (SW) radiation flux has been decreased by ~20 % and single scattering albedo (SSA675) has been increased from 0.86 (19th March) to 0.90 (20th March). This observation is attributed to additional loading of scattering type aerosols on arrival of DS. Wavelength dependence of SSA reverses during DS and it increases with wavelength due to dominance of coarse-mode particles. Atmospheric aerosol radiative forcing (ATM ARF) during DS ranged from +45 to +77 W m-2, consequently heating the lower atmosphere up to 2.2 K day-1. Significant atmospheric heating rate due to severe dust storm may affect the regional atmospheric dynamics and hence the climate system.

  5. Probing the Peak Epoch of Cosmic Star Formation (1Dust Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian D.; Richard, Johan; Rafelski, Marc; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau; Stark, Daniel; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a complete census of cosmic star formation requires an understanding of faint star-forming galaxies that are far below the detection limits of current surveys. To search for the faint galaxies, we use the power of strong gravitational lensing from foreground galaxy clusters to boost the detection limits of HST to much fainter luminosities. Using the WFC3/UVIS on board the HST, we obtain deep UV images of 4 lensing clusters with existing deep optical and near-infrared data (three from Frontier Fields survey). Building multiband photometric catalogs and applying a photometric redshift selection, we uncover a large population of dwarf galaxies (-18.5cosmic star formation (150%) at these redshifts. We use this unique sample to investigate further the various properties of dwarf galaxies as it is claimed to deviate from the trends seen for the more massive galaxies. Recent hydro-dynamical simulations and observations of local dwarfs show that these galaxies have episodic bursts of star formation on short time scales (< 10 Myr). We find that the bursty star formation histories (SFHs) cause a large intrinsic scatter in UV colors (β) at MUV > -16, comparing a sample of low mass galaxies from simulations with bursty SFHs with our comprehensive measurements of the observed β values. As this scatter can also be due to the dust extinction, we distinguish these two effects by measuring the dust attenuation using Balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ) ratios from our MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy.

  6. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  7. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell D.; Vaughan, Joshua M.; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12–13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6–11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  8. The impact of intrinsic alignment on current and future cosmic shear surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Elisabeth; Eifler, Tim; Blazek, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Intrinsic alignment (IA) of source galaxies is one of the major astrophysical systematics for weak lensing surveys. Several IA models have been proposed and their impact on cosmological constraints has been examined using the Fisher information matrix in conjunction with approximate, Gaussian covariances. This paper presents the first forecasts of the impact of IA on cosmic shear measurements for future surveys using simulated likelihood analyses and covariances that include higher order moments of the density field. We consider a range of possible IA scenarios and test mitigation schemes which parametrize IA by the fraction of red galaxies, normalization, luminosity and redshift dependence of the IA signal. Compared to previous studies, we find smaller biases in time-dependent dark energy models if IA is ignored in the analysis. The amplitude and significance of these biases vary as a function of survey properties (depth, statistical uncertainties), luminosity function and IA scenario. Due to its small statistical errors and relatively shallow depth, Euclid is significantly impacted by IA. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) benefit from increased survey depth, while larger statistical errors for Dark Energy Survey (DES) decrease IA's relative impact on cosmological parameters. The proposed IA mitigation scheme removes parameter biases for DES, LSST and WFIRST even if the shape of the IA power spectrum is only poorly known; successful IA mitigation for Euclid requires more prior information. We explore several alternative IA mitigation strategies for Euclid; in the absence of alignment of blue galaxies we recommend the exclusion of red (IA-contaminated) galaxies in cosmic shear analyses.

  9. NASA Marshall Impact Testing Facility Capabilities Applicable to Lunar Dust Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.; Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The Impact Testing Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center has several guns that would be of use in studying impact phenomena with respect to lunar dust. These include both ballistic guns, using compressed gas and powder charges, and hypervelocity guns, either light gas guns or an exploding wire gun. In addition, a plasma drag accelerator expected to reach 20 km/s for small particles is under development. Velocity determination and impact event recording are done using ultra-high-speed cameras. Simulation analysis is also available using the SPHC hydrocode.

  10. Dust Impact Monitor DIM Onboard Philae: Measurements at Comet 67P/C-G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Albin, Thomas; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Flandes, Alberto; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Hirn, Attila; Loose, Alexander; Peter, Attila; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Sperl, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta lander Philae landed successfully on the nucleus surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae is equipped with the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) which is part of the SESAME experiment package onboard. DIM employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by sub-millimetre and millimetre-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma. DIM was operated during Philae's descent to its nominal landing site at 4 different altitudes above the comet surface, and at Philae's final landing site. During descent to the nominal landing site, DIM measured the impact of one rather big particle that probably had a size of a few millimeters. No impacts were detected at the final landing site which may be due to low cometary activity or due to shadowing from obstacles close to Philae, or both. We will present the results from our measurements at the comet and compare them with laboratory calibration experiments with ice/dust particles performed with a DIM flight spare sensor.

  11. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.; Simon, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features on several of the electro-active dust sensors utilized in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microprobe. The negatively biased dust sensor surfaces acted as ion traps for cations produced in the plasma plumes of impacting particles. Impactor residue surrounds most impact features to two or three feature diameters. After etching away a layer of carbonaceous/silicaceous surface contamination, low mass resolution elemental survey scans are used to tentatively identify the presence of impactor debris. High mass resolution two-dimensional elemental maps and three dimensional depth profiling of the feature and surrounding area show the distribution and relative composition of the debris. The location of these sensors on the six primary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) sides provides a unique opportunity to further define the debris environment. Researchers applied the same techniques to impact and contaminant features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on row 12 and exposed to the environment during the entire mission.

  12. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particle impact residues from LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, R. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed structural and compositional analysis of several impactor residues was performed utilizing transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. Residues from the interior of several craters in gold surfaces were removed with a tungsten needle, mounted in EMBED-812 epoxy, and ultramicrotomed. The presence in these residues of equilibrated ferromagnesian minerals, recrystallization textures, glass, and melted metal and sulfide bodies decorating grain boundaries is indicative of varying degrees of shock metamorphism in all impact residues we have characterized.

  13. Hypervelocity dust impact craters on photovoltaic devices imaged by ion beam induced charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyi; Wu, Yiyong; Lv, Gang; Rubanov, Sergey; Jamieson, David N.

    2015-04-01

    Hypervelocity dust has a speed of greater than 5 km/s and is a significant problem for equipment deployed in space such as satellites because of impacts that damage vulnerable components. Photovoltaic (PV) arrays are especially vulnerable because of their large surface area and the performance can be degraded owing to the disruption of the structure of the junction in the cells making up the array. Satellite PV arrays returned to Earth after service in orbit reveal a large number of craters larger than 5 μm in diameter arising from hypervelocity dust impacts. Extensive prior work has been done on the analysis of the morphology of craters in PV cells to understand the origin of the micrometeoroid that caused the crater and to study the corresponding mechanical damage to the structure of the cell. Generally, about half the craters arise from natural micrometeoroids, about one third from artificial Al-rich debris, probably from solid rocket exhausts, and the remainder from miscellaneous sources both known and unknown. However to date there has not been a microscopic study of the degradation of the electrical characteristics of PV cells exposed to hypervelocity dust impacts. Here we present an ion beam induced charge (IBIC) pilot study by a 2 MeV He microbeam of craters induced on a Hamamatsu PIN diode exposed to artificial hypervelocity Al dust from a dust accelerator. Numerous 5-30 μm diameter craters were identified and the charge collection efficiency of the crater and surrounds mapped with IBIC with bias voltages between 0 and 20 V. At highest bias, it was found the efficiency of the crater had been degraded by about 20% compared to the surrounding material. The speed distribution achieved in the Al dust accelerator was peaked at about 4 km/s compared to 11-68 km/s for dust encountered in low Earth orbit. We are able to extrapolate the charge collection efficiency degradation rate of unbiased cells in space based on our current measurements and the differences

  14. Observations of the impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the atmospheric radiation balance

    SciTech Connect

    Slingo, A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Allan, R. P.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Robinson, G. J.; Barnard, James C.; Miller, Mark; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Dewitte, S.

    2006-12-01

    Saharan dust storms transport large quantities of material across the African continent and beyond, causing widespread disruption and hazards to health. The dust may be deposited into the Atlantic Ocean, where it provides an important source of nutrients1, and may be carried as far as the West Indies. Such events may also influence the growth of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Satellite observations have enabled estimates to be made of the effect of the dust on the radiation budget seen from space, but only limited in situ observations have hitherto been made at the surface. Here we present the first simultaneous and continuous observations of the effect of a major dust storm in March 2006 on the radiation budget both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. We combine data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat-8 weather satellite with remote sensing and in situ measurements from a new Mobile Facility located in Niamey, Niger (13{sup o} 29'N, 2{sup o} 10'E), operated by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. We show that the dust produced major perturbations to the radiation budget seen from space and from the surface. By combining the two datasets, we estimate the impact on the radiation budget of the atmosphere itself. Using independent data from the Mobile Facility, we derive the optical properties of the dust and input these and other information into radiation codes to simulate the radiative fluxes. Comparisons with the observed fluxes provides a stringent test of the ability of the codes to represent the radiative properties of this important component of the global aerosol burden.

  15. Impacts of the East Asian Monsoon on springtime dust concentrations over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Sijia; Russell, Lynn M.; Yang, Yang; Xu, Li; Lamjiri, Maryam A.; DeFlorio, Michael J.; Miller, Arthur J.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder

    2016-07-01

    We use 150 year preindustrial simulations of the Community Earth System Model to quantify the impacts of the East Asian Monsoon strength on interannual variations of springtime dust concentrations over China. The simulated interannual variations in March-April-May (MAM) dust column concentrations range between 20-40% and 10-60% over eastern and western China, respectively. The dust concentrations over eastern China correlate negatively with the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) index, which represents the strength of monsoon, with a regionally averaged correlation coefficient of -0.64. Relative to the strongest EAM years, MAM dust concentrations in the weakest EAM years are higher over China, with regional relative differences of 55.6%, 29.6%, and 13.9% in the run with emissions calculated interactively and of 33.8%, 10.3%, and 8.2% over eastern, central, and western China, respectively, in the run with prescribed emissions. Both interactive run and prescribed emission run show the similar pattern of climate change between the weakest and strongest EAM years. Strong anomalous northwesterly and westerly winds over the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts during the weakest EAM years result in larger transport fluxes, and thereby increase the dust concentrations over China. These differences in dust concentrations between the weakest and strongest EAM years (weakest-strongest) lead to the change in the net radiative forcing by up to -8 and -3 W m-2 at the surface, compared to -2.4 and +1.2 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere over eastern and western China, respectively.

  16. Impact of dust filter installation in ironworks and construction on brownfield area on the toxic metal concentration in street and house dust (Celje, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Zibret, Gorazd

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the impact of the ecological investment in ironworks (dust filter installation) and construction works at a highly contaminated brownfield site on the chemical composition of household dust (HD) and street sediment (SS) in Celje, Slovenia. The evaluation is based on two sampling campaigns: the first was undertaken 1 month before the ecological investment became operational and the second 3 years later. The results show that dust filter installations reduced the content of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, W and Zn on average by 58% in HD and by 51% in SS. No reduction was observed at sampling points in the upwind direction from the ironworks. By contrast, the impact of the construction works on the highly contaminated brownfield site was detected by a significant increase (on average by 37%) of elements connected to the brownfield contamination in SS. Such increase was not detected in HD.

  17. The cosmic origins of carbon and the evolution of dust, gas and the CNO elements in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, David J.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon, along with nitrogen and oxygen, is produced by stars of differing mass and metallicity throughout the evolutionary history of galaxies. The production of oxygen and nitrogen is believed to be dominated by stars of high and low mass respectively, while the origin of carbon is less settled, as it can be produced by both low and high mass stars. An observational approach to determining whether low or high mass stars dominate carbon production is desirable, via studies of the nebulae that such stars produce during their advanced evolutionary stages. However, ionized carbon does not have forbidden emission lines in the optical range, making optical carbon abundance measurements reliant on the use of carbon recombination lines or neutral carbon forbidden lines. Carbonaceous dust is inferred to exist in many nebulae, though the amount of carbon in such dust can be difficult to determine. This thesis presents observations and numerical modelling results aimed at tracing the origins of carbon in galaxies. The contribution of individual stars is probed, focusing first on nebulae around massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, particularly those with C-rich WC stars. The properties of the population of Galactic and LMC circumstellar nebulae around WR stars are examined, followed by a spectroscopic investigation of abundances in nebulae around both WN and WC stars. Carbon production rates by low and intermediate mass stars are inferred from published carbon abundance measurements for planetary nebulae. The second approach used to trace the origin and evolution of carbon is through numerical modelling of the chemical histories of galaxies. Using various formulations for the inputs of C, N and O by low and high mass stars, models are constructed which trace the overall abundances of these elements over the history of a galaxy, from their birth to the present day. By tuning the input data for stellar elemental yields to best match observed abundance patterns, the mass and

  18. Impact of alkaline dust pollution on genetic variation of Usnea subfloridana populations.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Tõrra, Tiiu; Lerch, Michèle; Saag, Andres; Randlane, Tiina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-10-01

    Very little is known whether and how air pollution impacts genetic diversity of lichenized fungi that are well-known indicators of environmental quality. We studied the genetic variation of eight Usnea subfloridana populations in Pinus sylvestris-dominated boreal forest stands in southern Estonia, Northern Europe; four of these populations were exposed to long-term dust pollution released from unpaved road. The mean bark pH of lichen phorophyte differed considerably between polluted and unpolluted forest stands. We genotyped 274 Usnea thalli using nine specific fungal microsatellite markers. Genetic variation measures were calculated and compared between populations from different habitats. Allelic richness, Shannon's information index, and genetic diversity of lichen populations were significantly higher in unpolluted forest sites than in polluted forest sites. We conclude that environmental disturbances caused by alkaline dust pollution had negative impact on the genetic variation of U. subfloridana, a common species of lichenized fungi. PMID:27647234

  19. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Early B-type stars are ideal indicators for present-day cosmic abundances since they preserve their pristine abundances and typically do not migrate far beyond their birth environments over their short lifetimes, in contrast to older stars like the Sun. They are also unaffected by depletion onto dust grains, unlike the cold/warm interstellar medium (ISM) or H ii regions. Aims: A carefully selected sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Quantitative spectroscopy is used to characterise their atmospheric properties in a self-consistent way. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived in order to investigate whether a present-day cosmic abundance standard can be established. Methods: High-resolution and high-S/N FOCES, FEROS and ELODIE spectra of well-studied sharp-lined early B-type stars are analysed in non-LTE. Line-profile fits based on extensive model grids and an iterative analysis methodology are used to constrain stellar parameters and elemental abundances at high accuracy and precision. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer lines, and they are confirmed by reproduction of the stars' global spectral energy distributions. Results: Effective temperatures are constrained to 1-2% and surface gravities to less than 15% uncertainty, along with accurate rotational, micro- and macroturbulence velocities. Good agreement of the resulting spectroscopic parallaxes with those from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue is obtained. Absolute values for abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Three sample stars, γ Ori, o Per and θ1 Ori D, are

  20. New Dust Measurements throughout the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, there are 3 in situ dedicated instruments collecting data about the density and size distributions of dust in the solar system. The Student Dust Counter onboard the New Horizons Mission to Pluto continues makes measurements since 2006, cutting across the entire solar system. These measurements provide an opportunity to test our models about our own the dust disk, and compare it to dust disks around other stars. The Pluto encounter will happen in the summer of 2015, the mission will carry on beyond Pluto, and continue to make dust observations in the Kuiper belt. The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini mission continues to make observations since 2004, mapping the dust distributions near Saturn. CDA is also capable to identify the chemical composition of the impacting particles, clearly identifying water ice as the composition of particles in Saturn's E-ring. One of its most exciting discoveries to date is the identification of other minor constituents of the particles in addition to water ice, resulting in the unambiguous conclusion about the existence of a liquid ocean underneath the ice crust of Enceladus. The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) in orbit about the moon onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explore (LADEE) mission. LDEX maps the lunar dust exosphere that is sustained by the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by interplanetary dust particles. This talk will report on the recent observation by all three instruments: SDC, CDA and LDEX, and discuss how the measurements can be used to improve our theoretical models about the dust environment in the Kuiper belt, at Saturn, and near the Moon, respectively. We will also discuss the intimate relationships between these measurements, and argue that the entire body of these observations, and measurements made by previous dust instruments can be used to learn about the sources, sinks, and transport of dust in the solar system. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons

  1. Impact of improved soil climatology and intialization on WRF-chem dust simulations over West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omid Nabavi, Seyed; Haimberger, Leopold; Samimi, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    Meteorological forecast models such as WRF-chem are designed to forecast not only standard atmospheric parameters but also aerosol, particularly mineral dust concentrations. It has therefore become an important tool for the prediction of dust storms in West Asia where dust storms have the considerable impact on living conditions. However, verification of forecasts against satellite data indicates only moderate skill in prediction of such events. Earlier studies have already indicated that the erosion factor, land use classification, soil moisture, and temperature initializations play a critical role in the accuracy of WRF-chem dust simulations. In the standard setting the erosion factor and land use classification are based on topographic variations and post-processed images of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) during the period April 1992-March 1993. Furthermore, WRF-chem is normally initialized by the soil moisture and temperature of Final Analysis (FNL) model on 1.0x1.0 degree grids. In this study, we have changed boundary initial conditions so that they better represent current changing environmental conditions. To do so, land use (only bare soil class) and the erosion factor were both modified using information from MODIS deep blue AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth). In this method, bare soils are where the relative frequency of dust occurrence (deep blue AOD > 0.5) is more than one-third of a given month. Subsequently, the erosion factor, limited within the bare soil class, is determined by the monthly frequency of dust occurrence ranging from 0.3 to 1. It is worth to mention, that 50 percent of calculated erosion factor is afterward assigned to sand class while silt and clay classes each gain 25 percent of it. Soil moisture and temperature from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were utilized to provide these initializations in higher resolution of 0.25 degree than in the standard setting. Modified and control simulations were

  2. Impact of dust deposition on carbon budget: a tentative assessment from a mesocosm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, C.; Ridame, C.; Pulido-Villena, E.; Bressac, M.; Desboeufs, K.; Dulac, F.

    2014-10-01

    By bringing new nutrients and particles to the surface ocean, atmospheric deposition impacts biogeochemical cycles. The extent to which those changes are modifying the carbon balance in oligotrophic environments such as the Mediterranean Sea that receives important Saharan dust fluxes is unknown. The DUNE (DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem) project provides the first attempt to evaluate the changes induced in the carbon budget of a large body of oligotrophic waters after simulated Saharan dust wet or dry deposition events, allowing us to measure (1) the metabolic fluxes while the particles are sinking and (2) the particulate organic carbon export. Here we report the results for the three distinct artificial dust seeding experiments simulating wet or dry atmospheric deposition onto large mesocosms (52 m3) that were conducted in the oligotrophic waters of the Mediterranean Sea in the summers of 2008 and 2010. Although heterotrophic bacteria were found to be the key players in the response to dust deposition, net primary production increased about twice in case of simulated wet deposition (that includes anthropogenic nitrogen). The dust deposition did not produce a shift in the metabolic balance as the tested waters remained net heterotrophic (i.e., net primary production to bacteria respiration ratio <1) and in some cases the net heterotrophy was even enhanced by the dust deposition. The change induced by the dust addition on the total organic carbon pool inside the mesocosm over the 7 days of the experiments, was a carbon loss dominated by bacteria respiration that was at least 5-10 times higher than any other term involved in the budget. This loss of organic carbon from the system in all the experiments was particularly marked after the simulation of wet deposition. Changes in biomass were mostly due to an increase in phytoplankton biomass but when considering the whole particulate organic carbon pool it was dominated by the organic

  3. Impact of Dust on Mars Surface Albedo and Energy Flux with LMD General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M.; Millour, E.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    Mars, just like Earth experience different seasons because of its axial tilt (about 25°). This causes growth and retreat of snow cover (primarily CO2) in Martian Polar regions. The perennial caps are the only place on the planet where condensed H2O is available at surface. On Mars, as much as 30% atmospheric CO2 deposits in each hemisphere depending upon the season. This leads to a significant variation on planet's surface albedo and hence effecting the amount of solar flux absorbed or reflected at the surface. General Circulation Model (GCM) of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) currently uses observationally derived surface albedo from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument for the polar caps. These TES albedo values do not have any inter-annual variability, and are independent of presence of any dust/impurity on surface. Presence of dust or other surface impurities can significantly reduce the surface albedo especially during and right after a dust storm. This change will also be evident in the surface energy flux interactions. Our work focuses on combining earth based Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model with current state of GCM to incorporate the impact of dust on Martian surface albedo, and hence the energy flux. Inter-annual variability of surface albedo and planet's top of atmosphere (TOA) energy budget along with their correlation with currently available mission data will be presented.

  4. Multi-year global climatic effects of atmospheric dust from large bolide impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Starley L.

    1988-01-01

    The global climatic effects of dust generated by the impact of a 10 km-diameter bolide was simulated using a one-dimensional (vertical only) globally-averaged climate model by Pollack et al. The goal of the simulation is to examine the regional climate effects, including the possibility of coastal refugia, generated by a global dust cloud in a model having realistic geographic resolution. The climate model assumes the instantaneous appearance of a global stratospheric dust cloud with initial optical depth of 10,000. The time history of optical depth decreases according to the detailed calculations of Pollack et al., reaching an optical depth of unity at day 160, and subsequently decreasing with an e-folding time of 1 year. The simulation is carried out for three years in order to examine the atmospheric effects and recovery over several seasons. The simulation does not include any effects of NOx, CO2, or wildfire smoke injections that may accompany the creation of the dust cloud. The global distribution of surface temperature changes, freezing events, precipitation and soil moisture effects and sea ice increases will be discussed.

  5. Ejection and Lofting of Dust from Hypervelocity Impacts on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute fine-grained regolith dust across the surfaces of planetary bodies. The ejecta mass-velocity distribution controls the location and emplacement of these materials. The current flux of material falling on the moon is dominated by small bolides and should cause frequent impacts that eject dust at high speeds. For example, approximately 25 LCROSS-sized (~20-30m diameter) craters are statistically expected to be formed naturally on the moon during any given earth year. When scaled to lunar conditions, the high-speed component of ejecta from hypervelocity impacts can be lofted for significant periods of time (as evidenced by the LCROSS mission results, c.f., Schultz, et al., 2010, Colaprete, et al., 2010). Even at laboratory scales, ejecta can approach orbital velocities; the higher impact speeds and larger projectiles bombarding the lunar surface may permit a significant portion of material to be launched closer to escape velocity. When these ejecta return to the surface (or encounter local topography), they impact at hundreds of meters per second or faster, thereby "scouring" the surface with low mass oblique impacts. While these high-speed ejecta represent only a small fraction of the total ejected mass, the lofting and subsequent ballistic return of this dust has the highest mobilization potential and will be directly applicable to the upcoming LADEE mission. A suite of hypervelocity impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). This study incorporates both canonical sand targets and air-fall pumice dust to simulate the mechanical properties of lunar regolith. The implementation of a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) technique permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging

  6. Condensation of cosmic analog material in microgravity conditions - Preliminary analysis of a first set of flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, D.; Bussoletti, E.; Mennella, V.; Vittone, A. A.; Colangeli, L.; Mirra, C.; Stephens, J.; Nuth, J.; Lilleleht, L.; Furgeson, F.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of the STARDUST project, aimed at producing and analyzing cosmic-dust analog materials in microgravity conditions, are summarized. The discussion covers the purpose of the investigation, cosmic-dust formation and properties, previous simulations of cosmic-dust formation, the current approach, the microgravity experimental apparatus, and potential advantages of studying dust formation under microgravity conditions.

