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Sample records for cosmic muon system

  1. Performance of a Drift Chamber Candidate for a Cosmic Muon Tomography System

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Oakham, G.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Liu, Z.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.

    2011-12-13

    In the last decade, many groups around the world have been exploring different ways to probe transport containers which may contain illicit Special Nuclear Materials such as uranium. The muon tomography technique has been proposed as a cost effective system with an acceptable accuracy. A group of Canadian institutions (see above), funded by Defence Research and Development Canada, is testing different technologies to track the cosmic muons. One candidate is the single wire Drift Chamber. With the capability of a 2D impact position measurement, two detectors will be placed above and two below the object to be probed. In order to achieve a good 3D image quality of the cargo content, a good angular resolution is required. The simulation showed that 1mrad was required implying the spatial resolution of the trackers must be in the range of 1 to 2 mm for 1 m separation. A tracking system using three prototypes has been built and tested. The spatial resolution obtained is 1.7 mm perpendicular to the wire and 3 mm along the wire.

  2. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-24

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  4. Calibrating Momentum Measurements Of The CMS Detector Using Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    We report results on the muon momentum calibration using cosmic-ray data taken by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The momentum scale of high-pT muons is sensitive to a possible bias on the curvature coming from the alignment of the muon system. Cosmic rays are a source of high-pT muons that can be used to measure the momentum scale of muons with pT > 200 GeV. The present talk describes the method used to measure the momentum scale from cosmic data and the measurement using the 2016 cosmic data is presented.

  5. Cosmic muon induced EM showers in NO$\

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Nitin; Duyang, Hongyue; Shanahan, Peter; Mishra, Sanjib; Bhuyan, Bipul

    2016-11-15

    Here, the NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a ne appearance neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. It identifies the ne signal from the electromagnetic (EM) showers induced by the electrons in the final state of neutrino interactions. Cosmic muon induced EM showers, dominated by bremsstrahlung, are abundant in NOvA far detector. We use the Cosmic Muon- Removal technique to get pure EM shower sample from bremsstrahlung muons in data. We also use Cosmic muon decay in flight EM showers which are highly pure EM showers.The large Cosmic-EM sample can be used, as data driven method, to characterize the EM shower signature and provides valuable checks of the simulation, reconstruction, particle identification algorithm, and calibration across the NOvA detector.

  6. Cosmic muon induced EM showers in NO$$\

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, Nitin; Duyang, Hongyue; Shanahan, Peter; ...

    2016-11-15

    Here, the NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a ne appearance neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. It identifies the ne signal from the electromagnetic (EM) showers induced by the electrons in the final state of neutrino interactions. Cosmic muon induced EM showers, dominated by bremsstrahlung, are abundant in NOvA far detector. We use the Cosmic Muon- Removal technique to get pure EM shower sample from bremsstrahlung muons in data. We also use Cosmic muon decay in flight EM showers which are highly pure EM showers.The large Cosmic-EM sample can be used, as data driven method, to characterize the EMmore » shower signature and provides valuable checks of the simulation, reconstruction, particle identification algorithm, and calibration across the NOvA detector.« less

  7. Cosmic-ray Muon Flux In Belgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Jokovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Puzovic, J.; Anicin, I.

    2007-04-23

    Two identical plastic scintillator detectors, of prismatic shape (50x23x5)cm similar to NE102, were used for continuous monitoring of cosmic-ray intensity. Muon {delta}E spectra have been taken at five minute intervals, simultaneously from the detector situated on the ground level and from the second one at the depth of 25 m.w.e in the low-level underground laboratory. Sum of all the spectra for the years 2002-2004 has been used to determine the cosmic-ray muon flux at the ground level and in the underground laboratory.

  8. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  9. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  10. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  11. A Simple Cosmic Ray Muon Detector At High Cutoff Rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, Abdullrahman; Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Almoteri, MR. M.; Rakan Alotaibi, MR.; Garawi, M. S. Al

    A small cosmic ray detector (area of 0.5 m2),using plastic scintillator, was constructed and being in operation in Riyadh (Rc=13 GeV) since September 2013. The objective of this detector is to study high energy cosmic ray muons on different time scales and investigate their correlations with environmental parameters. In this study, the technical aspects, the construction works of the system, and some of the calibration procedures will be briefly given. Preliminarily results obtained by the detector will be summarized. This includes the observations of three Forbush decreases occurred during the study period.

  12. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  13. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  14. The Determination of the Muon Magnetic Moment from Cosmic Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, C.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment suited for use in an advanced laboratory course in particle physics. The magnetic moment of cosmic ray muons which have some polarization is determined with an error of about five percent. (Author/GS)

  15. The Determination of the Muon Magnetic Moment from Cosmic Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, C.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment suited for use in an advanced laboratory course in particle physics. The magnetic moment of cosmic ray muons which have some polarization is determined with an error of about five percent. (Author/GS)

  16. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3×1020eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is s=700TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (>1TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates are sensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p in the pQCD regime.

  17. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is desinged to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 1017 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 1018 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations.

  18. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  19. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer

    2009-07-27

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x1020 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is sqrt snn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders.This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (pT) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers fromMACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher pT region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with pT in the pQCD regime.

  20. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The "muon generator" produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0-90° and energies in the range 1-100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance-Rejection and Metropolis-Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1-60 GeV and zenith angles 0-90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic-polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed "muon generator" is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  1. Advanced applications of cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John

    The passage of cosmic-ray muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and atomic nuclei. The muon's interaction with electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping through the process of ionization. The muon's interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. If a muon stops in matter, other processes unfold, as discussed in more detail below. These interactions provide the basis for advanced applications of cosmic-ray muon radiography discussed here, specifically: 1) imaging a nuclear reactor with near horizontal muons, and 2) identifying materials through the analysis of radiation lengths weighted by density and secondary signals that are induced by cosmic-ray muon trajectories. We have imaged a nuclear reactor, type AGN-201m, at the University of New Mexico, using data measured with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes, the Mini Muon Tracker (MMT). Geant4 simulations were compared to the data for verification and validation. In both the data and simulation, we can identify regions of interest in the reactor including the core, moderator, and shield. This study reinforces our claims for using muon tomography to image reactors following an accident. Warhead and special nuclear materials (SNM) imaging is an important thrust for treaty verification and national security purposes. The differentiation of SNM from other materials, such as iron and aluminum, is useful for these applications. Several techniques were developed for material identification using cosmic-ray muons. These techniques include: 1) identifying the radiation length weighted by density of an object and 2) measuring the signals that can indicate the presence of fission and chain reactions. By combining the radiographic images created by tracking muons through a target plane with the additional fission neutron and gamma signature, we are able to locate regions that are fissionable from a single side. The following materials were imaged

  2. Muon multiplicities measured using an underground cosmic-ray array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Enqvist, T.; Bezrukov, L.; Fynbo, H.; Inzhechik, L.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Petkov, V.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Virkajärvi, A.

    2016-05-01

    EMMA (Experiment with Multi-Muon Array) is an underground detector array designed for cosmic-ray composition studies around the knee energy (or ~ 1 — 10 PeV). It operates at the shallow depth in the Pyhasalmi mine, Finland. The array consists of eleven independent detector stations ~ 15 m2 each. Currently seven stations are connected to the DAQ and the rest will be connected within the next few months. EMMA will determine the multiplicity, the lateral density distribution and the arrival direction of high-energy muons event by event. The preliminary estimates concerning its performance together with an example of measured muon multiplicities are presented.

  3. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multi-purpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 4{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February - May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run.

  4. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  5. The Majorana Muon Veto System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew; Majorana Demonstrator Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Majorana Demonstrator (MJD) is one of the major efforts of the DOE NP to demonstrate very high sensitivity for the search of the neutrino less double beta decay. The ultimate goal of MJD is to prove that background levels for a tonne-scale experiment with a similar design can be as low as 1.0 count/(4 keV*t*y). One source of background is cosmic muons that can interact in the detectors or in the shielding. In order to tag cosmic muon induced background, an efficient veto system is necessary. The MJD veto system is made out of thirty two panels of 1'' plastic scintillator. Understanding the performance of MJD veto system is vital for reducing the background count. Initial data of veto system performance during the commissioning stage will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  6. Orientation selective neural network for cosmic muon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Horn, David; Naftaly, Ury; Sahar-Pikielny, Carmit

    1997-02-01

    We discuss a novel method for identification of a linear pattern of pixels on a two-dimensional grid. Motivated by principles employed by the visual cortex, we construct orientation selective neurons in a neural network that performs this task. The method is then applied to a sample of data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in order to identify cosmic muons that leave a linear pattern of signals in the segmented uranium-scintillator calorimeter. A two dimensional representation of the relevant part of the detector is used. The algorithm performs well in the presence of noise and pixels with limited efficiency. Given its architecture, this system becomes a good candidate for fast pattern recognition in parallel processing devices.

  7. Industrial radiography with cosmic-ray muons: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilboy, W. B.; Jenneson, P. M.; Simons, S. J. R.; Stanley, S. J.; Rhodes, D.

    2007-09-01

    Cosmic-ray produced muons arrive at the surface of the earth with enormous energies ranging up to 1012 GeV. There have been sporadic attempts to exploit their extreme penetration through matter to probe the internal structures of very large objects, including an Egyptian pyramid and a volcano but their very low intensity per unit area ( ≈1 cm-2 per min) generally restricts the practicably attainable spatial resolution to large dimensions. Nevertheless the more intense low energy region of the muon spectrum has recently been shown to be capable of detecting high-Z objects with dimensions of the order of 10 cm hidden inside large transport containers in measurement times of minutes. These various developments have encouraged further studies of potential industrial uses of cosmic-ray muons in industrial applications. In order to gain maximum benefit from the low muon flux large area detectors are required and plastic scintillators offer useful advantages in size, cost and simplicity. Scintillator slabs up to 1 m2 square and 76.2 mm thick are undergoing testing for applications in the nuclear industry. The most direct approach employs photomultiplier tubes at each corner to measure the relative sizes of muon induced pulses to determine the location of each muon track passing through the scintillator. The performance of this technique is reported and its imaging potential is assessed.