  7. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  8. The impact of networks of robotic telescopes in continuous monitoring of high energy cosmic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    High energy (HE) cosmic sources are characterized by emissions in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In order to clarify their behavior and understand the involved physics it is necessary to perform simultaneous measurements in a range of energy as wide as possible. This makes it necessary to use different techniques and instrumentation both space- and ground-based. Simultaneous observations are in general very difficult to be performed because they need the involvement of many instruments that belong to many experiments under the control of many groups and countries. However, since the importance of multifrequency measurements is now universally recognized, many efforts are made in order to obtain such measurements. Our group has been a pioneer in such a kind of measurements since middle of 1970s. We will briefly discuss the impact of such measurements in different class of HE cosmic sources, such as T Tauri stars (TTSs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray binary systems (XRBs), and cataclysmic variables (CVs). This discussion is mainly based on the review paper "The impact of the space experiments on our knowledge of the physics of the universe" tep{GiovannelliSabauGraziati2004} and subsequent revisions. We will also discuss the importance of having a network of robotic telescopes that can provide long term optical monitoring of the classes of HE sources already discussed. Such measurements will provide fundamental data for understanding many problems that are still open, such as the physics of the outbursts in flaring systems, the search of rotational periods of white dwarfs in CVs and orbital periods of those systems, rotational periods and periodicities of flare-like events of TTSs, correlations between optical and X-ray flares in X-ray/Be systems, fluctuations in the light curves of AGNs and their correlations with the HE emission in order to test the validity of current models, etc.

  9. The catalytic potential of cosmic dust: implications for prebiotic chemistry in the solar nebula and other protoplanetary systems.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hugh G M; Nuth, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of important prebiotic molecules is fundamentally reliant on basic starting ingredients: water, organic species [e.g., methane (CH(4))], and reduced nitrogen compounds [e.g., ammonia (NH(3)), methyl cyanide (CH(3)CN) etc.]. However, modern studies conclude that the primordial Earth's atmosphere was too rich in CO, CO(2), and water to permit efficient synthesis of such reduced molecules as envisioned by the classic Miller-Urey experiment. Other proposed sources of terrestrial nitrogen reduction, like those within submarine vent systems, also seem to be inadequate sources of chemically reduced C-H-O-N compounds. Here, we demonstrate that nebular dust analogs have impressive catalytic properties for synthesizing prebiotic molecules. Using a catalyst analogous to nebular iron silicate condensate, at temperatures ranging from 500K to 900K, we catalyzed both the Fischer-Tropsch conversion of CO and H(2) to methane and water, and the corresponding Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia from N(2) and H(2). Remarkably, when CO, N(2), and H(2) were allowed to react simultaneously, these syntheses also yielded nitrogen-containing organics such as methyl amine (CH(3)NH(2)), acetonitrile (CH(3)CN), and N-methyl methylene imine (H(3)CNCH(2)). A fundamental consequence of this work for astrobiology is the potential for a natural chemical pathway to produce complex chemical building blocks of life throughout our own Solar System and beyond.

  10. Investigating playa surface textures: The impact of chemistry and environment on surface morphology and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, H. J.; Fantle, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral dust is an important component of geochemical cycles, but its impact on those cycles is not thoroughly understood. For instance, dust inputs to the ocean have been suggested to affect the iron cycle by stimulating natural iron fertilization, which then could modify climate. The influence of dust on geochemical cycles is determined by the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust inputs, which is governed in turn by the composition of dust source regions. A loose, unconsolidated surface texture is more easily ablated by wind, and so a location where composition and environmental characteristics encourage this type of surface is more likely to produce dust and influence geochemical cycles. Also, if evaporation concentrates evaporites such as calcite at the surface of a dust producing region, dust Ca concentrations are likely to be higher. Playas can be regionally significant dust source regions, and they are amenable to study as their surface textures often vary significantly across small areas. This study investigates surface processes experimentally, and compares the results to observations of surface texture in a natural playa system (the Black Rock Desert, Nevada). We dry surfaces with 25% to 75% clay and quartz at 40°C for approximately a day, wet the surface to simulate rain, and then repeat the cycle multiple times. We estimate surface roughness, measure surface strength with a penetrometer, and investigate thermal characteristics with an IR camera (wavelength range 8-12μm). We find that textures similar to those in playas can be reproduced with cycles of wetting and drying, such as might occur in an arid environment with intermittent rain. We investigate the addition of calcite and halite, since their precipitation potentially can disrupt the clay surfaces through the formation and expansion of crystals, thereby linking the chemical composition with the disruption of a strong surface texture and an increased chance of dust production. In the

  11. Radiative forcing of Sahara dust and its impacts on the hydrological cycle in the West African monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Liu, X.; Leung, L.; Hagos, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The WRF-Chem model is applied to simulate the radiative forcing of dust and its impacts on the hydrological cycle during the monsoon season over West Africa (WA). The GOCART dust emission scheme is coupled into two aerosol models (MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC) in WRF-Chem. During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to AOD near the dust source regions. Dust heats the atmosphere, and warms the surface in the nighttime through trapping the longwave radiation but cools the surface in the daytime through reducing the shortwave radiation. Dust modifies the surface energy budget through changing radiation, latent heat, and sensible heat fluxes, and results in large surface cooling effect in the afternoon but warming effect in the early morning during the monsoon season over WA. In the standard model configuration, the dust effect on total daily precipitation is small in both strong and weak monsoon years, but is sensitive to the dust absorbing properties. On the other hand, the dust-driven change of the stability of atmosphere significantly reduces the diurnal variation of precipitation during the monsoon season over WA, and improves the model simulation when compared to available observations.

  12. Observation and simulation of dust aerosol cycle and impact on radiative fluxes during the FENNEC campaign in summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minvielle, Fanny; Derimian, Yevgeny; Pere, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyrille; Brogniez, Gérard

    2013-04-01

    The Sahara desert is one of the principal worldwide sources of dust aerosol emissions that play significant role in the climatic system. In the framework of the FENNEC campaign, conducted during the summer 2011, we focus on dust radiative effect and impact on the atmospheric dynamics and profile structure. We study the variability of the measured radiative parameters and model atmospheric dynamics during dust plume observations at the FENNEC sites, therefore, trying to understand the link between the Saharan heat low system and dust aerosols. Due to its large size the airborne dust can absorb and scatter not only solar, but also thermal infrared radiation, which requires consideration of both spectral ranges. Analysis of AERONET and other optical observations during the period of intensive campaign in summer 2011 provides information on variability of aerosol optical characteristics and perturbation of solar and TIR flux. We use these observations in conjunction with the meso-scale model RAMS to understand the impact of the dust plumes on the atmospheric dynamics. We also simulate the dust cycle in order to find the contribution of the different emission sources and identify structure of transport over an extended domain. Then, coupling the radiative code (GAME) we calculate the radiative forcing of dust and compare it to the radiative flux observed and computed based on the AERONET observations. Validation of simulations is made using measurements from space-borne CALIOP lidar, SEVIRI and OMI satellites, AERONET ground-based stations and observations acquired onboard the SAFIRE Falcon 20 research aircraft.

  13. Impacts of crystal metal on secondary aliphatic amine aerosol formation during dust storm episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingyang; Bei, Yiling

    2016-03-01

    Trimethylamine (TMA) enters the atmosphere from a variety of sources and is a ubiquitous atmospheric organic base. The atmospheric reaction mechanism of TMA with key atmospheric oxidants is important to predict its distribution and environmental behavior in the particle phase. While previous studies have extensively focused on the production of particle amine salts (i.e. trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)) using chamber experiments, the atmospheric behavior of TMAO in the environment is still poorly understood. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected at two sampling sites in Beijing from March 10 to May 10, 2012. We analyzed the samples for water-soluble ions, crystal metals, TMA, and TMAO. Water-soluble ions (e.g. SO42-, NO3-, NH4+), TMA, and TMAO were measured using ion chromatography, while crystal metal (e.g. Al, Fe, Mn) in PM2.5 was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two dust storms (DS) occurred during the sampling period on March 28 and April 28. Mineral dust impacted PM2.5 mass and composition greatly during dust storm days, as it contributed approximately 1.2-4.0 times greater on dust storm days versus non-dust storm days. We found TMAO concentrations were highly associated with aluminum in PM2.5. Further, we applied the density functional theory (DFT) method to confirm that aluminum plays a catalytic effect in the reaction of TMA with ozone (O3). Our work improves understanding of the effect of crystal metals on secondary aliphatic amine aerosol formation in the atmosphere.

  14. Using Dust from Asteroids as Regolith Microsamples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Chabot, Nancy; Klima, Rachel; Ernst, Carolyn; Rivkin, Andy; Postberg, Frank; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    More robust links need to be forged between meteorites and their parent bodies to understand the composition, diversity and distribution of the asteroids. A major link can be sample analysis of the parent body material and comparison with meteorite data. Dust is present around all airless bodies, generated by micrometeorite impact into their airless surfaces, which in turn lofts regolith particles into a "cloud" around the body. The composition, flux, and size distribution of dust particles can provide insight into the geologic evolution of airless bodies. For example, the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer detected salts and minerals emitted by plumes at Enceladus, evidence for a subsurface ocean with a silicate seafloor. Dust analysis instruments may enable future missions to obtain elemental, isotopic and mineralogical composition of regolith particles without returning the samples to terrestrial laboratories.

  15. Remote sensing of desert dust aerosols over the Sahel : potential use for health impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, A. D.; Martiny, N. M.; Chiapello, I. C.; Marticorena, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of the 70's, remote sensing monitors the desert dust aerosols due to their absorption and scattering properties and allows to make long time series which are necessary for air quality or health impact studies. In the Sahel, a huge health problem is the Meningitis Meningococcal (MM) epidemics that occur during the dry season : the dust has been suspected to be crucial to understand their onsets and dynamics. The Aerosol absorption Index (AI) is a semi-quantitative index derived from TOMS and OMI observations in the UV available at a spatial resolution of 1° (1979-2005) and 0.25° (2005-today) respectively. The comparison of the OMI-AI and AERONET Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) shows a good agreement at a daily time-step (correlation ~0.7). The comparison of the OMI-AI with the Particle Matter (PM) measurement of the Sahelian Dust Transect is lower (~0.4) at a daily time-step but it increases at a weekly time-step (~0.6). The OMI-AI reproduces the dust seasonal cycle over the Sahel and we conclude that the OMI-AI product at a 0.25° spatial resolution is suitable for health impact studies, especially at a weekly epidemiological time-step. Despite the AI is sensitive to the aerosol altitude, it provides a daily spatial information on dust. A preliminary investigation analysis of the link between weekly OMI AI and weekly WHO epidemiological data sets is presented in Mali and Niger, showing a good agreement between the AI and the onset of the MM epidemics with a constant lag (between 1 and 2 week). The next of this study is to analyse a deeper AI time series constituted by TOMS and OMI data sets. Based on the weekly ratios PM/AI at 2 stations of the Sahelian Dust Transect, a spatialized proxy for PM from the AI has been developed. The AI as a proxy for PM and other climate variables such as Temperature (T°), Relative Humidity (RH%) and the wind (intensity and direction) could then be used to analyze the link between those variables and the MM epidemics

  16. In-situ measurements of Saturn's dusty rings based on dust impact signals detected by Cassini RPWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.-Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    2016-11-01

    The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument can detect dust particles when voltage pulses induced by the dust impacts are observed in the wideband receiver. The size of the voltage pulse is proportional to the mass of the impacting dust particle. In this paper, we show RPWS measurements of dust particles in Saturn's dusty rings. The differential size distribution of the dust particles can be characterized as a power law dn/dr∝rμ, where μ ∼ - 4 and r is the particle radius. The observed particle radius ranged from 0.2 to 10 μm. The dust density profiles of the dusty rings are derived from the impact rates measured by the RPWS wideband receiver. The radial density profiles show peaks near Enceladus' orbit and the G ring. The region around the G ring is found to be a very thin layer of dust particles with no observable vertical offset of the peak density from the ring plane. The vertical scale height of the E ring varies with the radial distance from Saturn with a local minimum at Enceladus' orbit. The vertical density profiles of the E ring show dips at the equatorial plane near Enceladus' orbit and vertical offsets of the peak locations away from Enceladus' orbit. These observations are consistent with previous modeling studies and measurements by other instruments onboard Cassini.

  17. Laboratory Micrometeroid/Dust Ablation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Horanyi, M.; Janches, D.; Munsat, T. L.; Plane, J. M. C.; Simolka, J.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Each day, somewhere between 5-270 tonnes of meteoric material ablates in Earth's upper atmosphere. Thisenormous range is significant because the Interplanetary Dust Particle (IDP) input has implications in ourunderstanding of meteor transport in the atmosphere, the formation of layers of metal atoms and ions,nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and O3 chemistry, and dust evolution inour solar system. As the dust ablates, it produces light, as well as a plasma trail of ionized atmosphericatoms and electrons. These meteor signatures are detected by photographic means, or by radar, but thereremain uncertainties in the luminous efficiency and ionization coefficient of meteors - two parameters thatare essential to evaluate densities, masses, height distributions and fluxes. Precise measurements of theseparameters would allow for not only an understanding of the layers of metal atoms and ions and meteoricsmoke particles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but also would allow for the Earth's atmosphereto be used as a dust detector to detect and characterize the dust environment in our solar system. This work discusses the preliminary results of the new dust ablation facility at the 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) at the University of Colorado, which aims to characterize the ionization coefficient and luminous efficiency of ablating micrometeroids.

  18. Impact of Fermi-LAT and AMS-02 results on cosmic-ray astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews a few topics relevant to Galactic cosmic-ray astrophysics, focusing on the recent AMS-02 data release and Fermi Large Area Telescope data on the diffuse Galactic γ-ray emissivity. Calculations are made of the diffuse cosmic-ray induced p + p → π0 → 2γ spectra, normalized to the AMS-02 cosmic-ray proton spectrum at ≈ 10 - 100 GV, with and without a hardening in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum at rigidities R300 GV. A single power-law momentum "shock" spectrum for the local interstellar medium cosmic-ray proton spectrum cannot be ruled out from the γ-ray emissivity data alone without considering the additional contribution of electron bremsstrahlung. Metallicity corrections are discussed, and a maximal range of nuclear enhancement factors from 1.52 to 1.92 is estimated. Origins of the 300 GV cosmic-ray proton and α-particle hardening are discussed.

  19. Cosmic rays interaction with comets and its impact on cometary isotopic and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, G.; Maggiolo, R.; Mertens, C. J.; Airapetian, V.; De Keyser, J.; Cessateur, G.; Dhooghe, F.; Gunell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Comets contain the most pristine material in the solar system. However, since their formation ~4.5 Gy ago, they have been altered by cosmic rays. The galactic and solar cosmic rays have a broad spectrum of energies and interact with the cometary surface and subsurface. While low energy cosmic rays interact only with the cometary surface, the most energetic cosmic rays deposit significant amount of energy down to tens of meters. This interaction can modify the isotopic ratio in cometary ices and create secondary compounds through radiolysis. We perform a theoretical analysis of the effect of cosmic rays on cometary material. We modeled the energy deposition of cosmic ray as a function of depth using a Geant4 applicationmodified to take into account the isotope creation process. We analyze the consequences of the energy deposition on the isotopic and chemical composition of cometary ices and discuss their implication on the interpretation of cometary observations.

  20. Composite analysis of dust impacts on African easterly waves in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.; Santiago, Myrna J.

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the synoptic scale impacts of African dust on easterly waves in the tropical northeast Atlantic. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer aerosol optical depth (AOD), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration products, and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis fields in the Atlantic main hurricane development region (MDR) form the basis for statistical analysis of a limited set of cases objectively selected for the 2000-2008 hurricane seasons when thresholds are exceeded for sea surface temperature (SST), easterly wind shear, cyclonic vorticity, and upward motion. After ranking African easterly waves by AOD, the top (dusty) and bottom (clean) cases are studied as composite differences. African dust and subsidence cause temperatures to warm ˜3°C in the 700 hPa layer, while SSTs cause temperatures to cool, stabilizing the atmosphere. Increased AOD and strong (10 m s-1) 600 hPa easterly winds limit cloud efficiency through shear and oversupply of condensation nuclei. Vertical section composites demonstrate that warm dry subsident air coincides with the African dust plume in the latitudes 18°N-30°N. Hurricane reanalysis data indicate that higher AOD in the MDR reduces chances for the intensification of African easterly waves.

  1. A new instrument to measure charged and neutral cometary dust particles at low and high impact velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economon, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    A new class of dust particle detector, the PVDF dust detector, was designed for space missions such as the Halley Comet missions where the particle impact velocity is very high. It is demonstrated that this same PVDF detector (operating in a different mode) also has the capability of detecting dust particles having low velocity (approx. 100 m/s). This low velocity detection capability is extremely important in terms of planned missions requiring measurement of low velocity dust particles such as comet rendezvous missions. An additional detecting element (charge induction cylinder) was also developed which, when combined with a PVDF detector, yields a system which will measure the charge (magnitude and sign) carried by a cometary particle as well as the particle velocity and mass for impact velocities in the range 100 to 500 m/s. Since the cylinder-PVDF detector system has a relatively small geometry factors, an array of PVDF detectors was included having a total sensing area of 0.1 sq m for measurements in regions of space where the dust flux is expected to be low. The characteristics of the detectors in this array have been chosen to provide optimum mass sensitivity for both low-velocity cometary dust as well as high-velocity asteroid associated and interplanetary dust.

  2. Characterizing potential water quality impacts from soils treated with dust suppressants.

    PubMed

    Beighley, R Edward; He, Yiping; Valdes, Julio R

    2009-01-01

    Two separate laboratory experiment series, surface runoff and steady-state seepage, were performed to determine if dust suppressant products can be applied to soils with an expected minimal to no negative impact on water quality. The experiments were designed to mimic arid field conditions and used two soils (clayey and sandy) and six different dust suppressants. The two experiments consisted of: (i) simulated rainfall (intensities of 18, 33, or 61 mm h(-1)) and associated runoff from soil trays at a surface slope of 33%; and (ii) steady-state, constant head seepage through soil columns. Both experiment series involved two product application scenarios and three application ages (i.e., to account for degradation effects) for a total of 126 surface runoff and 80 column experiments. One composite effluent sample was collected from each experiment and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate. Paired t tests at 1 and 5% levels of significance and project specific data quality objectives are used to compare water quality parameters from treated and untreated soils. Overall, the results from this laboratory scale study suggest that the studied dust suppressants have minimal potential for adverse impacts to selected water quality parameters. The primary impacts were increased TSS for two synthetic products from the surface runoff experiments on both soils. The increase in TSS was not expected based on previous studies and may be attributed to this study's focus on simulating real-world soil agitation/movement at an active construction site subjected to rough grading.

  3. Experimental investigations of the optical and physical properties of interstellar and lunar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankosic, Dragana

    2010-10-01

    Dust grains constitute a major component of matter in the universe. About half of all elements in the interstellar medium (ISM) heavier than helium are in the form of dust. Dust particles are formed in astrophysical environments by processes such as stellar outflows and supernovae. Ejected into the ISM, they lead to the formation of diffuse and dense molecular clouds of gas and dust. The gas and dust in the interstellar clouds undergo a variety of complex physical and chemical evolutionary processes leading to the formation of stars and planetary systems, forming a cosmic dust cycle. Micron/submicron size cosmic dust grains have a significant role in physical and dynamical processes in the galaxy, the ISM, and the interplanetary and planetary environments. Therefore, the knowledge of the physical, optical, and charging properties of the cosmic dust provides valuable information about many issues related to the role of dust in astrophysical environments. An experimental facility based on an electrodynamic balance (EDB) has been developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for investigation of several different properties and processes of individual, levitated micron/submicron size dust grains in simulated space environments. This dissertation focuses on experimental investigations in the following areas: (1) Radiation pressure on individual micron-sized dust grains; (2) Rotation and alignment of micron-sized dust grains simulating rotation of dust grains in astrophysical environment; (3) Charging of analogs of individual cosmic dust grains and lunar dust grains by UV radiation; (4) Charging of Apollo 11 & 17 lunar dust grains by electron impact simulating the charging of lunar dust by the solar wind plasma. The experimental results obtained on individual micron/submicron-size dust grains in the EDB facility at NASA/MSFC in each of the above four areas were unique and first to be reported. Experimental studies of the physical and optical properties of

  4. Long-term variability of dust optical depths on Mars during MY24-MY32 and their impact on subtropical lower ionosphere: Climatology, modeling, and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheel, Varun; Haider, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Dust optical depths (τ) for nine Martian years (MY24-MY32) in the subtropical region (25-35°S) have been used to classify distinct dust scenarios. These data are based on observations at 9.3 µm from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions and encompass the regional dust storms which occur every year around solar longitude (Ls) ~ 220° and the two major dust storms of MY25 and MY28. Constrained by these observations and the Mars Climate Sounder observations of detached dust layers, we estimate altitude profiles of dust concentrations. We discuss the characteristics of dust aerosol particles of different size between 0.2 and 3.0 µm by assuming a modified gamma distribution. We then use a comprehensive ion-dust model to calculate ion densities and conductivities in the lower ionosphere of Mars in the absence of dust storm at τ = 0.1 and Ls = 150° and for three dust storm periods viz., (1) major dust storm at τ = 1.7 and Ls = 210°, (2) major dust storm at τ = 1.2 and Ls = 280°, and (3) regional dust storm at τ = 0.5 and Ls = 220°. The model with 12 neutral species considers galactic cosmic rays as a source of ionization. Results show that the density of the dominant hydrated cluster ions and the electrical conductivity are reduced by an order of magnitude near the surface for a few months until the dust storm settles down to its normal condition.

  5. Impact features on Stardust: implications for comet 81P/Wild 2 dust.

    PubMed

    Hörz, Friedrich; Bastien, Ron; Borg, Janet; Bradley, John P; Bridges, John C; Brownlee, Donald E; Burchell, Mark J; Chi, Miaofang; Cintala, Mark J; Dai, Zu Rong; Djouadi, Zahia; Dominguez, Gerardo; Economou, Thanasis E; Fairey, Sam A J; Floss, Christine; Franchi, Ian A; Graham, Giles A; Green, Simon F; Heck, Philipp; Hoppe, Peter; Huth, Joachim; Ishii, Hope; Kearsley, Anton T; Kissel, Jochen; Leitner, Jan; Leroux, Hugues; Marhas, Kuljeet; Messenger, Keiko; Schwandt, Craig S; See, Thomas H; Snead, Christopher; Stadermann, Frank J; Stephan, Thomas; Stroud, Rhonda; Teslich, Nick; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M; Tuzzolino, A J; Troadec, David; Tsou, Peter; Warren, Jack; Westphal, Andrew; Wozniakiewicz, Penelope; Wright, Ian; Zinner, Ernst

    2006-12-15

    Particles emanating from comet 81P/Wild 2 collided with the Stardust spacecraft at 6.1 kilometers per second, producing hypervelocity impact features on the collector surfaces that were returned to Earth. The morphologies of these surprisingly diverse features were created by particles varying from dense mineral grains to loosely bound, polymineralic aggregates ranging from tens of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers in size. The cumulative size distribution of Wild 2 dust is shallower than that of comet Halley, yet steeper than that of comet Grigg-Skjellerup.

  6. Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

  7. Global distribution of mineral dust and its impact on radiative fluxes as simulated by WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, Omid; Sturman, Andrew; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2015-12-01

    Dust aerosols make a considerable contribution to the climate system and atmospheric hydrological cycle through their radiative and ice nuclei effects. This underlines the need for investigating the sources of dust aerosols, their transport pathways, and radiative forcing. Seasonal distribution of mineral dust around the globe and its impact on radiation fluxes is estimated using two simulations: a model setup that did not include dust aerosols; and an interactive experiment that included dust aerosols and their feedback to the atmosphere. Simulations were performed by the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model for a 1-year period. The global annual mean dust optical depth (DOD) at 0.55 \\upmum is estimated to be 0.057, with a spring peak value of 0.081 and an autumn minimum value of 0.039. Seasonal variation of atmospheric dust loading is shown to be associated with similar significant variation in shortwave and longwave direct radiation perturbation by dust, both at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). The presence of mineral dust in the interactive simulation is estimated to exert a maximum net direct radiation perturbation in summer with values of -2.85 and -1.63 W m^{-2} in clear-sky conditions at the surface and TOA, respectively. It also exerts a global annual net direct radiation perturbation of -1.86 and -1.09 W m^{-2} at the surface and TOA, respectively. The surface cooling is attributed to the extinction of incoming solar radiation by dust aerosols, while negative perturbation at the TOA (which demonstrates cooling of the Earth-atmosphere system) is predominantly attributed to an increase in outgoing shortwave radiation.