  8. Modelling of cosmic-ray muon exposure in building's interior.

    PubMed

    Fujitaka, K; Abe, S

    1984-06-01

    Physical parameters on the exposure indoors from cosmic ray muons were determined in order to undertake computer simulations. The hitherto known information was compiled, and the unknowns were newly calculated. Assumptions and approximations required in making a practical model were also described. The stopping power and the range of muons in a normal concrete as well as the air were calculated for the energy up to hundreds GeV. The consistency of those results with ready-made tables was found satisfactory although the comparisons were available only in the low energy tail. The scattering effect of cosmic ray muons in building's interior was examined numerically through very simple model calculations. It was revealed that the overall scattering effect would be ignored unless very small variations are wanted. The iron fraction in a reinforced concrete as well as the density of the concrete was also shown to be an ineffective factor.

  9. 3D Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography from an Underground Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Rowe, Charlotte; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily; Roy, Mousumi; George, Nicolas; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey; Durham, Matthew; Morley, Deborah; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Poulson, Daniel; Baker, Diane; Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We present an underground cosmic ray muon tomographic experiment imaging 3D density of overburden, part of a joint study with differential gravity. Muon data were acquired at four locations within a tunnel beneath Los Alamos, New Mexico, and used in a 3D tomographic inversion to recover the spatial variation in the overlying rock-air interface, and compared with a priori knowledge of the topography. Densities obtained exhibit good agreement with preliminary results of the gravity modeling, which will be presented elsewhere, and are compatible with values reported in the literature. The modeled rock-air interface matches that obtained from LIDAR within 4 m, our resolution, over much of the model volume. This experiment demonstrates the power of cosmic ray muons to image shallow geological targets using underground detectors, whose development as borehole devices will be an important new direction of passive geophysical imaging.

  10. A Low-cost, Portable, Ruggedized Cosmic Muon Detector Prototype for Geological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo Navarrete, E.; Bonneville, A.

    2012-12-01

    Muons, neutrons and protons observed at the Earth's surface are generated by cosmic ray primaries causing cascades in the atmosphere. Cosmic muon tomography is a cost effective real time monitoring technique that can be applied to determine large scale displacement of reservoir fluids induced by injection of liquid or gas. Such technique would need a detector array with an overall sensitivity tailored to the monitored volume and the expected density change in the target geological formation over the projected injection time. A scalable detector system, able to withstand the harsh conditions of underground deployment is a must for the evaluation of this promising technique. This paper presents the design and construction of a portable muon flux monitor, known as the μ-Witness. The detector is based on coincidence counts between two scintillator panels to be used as an indicator of density-dependent attenuation of cosmic muon flux. The Muon Witness detector (μ-Witness) has been designed to be able to measure cosmic muon flux for periods of time of up to 40 days, using battery power. The prototype has been mounted in a ruggedized case to enable measurements in underground environments. The purpose of this prototype is to evaluate the feasibility of using 3D density tomography in geological applications. The efficiency of the detector has been experimentally determined to be 57±3%. This measurement was performed by comparing the detector response to the response of a larger and more efficient muon counter in the same location. Using Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic muon flux, and the measured efficiency, the projected sensitivities for density changes in large underground monitored volumes are presented as well as the results of a test run in a shallow underground facility. Along with a detector prototype, a model of the muon attenuation inversion must be developed in order to take into account the different energy and angular distribution of the cosmic muons

  11. A binned clustering algorithm to detect high-Z material using cosmic muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J. J.; Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Morris, P. A. W.; Steer, C.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present a novel approach to the detection of special nuclear material using cosmic rays. Muon Scattering Tomography (MST) is a method for using cosmic muons to scan cargo containers and vehicles for special nuclear material. Cosmic muons are abundant, highly penetrating, not harmful for organic tissue, cannot be screened against, and can easily be detected, which makes them highly suited to the use of cargo scanning. Muons undergo multiple Coulomb scattering when passing through material, and the amount of scattering is roughly proportional to the square of the atomic number Z of the material. By reconstructing incoming and outgoing tracks, we can obtain variables to identify high-Z material. In a real life application, this has to happen on a timescale of 1 min and thus with small numbers of muons. We have built a detector system using resistive plate chambers (RPCs): 12 layers of RPCs allow for the readout of 6 x and 6 y positions, by which we can reconstruct incoming and outgoing tracks. In this work we detail the performance of an algorithm by which we separate high-Z targets from low-Z background, both for real data from our prototype setup and for MC simulation of a cargo container-sized setup. (c) British Crown Owned Copyright 2013/AWE

  12. Radiographic Images Produced by Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Rubén

    2006-09-01

    An application of high energy physics instrumentation is to look for structure or different densities (materials) hidden in a matrix (tons) of material. By tracing muons produced by primary Cosmic Rays, it has been possible to generate a kind of radiographs which shows the inner structure of dense containers, monuments or mountains. In this paper I review the basics principles of such techniques with emphasis in the Sun Pyramid project, carried out by IFUNAM in collaboration with Instituto Nacioanal de Antropologia e Historia.