  8. Dust Storm Reduction due to Precipitation and Temperature Enhancement in Northwestern China: A Direct Climatic Impact of Absorbing Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Liou, K.; Chen, W.; Liao, H.

    2009-12-01

    Dust storms originating in the Gobi desert and northwestern China critically impact weather, climate, and public health in China and neighboring Pacific Rim countries. The frequent occurrence of dust storms has been attributed to both deforestation and the changing environment. Dust storm formation is determined by a number of factors, including dryness, wind field, soil type, and precipitation, with precipitation being the most essential factor. Dust storms normally originate in northwestern China where annual precipitation is less than 400 mm, particularly in extremely dry areas (less than 200 mm), including the Taklamakan Desert, Tarim basin area, and Gobi Desert, where the most severe dust storms have been reported. In the decades between 1954 and 2007, reports of annual dust storm occurrences at 753 Chinese meteorological sites and the corresponding amount of total precipitation show a reduction in the occurrence and intensity of dust storms and clearly demonstrate an inverse relationship between the two. The correlation between dust storm occurrence and temperature in northwestern China also displays a negative trend but is less significant. Using a global climate model, we demonstrate that increased loading of light-absorbing aerosols in China, such as black carbon (BC), is the primary reason for precipitation and temperature increases over northwestern China, and the consequence of reductions in dust storm frequency and intensity. The model-simulated precipitation and temperature changes over northwestern China compare reasonably well with observed trends when a certain portion of absorbing aerosols has been added to the model, which significantly affects regional climate patterns through the heating of the air column. Anomalies of the observed annual total dust storm cases during the period from 1954 to 2007 (solid) and the corresponding anomalies of the observed annual mean (a) total precipitation (mm) and (b) surface temperature (C°) (dashed), along

  9. Nano-Particles in Cosmic Plasma Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Ingrid

    2008-09-07

    Astronomical observations and in-situ measurements point to the existence of cosmic nano-particles, but in most cases their material composition and structure are not known. Nano-dust interacts differently than larger dust with the cosmic radiation and plasma environment. Its dynamics and behavior upon collision is not well studied.

  10. Impact of intensive dust outbreaks on marine primary production as seen by satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimas, Christos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The impact of intensive dust outbreaks from the African continent on the marine primary production of the Mediterranean sea is here investigated using MODIS satellite observations of atmospheric aerosol optical depth and chlorophyll-a in the seawater. Dust outbreak episodes in the area are detected based on aerosol relevant satellite observations over a 12-year period from 2003 to 2014. For a total of 167 identified episodes, correlations between aerosol optical depth and chlorophyll-a are investigated both on regional and on a pixel by pixel basis as well as for simultaneous or time-lagged satellite observations. The identified co-variations are thoroughly discussed in view of the impact of nutrient atmospheric deposition on the marine biology in the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA - PANOPLY (Pollution Alters Natural Aerosol Composition: implications for Ocean Productivity, cLimate and air qualitY) grant.

  11. Evaluating aerosol impacts on Numerical Weather Prediction in two extreme dust and biomass-burning events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Samuel; Benedetti, Angela; Jones, Luke; Razinger, Miha; Haiden, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The WMO-sponsored Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE) set up a project aimed at understanding the importance of aerosols for numerical weather prediction (NWP). Three cases are being investigated by several NWP centres with aerosol capabilities: a severe dust case that affected Southern Europe in April 2012, a biomass burning case in South America in September 2012, and an extreme pollution event in Beijing (China) which took place in January 2013. At ECMWF these cases are being studied using the MACC-II system with radiatively interactive aerosols. Some preliminary results related to the dust and the fire event will be presented here. A preliminary verification of the impact of the aerosol-radiation direct interaction on surface meteorological parameters such as 2m Temperature and surface winds over the region of interest will be presented. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) verification using AERONET data will also be discussed. For the biomass burning case, the impact of using injection heights estimated by a Plume Rise Model (PRM) for the biomass burning emissions will be presented.

  12. Cosmic ray impact on extrasolar earth-like planets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Griessmeier, J-M; Stadelmann, A; Motschmann, U; Belisheva, N K; Lammer, H; Biernat, H K

    2005-10-01

    Because of their different origins, cosmic rays can be subdivided into galactic cosmic rays and solar/stellar cosmic rays. The flux of cosmic rays to planetary surfaces is mainly determined by two planetary parameters: the atmospheric density and the strength of the internal magnetic moment. If a planet exhibits an extended magnetosphere, its surface will be protected from high-energy cosmic ray particles. We show that close-in extrasolar planets in the habitable zone of M stars are synchronously rotating with their host star because of the tidal interaction. For gravitationally locked planets the rotation period is equal to the orbital period, which is much longer than the rotation period expected for planets not subject to tidal locking. This results in a relatively small magnetic moment. We found that an Earth-like extrasolar planet, tidally locked in an orbit of 0.2 AU around an M star of 0.5 solar masses, has a rotation rate of 2% of that of the Earth. This results in a magnetic moment of less than 15% of the Earth's current magnetic moment. Therefore, close-in extrasolar planets seem not to be protected by extended Earth-like magnetospheres, and cosmic rays can reach almost the whole surface area of the upper atmosphere. Primary cosmic ray particles that interact with the atmosphere generate secondary energetic particles, a so-called cosmic ray shower. Some of the secondary particles can reach the surface of terrestrial planets when the surface pressure of the atmosphere is on the order of 1 bar or less. We propose that, depending on atmospheric pressure, biological systems on the surface of Earth-like extrasolar planets at close-in orbital distances can be strongly influenced by secondary cosmic rays.

  13. An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

  14. An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas.

  15. Experimental modeling of impact of space dust and debris on flying vehicles and their components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, B. D.

    2011-06-01

    For modeling the space dust and debris effect on flying vehicles, an investigation of the low-velocity impact of corundum and tungsten powders, accelerated by explosion, with particle size up to 50 microns on steel and duralumin targets was carried out. Also studied was the impact of sewing needles against metal and dielectric barriers, antimeteor shield models, and duralumin containers with hard materials, gunpowder, and explosives. At impact of powders at velocities of up to 2 km/s and needles at a velocity of up to 0.5 km/s against metals, the channels arose with lengths greater than 100 and 50 diameters of a striker. At impact of needles, the containers with hard explosive materials were destroyed because of ignition of their contents, and containers with plastic explosive were punched through, and no burning occurred. The energy, released at destruction of plexiglas blocks and containers with hard materials, many times exceeded the impact energy due to release of the elastic energy stored in them.

  16. Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.

  17. Potential Impacts of Pollution Aerosol and Dust Acting As Cloud-Nucleating Aerosol on Precipitation in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, V.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The southwest US has huge demands on water resources. The Colorado River Basin (CRB) is potentially affected by anthropogenic aerosol pollution and dust acting as cloud-nucleating aerosol as well as impacting snowpack albedo.The specific objective of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains for the years 2005-2006. We examine the combined effects of anthropogenic pollution aerosol and dust serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and giant CCN(GCCN) on precipitation in the CRB. Anthropogenic pollution can enhance droplet concentrations, and decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming largely via the "spillover" effect. Dust can serve as IN and enhance precipitation in wintertime orographic clouds. Dust coated with sulfates or originating over dry lake beds can serve as GCCN which when wetted can result in larger cloud droplets and thereby enhance the warm-rain collision and coalescence process and ice particle riming. But smaller dust particles coated with sulfates, can decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming similar to anthropogenic pollution aerosols. The Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6.0 is used for this study. RAMS was modified to ingest GEOS-CHEM output data and periodically update aerosol fields. GEOS-CHEM is a chemical transport model which uses assimilated meteorological data from the NASA Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS). The aerosol data comprise a sum of hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon and organic aerosol, hydrophilic SOAs, hydrocarbon oxidation and inorganic aerosols (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium). In addition, a RAMS-based dust source and transport model is used. Preliminary analysis suggests pollution dominates over dust resulting in a decrease in precipitation via the spillover effect. Dust serving as GCCN and IN tend to enhance ice

  18. Identification of Possible Interstellar Dust Impact Craters on Stardust Foil I033N,1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A.; ISPE Team; 29,000 Stardust@home Dusters

    2011-12-01

    The Interstellar Dust Collector onboard NASA's Stardust Mission - the first to return solid extraterrestrial material to Earth from beyond the Moon - was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total of 229 days prior to the spacecraft's return in 2006 [1]. Aluminum foils and aerogel tiles on the collector may have captured the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) focuses in part on crater identification and analysis of residue within the craters to determine the nature and origin of the impacting particles. Thus far, ISPE has focused on nine foils and found a total of 20 craters. The number density of impact craters on the foils exceeds by far estimates made from interstellar flux calculations [2]. To identify craters, foil I1033N,1 was scanned with the Field Museum's Evo 60 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at a resolution of 52 nm/pixel with a 15 kV and 170-240 pA beam. Contamination was monitored according to the ISPE protocol: four 4 μm × 3 μm areas of C layers of different thicknesses on a Stardust-type Al foil were irradiated 20 times for 50 s each, while the C and Al signals were recorded with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The C/Al ratio did not increase after 20 repetitions on each of the four areas. The same experiment repeated 7 months later yielded identical results. Thus, analysis with the SEM results in no detectable contamination. Crater candidates were manually selected from SEM images, then reimaged at higher resolution (17 nm/pixel) in order to eliminate false detections. The foil was then sent to Washington University for Auger Nanoprobe elemental analysis of crater 11_175 (diam. 1.1 μm), and to the Naval Research Laboratory for focused ion beam work and transmission electron microscopy and EDS. Twelve crater candidates (diam. 0.28 - 1.1 μm), both elliptical and circular, were identified. The number density of craters on foil 1033N is 15.8 cm^-2. Auger measurements

  19. External photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs in sparse stellar groups: the impact of dust growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Stefano; Clarke, Cathie J.; Bisbas, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the mass-loss rates of photoevaporative winds launched from the outer edge of protoplanetary discs impinged by an ambient radiation field. We focus on mild/moderate environments (the number of stars in the group/cluster is N ≳ 50), and explore disc sizes ranging between 20 and 250 au. We evaluate the steady-state structures of the photoevaporative winds by coupling temperature estimates obtained with a photodissociation region code with 1D radial hydrodynamical equations. We also consider the impact of dust dragging and grain growth on the final mass-loss rates. We find that these winds are much more significant than have been appreciated hitherto when grain growth is included in the modelling: in particular, mass-loss rates ≳10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are predicted even for modest background field strengths (≳30 G0) in the case of discs that extend to R > 150 au. Grain growth significantly affects the final mass-loss rates by reducing the average cross-section at far-ultraviolet wavelengths, and thus allowing a much more vigorous flow. The radial profiles of observable quantities (in particular surface density, temperature and velocity patterns) indicate that these winds have characteristic features that are now potentially observable with ALMA. In particular, such discs should have extended gaseous emission that is dust depleted in the outer regions, characterized by a non-Keplerian rotation curve, and with a radially increasing temperature gradient.

  20. Rapid Extraction of Dust Impact Tracks from Silica Aerogel by Ultrasonic Micro-blades

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H; Graham, G; Kearsley, A T; Grant, P G; Snead, C J; Bradley, J P

    2005-02-17

    In January 2006, NASA's Stardust Mission will return with its valuable cargo of cometary dust particles, the first brought back to Earth, captured at hypervelocity speeds in silica aerogel collectors. Aerogel, a proven capture medium, is also a candidate for future sample return missions and low-earth orbit (LEO) deployments. Critical to the science return of Stardust and future missions using aerogel is the ability to efficiently extract impacted particles from collector tiles. Researchers will be eager to obtain Stardust samples as quickly as possible, and tools for the rapid extraction of particle impact tracks that require little construction, training, or investment would be an attractive asset. To this end, we have experimented with diamond and steel micro-blades. Applying ultrasonic frequency oscillations to these micro-blades via a piezo-driven holder produces rapid, clean cuts in the aerogel with minimal damage to the surrounding collector tile. With this approach, impact tracks in aerogel fragments with low-roughness cut surfaces have been extracted from aerogel tiles flown on NASA's Orbital Debris Collector Experiment. The smooth surfaces produced during cutting reduce imaging artifacts during analysis by SEM. Some tracks have been dissected to expose the main cavity for eventual isolation of individual impact debris particles and further analysis by techniques such as TEM and nanoSIMS.

  1. Rapid extraction of dust impact tracks from silica aerogel by ultrasonic microblades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, H. A.; Graham, G. A.; Kearsley, A. T.; Grant, P. G.; Snead, C. J.; Bradley, J. P.

    2005-11-01

    In January 2006, NASA's Stardust mission will return with its valuable cargo of the first cometary dust particles captured at hypervelocity speeds in silica aerogel collectors and brought back to Earth. Aerogel, a proven capture medium, is also a candidate for future sample return missions and low-Earth orbit (LEO) deployments. Critical to the science return of Stardust as well as future missions that will use aerogel is the ability to efficiently extract impacted particles from collector tiles. Researchers will be eager to obtain Stardust samples as quickly as possible; tools for the rapid extraction of particle impact tracks that require little construction, training, or investment would be an attractive asset. To this end, we have experimented with diamond and steel microblades. Applying ultrasonic frequency oscillations to these microblades via a piezo-driven holder produces rapid, clean cuts in the aerogel with minimal damage to the surrounding collector tile. With this approach, intact impact tracks and associated particles in aerogel fragments with low-roughness cut surfaces have been extracted from aerogel tiles flown on NASA's Orbital Debris Collector (ODC) experiment. The smooth surfaces produced during cutting reduce imaging artifacts during analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some tracks have been dissected to expose the main cavity for eventual isolation of individual impact debris particles and further analysis using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS).

  2. Elemental analyses of hypervelocity micro-particle impact sites on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. R.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity micro-particles that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 to 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. These discharge features, which include 50 micron diameter areas where the aluminum top layer has been vaporized, facilitate the location of the impacts. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allow detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of micro-particle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts are corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results are used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural' or 'indeterminate'. The last classification results from the presence of too little impactor residue (a frequent occurrence on leading edge impacts), analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon residue, the limited usefulness of data on aluminum in the central craters, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. A

  3. Velocity of dust impacting the IS (Impact Sensors) of GIADA, instrument on board Rosetta, evaluated by means of improved calibration curves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Sordini, Roberto; Ivanovski, Stavro; Ferrari, Marco; Lucarelli, Francesca; Accolla, Mario; Rotundi, Alessandra; Fulle, Marco

    2015-04-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator) on-board Rosetta measures the momentum of impacting cometary dust particle by means of the Impact Sensor (IS). The particle speed measurement is given by the time of flight between the GDS (Grain detection System), a laser curtain able to detect each dust grain entering GIADA, and the IS. These two measurements combined determine the mass of each detected grain. An extended calibration activity, performed on the GIADA Flight Spare Model (PFM), allowed us to obtain measurements, momenta and velocities, of a large number of single dust grains of different materials selected as cometary analogues for which a prior physical-chemical characterization was performed. Not all the grains entering GIADA are detected by the two detection systems, i.e. IS and GDS, thus not for all the detected grains it is possible to measure the speed. Nevertheless, we checked the possibility of deriving the speed of IS only detections. To this aim we characterized the response of the IS with respect to both the momentum and the kinetic energy of the cometary analogue grains shot into the GIADA PFM. We classified the responses considering: the density, the hardness and the fluffiness of the impacting cometary analogue particles. By means of these results we are able not only to determine the mass and speed of dust grains detected by the IS only, but also to evaluate their density, hardness and fluffiness.

  4. Analysis of Cometary Dust Impact Residues in the Aluminum Foil Craters of Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. A.; Kearsley, A. T.; Vicenzi, E. P.; Teslich, N.; Dai, Z. R.; Rost, D.; Horz, F.; Bradley, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    In January 2006, the sample return capsule from NASA s Stardust spacecraft successfully returned to Earth after its seven year mission to comet Wild-2. While the principal capture medium for comet dust was low-density graded silica aerogel, the 1100 series aluminum foil (approximately 100 m thick) which wrapped around the T6064 aluminum frame of the sample tray assembly (STA) contains micro-craters that constitute an additional repository for Wild-2 dust. Previous studies of similar craters on spacecraft surfaces, e.g. the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), have shown that impactor material can be preserved for elemental and mineralogical characterization, although the quantity of impact residue in Stardust craters far exceeds previous missions. The degree of shock-induced alteration experienced by the Wild-2 particles impacting on foil will generally be greater than for those captured in the low-density aerogel. However, even some of the residues found in LDEF craters showed not only survival of crystalline silicates but even their solar flare tracks, which are extremely fragile structures and anneal at around 600 C. Laboratory hypervelocity experiments, using analogues of Wild-2 particles accelerated into flight-grade foils under conditions close to those of the actual encounter, showed retention of abundant projectile residues at the Stardust encounter velocity of 6.1 km/s. During the preliminary examination (PE) of the returned foils, using optical and electron microscopy studies, a diverse range in size and morphologies of micro-craters was identified. In this abstract we consider the state of residue preservation in a diverse range of craters with respect to their elemental composition and inferred mineralogy of the original projectiles.

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination X: Impact Speeds and Directions of Interstellar Grains on the Stardust Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterken, Veerle J.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Altobelli, Nicolas; Grun, Eberhard; Hillier, Jon K.; Postberg, Frank; Allen, Carlton; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an interstellar dust model compatible with Ulysses and Galileo observations, we calculate and predict the trajectories of interstellar dust (ISD) in the solar system and the distribution of the impact speeds, directions, and flux of ISD particles on the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector during the two collection periods of the mission. We find that the expected impact velocities are generally low (less than 10 km per second) for particles with the ratio of the solar radiation pressure force to the solar gravitational force beta greater than 1, and that some of the particles will impact on the cometary side of the collector. If we assume astronomical silicates for particle material and a density of 2 grams per cubic centimeter, and use the Ulysses measurements and the ISD trajectory simulations, we conclude that the total number of (detectable) captured ISD particles may be on the order of 50. In companion papers in this volume, we report the discovery of three interstellar dust candidates in the Stardust aerogel tiles. The impact directions and speeds of these candidates are consistent with those calculated from our ISD propagation model, within the uncertainties of the model and of the observations.

  6. Physics of interplanetary dust capture via impact into organic polymer foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William W.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of hypervelocity impacts into foams is of interest because of the possible application to interplanetary dust particle (IDP) capture by spacecraft. We present a model for the phenomena occurring in such impacts into low-density organic polymer foams. Particles smaller than foam cells behave as if the foam is a series of solid slabs and are fragmented and, at higher velocities, thermally altered. Particles much larger than the foam cells behave as if the foam were a continuum, allowing the use of a continuum mechanics model to describe the effects of drag and ablation. Fragmentation is expected to be a major process, especially for aggregates of small grains. Calculations based on these arguments accurately predict experimental data and, for hypothetical IDPs, indicate that recovery of organic materials will be low for encounter velocities greater than 5 km/s. For an organic particle 100 micrometers in diameter, approx. 35% of the original mass would be collected in an impact at 5 km/s, dropping to approx. 10% at 10 km/s and approx. 0% at 15 km/s. For the same velocities the recovery ratios for troilite (FeS) are approx. 95%, 65%, and 50%, and for olivine (Mg2SiO4) they are approx. 98%, 80%, and 65%, demonstrating that inorganic materials are much more easily collected. The density of the collector material has only a second-order effect, changing the recovered mass by less than 10% of the original mass.

  7. Local impacts of Saharan dust on convection and on the monsoon circulation during the pre-onset and the established monsoon periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaysse, C.; Flamant, C.; Grabowski, W. W.; Chaboureau, J.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the local impacts of dust on the West African monsoon circulation. Using different regional models (Meso-NH and WRF), dust schemes have been used to quantify the impacts of dust on convection and on the main components of the West African monsoon, such as the West African Heat Low (WAHL), African Easterly Waves (AEWs), monsoon and Harmatan winds. Two different periods have been simulated, one in 2006, during the AMMA campaign, investigated a 6-day pulsation of the West African heat low (WAHL) in summertime (14 to 20 July), with convective rainfall and dust bursts being observed over the Sahel at the beginning and end of the episode. Three Meso-NH simulations were designed which differed in their dust representation. This study highlights two effects of dust on the WAHL over the Sahara: a so-called direct effect associated with dust radiative heating, which increases the WAHL thickness, and a so called indirect effect that intensifies both the African easterly jet and a related African easterly wave. Using the observation provided by the FENNEC international project in June 2011, a second study has been done to better understand the local impacts of the dust during the pre-onset period, when the dust load in the mid-troposphere appears large. Using WRF simulations in an ensemble system, the sensitivity of the monsoon circulation to direct and indirect effects of the dust have been compared to the sensitivity of the large-scale forcings.

  8. Electrical Evolution of a Dust Plume from a Low Energy Lunar Impact: A Model Analog to LCROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Jackson, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Schultz, P. H.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Marshall, J. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo test particle model was developed that simulates the charge evolution of micron and sub-micron sized dust grains ejected upon low-energy impact of a moderate-size object onto a lunar polar crater floor. Our analog is the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater. Our primary objective is to model grain discharging as the plume propagates upwards from shadowed crater into sunlight.

  9. Impact of Cosmic Variance on the Galaxy–Halo Connection for Lyα Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía-Restrepo, Julián E.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cosmic variance and observational uncertainties in constraining the mass and occupation fraction, {f}{{occ}}, of dark matter (DM) halos hosting Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) at high redshift. To this end, we construct mock catalogs from an N-body simulation to match the typical size of observed fields at z = 3.1 (˜ 1 {\\deg }2). In our model a DM halo with mass in the range {M}{{\\min }}\\lt {M}{{h}}\\lt {M}{{\\max }} can only host one detectable LAE at most. We proceed to explore the parameter space determined by {M}{{\\min }}, {M}{{\\max }}, and {f}{{occ}} with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm using the angular correlation function and the LAEs’ number density as observational constraints. We find that the preferred minimum and maximum masses in our model span a wide range {10}10.0{h}-1{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}{{\\min }}≤slant {10}11.1{h}-1{M}ȯ , {10}11.0{h}-1{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}{{\\max }}≤slant {10}13.0{h}-1{M}ȯ , followed by a wide range in the occupation fraction 0.02≤slant {f}{{occ}}≤slant 0.30. As a consequence, the median mass, M 50, of all the consistent models has a large uncertainty {M}50={3.16}-2.37+9.34× {10}10 {h}-1{M}ȯ . However, we find that the same individual models have a relatively tight 1σ scatter around the median mass {{Δ }}{M}1σ ={0.55}-0.31+0.11 dex. We are also able to show that {f}{{occ}} is uniquely determined by {M}{{\\min }}, regardless of {M}{{\\max }}. We argue that upcoming large surveys covering at least 25 deg2 should be able to put tighter constraints on {M}{{\\min }} and {f}{{occ}} through the LAE number density distribution width constructed over several fields of ˜1 deg2.

  10. Age Impacts Pulmonary Inflammation and Systemic Bone Response to Inhaled Organic Dust Exposure.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jill A; Romberger, Debra J; Wyatt, Todd A; Staab, Elizabeth; VanDeGraaff, Joel; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Dusad, Anand; Klassen, Lynell W; Duryee, Michael J; Mikuls, Ted R; West, William W; Wang, Dong; Bailey, Kristina L

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural workers have high rates of airway and skeletal health disease. Studies recently demonstrated that inhaled agricultural organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway injury is associated with bone deterioration in an animal model. However, the effect of age in governing these responses to organic dusts is unclear, but might be important in future approaches. Young (7-9 wk) and older (12-14,o) male C57BL/6 mice received intranasal (i.n.) inhalation exposure to ODE from swine confinement facilities once or daily for 3 wk. Acute ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine and chemokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant [CXCL1], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [CXCL2]) airway production were reduced in older compared to young mice. Repetitive ODE treatment, however, increased lymphocyte recruitment and alveolar compartment histopathologic inflammatory changes in older mice. Whole lung cell infiltrate analysis revealed that young, but not older, mice repetitively treated with ODE demonstrated an elevated CD4:CD8 lymphocyte response. Acute inhalant ODE exposure resulted in a 4-fold and 1.5-fold rise in blood neutrophils in young and older mice, respectively. Serum IL-6 and CXCL1 levels were elevated in young and older mice i.n. exposed once to ODE, with increased CXCL1 levels in younger compared to older mice. Although older mice displayed reduced bone measurements compared to younger mice, younger rodents demonstrated ODE-induced decrease in bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone microarchitecture quality as determined by computed tomography (CT) analysis. Collectively, age impacts the airway injury and systemic inflammatory and bone loss response to inhalant ODE, suggesting an altered and enhanced immunologic response in younger as compared to older counterparts.

  11. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  12. Organic chemistry of cosmic dusts for understanding an intra-relationship between meteorites and comets: Toward a new frontier of astromaterial science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    and terrestrial contamination will be expected. A silica aerogel (0.03 and 0.01 g/cc) will be used for the sampling. As a ground-based experiment, we have been conducting a carefully-implemented, high-velocity double gas gun experiment of Murshison meteorite grains into a silica aerogel. It has been concluded that a major portion of aromatic carbon compositions of meteoritic organics are preserved at an impact velocity of 4 km/s, but the decrease of abundances of aliphatic carbon and slight modification of their compositions (e.g., CH2/CH3 ratio) are observed after the impact. This result will provide helpful knowledge not only for the correct interpretation of the chemical compositions of the collected IDP organics but also for that of comet dust particles collected by Stardust mission. References: [1] Brearley et al. (2006) Science 314, 1711. [2] Sandford et al. (2006) Science 314, 1720. [3] Cody et al. (2008) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 43, 353. [4] Messenger et al. (2000) Nature 404, 968. [5] Flynn et al. (2003). [6] Keller et al. (2004) GCA 68, 2577. [7] Busemann et al. (2009) EPSL 288, 44. [8] Nakamura et al. (2005) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 40, A110. [9] Duprat et al (2010) Science, 328, 742. [10] Yabuta et al. (2012) LPSC Abstract #2239

  13. Impacts of Asian Dust and Haze Particles Addition on Phytoplankton in Incubation Experiments in the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Y.; Shi, J.; Yao, X.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition (AD) induced by dust events and air pollutants has been considered as an important source of bio-available nutrients such as N, P, Si and trace metals (e.g., Fe, Cu, Pb) to the oceans. The coastal seas of China are severely affected by AD from Asian dust events and haze episodes, especially in spring and winter. In this study, several on-board incubation experiments were performed in the Yellow Sea of China during 2011 - 2014, to explore the responses of micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton to various combinations of Asian dust, nutrients and haze particles by measuring the size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. In the experiments of Asian dust addition, the concentration of Chl a and the conversion efficiency index of N into Chl a increased by up to ~40 % and ~30 %, respectively, compared to the control, showing enhancement effects on the growth of phytoplankton. The addition of haze particles exhibited more obvious promotions of pico-phytoplankton growth, but more severe inhibitions of micro-phytoplankton growth than other treatments. The incubation experiments conducted in the Yellow Sea also indicated P limitation variations in spring and summer. It was inferred that both Asian dust and haze particles additions had significant impacts on the growth and structure of phytoplankton by modulating the limiting factors.

  14. Elemental analyses of hypervelocity microparticle impact sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, Jim J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to break down the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SIO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results were used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade,' 'natural,' or 'indeterminate.' The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters of these features. Thus far a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF have been analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or East, side), 18 from tray C-3

  15. HD/H2 as a Probe of the Roles of Gas, Dust, Light, Metallicity, and Cosmic Rays in Promoting the Growth of Molecular Hydrogen in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    We modeled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and {H_2} in the Milky Way and toward damped/subdamped Lyα systems at z = 0.18 and z >1.7. N(HD)/N({H_2}) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and {H_2} and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with 16 cm-3 <~ n(H) <~ 128 cm-3 if the cosmic-ray ionization rate per H nucleus ζ H =2 × 10-16 s-1, as inferred from H3 + and OH+. The dominant influence on N(HD)/N({H_2}) is the cosmic-ray ionization rate with a much weaker downward dependence on n(H) at solar metallicity, but dust extinction can drive N(HD) higher as with N({H_2}). At z > 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10 times smaller N({H_2}) and somewhat smaller N({H_2})/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy with the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller {H_2}/H is expected at subsolar metallicity, and we show by modeling that HD/{H_2} increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Milky Way. Observations of HD would be explained with higher n(H) at low metallicity, but high-z systems have high HD/{H_2} at metallicity 0.04 <~ Z <~ 2 solar. In parallel, we trace dust extinction and self-shielding effects. The abrupt {H_2} transition to {H_2}/H ≈ 1%-10% occurs mostly from self-shielding, although it is assisted by extinction for n(H) <~ 16 cm-3. Interior {H_2} fractions are substantially increased by dust extinction below <~ 32 cm-3. At smaller n(H), ζ H , small increases in {H_2} triggered by dust extinction can trigger abrupt increases in N(HD).

  16. HD/H{sub 2} AS A PROBE OF THE ROLES OF GAS, DUST, LIGHT, METALLICITY, AND COSMIC RAYS IN PROMOTING THE GROWTH OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Liszt, H. S.

    2015-01-20

    We modeled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and H{sub 2} in the Milky Way and toward damped/subdamped Lyα systems at z = 0.18 and z >1.7. N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and H{sub 2} and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with 16 cm{sup –3} ≲ n(H) ≲ 128 cm{sup –3} if the cosmic-ray ionization rate per H nucleus ζ {sub H} =2 × 10{sup –16} s{sup –1}, as inferred from H{sub 3} {sup +} and OH{sup +}. The dominant influence on N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) is the cosmic-ray ionization rate with a much weaker downward dependence on n(H) at solar metallicity, but dust extinction can drive N(HD) higher as with N(H{sub 2}). At z > 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10 times smaller N(H{sub 2}) and somewhat smaller N(H{sub 2})/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy with the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller H{sub 2}/H is expected at subsolar metallicity, and we show by modeling that HD/H{sub 2} increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Milky Way. Observations of HD would be explained with higher n(H) at low metallicity, but high-z systems have high HD/H{sub 2} at metallicity 0.04 ≲ Z ≲ 2 solar. In parallel, we trace dust extinction and self-shielding effects. The abrupt H{sub 2} transition to H{sub 2}/H ≈ 1%-10% occurs mostly from self-shielding, although it is assisted by extinction for n(H) ≲ 16 cm{sup –3}. Interior H{sub 2} fractions are substantially increased by dust extinction below ≲ 32 cm{sup –3}. At smaller n(H), ζ {sub H}, small increases in H{sub 2} triggered by dust extinction can trigger abrupt increases in N(HD)

  17. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassa, M.; Rapp, M.; Hartquist, T. W.; Havnes, O.

    2012-03-01

    We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE) dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  18. The Light Curve Of The Dust Cloud Ejected By The Collision Between The Deep Impact Projectile And The Nucleus Of Comet 9P/Tempel 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Rengel, M.; Keller, H. U.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.

    2007-10-01

    When Deep Impact fired its projectile into the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1, a cloud made of dust and icy grains was ejected from the impact crater. The dust was subsequently accelerated by gas drag. About a week after the impact event, the dust cloud had dispersed due to its expansion and the force exerted by solar radiation pressure. The light curve of the dust cloud contains information about its formation and evolution: The time scale of production of impact created material can be derived from the time scale of the brightness increase. The velocity distribution of the cloud is indicative of acceleration processes in the inner coma of the comet. Finally, the abundance of large dust particles created by the impact can be estimated from the brightness of the cloud several days after the impact when small particles have been pushed away by radiation pressure. Here we analyze data obtained by the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of OSIRIS onboard the ESA spacecraft Rosetta to derive the velocity distribution of the dust cloud from an inversion of its light curve. OSIRIS observed comet Tempel 1 near-continuously for more than two weeks around the impact. A model of the expansion of the ejecta is compared to the light curve seen by the NAC. We derive a broad velocity distribution of the dust particles, which peaks at around 225 m/s, in good agreement with published estimates. The velocities suggest that the impact ejecta were quickly accelerated by gas in the cometary coma. We will discuss implications of our results for the evolution of the dust cloud during the first hours after the impact and provide estimates of the released dust mass. OSIRIS is funded by the agencies ASI, CNES, DLR, the Spanish Space Program (Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia), SNSB, and ESA.

  19. Dust collection on serviceable satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A., III

    1986-01-01

    One rationale for the Space Shuttle program which was dramatically realized during the repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) is the efficiency of in-orbit satellite servicing. An unexpected benefit of this repair mission was the return of parts of the Solar Max satellite which had been exposed for four years to the space environment. Studies conducted on these parts have yielded valuable data on the micrometeorite flux and composition at shuttle altitudes during this time period. The scientific results from studies of the cosmic dust component of the observed particle impacts are not yet complete but it is clear from the preliminary data available that such studies will be a valuable adjunct to the studies of cosmic dust particles collected in the atmosphere. The success of the initial studies of particles collected during repairs of the SMM spacecraft on a surface not specifically designed as a particle collector nor retrieved in a manner intended to minimize or eliminate local contamination raises the possibility that even more interesting results might be obtained if serviceable satellites were initially designed with these objectives in mind. All designs for modern satellites utilize some form of thermal blanket material in order to minimize thermal stresses inside the spacecraft. It is proposed that all future satellites be designed with standardized removeable sections of thermal blanket material which could be replaced during on-orbit servicing and returned to earth for detailed study.

  20. PNAS Plus: Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, Ted E.; Hermes, Robert E.; Moore, Andrew M. T.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Weaver, James C.; Wittke, James H.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Bischoff, James L.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Howard, George A.; Kimbel, David R.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Lipo, Carl P.; Sakai, Sachiko; Revay, Zsolt; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B.; Kennett, James P.

    2012-07-01

    It has been proposed that fragments of an asteroid or comet impacted Earth, deposited silica-and iron-rich microspherules and other proxies across several continents, and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling episode 12,900 years ago. Although many independent groups have confirmed the impact evidence, the hypothesis remains controversial because some groups have failed to do so. We examined sediment sequences from 18 dated Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) sites across three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia), spanning 12,000 km around nearly one-third of the planet. All sites display abundant microspherules in the YDB with none or few above and below. In addition, three sites (Abu Hureyra, Syria; Melrose, Pennsylvania; and Blackville, South Carolina) display vesicular, high-temperature, siliceous scoria-like objects, or SLOs, that match the spherules geochemically. We compared YDB objects with melt products from a known cosmic impact (Meteor Crater, Arizona) and from the 1945 Trinity nuclear airburst in Socorro, New Mexico, and found that all of these high-energy events produced material that is geochemically and morphologically comparable, including: (i) high-temperature, rapidly quenched microspherules and SLOs; (ii) corundum, mullite, and suessite (Fe3Si), a rare meteoritic mineral that forms under high temperatures; (iii) melted SiO2 glass, or lechatelierite, with flow textures (or schlieren) that form at > 2,200 °C; and (iv) particles with features indicative of high-energy interparticle collisions. These results are inconsistent with anthropogenic, volcanic, authigenic, and cosmic materials, yet consistent with cosmic ejecta, supporting the hypothesis of extraterrestrial airbursts/impacts 12,900 years ago. The wide geographic distribution of SLOs is consistent with multiple impactors.

  1. Elemental Analyses of Hypervelocity Microparticle Impact Sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment Sensor Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, J. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results classification resulted from the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural', or 'indeterminate'. The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. Thus far, a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF were analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or east, side), 18 from tray C-3 (Trailing

  2. Health impact from climatic extremes: a case study of Asian dust storms in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Yi-Jen; Chien, Lung-Chang; Yang, Chiang-Hsin; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Asian dust storm (ADS) originates in the deserts of Mongolia and northern China in every winter and spring seasons, and its impacts on adverse human health were widely investigated and discussed. Recent records show that the frequency and magnitude of ADS are increasing due to changes of environmental and climatic conditions. It is worthwhile to investigate the health impact of these environmental extremes. This study applies a structural spatiotemporal modeling approach to investigate the changes of spatiotemporal variation of a health indicator during and after ADS periods. The health indicator is the daily clinic visits of conjunctivitis in the children population during 2002-2007 among 41 districts across Taipei City and New Taipei City in Taiwan. Results show positively significant effects of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits happened during ADS periods with elevated percentages of relative rate by 1.48% (95% CI = 0.79, 2.17) for preschool children (0~6 years of age) and 9.48% (95% CI = 9.03, 9.93) for schoolchildren (7~14 years of age). The impact even lasted one week after ADS finished by 2.32% (95% CI = 1.98, 2.66) for schoolchildren, but not for preschool children. Moreover, air pollutants NO2 and O3 also contributed significant influence. The spatial pattern of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits demonstrates that stronger spatial vulnerabilities occurred in most populated metropolitan districts in Taipei. Hence, we concluded that ADS may significantly increase the risks of children's conjunctivitis during ADS periods and one week after ADS periods, especially in schoolchildren.

  3. Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Wan, Hui; Qian, Yun; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of sub-grid variability of surface wind on sea salt and dust emissions in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The basic strategy is to calculate emission fluxes multiple times, using different wind speed samples of a Weibull probability distribution derived from model-predicted grid-box mean quantities. In order to derive the Weibull distribution, the sub-grid standard deviation of surface wind speed is estimated by taking into account four mechanisms: turbulence under neutral and stable conditions, dry convective eddies, moist convective eddies over the ocean, and air motions induced by mesoscale systems and fine-scale topography over land. The contributions of turbulence and dry convective eddy are parameterized using schemes from the literature. Wind variabilities caused by moist convective eddies and fine-scale topography are estimated using empirical relationships derived from an operational weather analysis data set at 15 km resolution. The estimated sub-grid standard deviations of surface wind speed agree well with reference results derived from 1 year of global weather analysis at 15 km resolution and from two regional model simulations with 3 km grid spacing.The wind-distribution-based emission calculations are implemented in CAM5. In terms of computational cost, the increase in total simulation time turns out to be less than 3 %. Simulations at 2° resolution indicate that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts (about 7 % increase) on the global annual mean emission of sea salt aerosols, but considerable influence on the emission of dust. Among the considered mechanisms, dry convective eddies and mesoscale flows associated with topography are major causes of dust emission enhancement. With all the four mechanisms included and without additional adjustment of uncertain parameters in the model, the simulated global and annual mean dust emission increase by about 50 % compared to the default model

  4. Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Wan, Hui; Qian, Yun; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-02-12

    This paper evaluates the impact of sub-grid variability of surface wind on sea salt and dust emissions in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The basic strategy is to calculate emission fluxes multiple times, using different wind speed samples of a Weibull probability distribution derived from model-predicted grid-box mean quantities. In order to derive the Weibull distribution, the sub-grid standard deviation of surface wind speed is estimated by taking into account four mechanisms: turbulence under neutral and stable conditions, dry convective eddies, moist convective eddies over the ocean, and air motions induced by mesoscale systems and fine-scale topography overmore » land. The contributions of turbulence and dry convective eddy are parameterized using schemes from the literature. Wind variabilities caused by moist convective eddies and fine-scale topography are estimated using empirical relationships derived from an operational weather analysis data set at 15 km resolution. The estimated sub-grid standard deviations of surface wind speed agree well with reference results derived from 1 year of global weather analysis at 15 km resolution and from two regional model simulations with 3 km grid spacing.The wind-distribution-based emission calculations are implemented in CAM5. In terms of computational cost, the increase in total simulation time turns out to be less than 3 %. Simulations at 2° resolution indicate that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts (about 7 % increase) on the global annual mean emission of sea salt aerosols, but considerable influence on the emission of dust. Among the considered mechanisms, dry convective eddies and mesoscale flows associated with topography are major causes of dust emission enhancement. With all the four mechanisms included and without additional adjustment of uncertain parameters in the model, the simulated global and annual mean dust emission increase by about 50 % compared to the

  5. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  6. Localized Starbursts in Dwarf Galaxies Produced by the Impact of Low-metallicity Cosmic Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.; Filho, M. E.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  7. Regional modeling of natural dust in the United State: Source emission, transport, and photochemical impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D. Q.; Mathur, R.; Mobley, D.; Wong, D.; Yu, S.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a dust emission module to estimate the wind-blown dust emissions from dessert and agricultural land using local wind speed, threshold wind speed to initiate erosion, soil texture and moisture, land use type, and vegetation coverage. The estimated dust is then partitioned to create a fraction of the total sediment mobilized by the wind for vertical transport and subsequent regional circulation. This dust module also included detailed chemical speciation and size distribution, and a geographic filter to eliminate unrealistic emission sources (e.g., mountain peaks with dry soil and strong winds). We then couple the dust module with a regional air quality model CMAQ to: (1) study if the WRF-CMAQ national air quality forecasting system can accurately predict major dust storms occurring in the United States; 2) estimate the annual budget of natural dust emissions from agricultural and dessert lands and their relative importance for total PM2.5 over different U.S. regions; and 3) examine the effects of dust emissions on photolysis rates and consequently on levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric oxidants.

  8. Impact of atmospheric transport on the evolution of microphysical and optical properties of Saharan dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, C. L.; Highwood, E. J.; Lai, T. M.; Sodemann, H.; Marsham, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    Saharan dust affects the climate by altering the radiation balance and by depositing minerals to the Atlantic Ocean. Both are dependent on particle size. We present aircraft measurements comprising 42 profiles of size distribution (0.1-300 µm), representing freshly uplifted dust, regional aged dust, and dust in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over the Canary Islands. The mean effective diameter of dust in SAL profiles is 4.5 µm smaller than that in freshly uplifted dust, while the vertical structure changes from a low shallow layer (0-1.5 km) to a well-mixed deep Saharan dust layer (0-5 km). Size distributions show a loss of 60 to 90% of particles larger than 30 µm 12 h after uplift. The single scattering albedo (SSA) increases from 0.92 to 0.94 to 0.95 between fresh, aged, and SAL profiles: this is enough to alter heating rates by 26%. Some fresh dust close to the surface shows SSA as low as 0.85.

  9. Impact of Asian Dust on Global Surface Air Quality and Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Dust originating from Asian deserts and desertification areas can be transported regionally and globally to affect surface air quality, visibility, and radiation budget not only at immediate downwind locations (e.g., eastern Asia) but also regions far away from the sources (e.g., North America). Deposition of Asian dust to the North Pacific Ocean basin influences the ocean productivity. In this study, we will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, remote sensing data form satellite and from the ground-based network, and in-situ data from aircraft and surface observations to address the following questions: - What are the effects of Asian dust on the surface air quality and visibility over Asia and North America? - What are the seasonal and spatial variations of dust deposition to the North Pacific Ocean? How does the Asian dust affect surface radiation budget?

  10. Exploring hotspots of pneumococcal pneumonia and potential impacts of ejecta dust exposure following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Mitchell, Peter; Apparicio, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is well-known. Yet, some events may increase its incidence. Natural disasters may worsen air quality, a risk factor for PP. We investigated spatial/spatio-temporal clustering of PP pre- and post-earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The earthquakes resulted in deaths, widespread damage and liquefaction ejecta (a source of air-borne dust). We tested for clusters and associations with ejecta, using 97 cases (diagnosed 10/2008-12/2011), adjusted for age and area-level deprivation. The strongest evidence to support the potential role of ejecta in clusters of PP cases was the: (1) geographic shift in the spatio-temporal cluster after deprivation adjustment to match the post-earthquake clusters and; (2) increased relative risk in the fully-adjusted post-earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake cluster. The application of spatial statistics to study PP and ejecta are novel. Further studies to assess the long-term impacts of ejecta inhalation are recommended particularly in Christchurch, where seismic activity continues.

  11. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2014-07-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred on 18-20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, North-Eastern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front and associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates, Rub al Khali, An Nafud and Ad Dahna deserts, and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. The total amount of dust generated by the storm reached 93.76 Mt. About 80% of this amount deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt, and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligothrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we roughly estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea to be 6 Mt.

  12. An ionized layer in the upper atmosphere of Mars caused by dust impacts from comet Siding Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Morgan, D. D.; Persoon, A. M.; Granroth, L. J.; Kopf, A. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Green, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    We report the detection of a dense ionized layer in the upper atmosphere of Mars caused by the impact of dust from comet Siding Spring. The observations were made by the ionospheric radar sounder on the Mars Express spacecraft during two low-altitude passes approximately 7 h and 14 h after closest approach of the comet to Mars. During these passes an unusual transient layer of ionization was detected at altitudes of about 80 to 100 km with peak electron densities of (1.5 to 2.5) × 105 cm-3, much higher than normally observed in the Martian ionosphere. From comparisons to previously observed ionization produced by meteors at Earth and Mars, we conclude that the layer was produced by dust from the comet impacting and ionizing the upper atmosphere of Mars.

  13. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  14. Ochratoxin A and citrinin loads in stored wheat grains: impact of grain dust and possible prediction using ergosterol measurement.

    PubMed

    Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L

    2006-02-01

    Crop storage should be carried out under hygienic conditions to ensure safe products, but sometimes grain dust which has settled from previous storage may be left over and incorporated to the following stored grains. This paper describes the results obtained using a lab model developed in order to assess the impact of grain dust incorporation for its direct contribution as a contaminant but also as an inoculum in stored wheat. Settled grain dust (4 samples) released from Belgian grain storages were collected and analysed by HPLC for ergosterol, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) content. For OTA and for ergosterol, there was a high degree of variability in concentrations found in the dust samples (from 17.3-318 ng g(-1) and from 39-823 microg g(-1), respectively) whilst for CIT, the range was less significant (from 137-344 ng g(-1)). Incorporation of grain dust into wheat storage contributed to an increase in the concentrations of mycotoxins in the stored grain. Dust acts as a contaminant and as an inoculum. According to these two ways, patterns of mycotoxin generation vary with the nature of the mycotoxin, the mycotoxigenic potential of dust and the water activity of the wheat. OTA and CIT showed a very versatile image when considering the amounts of toxins produced under the selected experimental conditions. The development of a robust tool to forecast the mycotoxigenicity of dust was based on the determination of ergosterol content as a general marker of fungal biomass. Present results suggest that this predictive tool would only be valid for predicting the contamination level of CIT and OTA at reasonable moisture content (14-20%). The potential risk of having highly contaminated batches from stock to stock may thus occur and this paper discusses possible pathways leading to OTA and CIT contamination either under wet or dry storage conditions. We therefore, recommend taking precautionary measures not only by controlling and maintaining moisture at a

  15. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a

  16. Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zhao, C.; Wan, H.; Qian, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Sakaguchi, K.; Liu, X.

    2015-08-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of sub-grid variability of surface wind on sea salt and dust emissions in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The basic strategy is to calculate emission fluxes multiple times, using different wind speed samples of a Weibull probability distribution derived from model-predicted grid-box mean quantities. In order to derive the Weibull distribution, the sub-grid standard deviation of surface wind speed is estimated by taking into account four mechanisms: turbulence under neutral and stable conditions, dry convective eddies, moist convective eddies over the ocean, and air motions induced by meso-scale systems and fine-scale topography over land. The contributions of turbulence and dry convective eddy are parameterized using schemes from the literature, while the wind variabilities caused by moist convective eddies and fine-scale topography are estimated using empirical relationships derived from an operational weather analysis dataset at 15 km resolution. The estimated sub-grid standard deviations of surface wind speed agree well with reference results derived from one year of global weather analysis at 15 km resolution and from two regional model simulations with 3 km grid spacing. The wind-distribution-based emission calculations are implemented in CAM5. Simulations at 2° resolution indicate that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts (about 7 % increase) on the global annual mean emission of sea salt aerosols, but considerable influence on the emission of dust. Among the considered mechanisms, dry convective eddies and meso-scale flows associated with topography are major causes of dust emission enhancement. With all the four mechanisms included and without additional adjustment of uncertain parameters in the model, the simulated global and annual mean dust emission increase by about 50 % compared to the default model. By tuning the globally constant dust emission scale factor, the global annual mean

  17. Impact of galactic cosmic rays on Earth’s atmosphere and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.

    2011-07-01

    The galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) originating from astrophysical sources and traversing through the interstellar/interplanetary medium reach the terrestrial atmosphere and produce complex dynamic changes in it. The flow rate of GCRs incident on the Earth’s upper atmosphere is varied by the solar wind and the geomagnetic field. Striking correlations between the cloud cover and GCR fluxes on long time scale are observed whereas on short time scale no significant correlation is found. These observations are directly related to climate variations on short term as well as long term. In the present paper, we have reviewed and attempted to provide an overview of cosmic ray effects on terrestrial processes such as electrical phenomena, lightning discharges cloud formation and cloud coverage, temperature variation, space weather phenomena, Earth’s climate and the effects of GCRs on human health. It is shown that CRs control long term variations of some of the above mentioned physical processes, which in turn control short term and long term variations in climate. It is also pointed out that there are many basic phenomena which need further study and require new and long term data set.