  13. Radiographic Images Produced by Cosmic-Ray Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Alfaro, Ruben

    2006-09-25

    An application of high energy physics instrumentation is to look for structure or different densities (materials) hidden in a matrix (tons) of material. By tracing muons produced by primary Cosmic Rays, it has been possible to generate a kind of radiographs which shows the inner structure of dense containers, monuments or mountains. In this paper I review the basics principles of such techniques with emphasis in the Sun Pyramid project, carried out by IFUNAM in collaboration with Instituto Nacioanal de Antropologia e Historia.

  14. A Passive Method for Identifying and Locating Fissile Materials Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Randy; Morris, Chris; Borozdin, Konstantin; Bacon, Jeffrey; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steve; Wang

    2010-10-01

    The recent signing of the new Strategic Arms Reduction pact between the United States and Russia creates an important need for nonintrusive identification and quantification of nuclear warheads in various deployment scenarios. High-energy muons are able to achieve this goal by taking advantage of the unique fission signature produced when muons stop in fissionable and fissile materials. This can be accomplished in a passive-interrogation scenario using the ubiquitous fluence of muons at the Earth's surface that is produced via cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Combining this method with a muon-tracking system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory furthermore allows us to locate and count individual masses (>10 kg ) of fissionable material in the field. Proof-of-concept experiments are currently being conducted and early results are presented.

  15. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere’s effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere’s effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  16. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-01

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere's effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere's effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  17. Feasibility of Cosmic-Ray Muon Intensity Measurements for Tunnel Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    BUR-’TR-3110 TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3110 mBRL I• FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC - RAY MUON INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR TUNNEL DETECTION AIVARS CELIN. , JUNE...Feasibility of Cosmic - Ray Muon Intensity Measurements f or Tunnel Detection 612786H20001 4.AUTNOR(S) Aivars Celmins 7. PERORMING ORGANIZATION NAMe(S) AND... cosmic - ray muon intensity depends on the amount, of material above the point of reference and is therefore influenced by anomalies in rock density

  18. Investigation of cosmic-ray muon induced processes by the MIREDO facility.

    PubMed

    Bikit, K; Mrdja, D; Bikit, I; Veskovic, M

    2014-05-01

    The MIREDO (Muon Induced Rare Event Dynamic Observatory) spectrometer system is primarily developed for the study of cosmic muon induced processes in different materials. Exploration of such interactions can be important for ultra-low background experiments. The system is based on the 100% relative efficiency ultra-low-background HPGe spectrometer. With the addition of two plastic scintillators and a fast-slow coincidence circuit, the coincidence events between the plastic detectors and the HPGe spectrometer have been investigated. First results derived for a CaO powder sample, placed in a Marinelli beaker, are presented and discussed.

  19. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, Erik B.

    2005-12-01

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5.4 kiloton (5.2 kt steel plus 0.2 kt scintillator plus aluminum skin) magnetized tracking calorimeter located 710 meters underground in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. MINOS is the first large, deep underground detector with a magnetic field and thus capable of making measurements of the momentum and charge of cosmic ray muons. Despite encountering unexpected anomalies in distributions of the charge ratio (N{sub μ+/Nμ-) of cosmic muons, a method of canceling systematic errors is proposed and demonstrated. The result is Reff = 1.346 ± 0.002 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) for the averaged charge ratio, and a result for a rising fit to slant depth of R(X) = 1.300 ± 0.008 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) + (1.8 ± 0.3) x 10-5 x X, valid over the range of slant depths from 2000 < X < 6000 MWE. This slant depth range corresponds to minimum surface muon energies between 750 GeV and 5 TeV.

  20. High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2013-03-15

    We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

  1. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  2. Determining Muon Detection Efficiency Rates of Limited Streamer Tube Modules using Cosmic Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, M.

    2004-09-03

    In the Babar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the existing muon detector system in the Instrumented Flux Return gaps is currently being upgraded. Limited Streamer Tubes (LST) have been successful in other projects in the past, and are thus reliable and sensible detectors to use. The tubes have been assembled into modules to strengthen the mechanical structure [2]. Before installation, numerous tests must be performed on the LST modules to ensure that they are in good condition. One important check is to determine the muon detection efficiency rates of the modules. In this study, a cosmic ray detector was built to measure the efficiency rates of the LST modules. Five modules themselves were used as muon triggers. Two z strip planes were also constructed as part of the setup. Singles rate measurements were done on the five modules to ensure that high voltage could be safely applied to the LST. Particle count vs. voltage graphs were generated, and most of the graphs plateau normally. Wire signals from the LST modules as well as induced signals from the strip planes were used to determine the x-y-z coordinates of the muon hits in a stack of modules. Knowing the geometry of the stack, a plot of the potential muon path was generated. Preliminary results on muon detection efficiency rates of the modules in one stack are presented here. Efficiencies of the modules were determined to be between 80% and 90%, but there were large statistical errors (7%) due to the limited time available for cosmic data runs. More data samples will be taken soon; they will hopefully provide more precise measurements, with 1-2% errors for most modules before installation. Future work includes systematic studies of muon detection efficiency as a function of the operating voltage and threshold voltage settings.