  18. DETECTING THE RISE AND FALL OF THE FIRST STARS BY THEIR IMPACT ON COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kyungjin; Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.; Mao, Yi; Mellema, Garrelt; Koda, Jun

    2012-09-01

    The intergalactic medium was reionized before redshift z {approx} 6, most likely by starlight which escaped from early galaxies. The very first stars formed when hydrogen molecules (H{sub 2}) cooled gas inside the smallest galaxies, minihalos (MHs) of mass between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. Although the very first stars began forming inside these MHs before redshift z {approx} 40, their contribution has, to date, been ignored in large-scale simulations of this cosmic reionization. Here we report results from the first reionization simulations to include these first stars and the radiative feedback that limited their formation, in a volume large enough to follow the crucial spatial variations that influenced the process and its observability. We show that, while MH stars stopped far short of fully ionizing the universe, reionization began much earlier with MH sources than without, and was greatly extended, which boosts the intergalactic electron-scattering optical depth and the large-angle polarization fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background significantly. This boost should be readily detectable by Planck, although within current Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe uncertainties. If reionization ended as late as z{sub ov} {approx}< 7, as suggested by other observations, Planck will thereby see the signature of the first stars at high redshift, currently undetectable by other probes.

  19. Study of Cosmic Ray Impact on Planck/HFI Low Temperature Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniussi, A.; Puget, J.-L.; Holmes, W.; Patanchon, G.; Catalano, A.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Pajot, F.; Piat, M.; Vibert, L.

    2014-09-01

    Once that the focal plane of the HFI instrument of the Planck mission (launched in May 2009) has reached operational temperature, we have observed the thermal effect of cosmic ray interaction with the Planck satellite, located at Lagrangian point L2. When a particle hits a component of the bolometers (e.g.: thermometer, grid or wafer) composing the focal plane of HFI, a thermal spike (called glitch), due to deposited energy, is observed. Processing these data revealed another effect due to high energy cosmic ray particle showers: High Coincidence Events (HCE), composed of glitches occurring coincidentally in many detectors and with a temperature increase from nK to K after the shower. A flux of about 100 HCE per hour has been calculated. Two types of HCE have been detected: fast and slow. For the first type, the untouched bolometers reach the same temperature as the touched ones in a few seconds which can be explained by a storage of the deposited energy in the stainless steel focal plane. The second type of HCE is not fully understood yet. These effects might be explained by extra conduction from the helium released from cryogenic surfaces, creating a temporary thermal link between the different stages of the HFI.

  20. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. V. MULTIPLE IMPACTS OF DUSTY AGGLOMERATES AT VELOCITIES ABOVE THE FRAGMENTATION THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Stefan; Guettler, Carsten; Blum, Juergen

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 {mu}m monodisperse, spherical SiO{sub 2} monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 {+-} 0.01 and 0.45 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s{sup -1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and

  1. Impact of Ferromanganese Alloy Plants on Household Dust Manganese Levels: Implications for Childhood Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, E.L.; Bertrand, P.; Guazzetti, S.; Donna, F.; Peli, M.; Jursa, T.R.; Lucchini, R.; Smith, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living in communities with ferromanganese alloy plant activity have been shown to exhibit deficits in olfactory and fine motor function. Household dust may serve as an important manganese (Mn) exposure pathway to children, though dust Mn concentrations have not previously been measured to assess household contamination from ferromanganese alloy plant emissions. Here we determined the association between dust concentrations and surface loadings of Mn and other metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) in indoor and outdoor household dust from three Italian communities that differ by history of ferromanganese alloy plant activity: Bagnolo Mella, with an active ferromanganese alloy plant (n=178 households); Valcamonica, with historically active plants (n=166); and Garda Lake, with no history of ferromanganese plant activity (n=99). We also evaluated Mn levels in other environmental (soil, airborne particulates) and candidate biomarker (blood, hair, saliva, fingernails) samples from children within the households. Household dust Mn concentrations and surface loadings were significantly different between the three sites, with levels highest in Bagnolo Mella (outdoor median Mn concentration = 4620, range 487 – 183,000 µg/g), intermediate in Valcamonica (median = 876, range 407 – 8240 µg/g), and lowest in Garda Lake (median = 407, range 258 – 7240 µg/g). Outdoor dust Mn concentrations in Bagnolo Mella, but not the other communities, were significantly inversely related with distance from the plant (R2=0.6630, P<0.0001). Moreover, outdoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings were highly predictive of but significantly higher than indoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings by ~2 to ~7-fold (Mn concentrations) and ~7 to ~20-fold (Mn loadings). Finally, both indoor and outdoor dust Mn concentrations and outdoor dust Mn loading values were highly significantly correlated with both soil and air Mn concentrations, and with children’s hair and fingernail Mn

  2. Impact of ferromanganese alloy plants on household dust manganese levels: implications for childhood exposure.

    PubMed

    Lucas, E L; Bertrand, P; Guazzetti, S; Donna, F; Peli, M; Jursa, T P; Lucchini, R; Smith, D R

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents living in communities with ferromanganese alloy plant activity have been shown to exhibit deficits in olfactory and fine motor function. Household dust may serve as an important manganese (Mn) exposure pathway to children, though dust Mn concentrations have not previously been measured to assess household contamination from ferromanganese alloy plant emissions. Here we determined the association between dust concentrations and surface loadings of Mn and other metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) in indoor and outdoor household dust from three Italian communities that differ by history of ferromanganese alloy plant activity: Bagnolo Mella, with an active ferromanganese alloy plant (n=178 households); Valcamonica, with historically active plants (n=166); and Garda Lake, with no history of ferromanganese plant activity (n=99). We also evaluated Mn levels in other environmental (soil, airborne particulates) and candidate biomarker (blood, hair, saliva, fingernails) samples from children within the households. Household dust Mn concentrations and surface loadings were significantly different between the three sites, with levels highest in Bagnolo Mella (outdoor median Mn concentration=4620, range 487-183,000µg/g), intermediate in Valcamonica (median=876, range 407-8240µg/g), and lowest in Garda Lake (median=407, range 258-7240µg/g). Outdoor dust Mn concentrations in Bagnolo Mella, but not the other communities, were significantly inversely related with distance from the plant (R(2)=0.6630, P<0.0001). Moreover, outdoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings were highly predictive of but significantly higher than indoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings by ~2 to ~7-fold (Mn concentrations) and ~7 to ~20-fold (Mn loadings). Finally, both indoor and outdoor dust Mn concentrations and outdoor dust Mn loading values were highly significantly correlated with both soil and air Mn concentrations, and with children's hair and fingernail Mn concentrations, but

  3. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G; Reilly, Trevor L

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) and selenate (SeO(4)(2-)). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration <10mg/L. Several treatments satisfied the USEPA TCLP best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) limits (5.7 mg/L) for selenium at pozzolan doses up to 10 times less than the treatments that established the BDAT. Neither pozzolan was capable of reducing the TCLP-Se(VI) concentrations below 25mg/L. Se-soil-cement slurries aged for 30 days enabled the identification of Se precipitates by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD and SEM-EDX analyses of the Se(IV)- and Se(VI)-soil-cement slurries revealed that the key selenium bearing phases for all three soil-cement slurries were calcium selenite hydrate (CaSeO(3).H(2)O) and selenate substituted ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SeO(4))(3)(OH)(12).26H(2)O), respectively.

  4. [Research on impact of dust event frequency on atmosphere visibility variance: a case study of typical weather stations locating in the dust route to Beijing].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-jun; Zou, Xue-yong; Zhang, Chun-lai

    2006-06-01

    Relationship between dust event frequency and atmosphere visibility deviation is analyzed by using the data of daily visibility and various dust events in Beijing and other 13 typical weather stations locating in the dust events route to Beijing from 1971 to 2000. Results show that the visibility variance increases a standard deviation in the response to the dust event frequency decrease once. The influence of dust event to visibility comes from the high-frequency change of wind velocity. The change of wind velocity in one standard deviation can result in dust event frequency increasing by 30%. The high-frequency changes of near-surface wind influence the occurrence of dust event, and also the fluctuation of daily visibility deviation. The relationship between abnormal low visibility event and visibility deviation is in significant positive correlation. The increase of wind average distance leads to the enhance frequency of dust event and consequently the abnormal low visibility event. There are different relationships between abnormal low visibility event and floating dust, sandstorm and flying-dust respectively. PMID:16921932

  5. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N.; Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  6. The Relationship between Aerosol Composition and Concentration and Visual Range on Barbados, West Indies: The Impact of African Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Prospero, J.; Zhang, C.; Arimoto, R.

    2006-12-01

    Visual Range (VR) measured at Grantley Adams Airport on Barbados shows a very strong annual cycle with the minimum VR values occurring in June or July. This cycle closely matches the annual cycle of African dust concentrations measured in the trade winds at Barbados (13°15'N, 59°30'W) where observations first began in 1965. In winter, monthly mean VR was typically around 30 km or greater while in summer it frequently dipped below 20 km. This same clear signal is observed in the VR records from near-by islands where the same seasonal cycle of dust would be expected: St. Lucia, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago. We examined the relationship between VR on Barbados and the concentrations of the three major aerosol constituents that we would expect to have the strongest influence on VR: mineral dust, sea salt, and non-sea- salt sulfate (nss-SO4^{=}). We used VR data for the period from 1973, when measurements first began, up to 2006. We found a large discrepancy between the observed VR at the airport and the VR derived from the Koschmieder equation using literature values for the optical properties of the aerosol components; this simple approach would require a much smaller constant than the commonly-used value, 3.912. We further explored the effects of particle size distribution and relative humidity. During boreal summer when VR is lowest, dust is the dominant supramicron aerosol component and it clearly is the major factor in controlling VR. Nonetheless the submicron fraction also has a comparable impact due to its significantly higher light scattering efficiency. During winter, when there is little or no dust, sea salt aerosol and sulfate are dominant. In this report we focus on the various factors that affect visibility on Barbados especially the role of aerosols dominated by supramicrometer particles. We also consider the effects of other factors such as wind speed and precipitation. Finally, we note that the close relationship between summertime VR and dust

  7. Impact of dark energy-dark matter interaction on Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Murli

    It has been shown that an arc-like pattern found on the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) may result from the decay of dark matter particles initiating near particle horizon in the Q-phase of the interacting cosmological constant (ICC) model. In the present work, an investigation is made into how the corresponding decay of such dark matter particles might influence these signatures, in view of the recent data from PLANCK on CMBR and the diffuse glow of the anomalous microwave radiation. We also discuss the constraints on such decay imposed by the interaction of the cosmological constant with the background. These predictions made in the ICC model can be verified in the concordance space of multiple observations.

  8. Impact of Middle Eastern dust storms on indoor and outdoor composition of bioaerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Sorooshian, Armin; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Maleki, Heidar

    2016-08-01

    The presence of microbes in airborne aerosol particles, especially dust, is a major public health concern in desert regions. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effect of dust storms on indoor and outdoor microbial air quality at a hospital on the western side of Iran (city of Ahvaz), which is notorious for being highly vulnerable to dust emissions. Air samples were collected inside and outside of the hospital environment for six months, with the unique advantage of this study being that the region and duration of measurements allow for a clear comparison between dusty and normal days. On normal days, the average concentrations (outdoor/indoor) of bacteria and fungi were 423/329 cfu m-3 and 596/386 cfu m-3, respectively, which increased to 1257/406 cfu m-3 and 1116/550 cfu m-3 on dust event days. Indoor/Outdoor ratios for bacteria and fungi are lower on dust event days (0.26-0.60) versus normal days (0.44-0.95). Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Streptomyces spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were the dominant bacteria both indoors and outdoors on normal and dust event days. Gram positive bacteria exhibited higher concentrations than Gram negative bacteria in both outdoor and indoor air samples as well as during both normal and dust event days. The data suggest that Gram positive bacteria are more resistant to undesirable outdoor conditions (e.g., high incident solar radiation) as compared to Gram negative ones. These results have implications for other populated arid regions where more stringent control of indoor air quality can greatly benefit public health.

  9. Runoff pollution impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dusts from a stream network town.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Yin, Chengqing; Chen, Meixue; Wang, Weidong

    2008-01-01

    Runoff with contaminated street dusts has an environmental risk to the aquatic environment. An assessment of the diffuse pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a small town and their risks to the township stream network was conducted at Yangtze River delta. This assessment is based on measurements of 16 PAHs from the US EPA priority list by GC-MS in stream water during rainy and dry season, street dusts with different particle sizes, river sediments and suspended solids of urban runoff. The maximum level of PAHs in the stream water (2,323-4,948 ng L(-1)) were found during rainy season, while significantly lower PAHs concentrations (242-998 ng L(-1)) were measured during dry season. The total PAHs ranged from 1,629 to 8,986 microg kg(-1) in the street dusts. Approximately 55% of the total PAHs were associated with street dust particles of diameters less than 250 microm and these accounted for 40% of the total. The town reaches sediments were rich in PAHs and it was suggested as the sink of street dusts. The research findings suggested that size of street dusts, the topographical and hydrological features of the landscape in the stream network were the important factors influencing PAH emitted to the receiving water. The contribution of urban surface runoff could significantly influence PAHs concentration in the stream water. To reduce the pollution of street dust into the stream network, the buffer zone along the hydrological pathway is suggested and the existing street cleaning methods should also be improved.

  10. Photochemical oxidant processes in the presence of dust: An evaluation of the impact of dust on particulate nitrate and ozone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yang; Sunwoo, Young; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of dust on the tropospheric photochemical oxidant cycle is studied through the use of a detailed coupled aerosol and gas-phase chemistry model. Dust is a significant component of the troposphere throughout Asia and provides a surface for a variety of heterogeneous reactions. Dust is found to be an important surface for particulate nitrate formation. For dust loading and ambient concentrations representative of conditions in East Asia, particulate nitrate levels of 1.5-11.5 micrograms/cubic meter are predicted, consistent with measured levels in this region. Dust is also found to reduce NO(x) levels by up to 50%, HO2 concentrations by 20%-80%, and ozone production rates by up to 25%. The magnitude of the influence of dust is sensitive to mass concentration of the aerosol, relative humidity, and the value of the accommodation coefficient.

  11. Dust occultation at Titan measured by CDA onboard Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, Ralf; CDA science team

    2016-10-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard Cassini characterized successfully the dust environment at Saturn since 2004. The instrument measures the primary charge, speed, mass and composition of individual submicron and micron sized dust grains. The detection threshold scales with speed^3.5 such that the detection of fast nanograins (~100 km/s) is possible. Saturn's nanodust environment (streams) is studied many years. However, a special geometric condition of Saturn, Cassini and Titan during a Titan flyby in 2014 (DOY 65) provided a special dust occultation opportunity. Titan and its atmosphere blocked the stream of fast nanoparticles such that CDA registered a clear drop in impact rate around closest approach. An analysis of the data allows to constrain the source region of the nanograins, which is compatible with a source region in the ring plane at distances from Saturn between 4 and 8 Saturn radii. Backward and forward modeling was performed leading to dust grain sizes between 3 and 9 nm and speeds between 80 and 150 km/s. The new modeling results also show that Enceladus acts a direct source for nanodust streams leading to the observation of periodic impact rates in the outer Saturn system. Such periodicities were observed recently by CDA and showed a clear signature of the Enceladus orbital period. A second dust occultation opportunity using Titan is planned august 2016.

  12. The Dynamics and Characteristics of Aeolian Dust in Dryland Central Asia: Possible Impacts on Respiratory Health in the Aral Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggs, G. F.; O'Hara, S.; Wegerdt, J.; van der Meer, J.; Small, I.; Hubbard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Over the last 40 years over 36,000 km2 of the former Aral Sea bed have been exposed creating a potentially significant aeolian dust source. It is widely believed, but little researched, that increased dust storm activity in the region has had a major impact on human health. In this paper we report the findings of a study into the link between dust exposure and respiratory health amongst children in the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan, located on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. Data were collected over a 12 month period at 16 sites located within a broad transect running north to south through Karakalpakstan. At each site monthly measurements of dust deposition were undertaken linked with daily meteorological data at 6 stations. At 3 sites weekly measurements of PM10 were also carried out. Approximately 100 children (aged 7-10 years) were randomly selected within 5 km of each dust trap site and data were collected on their respiratory health and environmental exposures. Lung function data were also collected using a handheld spirometer. A linear regression model was used to predict lung function for the children incorporating variables for Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), age, gender, height and weight and we estimated the impact of dust deposition rates on the odds of having abnormal lung function using logistic regression. The findings indicate that dust deposition rates across the region are high with sites located near the former shore of the sea being the worst affected. For these northerly regions the former Aral Sea bed is the most likely source of dust. The situation for the rest of the country seems to be far more complex. In these regions it appears that local sources (agricultural fields, abandoned irrigation grounds, overgrazed dunes, and unpaved roads) and more distant sources to the south and south-west represent significant sediment providers, particularly in the early summer when agricultural fields are ploughed. We found some

  13. Observation of Dust and Smoke Plume Transport and Impact on Remote Sensing of Air Quality in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshary, F.; Wu, Y.; Han, Z. T.; Nazmi, C.; Gross, B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-range transport of aloft aerosol plumes affects both air quality and climate on regional and continental scales. Asian dust impacts on the western US and Canada have been extensively analyzed, yet such quantitative demonstrations are not well documented in the northeastern US. Similarly, episodes of continental transport of smoke plumes from forest fires in western US and Canada impact visibility and air quality in the US east coast. In this study, we present the synergistic observation of transported dust and smoke aerosol plumes in New York City (NYC, 40.821ºN, 73.949ºW), using a combination of a ground-based multiple-wavelength lidar, a CIMEL sunphotometer/radiometer, satellite sensors such as CALIOP and MODIS/VIIRS, and NAAPS aerosol forecast model. We show case studies of trans-Pacific Asian dust transport to the northeast US driven by the strong western or polar jets. The potential impact of the plumes on the local air quality is indicated by the plumes mixing down into boundary layer and the coincident increase of the ground PM measurement. Using multi-year lidar and sunphotometer observations, range-resolved monthly occurrence frequency of aloft aerosol plumes and modification of local aerosol optical properties are presented. The transport paths and the optical properties of aerosol for each clustered path are characterized. We further demonstrate the impact of these aloft plumes on the surface PM2.5 estimates from MODIS and VIIRS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD), and observe that when the aloft plumes-layer AODs are filtered out using lidar, the correlation between AOD-PM2.5 is much improved.

  14. Modeling the Vapor and Dust Dynamics Due to the Impact of the LCROSS Spacecraft on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, D. B.; Summy, D.; Colaprete, A.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    The implications of possibly large volatile reservoirs on the Moon are significant for the future of manned activity there and for space science and exploration in general. In autumn of 2008 NASA will launch the LCROSS mission to impact two spacecraft into a permanently shadowed crater-a cold trap-at the south pole of the Moon. The lead spacecraft will excavate its own several meter crater. The process will be observed by the following smaller vehicle and by orbiting and Earth-based instruments in hopes of observing the release of volatiles-predominantly water-from the lunar soil. The following vehicle will then impact as well. We examine the plausible vapor dynamics following the impacts and concentrate on the observability of the gas from Earth or lunar orbit. In the free-molecular computational model of the vapor motion, water and OH molecules move ballistically, have a temperature-dependent surface residence time, and are subject to photo-dissociation and ionization losses. Sunlight shadowing, separation of the vapor from the dust grains, dust thermodynamics and different impact plume models are considered.

  15. Tests with Ice Particles As Comet Analog Materials and Results of the Dust Impact Monitor on Board Rosetta's Lander Philae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, A.; Krüger, H.; Albin, T.; Loose, A.; Arnold, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board the lander Philae of the Rosetta mission (ESA) is a 7 cm side cube with three of its sides covered with three PZT detectors each. DIM is mounted on the top surface side of Philae and it is aimed to derive the physical properties and the flux of the millimetric dust particle population that moves near the surface of the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). We performed a series of calibration experiments at temperatures between -40º C and -20º C to analyse the response, the performance and the detection range of DIM. The experiments mainly comprise impacts with spherical ice particles (radii of nearly 0.5 mm) on the sensor plates at different impact speeds and with different impact directions. The landing of Philae on the nucleus of the comet 67P is expected to take place in mid November of this year and we also hope to show the first analyses of the early data from DIM.

  16. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages of Stony Meteorites: Space Erosion or Yarkovsky?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2014-01-01

    Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, wearing it away by space erosion (abrasion) at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE ages. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the solar system as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE age limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE ages of approx.176 x 10(exp 6) years if dust masses are in the range 10(exp -21) - 10(exp -3) kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE ages of approx. 100 x 10(exp 6) years for stones. High erosion rates in the inner solar system may limit the CRE ages of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to approx. 120 x 10(exp 6) years. If abrasion should prove to be approx. 6 times quicker than found here, then space erosion may be responsible for many of the measured CRE ages of main belt stony meteorites. In that case the CRE ages may not measure the drift time to the resonances due to the Yarkovsky effects as in the standard scenario, and that for some reason Yarkovsky is ineffective.

  17. Analysis of the Impact of Major Dust Events on the Aerosols Characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Hariri, Mustafa M.

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust storms blow up and significantly affect human activities, airports and citizens' health. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics are influenced by major dust storms outbreaks. In this, paper, ground based AERONET measurements are integrated with space-borne sensors, namely MODIS and CALIPSO to analyze aerosols' characteristics during March - May of 2009 where a massive dust storm blew up and caused a widespread heavy atmospheric dust load over Saudi Arabia and the same period during 2010, where less dust activities were reported. The MODIS Deep Blue AOD analysis showed similar aerosols pattern over the land, however a substantial variance in aerosol loading during March - May 2009 compared with the same period in 2010 was observed. The angstrom exponent analysis showed that the majority of aerosol measurements in 2009 and 2010 are dominated by coarse-mode particles with angstrom exponent < 0.5. Detailed analysis of aerosol optical properties shows significant influence of coarse mode particles in the enhanced aerosol loading in 2009. The volume depolarization rations (VDR) derived from CALIPSO backscattering measurements is used to find latitudinal profile of mean aerosol optical depth to indicate the type of particles and to discriminate spherical aerosols with non-spherical particles. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-32-76). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Freese, Katherine; Levin, Janna

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background deviates from a pure blackbody; here, spectral distortions produced by cosmic dust are considered. The main result is that cosmic dust in conjunction with an injected radiation field (perhaps produced by an early generation of very massive stars) can explain the observed spectral distortions without violating existing cosmological constraints. In addition, it is shown that Compton y-distortions can also explain the observed spectral shape, but the energetic requirements are more severe.

  19. The Frequency and Predicted Consequences of Cosmic Impacts in the Last 65 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Michael; Peiser, Benny

    2004-06-01

    Sixty five million years ago a huge asteroid collided with the Earth and ended the long reign of the dinosaurs. In the aftermath of this catastrophic event, the mammals arose and eventually mankind came to dominate the surface of the planet. The Earth, however, has not been free from severe impacts since the time of the dinosaur killer. We examine the likely frequency of major impact events over the past 65 million years, the evidence for these impacts and the predicted consequences of various types of impacts. It is evident that the mammals had to survive frequent severe disruptions to the global climate, and it is likely that over the past 5 million years hominids were faced with several catastrophic global events. Smaller but strategically located impact events could bring down our civilisation if they occurred today. Mankind has recently developed the expertise to predict and mitigate future impacts, but political and financial support are lacking.