  3. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  4. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, Jonathan

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ~1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  5. Imaging of underground cavities with cosmic-ray muons from observations at Mt. Echia (Naples).

    PubMed

    Saracino, G; Amato, L; Ambrosino, F; Antonucci, G; Bonechi, L; Cimmino, L; Consiglio, L; Alessandro, R D '; Luzio, E De; Minin, G; Noli, P; Scognamiglio, L; Strolin, P; Varriale, A

    2017-04-26

    Muography is an imaging technique based on the measurement of absorption profiles for muons as they pass through rocks and earth. Muons are produced in the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The technique is conceptually similar to usual X-ray radiography, but with extended capabilities of investigating over much larger thicknesses of matter thanks to the penetrating power of high-energy muons. Over the centuries a complex system of cavities has been excavated in the yellow tuff of Mt. Echia, the site of the earliest settlement of the city of Naples in the 8th century BC. A new generation muon detector designed by us, was installed under a total rock overburden of about 40 metres. A 26 days pilot run provided about 14 millions of muon events. A comparison of the measured and expected muon fluxes improved the knowledge of the average rock density. The observation of known cavities proved the validity of the muographic technique. Hints on the existence of a so far unknown cavity was obtained. The success of the investigation reported here demonstrates the substantial progress of muography in underground imaging and is likely to open new avenues for its widespread utilisation.

  6. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 1: Preliminary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Shibata, S.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    There are some discrepancies among the data of absolute muon intensities at large zenth angles. Through the analysis of the data obtained in the previous measurement by Nagoya Cosmic Ray Spectrometer, one of the sources of these discrepancies has been found to be the ambiguity induced by the selection criteria with which genuine muons are distinguished from the backgrounds. To remove the ambiguity of this kind, it is necessary to know the amount of the backgrounds and their characteristics in detail. Some features of the background events were reported from the observations by using this triggering system of Nagoya Cosmic Ray Spectrometer. In this paper, the results of extended observations using track detector together with this system are reported.

  7. An orientation selective neural network and its application to cosmic muon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Horn, David; Naftaly, Ury; Sahar-Pikielny, Carmit

    1996-02-01

    We propose a novel method for identification of a linear pattern of pixels on a two-dimensional grid. Following principles employed by the visual cortex, we employ orientation selective neurons in a neural network which performs this task. The method is then applied to a sample of data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in order to identify cosmic muons which leave a linear pattern of signals in the segmented uranium-scintillator calorimeter. A two dimensional representation of the relevant part of the detector is used. The results compared with a visual scan point to a very satisfactory cosmic muon identification. The algorithm performs well in the presence of noise and pixels with limited efficiency. Given its architecture, this system becomes a good candidate for fast pattern recognition in parallel processing devices.

  8. Studying High pT Muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2008-01-01

    Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detecting electromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (most notably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energy muon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solid angles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCube combination, with its 1 km2 muon detection area can study muons far from the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss (dE/dx), and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution of production heights, the transverse momentum (p) spectrum of high p muons can be determined. The production of these muons is calculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be used to probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays.

  9. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, S. C.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lau, Y. P.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Luk, W. H.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngan, S. Y.; Pun, C. S. J.; Shih, K.; Tam, Y. H.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wang, C. H.; Wong, C. M.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, K. K.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, B. J.; Aberdeen Tunnel Experiment Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ=(5.7 ±0.6 )×10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn=(1.19 ±0.08 (stat)±0.21 (syst))×10-4 neutrons /(μ .g .cm-2 ) . A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depths gave a mean muon energy dependence of ⟨Eμ⟩ 0.76 ±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.

  10. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, M.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; ...

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ = (5.7±0.6)×10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1. The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn = (1.19 ± 0.08(stat) ± 0.21(syst)) × 10–4 neutrons/(μ•g•cm–2). A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depthsmore » gave a mean muon energy dependence of < Eμ >0.76±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.« less

  11. The first radiography result of the latest lava dome in Unzen by cosmic muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Bozza, C.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, M.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Shimizu, H.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S.; Strolin, P.; Tanaka, H.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    The latest lava dome in Mt. Unzen was formed in the eruption from January 1991 to early 1995 and the activity was calmed down in 1995. The researchers kept to observe the eruption in this period precisely. Some of them proposed the growth model, another person proposed different model from their data. It is significant for the growth model of lava dome which has viscous magma to investigate the density structure in it. The observation of the lava dome density 2D map was performed by using cosmic-ray muon and muon detector in Unzen. The muon detector, nuclear emulsion films which has high position resolution and 0.85m2 effective area, was installed in a natural cave from early December 2010 to the end of March. The developed nuclear emulsion films has been scanned by automated muon readout system. The systematic analysis of efficiency and random noise ratio are performed by taking a pattern match and making a connection of muon tracks between three films. After estimation and removing unwanted low energy electron tracks, the density map of Unzen lava dome appeared. The performance of the detector and the first result of radiography will be shown in this topic.