  20. Synergy of multispectral and multisensors satellite observations to evaluate desert aerosol transport and impact of dust deposition on inland waters: study case of Lake Garda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nicolantonio, Walter; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Cacciari, Alessandra; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The capabilities of different Earth Observation multispectral satellites are employed for detecting and tracking of desert dust coming from North Africa toward the Northern Italy area and for evaluating the impact of Saharan dust deposition in inland waters, such as those of Lake Garda. Absorbing and scattering spectral optical properties of desert aerosol in the atmospheric windows in the ultraviolet, visible-near-infrared, and infrared spectral ranges are exploited in the dust retrieval performed by OMI/Aura, MODIS/Terra-Aqua, and SEVIRI/MSG satellite sensors. Therefore, the direct link between dust deposition and increase in phytoplankton abundance has been assessed retrieving MERIS-based chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration for the desert dust events. Estimates of the increased chl-a in the lake have been derived with values in concentration from 30% to 170%. AERONET sun-photometer measurements, gravimetric particulate matter samplings, in situ chl-a concentration and surface temperature are employed to select events and assess the presence of desert dust and recognize a corresponding increase of the phytoplankton abundance in the analyzed inland waters. The improved observational features that will be provided by the next European Sentinels missions, namely Sentinel-2, 3, 4, 5P, together with MTG-I (Imager) and MTG-S (Sounder) will allow better monitoring atmospheric constituents and studying the environmental impacts of desert dust transport.

  1. A possible mechanism for the capture of microparticles by the earth and other planets of the solar system. [planetary gravitation effects on cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibenedetto, F.

    1973-01-01

    By application of Lyttleton's theory for the formation of comets, it is shown that a possible mechanism for the origin and formation of a concentration of cosmic particles around the earth and the other planets of the solar system exists. In the vicinity of the neutral point, where the velocity of colliding particles is not greater than 6 km/s, it is found that if the solid particles after collision must remain in a solid state, there can be no possibility of accretion for Mercury, Mars, and the Moon, where the maximum value of the distance of the center of the planet to the asymptotic trajectory is less than the radius of the planet. On the other hand, the capture radii of microparticles in solid form varies from a minimum of 2.95 planetary radii for Venus and 3.47 for the Earth, to about 986 for Jupiter.

  2. The ISPM dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, L. D.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ISPM Dust Experiment observes particulate matter with masses between 10 to the minus 19th power and 10 to the minus 10th power kg in the solar system; investigates its physical and dynamical properties as a function of ecliptic latitude and heliocentric distance; and studies its interaction with solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurement of the three dimensional spatial distribution of cosmic dust particles and their dynamics allows the relative significance of their probable sources (comets, asteroids and interstellar dust) to be determined. An instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles is used. It is a multicoincidence detector with a sensitivity 100,000 times higher than that of previous experiments. The instrument weighs 3.750 kg, consumes 2.0 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bit/sec in spacecraft tracking mode.

  3. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  4. PM10 Concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: The impact of urban sources and dust storms

    PubMed Central

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S.; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993 through December 11, 2008, and Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year. A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000–2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact of dust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. PMID:25562931

  5. The Impact of Saharan Air Layer Dust on the Intensity and Intensity Change of Hurricane Earl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, G.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The study of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and intensity change has become an increasingly important research topic, as the storms pose a significant threat to the lives and property along coastal regions, and maritime interests. The Saharan Air Layer (SAL) is an elevated layer of warm, dry, and dusty air that is formed by intense heating and strong winds over the Sahara desert. This dust, and hot and dry air moves across the Atlantic over the maritime layer. An emerging area of research is the role that the SAL has on the development and intensity of TCs in the North Atlantic tropical basin. In 2010, Hurricane Earl gave us a unique opportunity to study the effects of the SAL during the formative stages of the storm. Using the Weather and Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF-Chem), this study investigated what the effect of SAL characteristics (thermodynamic and aerosol) had on Earl's intensity and intensity change. We concentrated on the direct and indirect radiative effects of the SAL aerosols, by utilizing the dust-only module in WRF-Chem and comparing results to observations, reanalysis, and a dust-free run. The results show that Earl did not appreciably intensify until it moved out from beneath the influence of the SAL, after which it evolved into a CAT 4 hurricane. This was due mainly to the shear associated with the SAL, but the dust radiative effects also contributed to the slow growth.

  6. An impact analysis of a micro wind system. [windpower for recovering magnesium from stack dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, R. P.; Robinette, S. L.; Mason, R. M.; Schaffer, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the recovery of steel mill stack dust has been developed and is being used to recover secondary metals by a small company in Georgia. The process is energy intensive and wind generators were studied as a means of supplying energy for part of the recovery process. Some of the results of this study will be presented.

  7. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  8. An assessment of the impact of local processes on dust lifting in martian climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, David P.; Spiga, Aymeric; Listowski, Constantino; Read, Peter L.

    2015-05-01

    Simulation of the lifting of dust from the planetary surface is of substantially greater importance on Mars than on Earth, due to the fundamental role that atmospheric dust plays in the former's climate, yet the dust emission parameterisations used to date in martian global climate models (MGCMs) lag, understandably, behind their terrestrial counterparts in terms of sophistication. Recent developments in estimating surface roughness length over all martian terrains and in modelling atmospheric circulations at regional to local scales (less than O(100 km)) presents an opportunity to formulate an improved wind stress lifting parameterisation. We have upgraded the conventional scheme by including the spatially varying roughness length in the lifting parameterisation in a fully consistent manner (thereby correcting a possible underestimation of the true threshold level for wind stress lifting), and used a modification to account for deviations from neutral stability in the surface layer. Following these improvements, it is found that wind speeds at typical MGCM resolution never reach the lifting threshold at most gridpoints: winds fall particularly short in the southern midlatitudes, where mean roughness is large. Sub-grid scale variability, manifested in both the near-surface wind field and the surface roughness, is then considered, and is found to be a crucial means of bridging the gap between model winds and thresholds. Both forms of small-scale variability contribute to the formation of dust emission 'hotspots': areas within the model gridbox with particularly favourable conditions for lifting, namely a smooth surface combined with strong near-surface gusts. Such small-scale emission could in fact be particularly influential on Mars, due both to the intense positive radiative feedbacks that can drive storm growth and a strong hysteresis effect on saltation. By modelling this variability, dust lifting is predicted at the locations at which dust storms are frequently

  9. Interrelationships among Circumstellar, Interstellar and Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A., III (Editor); Stencel, R. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop held from February 27 to March 1, l985. The workshop was attended by 50 astronomers, astrophysicists, planetary scientists and meteoriticists; and emphasized the interdisciplinary nature of studies of cosmic dust.

  10. Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, Laurent; PéRez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, StéPhane

    2013-06-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  11. Impact of Surface Roughness and Soil Texture on Mineral Dust Emission Fluxes Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menut, Laurent; Perez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  12. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weiss, Axel; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark; Maiolino, Roberto; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  13. The near-earth enhancement of asteroidal over cometary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The study deals with a theory suggesting a cometary origin for most of the stratospheric cosmic dust. It is argued, though, that the stratospheric cosmic dust, as well as dust sampled by earth-orbiting collectors, is not representative of the true composition of the zodiacal cloud. A substantial near-earth collection bias enhances the low-velocity component in stratospheric and earth-orbiting collectors. This arises from gravitational focusing, which substantially biases all near-earth micrometeorite collections in favor of the low-velocity component of the interplanetary dust, and atmospheric entry heating, which further biases the stratospheric cosmic dust in favor of the low-velocity component of the interplanetary dust. It is noted that, in addition to these two effects, the increasing collision probability between a dust particle and a nongravitating planet will bias the near-earth collection farther in favor of dust with lower geocentric velocity at the collection opportunity.

  14. Space erosion and cosmic ray exposure ages of stony meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, eroding it away by abrasion at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE ages. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the Solar System as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE age limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that large stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE ages of ∼176 × 106 y if dust masses are in the range 10-21-10-3 kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE ages of ∼100 × 106 y for stones. High erosion rates in the inner Solar System may limit the CRE ages of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to ∼120 × 106 y. A characteristic of erosion is that the neon concentrations tend to rise as the surface of the meteorite is approached, rather than drop off as for meteorites with fixed radii. Pristine samples recovered from space may show the rise. If the abrasion rate for stones were a factor of ∼6 larger than found here, then the ages would drop into the 30 × 106 y range, so that abrasion alone might be able to explain many CRE ages. However, there is no strong evidence for higher abrasion rates, and in any case would probably not be fast enough to explain the youngest ages of 0.1-1 × 106 y. Further, space erosion is much too slow to explain the ∼600 × 106 y ages of iron meteorites.

  15. Dust photoemission charging modification under the impact of solar wind ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouzak, Libor; Richterova, Ivana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Pavlu, Jiri

    2016-07-01

    Surfaces in the space are covered by a layer of dust grains and the lunar surface can serve as an example. On the sunlit side, the dust layer is exposed to solar wind particles (electrons and ions) and photons. The ions can either cause sputtering of dust grains or can be implanted into their surface. Regarding implantation, the more additional energy that ions bring into grains, the more valence band electrons are excited and thus, a photoelectron yield of grains can increase. As a consequence, the density of electrons that form a sheath above the illuminated lunar surface enhances. As a result, an influence of solar wind ions on the Debye length and photoelectron sheath formation is expected. We present laboratory measurements of work functions and photoelectron yields of a single micron-sized silica grain both prior to and after ion implantations. The silica grain, as an approximate lunar simulant, is caught in the electrodynamic trap and its specific charge is evaluated by analysis of its secular motion within the trap. The grain's work function is determined from observations of a time evolution of the charge-to-mass ratio during irradiation of the grain by photons of various energies in the order of tens of electronvolts. By comparison of the photoelectron current (from grain) with photon flux (from UV source), we establish the photoelectron yield of the trapped object. The influence of ion implantation is carefully analyzed and discussed.

  16. Dust Growth in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Tsytovich, V. N.

    2002-12-01

    Dust formation in space is important in diverse environments such as dust molecular clouds, proto-planetary nebulae, stellar outbursts, and supernova explosions. The formation of dust proceeds the formation of stellar objects and planets. In all these environments the dust particles interact with both neutral and plasma particles as well as with (ultraviolet) radiation and cosmic rays. The conventional view of grain growth is one based on accretion by the Van der Waals and chemical forces [Watson and Salpeter [14] considered in detail both theoretically and numerically (Kempf at all [6],Meaking [7]( and confirmed recently by micro-gravity experiments Blum et all [2]). The usual point of view is that the dust grow is occurring in dust molecular clouds at very low temperatures ~ (10 - 30)° K and is a slow process - dust grows to a size of about 0.1 μm in 106 - 109 years. This contradicts recent observations of dust growing in winds of C-stars in about 10 years and behind the supernova SN1987A shock in about 500 days. Also recent observation of star formation at the edge of irradiated dust clouds suggests that new plasma mechanism operates in star formation. Dusty plasma mechanisms of agglomeration are analyzed as an explanation of the new astrophysical observation. New micro-gravity experiments are proposed for observing the plasma mechanisms of dust agglomeration at gas pressures substantially higher than used in ([2]. Calculations for the growth rates of dust agglomeration due to plasma mechanisms are presented. It is shown that at large neutral gas densities the dust plasma attraction provides an explanation of dust grow in about 10 days observed in H-star winds. Ionization by cosmic rays and by radioactive dust can provide the dust attraction necessary for forming dust clumping observed in molecular clouds and the fractal plasma clumping can enhance the time to reach the gravitational contraction phase operating at the final stage of star formation. A new

  17. Examination of the potential impacts of dust and pollution aerosol acting as cloud nucleating aerosol on water resources in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Vandana

    In this study we examine the cumulative effect of dust acting as cloud nucleating aerosol (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), giant cloud condensation nuclei (GCCN), and ice nuclei (IN)) along with anthropogenic aerosol pollution acting primarily as CCN, over the entire Colorado Rocky Mountains from the months of October to April in the year 2004-2005; the snow year. This ˜6.5 months analysis provides a range of snowfall totals and variability in dust and anthropogenic aerosol pollution. The specific objectives of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). In general, dust enhances precipitation primarily by acting as IN, while aerosol pollution reduces water resources in the CRB via the so-called "spill-over" effect, by enhancing cloud droplet concentrations and reducing riming rates. Dust is more episodic and aerosol pollution is more pervasive throughout the winter season. Combined response to dust and aerosol pollution is a net reduction of water resources in the CRB. The question is by how much are those water resources affected? Our best estimate is that total winter-season precipitation loss for for the CRB the 2004-2005 winter season due to the combined influence of aerosol pollution and dust is 5,380,00 acre-feet of water. Sensitivity studies for different cases have also been run for the specific cases in 2004-2005 winter season to analyze the impact of changing dust and aerosol ratios on precipitation in the Colorado River Basin. The dust is varied from 3 to 10 times in the experiments and the response is found to be non monotonic and depends on various environmental factors. The sensitivity studies show that adding dust in a wet system increases precipitation when IN affects are dominant. For a relatively dry system high concentrations of dust can result in over-seeding the clouds and reductions in precipitation

  18. Recovering the Elemental Composition of Comet Wild 2 Dust in Five Stardust Impact Tracks and Terminal Particles in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H A; Brennan, S; Bradley, J P; Luening, K; Ignatyev, K; Pianetta, P

    2007-01-04

    The elemental (non-volatile) composition of five Stardust impact tracks and terminal particles left from capture of Comet 81P/Wild 2 dust were mapped in a synchrotron x-ray scanning microprobe with full fluorescence spectra at each pixel. Because aerogel includes background levels of several elements of interest, we employ a novel 'dual threshold' approach to discriminate against background contaminants: an upper threshold, above which a spectrum contains cometary material plus aerogel and a lower threshold below which it contains only aerogel. The difference between normalized cometary-plus-background and background-only spectra is attributable to cometary material. The few spectra in between are discarded since misallocation is detrimental: cometary material incorrectly placed in the background spectrum is later subtracted from the cometary spectrum, doubling the loss of reportable cometary material. This approach improves precision of composition quantification. We present the refined whole impact track and terminal particle elemental abundances for the five impact tracks. One track shows mass increases in Cr and Mn (1.4x), Cu, As and K (2x), Zn (4x) and total mass (13%) by dual thresholds compared to a single threshold. Major elements Fe and Ni are not significantly affected. The additional Cr arises from cometary material containing little Fe. We exclude Au intermixed with cometary material because it is found to be a localized surface contaminant carried by comet dust into an impact track. The dual threshold technique can be used in other situations where elements of interest in a small sample embedded in a matrix are also present in the matrix itself.

  19. Tracking the organic refractory component from interstellar dust to comets.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J M; Li, A

    1999-01-01

    The abundance and composition of complex organic (carbonaceous) material in the interstellar dust is followed as the dust evolves in its cyclic evolution between diffuse and dense clouds. Interstellar extinction, laboratory and space analog experiments, dust infrared absorption spectra, the cosmic abundance of the condensible atoms, and space and ground-based observations of comet dust are used to impose constraints on the organic dust component as mantles on silicate cores.

  20. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IX: High-Speed Interstellar Dust Analog Capture in Stardust Flight-Spare Aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postberg, F.; Sterken, V.; Achilles, C.; Allen, C.; Bastien, R. K.; Frank, D.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Butterworth, A.; Gainesforth, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission used silica aerogel slabs to slowly decelerate and capture impinging cosmic dust particles for return to Earth. During this process, impact tracks are generated along the trajectory of the particle into the aerogel. It is believed that the morphology and dimensions of these tracks, together with the state of captured grains at track termini, may be linked to the size, velocity, and density of the impacting cosmic dust grain. Here, we present the results of laboratory hypervelocity impact experiments, during which cosmic dust analog particles (diameters of between 0.2 and 0.4 lm), composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, or an organic polymer, were accelerated onto Stardust flight spare low-density (approximately 0.01 g/cu cm) silica aerogel. The impact velocities (3-21 km/s) were chosen to simulate the range of velocities expected during Stardust's interstellar dust (ISD) collection phases. Track lengths and widths, together with the success of particle capture, are analyzed as functions of impact velocity and particle composition, density, and size. Captured terminal particles from low-density organic projectiles become undetectable at lower velocities than those from similarly sized, denser mineral particles, which are still detectable (although substantially altered by the impact process) at 15 km/s. The survival of these terminal particles, together with the track dimensions obtained during low impact speed capture of small grains in the laboratory, indicates that two of the three best Stardust candidate extraterrestrial grains were actually captured at speeds much lower than predicted. Track length and diameters are, in general, more sensitive to impact velocities than previously expected, which makes tracks of particles with diameters of 0.4 lm and below hard to identify at low capture speeds (<10 km/s). Therefore, although captured intact, the majority of the interstellar dust grains returned to Earth by Stardust remain to be found.

  1. Searching for Cosmic Strings in the Cosmic Microwave Background:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    The role of cosmic defects in cosmology is entering its new phase—as a test for several fundamental physics, including unification theories and inflation. We discuss how to use the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to detect cosmic strings, a type of cosmic defects, and how to use this result to constrain the underlying physics. In particular, we use the simulations for the Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) to demonstrate the power of this approach. The required resolution and sensitivity in such a method are discussed, and so is the possible scientific impact.

  2. Using Dust from Asteroids as Regolith Microsamples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Klima, Rachel; Chabot, N. L.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorite science is rich with compositional indicators by which we classify parent bodies, but few sample groups are definitively linked with asteroid spectra. More robust links need to be forged between meteorites and their parent bodies to understand the composition, diversity and distribution. A major link can be sample analysis of the parent body material and comparison with meteorite data. Hayabusa, the first sample return mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), was developed to rendezvous with and collect samples from asteroid Itokawa and return them to Earth. Thousands of sub-100 micron particles were recovered, apparently introduced during the spacecraft impact into the surface of the asteroid, linking the asteroid Itokawa to LL chondrites [1]. Upcoming missions Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx will collect more significant sample masses from asteroids. In all these cases, the samples are or will be a collection of regolith particles. Sample return to earth is not the only method for regolith particle analysis. Dust is present around all airless bodies, generated by micrometeorite impact into their airless surfaces, which in turn lofts regolith particles into a "cloud" around the body. The composition, flux, and size-frequency distribution of dust particles can provide significant insight into the geological evolution of airless bodies [2]. For example, the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) detected salts in Enceladus' icy plume material, providing evidence for a subsurface ocean in contact with a silicate seafloor [3]. Similar instruments have flown on the Rosetta, LADEE, and Stardust missions. Such an instrument may be of great use in obtaining the elemental, isotopic and mineralogical composition measurement of dust particles originating from asteroids without returning the samples to terrestrial laboratories. We investigated the ability of a limited sample analysis capability using a dust instrument to forge links between asteroid

  3. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  4. Impact of desert dust on the biogeochemistry of phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okin, Gregory S.; Mahowald, Natalie; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2004-06-01

    Leaching, biomass removal, and partitioning of phosphorus (P) into reservoirs not available to plants can limit the long-term productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. We evaluate the importance of atmospheric P inputs to the world's soils by estimating the total soil P turnover time with respect to dustborne P additions. Estimated turnover times range from ˜104 to ˜107 years. Our estimates provide a unique perspective on the importance and patterns of aeolian deposition to terrestrial landscapes. Dust source regions are areas of intense soil P cycling on large scales, but are too water-limited for this rapid cycling to have a major influence on ecosystem dynamics. By contrast, semiarid desert margins receive significant aeolian P from neighboring deserts and are likely influenced by dustborne P additions for the long-term maintenance of productivity. This is particularly true for the semiarid steppes of Africa and Eurasia. The prevalence of large dust sources in Africa and Eurasia indicates that these areas may generally be more influenced by dustborne P additions than soils in the Americas. Significant western hemisphere exceptions to this pattern occur on very old landscapes, such as the forests of the southeastern United States and the Amazon Basin. The Amazon Basin is highly dependent on aeolian deposition for the maintenance of long-term productivity. Dust deposition to terrestrial environments has not been constant with time. Variability in past P deposition related to geologically recent climate change may provide the strongest controls on present and future soil P in the Amazon and elsewhere.

  5. Myth and catastrophic reality: using cosmogonic mythology to identify cosmic impacts and massive plinian eruptions in holocene South America.

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W. B.

    2004-01-01

    Major natural catastrophes (e.g., 'universal' floods, fire, darkness, and sky falling down) are prominently reflected in traditional South American creation myths, cosmology, religion, and worldview. We are now beginning to recognize that cosmogonic myths represent a rich and largely untapped data set concerning the most dramatic natural events and processes experienced by each cultural group during the past several thousand years. Observational details regarding specific catastrophes are encoded in myth storylines, typically cast in terms of supernatural characters and actions. Not only are the myths amenable to scientific analysis, but also some sets of myths encode multiple catastrophes in meaningful relative chronological order. The present study considers more than 4200 myths, including more than 260 'universal' catastrophe myths from cultural groups throughout South America. These myths are examined in light of available geological, paleoenvironmental, archeological, and documentary evidence. Our analysis reveals three possible ultra-plinian volcanic eruptions, two in Columbia and the other in the Gran Chaco, the latter likely associated with a poorly dated late Holocene eruption of Nuevo Mundo in central Bolivia. Our analysis also identifies a set of traditions likely linked with the well-known Campo del Cielo iron meteorite impact in northern Argentina originally hypothesized to have occurred around 4000 years ago. Intriguingly, these traditions strongly suggest that the Campo del Cielo impact triggered widespread mass fires in the Gran Chaco region and possibly in the Brazilian Highlands. Several other potential cosmic impacts, distinct from Campo del Cielo, are hinted at in the mythology of other locations in South America. The numerous catastrophe myths in the Gran Chaco region exhibit the most coherent chronological sequence of any South American region. The sequence begins with a 'Great Flood,' by far the most widespread catastrophe myth in South

  6. The Cretaceous-Tertiary impact crater and the cosmic projectile that produced it.

    PubMed

    Sharpton, V L; Marin, L E

    1997-05-30

    Evidence gathered to date from topographic data, geophysical data, well logs, and drill-core samples indicates that the buried Chicxulub basin, the source crater for the approximately 65 Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary deposits, is approximately 300 km in diameter. A prominent topographic ridge and a ring of gravity anomalies mark the position of the basin rim at approximately 150 km from the center. Wells in this region recovered thick sequences of impact-generated breccias at 200-300 m below present sea level. Inside the rim, which has been severely modified by erosion following impact, the subsurface basin continues to deepen until near the center it is approximately 1 km deep. The best planetary analog for this crater appears to be the 270 km-diameter Mead basin on Venus. Seismic reflection data indicate that the central zone of downward displacement and excavation (the transient crater is approximately 130 km in diameter, consistent with previous studies of gravity anomaly data). Our analysis of projectile characteristics utilizes this information, coupled with conventional scaling relationships, and geochemical constraints on the mass of extraterrestrial material deposited within the K/T boundary layer. Results indicate that the Chicxulub crater would most likely be formed by a long-period comet composed primarily of nonsilicate materials (ice, hydrocarbons, etc.) and subordinate amounts (< or = 50%) primitive chondritic material. This collision would have released the energy equivalent to between 4 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) megatons of TNT. Studies of terrestrial impact rates suggest that such an event would have a mean production rate of approximately 1.25 x 10(-9) y-1. This rate is considerably lower than that of the major mass extinctions over the last 250 million years (approximately 5 x 10(-7) y-1). Consequently, while there is substantial circumstantial evidence establishing the cause-effect link between the Chicxulub basin forming event and the K

  7. The Cretaceous-Tertiary Impact Crater and the Cosmic Projectile that Produced it

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.

    1997-01-01

    Evidence gathered to date from topographic data, geophysical data, well logs, and drill-core samples indicates that the buried Chicxulub basin, the source crater for the approximately 65 Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary deposits, is approximately 300 km in diameter. A prominent topographic ridge and a ring of gravity anomalies mark the position of the basin rim at approximately 150 km from the center. Wells in this region recovered thick sequences of impact-generated breccias at 200-300 m below present sea level. Inside the rim, which has been severely modified by erosion following impact, the subsurface basin continues to deepen until near the center it is approximately 1 km deep. The best planetary analog for this crater appears to be the 270 km-diameter Mead basin on Venus. Seismic reflection data indicate that the central zone of downward displacement and excavation (the transient crater is approximately 130 km in diameter, consistent with previous studies of gravity anomaly data). Our analysis of projectile characteristics utilizes this information, coupled with conventional scaling relationships, and geochemical constraints on the mass of extraterrestrial material deposited within the K/T boundary layer. Results indicate that the Chicxulub crater would most likely be formed by a long-period comet composed primarily of nonsilicate materials (ice, hydrocarbons, etc.) and subordinate amounts (less than or equal to 50 percent) primitive chondritic material. This collision would have released the energy equivalent to between 4 x 10(exp 8) and 4 x 10(exp 9) megatons of TNT. Studies of terrestrial impact rates suggest that such an event would have a mean production rate of approximately 1.25 x 10(exp -9) y(exp -1). This rate is considerably lower than that of the major mass extinctions over the last 250 million years (approximately 5 x 10(exp -7) y(exp -1). Consequently, while there is substantial circumstantial evidence establishing the cause-effect link

  8. The radiative impact of desert dust on orographic rain in the Cevennes-Vivarais area: a case study from HyMeX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Chazette, P.; Di Girolamo, P.; Bourrianne, T.; Totems, J.; Cacciani, M.

    2015-08-01

    The study is focused on Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 14 of the Hydrology Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment first Special Observing Period (HyMeX SOP 1) that took place from 17 to 19 October and was dedicated to the study of orographic rain in the Cevennes Vivarais (CV) target area. During this IOP a dense dust plume originating from North Africa (Maghreb and Sahara) was observed to be transported over the Balearic Islands towards the south of France. The plume was characterized by an aerosol optical depth between 0.2 and 0.8 at 550 nm, highly variable in time and space over the Western Mediterranean basin. The impact of this dust plume, the biggest event observed during the 2 month long HyMeX SOP 1, on the precipitation over the CV area has been analyzed using high resolution simulations from the convection permitting mesoscale model Meso-NH validated against measurements obtained from numerous instruments deployed specifically during SOP 1 (ground-based/airborne water vapor and aerosol lidars, airborne microphysics probes) as well as space-borne aerosol products. The 4 day simulation reproduced realistically the temporal and spatial variability (incl. vertical distribution) of the dust. The dust radiative impact led to an average 0.6 K heating at the altitude of the dust layer in the CV area (and up to +3 K locally) and an average 100 J kg-1 increase of most unstable convective available potential energy (and up to +900 J kg-1 locally) with respect to a simulation without prescribed dust aerosols. The rainfall amounts and location were only marginally affected by the dust radiative effect, even after 4 days of simulation. The transient nature of this radiative effect in dynamical environments such as those found in the vicinity of heavy precipitation events in the Mediterranean is not sufficient to impact 24 h accumulated rainfall in the dusty simulation.

  9. Contemporary Interstellar Dust Measured by Cassini: A Chemically Homogenised Population, not Circumstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieloff, M.; Altobelli, N.; Postberg, F.; Fiege, K.; Srama, R.

    2016-08-01

    36 grains of contemporary interstellar dust analysed by Cassini contain the major rock forming elements (Mg, Si, Fe, Ca) in roughly cosmic abundances. This population likely derives from destruction and recondensation processes in the ISM.

  10. Cosmic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members

  11. Cosmic superstrings.

    PubMed

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2008-08-28

    Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe.

  12. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: DEPENDENCE OF THE SURFACE POTENTIAL ON THE GRAIN SIZE

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Z.; Pavlu, J.; Safrankova, J.; Beranek, M.; Richterova, I.; Vaverka, J.; Mann, I.

    2011-09-01

    The secondary electron emission is believed to play an important role for the dust charging at and close to the lunar surface. However, our knowledge of emission properties of the dust results from model calculations and rather rare laboratory investigations. The present paper reports laboratory measurements of the surface potential on Lunar Highlands Type regolith simulants with sizes between 0.3 and 3 {mu}m in an electron beam with energy below 700 eV. This investigation is focused on a low-energy part, i.e., {<=}100 eV. We found that the equilibrium surface potential of this simulant does not depend on the grain size in our ranges of grain dimensions and the beam energies, however, it is a function of the primary electron beam energy. The measurements are confirmed by the results of the simulation model of the secondary emission from the spherical samples. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained in laboratory experiments as well as those inferred from in situ observations.

  13. Experimental studies about the impact of traction sand on urban road dust composition.

    PubMed

    Kupiainen, Kaarle; Tervahattu, Heikki; Räisänen, Mika

    2003-06-01

    Traffic causes enhanced PM(10) resuspension especially during spring in the US, Japan, Norway, Sweden and Finland, among other countries. The springtime PM(10) consists primarily of mineral matter from tyre-induced paved road surface wear and traction sand. In some countries, the majority of vehicles are equipped with studded tyres to enhance traction, which additionally increases road surface wear. Because the traction sand and the mineral matter from the pavement aggregate can have a similar mineralogical composition, it has been difficult to determine the source of the mineral fraction in the PM(10). In this study, homogenous traction sand and pavement aggregate with different mineralogical compositions were chosen to determine the sources of PM(10) particles by single particle analysis (SEM/EDX). This study was conducted in a test facility, which made it possible to rule out dust contributions from other sources. The ambient PM(10) concentrations were higher when traction sand was used, regardless of whether the tyres were studded or not. Surprisingly, the use of traction sand greatly increased the number of the particles originating from the pavement. It was concluded that sand must contribute to pavement wear. This phenomenon is called the sandpaper effect. An understanding of this is important to reduce harmful effects of springtime road dust in practical winter maintenance of urban roads

  14. Pallene dust torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiss, M.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Sun, K. L.; Seiler, M.; Sachse, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.

    2014-12-01

    The tiny moon Pallene (diameter < 5 km, semi-major axis 212,000 km) orbits between Saturn's moons Mimas and Enceladus. The ISS cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along its inclined orbit (Hedman, 2009). The source of the torus is believed to be the moon itself, where dust particles are ejected from the surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on-board the spacecraft Cassini which confirm a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled with a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 10-3 m-3. Additionally, the data show an enhancement of larger particle in the torus in comparison to the background E-ring size distribution. The radial mean position of the torus is radially shifted outwards by around 1200 km in all flybys. This could point to a systematic larger semi-major axes of the dust particles (in comparison to Pallene) or a possible heliotropic appearance of the torus (all flybys in anti-solar direction).

  15. SIZE AND DENSITY ESTIMATION FROM IMPACT TRACK MORPHOLOGY IN SILICA AEROGEL: APPLICATION TO DUST FROM COMET 81P/WILD 2

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Rei; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Kadono, Toshihiko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Tabata, Makoto; Watanabe, Takayuki; Yagishita, Masahito; Machii, Nagisa; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Nakano, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    A large number of cometary dust particles were captured with low-density silica aerogel during the NASA Stardust mission. The dust particles penetrated into the aerogel and formed various track shapes. To estimate the properties of the dust particles, such as density and size, based on the morphology of the tracks, we carried out systematic experiments testing impacts into low-density aerogel at 6 km s{sup -1} using projectiles of various sizes and densities. We found that the maximum track diameter and the ratio of the track length to the maximum track diameter in aerogel are good indicators of projectile size and density, respectively. Based on these results, we estimated the size and density of individual dust particles from comet 81P/Wild 2. The average density of the 'fluffy' dust particles and the bulk density of all dust particles were obtained as 0.35 {+-} 0.07 and 0.49 {+-} 0.18 g cm{sup -3}, respectively. These statistical data provided the content of monolithic and coarse grains in the Stardust particles, {approx}30 wt%. Combining this result with some mid-infrared observational data, we found that the content of crystalline silicates is {approx}50 wt% or more of non-volatile material.

  16. Multiyear Evidence from Ground-based Observations and Modeling of the Impact of Dust on Snowfall in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; Ault, A. P.; Collins, D. B.; Cahill, J. F.; Fitzgerald, E.; White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Fan, J.; Leung, L.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols that have the ability to act as ice nuclei (IN) can impact cloud formation and alter the type, amount, and location of precipitation. IN such as dust and biological aerosols can lead to early initiation of the ice phase that enhances riming and thus precipitation. Depending on temperature conditions, this can lead to increased snowfall at the surface. Potential snowfall enhancement in mountainous regions such as California's Sierra Nevada has large implications on regional water supply, which in turn can affect agricultural and ecosystem productivity, the amount of renewable energy from hydropower, and many other water uses. However, the magnitude of the effect of IN on precipitation intensity, form, and patterns during intense winter storms in the Sierra Nevada is poorly understood. During three consecutive winters (2009-2011) of the CalWater field campaign, the chemical composition of precipitation residues were measured at Sugar Pine Dam, a remote rural site in the Sierra Nevada. Some precipitation events occurred during storms that were characterized by atmospheric river (AR) conditions, which are ideal for generating copious amounts of orographic precipitation. Large fractions of dust and biological aerosols were measured as residues in precipitation samples collected during storms with increased snowfall and lower surface temperatures. In most cases, higher fractions of dust were measured in samples during stronger ARs, while higher fractions of biological or water-insoluble organic residues were measured during weaker ARs throughout all three winters. During the winter storms of CalWater, we observed an increase over time in the fraction of dust and biological residues combined, from 20% in 2009 to 82% in 2011 of the total residues in all precipitation samples, in addition to a decrease in average surface temperature (from 4.8 to 2.3 °C), an increase in the total amount of precipitation (from 253 to 374 mm), and an increase in the frequency of

  17. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 μg m(-3)) were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran. The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended.

  18. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 μg m(-3)) were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran. The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. PMID:26774778

  19. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  20. Bipolar-pulses observed by the LRS/WFC-L onboard KAGUYA - Plausible evidence of lunar dust impact -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Horie, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Kozo; Omura, Yoshiharu; Goto, Yoshitaka; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Lrs/Wfc Team; Map/Lmag Team

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: The waveform capture (WFC) [1] is one of the subsystems of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) [2] on board the KAGUYA spacecraft. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC measures plasma waves and radio emis-sions around the moon. The WFC measures two components of electric wave signals detected by the two orthogonal 30 m tip-to-tip antennas from 100Hz to 1MHz. The WFC consists of the WFC-L which meas-ures electric waveform from 100Hz to 100kHz, and the WFC-H which is a fast sweep frequency analyz-er covering from 1kHz up to 1MHz. The WFC-L has two operation modes: DIFF and MONO. In DIFF mode, signals from two pairs of 30m tip-to-tip dipole antennas are obtained. MONO mode is namely an interferometry mode and we separately measure the signals from a pair of monopole antennas. This mode is dedicated to measure the phase velocities and wave numbers of plasma waves. Bipolar-pulses with their time scales of a few ms upto several tens ms were often observed by the WFC-L. Some of them are classified into elec-trostatic solitary waves (ESW) [3], while another type of bipolar pulses which are supposed to be caused by lunar dust impacts are also observed. In the present paper, we introduce the latter type of bipolar-pulses. Observation: In general, ESWs are caused by electron-holes in the nonlinear evolution of electron beam instability. Therefore waveform of ESW is basically symmetric and its propagation direction is parallel to the am-bient magnetic field. On the other hand, another type of bipolar pulses are characterized by their asymmetric waveforms, that is, the latter half of pulse is longer than the first half. It is also noted that detection probability of such asymmetric bipolar pulses in MONO mode is much higher than that in DIFF mode. This is because bipolar pulses detected by a pair of monopole antennas in MONO mode are almost identical (pulses are simultaneously detected with both monopole anten-nas and the polarities of these pulses are also

  1. Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B (Meetings B2, B3, and B5) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Editor); Zarnecki, J. C. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on space dust and debris encompasses orbital debris, in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of space-dust particles, comparative studies of comets, asteroids, and dust, the protection and maneuvering of spacecraft in space-debris environments, and the out-of-elliptic distribution of interplanetary dust derived from near-earth flux. Specific issues addressed include asteroid taxonomy, the optical properties of dust from cometary and interplanetary grains, light scattering by rough surfaces on asteroidal/lunar regoliths, and the first results of particulate impacts and foil perforations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Also addressed are collision probability and spacecraft disposition in the geostationary orbit, a flash on the moon caused by orbital debris, the limits of population growth in low earth orbit due to collisional cascading, and the simulation of cosmic man-made dust effects on space-vehicle elements in rocket and laboratory experiments.

  2. Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang

    2014-09-15

    This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 μm, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 μm), and local dust particles (20~100 μm), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust

  3. Microwave and theoretical studies for Cosmic Background Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, its instruments, and its scientific mission are discussed. The COBE radiometer is considered, and measurement of galactic radio emission with masers is reviewed. Extragalactic radiation and zodiacal dust are mentioned briefly.

  4. Electrostatic dust detector

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2006-05-02

    An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

  5. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  6. Cosmic superstrings.

    PubMed

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2008-08-28

    Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe. PMID:18534932

  7. Modeling the impact of tropical mesoscale convective systems on Sahelian mineral dust budget: a case study during AMMA SOPs 1-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouet, C.; Cautenet, G.; Marticorena, B.; Bergametti, G.; Chatenet, B.; Rajot, J.-L.; Descroix, L.

    2009-04-01

    performed in order to: (i) identify the physical processes that must be taken into account in the mesoscale model to correctly simulate the observed MCS, (ii) determine how these processes have to be accounted for (horizontal resolution, convective parameterization) in the mesoscale model. Finally, the impact on the simulated dust emissions of the bias on the simulation of the MCSs will be discussed.

  8. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  9. Impact of ocean acidification on phytoplankton assemblage, growth, and DMS production following Fe-dust additions in the NE Pacific high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélançon, Josiane; Levasseur, Maurice; Lizotte, Martine; Scarratt, Michael; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Tortell, Philippe; Yang, Gui-Peng; Shi, Guang-Yu; Gao, Huiwang; Semeniuk, David; Robert, Marie; Arychuk, Michael; Johnson, Keith; Sutherland, Nes; Davelaar, Marty; Nemcek, Nina; Peña, Angelica; Richardson, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to have an effect on the fertilizing potential of desert dust in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceanic regions, either by modifying iron (Fe) speciation and bioavailability or by altering phytoplankton Fe requirements and acquisition. To address this issue, short incubations (4 days) of northeast subarctic Pacific waters enriched with either FeSO4 or dust and set at pH 8.0 (in situ) and 7.8 were conducted in August 2010. We assessed the impact of a decrease in pH on dissolved Fe concentration, phytoplankton biomass, taxonomy and productivity, and the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Chlorophyll a (chl a) remained unchanged in the controls and doubled in both the FeSO4-enriched and dust-enriched incubations, confirming the Fe-limited status of the plankton assemblage during the experiment. In the acidified treatments, a significant reduction (by 16-38 %) in the final concentration of chl a was measured compared to their nonacidified counterparts, and a 15 % reduction in particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was measured in the dust-enriched acidified treatment compared to the dust-enriched nonacidified treatment. FeSO4 and dust additions had a fertilizing effect mainly on diatoms and cyanobacteria as estimated from algal pigment signatures. Lowering the pH affected mostly the haptophytes, but pelagophyte concentrations were also reduced in some acidified treatments. Acidification did not significantly alter DMSP and DMS concentrations. These results show that dust deposition events in a low-pH iron-limited northeast subarctic Pacific are likely to stimulate phytoplankton growth to a lesser extent than in today's ocean during the few days following fertilization and point to a low initial sensitivity of the DMSP and DMS dynamics to OA.

  10. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments.

  11. The lunar environment: Determining the health effects of exposure to moon dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    The Earth's moon presents a hostile environment in which to live and work. There is no atmosphere to protect its surface from the ravages of cosmic radiation, solar wind and micrometeorite impacts. As a result, the moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of entering habitats, and vehicle compartments, where it can cause crew member health problems. During the Apollo missions, lunar dusts were introduced into the Lunar Lander and command module, resulting in direct exposure and occasional reports of respiratory, dermal and ocular irritation. Now that we are returning to the moon for long duration stays and multiple space walk exposures, NASA is concerned with the health of the astronauts in regards to repeated (chronic) and acute episodic exposures to lunar dusts. We expect that lunar dust will be returned to the module post-space-walk (extravehicular activity, EVA) activity. These repeated episodic exposures will need to be controlled by our Environmental Control Life Support System, based upon the health standards that we set for acute and chronic exposures. In order to characterize the toxicological effects of lunar dust, NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG). This interdisciplinary group is composed of experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine, dust toxicity, and biomedical research. Ultimately, this panel of experts will set health standards and risk criteria for use by vehicle design engineers, operation planners and astronauts during lunar missions.

  12. The radiative impact of desert dust on orographic rain in the Cévennes-Vivarais area: a case study from HyMeX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Chazette, P.; Di Girolamo, P.; Bourrianne, T.; Totems, J.; Cacciani, M.

    2015-11-01

    The study is focused on Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 14 of the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment first Special Observing Period (HyMeX SOP 1) that took place from 17 to 19 October 2012 and was dedicated to the study of orographic rain in the Cévennes-Vivarais (CV) target area. During this IOP a dense dust plume originating from northern Africa (the Maghreb and Sahara) was observed to be transported over the Balearic Islands towards the south of France. The plume was characterized by an aerosol optical depth between 0.2 and 0.8 at 550 nm, highly variable in time and space over the western Mediterranean Basin. The impact of this dust plume, the biggest event observed during the 2-month-long HyMeX SOP 1, on the precipitation over the CV area has been analyzed using high-resolution simulations from the convection permitting mesoscale model Meso-NH (mesoscale non-hydrostatic model) validated against measurements obtained from numerous instruments deployed specifically during SOP 1 (ground-based/airborne water vapor and aerosol lidars, airborne microphysics probes) as well as space-borne aerosol products. The 4-day simulation reproduced realistically the temporal and spatial variability (including the vertical distribution) of the dust. The dust radiative impact led to an average 0.6 K heating at the altitude of the dust layer in the CV area (and up to +3 K locally) and an average 100 J kg-1 increase of most unstable convective available potential energy (and up to +900 J kg-1 locally) with respect to a simulation without prescribed dust aerosols. The rainfall amounts and location were only marginally affected by the dust radiative effect, even after 4 days of simulation. The transient nature of this radiative effect in dynamical environments such as those found in the vicinity of heavy precipitation events in the Mediterranean is not sufficient to impact 24 h of accumulated rainfall in the dust simulation.

  13. IMPACT OF SUPERNOVA AND COSMIC-RAY DRIVING ON THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF THE GALACTIC HALO IN SOFT X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Girichidis, Philipp; Gatto, Andrea; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian; Clark, Paul C.

    2015-11-10

    The halo of the Milky Way contains a hot plasma with a surface brightness in soft X-rays of the order 10{sup −12} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} deg{sup −2}. The origin of this gas is unclear, but so far numerical models of galactic star formation have failed to reproduce such a large surface brightness by several orders of magnitude. In this paper, we analyze simulations of the turbulent, magnetized, multi-phase interstellar medium including thermal feedback by supernova explosions as well as cosmic-ray feedback. We include a time-dependent chemical network, self-shielding by gas and dust, and self-gravity. Pure thermal feedback alone is sufficient to produce the observed surface brightness, although it is very sensitive to the supernova rate. Cosmic rays suppress this sensitivity and reduce the surface brightness because they drive cooler outflows. Self-gravity has by far the largest effect because it accumulates the diffuse gas in the disk in dense clumps and filaments, so that supernovae exploding in voids can eject a large amount of hot gas into the halo. This can boost the surface brightness by several orders of magnitude. Although our simulations do not reach a steady state, all simulations produce surface brightness values of the same order of magnitude as the observations, with the exact value depending sensitively on the simulation parameters. We conclude that star formation feedback alone is sufficient to explain the origin of the hot halo gas, but measurements of the surface brightness alone do not provide useful diagnostics for the study of galactic star formation.

  14. Impact of Supernova and Cosmic-Ray Driving on the Surface Brightness of the Galactic Halo in Soft X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thomas; Girichidis, Philipp; Gatto, Andrea; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The halo of the Milky Way contains a hot plasma with a surface brightness in soft X-rays of the order 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 deg-2. The origin of this gas is unclear, but so far numerical models of galactic star formation have failed to reproduce such a large surface brightness by several orders of magnitude. In this paper, we analyze simulations of the turbulent, magnetized, multi-phase interstellar medium including thermal feedback by supernova explosions as well as cosmic-ray feedback. We include a time-dependent chemical network, self-shielding by gas and dust, and self-gravity. Pure thermal feedback alone is sufficient to produce the observed surface brightness, although it is very sensitive to the supernova rate. Cosmic rays suppress this sensitivity and reduce the surface brightness because they drive cooler outflows. Self-gravity has by far the largest effect because it accumulates the diffuse gas in the disk in dense clumps and filaments, so that supernovae exploding in voids can eject a large amount of hot gas into the halo. This can boost the surface brightness by several orders of magnitude. Although our simulations do not reach a steady state, all simulations produce surface brightness values of the same order of magnitude as the observations, with the exact value depending sensitively on the simulation parameters. We conclude that star formation feedback alone is sufficient to explain the origin of the hot halo gas, but measurements of the surface brightness alone do not provide useful diagnostics for the study of galactic star formation.

  15. Probing the climatological impact of a cosmic ray-cloud connection through low-frequency radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Nathan; Kavic, Michael

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that cosmic ray events could have a causal relationship with cloud formation rates. Given the weak constraints on the role that cloud formation plays in climate forcing it is essential to understand the role such a relationship could have in shaping the Earth's climate. This issue has been previously investigated in the context of the long-term effect of cosmic ray events on climate. However, in order to establish whether or not such a relationship exists, measurements of short-timescale solar events, individual cosmic ray events, and spatially correlated cloud parameters could be of great significance. Here we propose such a comparison using observations from a pair of radio telescopes arrays, the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA). These low-frequency radio arrays have a unique ability to simultaneously conduct solar, ionospheric and cosmic rays observations and are thus ideal for such a comparison. We will outline plans for a comparison using data from these instruments, satellite images of cloud formation as well as expected cloud formation rates from numerical models. We present some preliminary results illustrating the efficacy of this type of comparison and discuss future plans to carryout this program.

  16. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    Atmospheric mineral dust has a large impact on the earth's radiation balance and climate. The radiative effects of mineral dust depend on factors including, particle size, shape, and composition which can all be extremely complex. Mineral dust particles are typically irregular in shape and can include sharp edges, voids, and fine scale surface roughness. Particle shape can also depend on the type of mineral and can vary as a function of particle size. In addition, atmospheric mineral dust is a complex mixture of different minerals as well as other, possibly organic, components that have been mixed in while these particles are suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosol optical properties are investigated in this work, including studies of the effect of particle size, shape, and composition on the infrared (IR) extinction and visible scattering properties in order to achieve more accurate modeling methods. Studies of particle shape effects on dust optical properties for single component mineral samples of silicate clay and diatomaceous earth are carried out here first. Experimental measurements are modeled using T-matrix theory in a uniform spheroid approximation. Previous efforts to simulate the measured optical properties of silicate clay, using models that assumed particle shape was independent of particle size, have achieved only limited success. However, a model which accounts for a correlation between particle size and shape for the silicate clays offers a large improvement over earlier modeling approaches. Diatomaceous earth is also studied as an example of a single component mineral dust aerosol with extreme particle shapes. A particle shape distribution, determined by fitting the experimental IR extinction data, used as a basis for modeling the visible light scattering properties. While the visible simulations show only modestly good agreement with the scattering data, the fits are generally better than those obtained using more commonly invoked particle shape

  17. Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a recent sounding rocket experiment which found charged dust in the Earth's tropical mesosphere. The dust detector was designed to measure small (5000 - 10000 amu.) charged dust particles, most likely of meteoric origin. A 5 km thick layer of positively charged dust was found at an altitude of 90 km, in the vicinity of an observed sporadic sodium layer and sporadic E layer. The observed dust was positively charged in the bulk of the dust layer, but was negatively charged near the bottom.

  18. A GCM Investigation of Dust Aerosol Impact on the Regional Climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust enhances or suppresses precipitation. The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and

  19. Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Harris, Walter M.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    The Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device (CUPID) is a suborbital sounding rocket payload designed to perform wide-field, polarimetric imaging of the extragalactic ultraviolet background. In doing so, it will also measure the contribution to the UV background from the diffuse Galactic light (DGL), starlight from the Milky Way scattered off of dust. Current uncertanties in the contribution of the DGL to the UV background are due almost entirely to a poor knowledge of the optical properties of the dust in the diffuse ISM at ultraviolet wavelengths. The polarization of the scattered light is sensitive to scattering angle and thus CUPID imaging may help to constrain the spatial distribution and scattering properties of Galactic dust.