  12. The Ground Temperature Effect on Cosmic-Ray Muons at Mid latitude City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A.; Alotaibi, R.; Almutayri, M.; Garawi, M.; Baig, M.

    2015-08-01

    The investigation of meteorological effects is of a great importance to the analysis of the cosmic ray variations. In this paper, we study the effect of the ground temperature on the cosmic ray recorded by KACST detector. This detector has monitored secondary cosmic ray muon since 2002 at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; (lat 24 43; long. 46 40; alt. 613 m; Rc ∼14 GV).

  13. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; ...

    2013-08-29

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three-dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  14. Calibration and performance of the STAR Muon Telescope Detector using cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Huang, X. J.; Du, C. M.; Huang, B. C.; Ahammed, Z.; Banerjee, A.; Bhattarari, P.; Biswas, S.; Bowen, B.; Butterworth, J.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Carson, H.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cebra, D.; Chen, H. F.; Cheng, J. P.; Codrington, M.; Eppley, G.; Flores, C.; Geurts, F.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Jentsch, A.; Kesich, A.; Li, C.; Li, Y. J.; Llope, W. J.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Nussbaum, T.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Schambach, J. J.; Sun, Y. J.; Wang, Y.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Yang, S.; Zhu, X. L.

    2014-10-01

    We report the timing and spatial resolution from the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) installed in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Cosmic ray muons traversing the STAR detector have an average transverse momentum of 6 GeV/c. Due to their very small multiple scattering, these cosmic muons provide an ideal tool to calibrate the detectors and measure their timing and spatial resolution. The values obtained were ~100 ps and ~1-2 cm. These values are comparable to those obtained from cosmic-ray bench tests and test beams.

  15. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim; Aberle, Derek; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-08-15

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Here we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  16. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 4: Track reconstruction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    One of the greatest problems in measuring particle trajectories with an optical or visual detector system, is the reconstruction of trajectories in real space from their recorded images. In the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer, muon tracks are detected by wide gap spark chambers and their images are recorded on the photographic film through an optical system of 10 mirrors and two cameras. For the spatial reconstruction, 42 parameters of the optical system should be known to determine the configuration of this system. It is almost impossible to measure this many parameters directly with usual techniques. In order to solve this problem, the inverse transformation method was applied. In this method, all the optical parameters are determined from the locations of fiducial marks in real space and the locations of their images on the photographic film by the non-linear least square fitting.

  17. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver Wade; Mufson, S.; Howard, B.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  18. Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, Daniel Cris; Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Morley, Deborah Jean; Hecht, Adam A.

    2016-10-22

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This article describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon scattering imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, simulations indicate that missing fuel bundles can be detected with a statistical significance of ~18σ in less than two days exposure and a sensitivity at 1σ to a 5% missing portion of a fuel bundle. Finally, we discuss potential detector technologies and geometries.

  19. The KACST muon detector and its application to cosmic-ray variations studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Harbi, H.; Al-Mostafa, Z. A.; Kordi, M. N.; Al-Shehri, S. M.

    2012-09-01

    A single channel cosmic ray muon detector was constructed and installed in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia, for studying the variations in the cosmic ray (CR) muon flux. The detector has been in operation since July 2002. The recorded data correspond to muons that primarily have energies between 10 and 20 GeV. The detector will be used to continuously measure the intensity of the muon components of the cosmic rays, exploring its variations and possible correlations with environment parameters. The technical aspects of this detector will be presented. Some results obtained by the detector so far will be given. These include the modulation of the CR flux on different time scales (diurnal, 27-day, and long-term variations). Additionally, the effect of a severe dust storm on the muon count rate was investigated.

  20. Temperature Effect in Secondary Cosmic Rays (MUONS) Observed at the Ground: Analysis of the Global MUON Detector Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  1. CDF Run 2 muon system

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Ginsburg

    2004-02-05

    The CDF muon detection system for Run 2 of the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Muon stubs are detected for |{eta}| < 1.5, and are matched to tracks in the central drift chamber at trigger level 1 for |{eta}| < 1.25. Detectors in the |{eta}| < 1 central region, built for previous runs, have been enhanced to survive the higher rate environment and closer bunch spacing (3.5 {micro}sec to 396 nsec) of Run 2. Azimuthal gaps in the central region have been filled in. New detectors have been added to extend the coverage from |{eta}| < 1 to |{eta}| < 1.5, consisting of four layers of drift chambers covered with matching scintillators for triggering. The Level 1 Extremely Fast Tracker supplies matching tracks with measured p{sub T} for the muon trigger. The system has been in operation for over 18 months. Operating experience and reconstructed data are presented.