  20. Cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.

  1. Cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.P.

    1988-07-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Chemical Evolution of Mineral Dust and Its Impact on Radiative Forcing in East Asia during 2006-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; DONG, X.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Arid regions and deserts in China and Mongolia are two of the main terrestrial sources of airborne dust, with major contribution from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts which can travel to China, Japan, Taiwan and even across Pacific Ocean to US and around north hemisphere. While China has been one of the most rapid-developing countries during the past decade, it also contributes intensive anthropogenic emissions including SO2 and NOx. Critical uncertainties remain regarding the chemical transformation of dust components during the transport with reactions involving these anthropogenic pollutants, which may significantly alter the optical properties and size distribution of mineral dust, and finally affect regional climate. In this study, we implemented heterogeneous reactions for dust particles into the WRF/CMAQ modeling system, and investigate the chemical evolution of mineral dust during the transport pathway. Integrating the dust-blown scheme of CMAQ, we also probe into the inter-annual changes of dust emission from East Asia, and the radiative forcing changes due to dust particles for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010.

  3. A trans-Pacific Asian dust episode and its impacts to air quality in the east coast of U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yonghua; Han, Zaw; Nazmi, Chowdhury; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The transport of an intense trans-Pacific Asian dust episode to the Northeast United States (U.S.) is studied using a synergistic suite of observations and models including a ground-based lidar, AERONET-sunphotometer, satellite measurements and global aerosol transport model for New York City (40.821°N, 73.949°W). During the dust intrusion on March 17-19, 2010, the multi-wavelength lidar observations indicate dense dust plumes (∼80% of total column AOD) located between 3 and 9 km altitudes with the lower layer mixing toward the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The column AOD shows a significant increase from 0.08 to 0.38 at 532-nm while the Angstrom exponent indicates a decrease from 1.3 to 0.7. The linear particle depolarization ratio is estimated to be 0.1-0.15 and the single-scattering-albedo shows the dust-like spectral dependence with the value of 0.9-0.95 at 440-nm. The NOAA-NCEP reanalysis and HYSPLIT model indicate that this long-range transport is driven by the strong western jets and travels for 6 days to arrive the U.S. east coast versus the western and northern U.S. Both the NAAPS aerosol transport model and satellite CALIPSO observations for multiple orbits clearly illustrate the dust-dominated aerosol along the transport path. In addition, coincident increase of both particulate matter (PM) and fine soil concentrations indicate the potential impact of transported dust on the air quality that is found to be associated with a large area of sinking air along the U.S. east coast.

  4. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  5. Dust in fusion plasmas: theory and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Mendis, D. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Rudakov, D.; Tanaka, Y.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soboleva, T. K.; Shukla, P. K.; Bray, B. D.; West, W. P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.

    2008-09-07

    Dust may have a large impact on ITER-scale plasma experiments including both safety and performance issues. However, the physics of dust in fusion plasmas is very complex and multifaceted. Here, we discuss different aspects of dust dynamics including dust-plasma, and dust-surface interactions. We consider the models of dust charging, heating, evaporation/sublimation, dust collision with material walls, etc., which are suitable for the conditions of fusion plasmas. The physical models of all these processes have been incorporated into the DUST Transport (DUSTT) code. Numerical simulations demonstrate that dust particles are very mobile and accelerate to large velocities due to the ion drag force (cruise speed >100 m/s). Deep penetration of dust particles toward the plasma core is predicted. It is shown that DUSTT is capable of reproducing many features of recent dust-related experiments, but much more work is still needed.

  6. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations.

  7. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. PMID:26774687

  8. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  9. Mineral dust impact on snow radiative properties in the European Alps combining ground, UAV, and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, B.; Fava, F.; Ferrero, L.; Garzonio, R.; Baccolo, G.; Delmonte, B.; Colombo, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact of mineral dust (MD) on snow radiative properties in the European Alps at ground, aerial, and satellite scale. A field survey was conducted to acquire snow spectral reflectance measurements with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Field Spec Pro spectroradiometer. Surface snow samples were analyzed to determine the concentration and size distribution of MD in each sample. An overflight of a four-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with an RGB digital camera sensor was carried out during the field operations. Finally, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data covering the central European Alps were analyzed. Observed reflectance evidenced that MD strongly reduced the spectral reflectance of snow, in particular, from 350 to 600 nm. Reflectance was compared with that simulated by parameterizing the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation radiative transfer model. We defined a novel spectral index, the Snow Darkening Index (SDI), that combines different wavelengths showing nonlinear correlation with measured MD concentrations (R2 = 0.87, root-mean-square error = 0.037). We also estimated a positive instantaneous radiative forcing that reaches values up to 153 W/m2 for the most concentrated sampling area. SDI maps at local scale were produced using the UAV data, while regional SDI maps were generated with OLI data. These maps show the spatial distribution of MD in snow after a natural deposition from the Saharan desert. Such postdepositional experimental data are fundamental for validating radiative transfer models and global climate models that simulate the impact of MD on snow radiative properties.

  10. Space Weathering of airless bodies in the Solar System - Combining hypervelocity dust impacts with energetic irradiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiege, K.; Bennett, C.; Guglielmino, M.; Orlando, T. M.; Trieloff, M.; Srama, R.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of meteorites and their parent asteroids provides us with information about the processes and conditions during the formation of the inner Solar System. However, linking meteorites to their parent bodies is problematic. Astronomical observations aim to reconstruct the surface properties of these bodies primarily by visible and infrared spectra, but space weathering severely modifies the optical, compositional and physical properties of thin surface layers and thus precludes proper identification of chemistry and mineralogy. The effects of space weathering have been experimentally studied mainly with respect to ion bombardment and sputtering. Other studies aimed to simulate the influence of micrometeoroid bombardment by using laser ablation techniques. However, there is sufficient evidence that laser ablation does not realistically lead to the same effects as produced during real micrometeorite impacts. We performed micrometeorite bombardment using a 2MV dust accelerator at the Institute for Space Systems at University of Stuttgart, Germany, capable of generating impact speeds up to 100 km s-1. These results are combined with energetic irradiation experiments at the Electron and Photon Induced Chemistry on Surfaces (EPICS) laboratory at Georgia Institute of Technology, USA. By simulating highly realistic irradiation conditions, we are able to investigate the processes of particle and solar wind irradiation on solid planetary surfaces and study the formation of e.g., nanophase iron in minerals, the effects on hydrous minerals regarding their volatile budgets, or possible OH-formation in nominally anhydrous minerals and relate these to their optical properties. Using a variety of minerals, this work aims to contribute to a better understanding of the general alteration mechanisms in space environments in dependence of weathering agent and available material. We here present the results of initial comparison analysis and

  11. The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Yang, Wenlin

    2012-09-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global problem. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting the metal pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling activities. Dust samples collected from a typical e-waste recycling region in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated using magnetic, geochemical, micro-morphological and mineralogical analysis. The values of mass-specific susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in dusts from e-waste recycling impacted areas ranged from 101 to 636×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) and from 10.5 to 85.2×10(-3) Am(2) kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant correlation between SIRM and χ (r(2)=0.747, p<0.001), indicating that ferrimagnetic minerals were dominating χ in the dust samples. The values of χ(fd)% varied from 2.6 to 4.6% with a mean of 3.4%, which suggested that magnetic carriers in the dusts are predominately coarse-grained particles. Two shapes of magnetic particles, spherule (10-150 μm) and angular-shaped particles (30-300 μm), were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses. κ-T curves, magnetic hysteresis loops and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that these magnetic particles were magnetite and goethite. There were significant correlations between SIRM and heavy metals (especially Cd, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn) as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of the dust, indicating that SIRM can be used as an efficient proxy for metal pollution in the e-waste recycling impacted area. PMID:22796729

  12. The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Yang, Wenlin

    2012-09-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global problem. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting the metal pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling activities. Dust samples collected from a typical e-waste recycling region in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated using magnetic, geochemical, micro-morphological and mineralogical analysis. The values of mass-specific susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in dusts from e-waste recycling impacted areas ranged from 101 to 636×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) and from 10.5 to 85.2×10(-3) Am(2) kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant correlation between SIRM and χ (r(2)=0.747, p<0.001), indicating that ferrimagnetic minerals were dominating χ in the dust samples. The values of χ(fd)% varied from 2.6 to 4.6% with a mean of 3.4%, which suggested that magnetic carriers in the dusts are predominately coarse-grained particles. Two shapes of magnetic particles, spherule (10-150 μm) and angular-shaped particles (30-300 μm), were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses. κ-T curves, magnetic hysteresis loops and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that these magnetic particles were magnetite and goethite. There were significant correlations between SIRM and heavy metals (especially Cd, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn) as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of the dust, indicating that SIRM can be used as an efficient proxy for metal pollution in the e-waste recycling impacted area.

  13. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-06-01

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high-resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) component, we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea; dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations is underestimated by a factor of 2. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob formation. The future

  14. Environmental effects of an impact-generated dust cloud - Implications for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mckay, C. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model of the evolution and radiative effects of a debris cloud from a hypothesized impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary suggests that the cloud could have reduced the amount of light at the earth's surface below that required for photosynthesis for several months and, for a somewhat shorter interval, even below that needed for many animals to see. For 6 months to 1 year, the surface would cool; the oceans could cool only a few degrees Celsius at most, but the continents might cool a maximum of 40 Kelvin. Extinctions in the ocean may have been caused primarily by the temporary cessation of photosynthesis, but those on land may have been primarily induced by a combination of lowered temperatures and reduced light.

  15. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  16. Detection of meteoroid hypervelocity impacts on the Cluster spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaverka, Jakub; Mann, Ingrid; Kero, Johan; De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Hamrin, Maria; Norberg, Carol; Pitkanen, Timo; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta

    2016-07-01

    There are several methods to measure the cosmic dust entering the Earth's atmosphere such as space-born dust detectors, meteor and HPLA radars, and optical imaging. One complementary method could be to use electric field instruments initially designed to measure electric waves. A plasma cloud generated by a hypervelocity dust impact on a spacecraft body can be detected by the electric field instruments commonly operated on the spacecraft. Since Earth-orbiting missions are generally not equipped with conventional dust detectors, the electric field instruments offer an alternative method to measure the Earth's dust environment. We present the first detection of dust impacts on one of the Earth-orbiting Cluster satellites recorded by the Wide-Band Data (WBD) instrument. We describe the concept of dust impact detection focused on specifics of the Cluster spacecraft and the WBD instrument and their influence on dust impact detection. The detected pulses are compared with theoretical shape based on the model of the recollection of plasma clouds electrons. The estimation of the size and the velocity of the impinging dust grains from the amplitude of the Cluster voltage pulses shown that such impacts can be generated by grains of radius of r = 0.1 μm impacting with the velocity v ˜100 km/s or by grains of radius r = 1 μm impacting with the velocity v ˜10 km/s. We discuss the sensitivity of this method for dust grain detection showing that grains of radius r = 0.01 μm can be detected when impacting with velocity v ˜300 km/s and grains of radius r = 10 μm with velocity v ˜1 km/s if the WBD instrument operates in the high gain level (75 dB).

  17. Discovery of Brownleeite: a New Manganese Silicide Mineral in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, Scott; Jones, John H.; Palma, Russell L.; Pepin, Robert O.; Klock, Wolfgang; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The Earth accretes approximately 40,000 tons of cosmic dust annually, originating mainly from the disintegration of comets and collisions among asteroids. This cosmic dust, also known as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), is a subject of intense interest since it is made of the original building blocks of our Solar System. Although the specific parent bodies of IDPs are unknown, the anhydrous chondritic-porous IDPs (CP-IDPs) subset has been potentially linked to a cometary source. The CP-IDPs are extremely primitive materials based on their unequilibrated mineralogy, C-rich chemistry, and anomalous isotopic signatures. In particular, some CP-IDPs escaped the thermal, aqueous and impact shock processing that has modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of meteorites. Thus, the CP-IDPs represent some of the most primitive solar system materials available for laboratory study. Most CP-IDPs are comprised of minerals that are common on Earth. However, in the course of an examination of one of the CP-IDPs, we encountered three sub-micrometer sized grains of manganese silicide (MnSi), a phase that has heretofore not been found in nature. In the seminar, we would like to focus on IDP studies and this manganese silicide phase that has been approved as the first new mineral identified from a comet by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA) in 2008. The mineral is named in honour of Donald E. Brownlee, an American astronomer and a founder of the field of cosmic dust research who is the principal investigator of the NASA Stardust Mission that collected dust samples from Comet 81P/Wild-2 and returned them to Earth. Much of our current view and understanding of the early solar system would not exist without the pioneering work of professor Don Brownlee in the study of IDPs.

  18. Vertical mass impact and features of Saharan dust intrusions derived from ground-based remote sensing in synergy with airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Andrey-Andrés, Javier; Gómez, Laura; Adame, José Antonio; Sorribas, Mar; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Cuevas, Emilio; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    A study of the vertical mass impact of Saharan dust intrusions is presented in this work. Simultaneous ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in-situ measurements performed during the AMISOC-TNF campaign over the Tenerife area (Canary Islands) in summertime from 01 July to 11 August 2013 were used for that purpose. A particular dusty (DD) case, associated to a progressively arriving dust intrusion lasting for two days on 31 July (weak incidence) and 01 August (strong incidence), is especially investigated. AERONET AOD and AEx values were ranging, respectively, from 0.2 to 1.4 and 0.35 to 0.05 along these two days. Vertical particle size distributions within fine and coarse modes (0.16-2.8 μm range) were obtained from aircraft aerosol spectrometer measurements. Extinction profiles and Lidar Ratio (LR) values were derived from MPLNET/Micro Pulse Lidar observations. MAXDOAS measurements were also used to retrieve the height-resolved aerosol extinction for evaluation purposes in comparison to Lidar-derived profiles. The synergy between Lidar observations and airborne measurements is established in terms of the Mass Extinction Efficiency (MEE) to calculate the vertical mass concentration of Saharan dust particles. Both the optical and microphysical profilings show dust particles mostly confined in a layer of 4.3 km thickness from 1.7 to 6 km height. LR ranged between 50 and 55 sr, typical values for Saharan dust particles. In addition, this 2-day dust event mostly affected the Free Troposphere (FT), being less intense in the Boundary Layer (BL). In particular, rather high Total Mass Concentrations (TMC) were found on the stronger DD day (01 August 2013): 124, 70 and 21 μg m-3 were estimated, respectively, at FT and BL altitudes and on the near-surface level. This dust impact was enhanced due to the increase of large particles affecting the FT, but also the BL, likely due to their gravitational settling. However, the use of an assumed averaged MEE value can be

  19. GEO Debris and Interplanetary Dust: Fluxes and Charging Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, A. L.; Green, S. F.; McBride, N. M.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Drolshagen, G.; Svedhem, H.; Bunte, K. D.

    2005-08-01

    A population of cosmic dust mixed with a population of man-made debris exists within the Earth's magnetosphere. Measurements of these provide the data samples for studies of the interplanetary dust particles that travel through our magnetosphere from the outside and for studies of the local byproducts of our space endeavours. Even though instruments to detect natural meteoroids and space debris particles have been flown in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and on interplanetary missions, very little information on the particle environment for Earth orbits above about 600 km altitude have been available. In particular, knowledge about particles smaller than 1 m in the geostationary (GEO) region was largely unknown before GORID. In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into GEO as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris from the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. Here we present some results of that study. We give GORID flux distributions for debris and IDPs and then present intriguing debris clustering features that might be the result of electrostatic fragmentation of the rocket slag particles.

  20. GEO Debris and interplanetary dust: fluxes and charging behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, A. L.; Green, S. F.; McBride, N. M.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Drolshagen, G.; Svedhem, H.; Bunte, K. D.

    A population of cosmic dust mixed with a population of man-made debris exists within the Earth's magnetosphere. Measurements of these provide the data samples for studies of the interplanetary dust particles that travel through our magnetosphere from the outside and for studies of the local byproducts of our space endeavours. Even though instruments to detect natural meteoroids and space debris particles have been flown in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and on interplanetary missions, very little information on the particle environment for Earth orbits above about 600 km altitude have been available. In particular, knowledge about particles smaller than 1 m in the geostationary (GEO) region was largely unknown before GORID. In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into GEO as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris from the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. Here we present some results of that study. We give GORID flux distributions for debris and IDPs and then present intriguing debris clustering features that might be the result of electrostatic fragmentation of the slag particles.

  1. Cosmic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, Brent; Courtois, Helene; Freedman, Wendy; Jarrett, Tom; Madore, Barry; Persson, Eric; Seibert, Mark; Shaya, Ed

    2011-05-01

    It is astonishing that only 30% of the motion of our Galaxy is understood, a fact that highlights a fundamental deficiency in our understanding of the composition of the Universe. Spitzer Cosmic Flows is the photometric component of a program to map the peculiar motions and large-scale flows of galaxies out to 200 Mpc in order to constrain the distribution of mass. This task requires measuring the peculiar velocity of galaxies, a response to the distribution of both baryonic and dark matter, densely sampled over the full sky. With an independent distance measurement, an observed galaxy redshift can be separated into cosmic expansion and peculiar velocity components. Spitzer Cosmic Flows will use IRAC 3.6 micron imaging to obtain independent distances using the correlation between galaxy luminosity and rotation rate (the mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation). The rotational velocity data is being acquired through the Cosmic Flows Large Program on the NRAO Green Bank Telescope and a complementary program of southern targets with the Parkes Telescope. Spitzer Cosmic Flows consists of five distinct samples totaling 4642 galaxies. New observations are required for 3531 galaxies and archival data exists for 1111 galaxies. Each of the samples serves a distinct purpose and/or domain while overlapping to assure a connectivity over a wide range of distances. The photometry of galaxies directly drives the peculiar velocity accuracy of this program. Spitzer IRAC 3.6 micron imaging provides the ability of a single instrument to perform the required imaging over the full sky with exquisite quality. The mid-IR traces the dominant stellar population with negligible extinction. Most importantly, the backgrounds are low from space enabling surface photometry to be extended to many exponential scale-lengths, capturing essentially all the light from the target.

  2. Combined impacts of current and future dust deposition and regional warming on Colorado River Basin snow dynamics and hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deems, Jeffrey S.; Painter, Thomas H.; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Belnap, Jayne; Udall, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado River provides water to 40 million people in seven western states and two countries and to 5.5 million irrigated acres. The river has long been overallocated. Climate models project runoff losses of 5–20% from the basin by mid-21st century due to human-induced climate change. Recent work has shown that decreased snow albedo from anthropogenic dust loading to the CO mountains shortens the duration of snow cover by several weeks relative to conditions prior to western expansion of the US in the mid-1800s, and advances peak runoff at Lees Ferry, Arizona, by an average of 3 weeks. Increases in evapotranspiration from earlier exposure of soils and germination of plants have been estimated to decrease annual runoff by more than 1.0 billion cubic meters, or ~5% of the annual average. This prior work was based on observed dust loadings during 2005–2008; however, 2009 and 2010 saw unprecedented levels of dust loading on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), being on the order of 5 times the 2005–2008 loading. Building on our prior work, we developed a new snow albedo decay parameterization based on observations in 2009/10 to mimic the radiative forcing of extreme dust deposition. We convolve low, moderate, and extreme dust/snow albedos with both historic climate forcing and two future climate scenarios via a delta method perturbation of historic records. Compared to moderate dust, extreme dust absorbs 2× to 4× the solar radiation, and shifts peak snowmelt an additional 3 weeks earlier to a total of 6 weeks earlier than pre-disturbance. The extreme dust scenario reduces annual flow volume an additional 1% (6% compared to pre-disturbance), a smaller difference than from low to moderate dust scenarios due to melt season shifting into a season of lower evaporative demand. The sensitivity of flow timing to dust radiative forcing of snow albedo is maintained under future climate scenarios, but the sensitivity of flow volume reductions decreases

  3. Combined impacts of current and future dust deposition and regional warming on Colorado River Basin snow dynamics and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Barsugli, J. J.; Belnap, J.; Udall, B.

    2013-11-01

    The Colorado River provides water to 40 million people in seven western states and two countries and to 5.5 million irrigated acres. The river has long been overallocated. Climate models project runoff losses of 5-20% from the basin by mid-21st century due to human-induced climate change. Recent work has shown that decreased snow albedo from anthropogenic dust loading to the CO mountains shortens the duration of snow cover by several weeks relative to conditions prior to western expansion of the US in the mid-1800s, and advances peak runoff at Lees Ferry, Arizona, by an average of 3 weeks. Increases in evapotranspiration from earlier exposure of soils and germination of plants have been estimated to decrease annual runoff by more than 1.0 billion cubic meters, or ~5% of the annual average. This prior work was based on observed dust loadings during 2005-2008; however, 2009 and 2010 saw unprecedented levels of dust loading on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), being on the order of 5 times the 2005-2008 loading. Building on our prior work, we developed a new snow albedo decay parameterization based on observations in 2009/10 to mimic the radiative forcing of extreme dust deposition. We convolve low, moderate, and extreme dust/snow albedos with both historic climate forcing and two future climate scenarios via a delta method perturbation of historic records. Compared to moderate dust, extreme dust absorbs 2× to 4× the solar radiation, and shifts peak snowmelt an additional 3 weeks earlier to a total of 6 weeks earlier than pre-disturbance. The extreme dust scenario reduces annual flow volume an additional 1% (6% compared to pre-disturbance), a smaller difference than from low to moderate dust scenarios due to melt season shifting into a season of lower evaporative demand. The sensitivity of flow timing to dust radiative forcing of snow albedo is maintained under future climate scenarios, but the sensitivity of flow volume reductions decreases with

  4. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I-Dust.

    PubMed

    David, Bruce; Moe, Randi Oppermann; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  5. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Oppermann Moe, Randi; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  6. Physics of Interplanetary Dust Collection with Aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William W.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of research undertaken to study various problems associated with hypervelocity capture of dust particles in aerogel. The primary topics investigated were the properties of shocked aerogel and the requirements for reliable capture of particles on the STARDUST mission. In particular, the viscosity of shocked aerogel has been an open question. The results presented here suggest that the viscosity of aerogel at high impact velocities is negligible, although there remains some uncertainty about lower velocities. The model adopted for viscosity treats the mixture of polymeric silica and decomposition products and finds that, for particle velocities of 6-7 km/s, the viscosity is similar to that typical of light gasses at STP. Expressions for the Hugoniot of aerogel as a function of density were also obtained from the available data. All aerogels of interest for cosmic dust collectors have very similar shock velocity-particle velocity Hugoniot curves. The strength behavior of aerogel for low-speed penetration was measured, but further work is needed to study the proper way to apply this to the issue of terminal deceleration of a dust particle. Preliminary calculations designed to maximize the penetration depths were performed to determine the required density of aerogel to reliably stop a particle in a 3 cm thickness of aerogel (the path length expected for a normal impact into the STARDUST collector). In order to stop a particle of density rho(sub p) and diameter d(sub p), the mean density of the aerogel collector should be no less than that given by the expression bar rho(sub 0) = 1.085 X 10(exp -4 )rho(sub p)d(sub p), for densities measured in g/ cu cm and the particle diameter measured in micrometers.

  7. Size distribution and diffuse pollution impacts of PAHs in street dust in urban streams in the Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Yin, Chengqing; Chen, Meixue; Wang, Weidong; Jefferies, Chris; Shan, Baoqing

    2009-01-01

    Particles of dust washed off streets by stormwater are an important pathway of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into urban streams. This article presented a comprehensive assessment of the size distribution of PAHs in street dust particles, the potential risks of the particles in urban streams, and the sources and sinks of PAHs in the stream network. This assessment was based on measurements of 16 PAHs from the USEPA priority list in street dust particles and river sediments in Xincheng, China. The content of total PAHs ranged from 1629 to 8986 microg/kg in street dust particles, where smaller particles have a higher concentrations. Approximately 55% of the total PAHs were associated with particles less than 250 microm which accounted for 40% of the total mass of street dust. The PAH quantities increased from 2.41 to 46.86 microg/m2 in the sequence of new residential, rising through main roads, old town residential, commercial and industrial areas. The sediments in stream reaches in town were found to be sinks for street dust particle PAHs. The research findings suggested that particle size, land use and the hydrological conditions in the stream network were the factors which most influenced the total loads of PAH in the receiving water bodies.