  2. Imaging Spent Fuel in Dry Storage Casks with Cosmic Ray Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    Highly energetic cosmic ray muons are a natural source of ionizing radiation that can be used to make tomographic images of the interior of dense objects. Muons are capable of penetrating large amounts of shielding that defeats typical radiographic probes like neutrons or photons. This is the only technique which can examine spent nuclear fuel rods sealed inside dry casks.

  3. A New Approach in Coal Mine Exploration Using Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darijani, Reza; Negarestani, Ali; Rezaie, Mohammad Reza; Fatemi, Syed Jalil; Akhond, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to image the interior of large scale geological structures. The muon absorption in matter is the most important parameter in cosmic ray muon radiography. Cosmic ray muon radiography is similar to X-ray radiography. The main aim in this survey is the simulation of the muon radiography for exploration of mines. So, the production source, tracking, and detection of cosmic ray muons were simulated by MCNPX code. For this purpose, the input data of the source card in MCNPX code were extracted from the muon energy spectrum at sea level. In addition, the other input data such as average density and thickness of layers that were used in this code are the measured data from Pabdana (Kerman, Iran) coal mines. The average thickness and density of these layers in the coal mines are from 2 to 4 m and 1.3 gr/c3, respectively. To increase the spatial resolution, a detector was placed inside the mountain. The results indicated that using this approach, the layers with minimum thickness about 2.5 m can be identified.

  4. Detecting atmospheric cosmic ray induced muon showers with the NO νA Far Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Mehreen

    2015-04-01

    The research goals of Fermilab's NuMi Off-Axis Electron Neutrino Appearance (NO νA) are to observe muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations, determine the ordering of neutrino masses, and explain violation of matter/anti-matter symmetry. However, NO νA can also be used to study cosmic ray induced high energy extensive air showers. This poster describes the initial characterization of NO νA as a cosmic ray detector. The detector has a combination of large size and high spatial resolution that will allow future studies of the hadronic cores of cosmic ray air showers. A large component of these showers are muons. Multiple parallel muon tracks seen in a single event with the NO νA detectors result from the same primary cosmic ray collision in the upper atmosphere. In order to use these muon bundles to probe the cosmic ray physics involved, we determine event characteristics such as the multiplicity of observed multiple muons, the effective area of the detector, the angular resolution of the detector, the scattering of individual muons, and the effectiveness of identifying and isolating these parallel muon shower events from background and noise. NuMi Off-Axis Electron Neutrino Appearance Experiment.

  5. Using Horizontal Cosmic Muons to Investigate the Density Distribution of the Popocatepetl Volcano Lava Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabski, V.; Lemus, V.; Nuñez-Cadena, R.; Aguilar, S.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    Study of volcanic inner density distributions using cosmic muons is an innovative method, which is still in stage of development[1]. The method can be used to determine the average density along the muon track, as well as the density distribution of any volume by measuring the attenuation of cosmic muon flux in it[2]. In this study we present an analysis of using the muon radiography, integrating geophysical data to determine the density distribution of the Popocatepetl volcano. Popocatepelt is a large andesitic stratovolcano built in the Trans-Mexican volcanic arc, which has been active over the past years. The recent activity includes emplacement of a lava dome, with vulcanian explosions and frequent scoria and ash emissions. The study is directed to detect any variations in the dome and magmatic conduit system in some interval of time in the volume of Popocatepetl volcano lava dome. The study forms part of a long-term project of volcanic hazard monitoring that includes the Popocatepetl and Colima volcanoes[3]. The volcanoes are being studied by conventional geophysical techniques, including aerogeophysical surveys directed to determine the internal structure and characterize source characteristics and mechanism. The detector design mostly depends on the volume size to be investigated as well as the image-taking frequency to detect dynamic density variations. In this study we present a detector prototype design and suggestions on data taking, transferring and analyzing systems. We also present the approximate cost estimation of the suggested detector and discussion on a proposal about the creation of a national network for a volcanic alarm system. References [1] eg.H. Tanaka, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 507 (2003) 657. [2] V. Grabski et al, NIM A 585 (2008) 128-135. [3] G. Conte, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, et al., International Geology Review, Vol. 46, 2004, p. 210-225.

  6. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; BenZvi, S.; Bravo, S.; Jensen, K.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Peacock, J.; Plewa, M.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Schultz, D.; Simons, A. L.; Tosi, D.

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available.

  7. The spectrum of cosmic ray muons obtained with 100-ton scintillation detector underground and the analysis of recent experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalchukov, F. F.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Malgin, A. S.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical muon spectrum up to 15 TeV obtained with the underground installation is presented. Recent experimental data dealing with horizontal and vertical cosmic ray muon spectra are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Chichester, David; Fabritius, Joseph; Fellows, Shelby; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Morley, Deborah Jean; Winston, Philip

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may find other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.

  9. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Chichester, David; Fabritius, Joseph; Fellows, Shelby; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Morley, Deborah Jean; Winston, Philip

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may find other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.

  10. Discriminating cosmic muons and radioactivity using a liquid scintillation fiber detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Xu, J. L.; Lu, H. Q.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, C. C.; Yang, C. G.

    2017-03-01

    In the case of underground experiments for neutrino physics or rare event searches, the background caused by cosmic muons contributes significantly and therefore must be identified and rejected. We proposed and optimized a new detector using liquid scintillator with wavelenghth-shifting fibers which can be employed as a veto detector for cosmic muons background rejection. From the prototype study, it has been found that the detector has good performances and is capable of discriminating between muons induced signals and environmental radiation background. Its muons detection efficiency is greater than 98%, and on average, 58 photo-electrons (p.e.) are collected when a muon passes through the detector. To optimize the design and enhance the collection of light, the reflectivity of the coating materials has been studied in detail. A Monte Carlo simulation of the detector has been developed and compared to the performed measurements showing a good agreement between data and simulation results.

  11. Measurement of cosmic-ray induced high energy muons with the HAWC observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Ahron; Hawc Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    High energy muons/muon bundles (Emuon > 1 TeV) can be created in primary interactions of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. The number and lateral distribution of high energy muons is related to the mass and energy of the primary cosmic ray, as well as specific details of the hadronic interaction between the primary cosmic ray and the atmospheric target nucleus. The HAWC observatory, located at 4100 m asl on the northern slope of Sierra Negra, Mexico, can detect near-horizontal trajectory (elevation 0-15 degrees) high energy muons as they traverse through individual water Cherenkov detectors. The extended size of HAWC (150 m x 150 m) allows detection of several thousand near-horizontal cosmic-ray generated high energy (E > 3 TeV) muons every year. In this talk, I will describe the prospects for using the HAWC observatory to explore UHE cosmic ray properties through measurements of near-horizontal muon bundles. High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC).

  12. The stopping rate of negative cosmic-ray muons near sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spannagel, G.; Fireman, E. L.

    1971-01-01

    A production rate of 0.065 + or - 0.003 Ar-37 atom/kg min of K-39 at 2-mwe depth below sea level was measured by sweeping argon from potassium solutions. This rate is unaffected by surrounding the solution by paraffin and is attributed to negative muon captures and the electromagnetic interaction of fast muons, and not to nucleonic cosmic ray component. The Ar-37 yield from K-39 by the stopping of negative muons in a muon beam of a synchrocyclotron was measured to be 8.5 + or - 1.7%. The stopping rate of negative cosmic ray muons at 2-mwe depth below sea level from these measurements and an estimated 17% electromagnetic production is 0.63 + or - 0.13 muon(-)/kg min. Previous measurements on the muon stopping rate vary by a factor of 5. Our value is slightly higher but is consistent with two previous high values. The sensitivity of the Ar-37 radiochemical method for the detection of muons is considerably higher than that of the previous radiochemical methods and could be used to measure the negative muon capture rates at greater depths.

  13. Superconducting magnet system for muon beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Novitski, I.; Yonehara, K.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    A helical cooling channel has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. A novel superconducting magnet system for a muon beam cooling experiment is being designed at Fermilab. The inner volume of the cooling channel is filled with liquid helium where passing muon beam can be decelerated and cooled in a process of ionization energy loss. The magnet parameters are optimized to match the momentum of the beam as it slows down. The results of 3D magnetic analysis for two designs of magnet system, mechanical and quench protection considerations are discussed.

  14. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, M.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lau, Y. P.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Luk, W. H.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngan, S. Y.; Pun, C. S. J.; Shih, K.; Tam, Y. H.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wang, C. H.; Wong, C. M.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, K. K.; Zhang, B. J.

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ = (5.7±0.6)×10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1. The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn = (1.19 ± 0.08(stat) ± 0.21(syst)) × 10–4 neutrons/(μ•g•cm–2). A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depths gave a mean muon energy dependence of < Eμ >0.76±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.

  15. Production of X-rays by cosmic-ray muons in heavily shielded gamma-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Anicin, I.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Todorovic, N.; Forkapic, S.

    2009-07-01

    Cosmic-ray (CR) muons both directly and indirectly contribute to the spectra of heavily shielded High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, even in deep underground laboratories. Heavy elements are frequently used as the detector components or are occasionally placed close to the detector endcap, and their characteristic X-rays induced by cosmic-ray muons contribute to the low-energy region of the HPGe detector spectra. We study the production of X-rays in tungsten, gold and lead by cosmic-ray muons on the ground level, by means of a coincidence system consisting of a plastic scintillation detector and an extended range HPGe detector placed inside a 12-cm-thick lead shield. In this typical low-background arrangement, the shield with total mass of 725 kg acts as a source of secondary particles induced by CR muons. X-rays that originate from direct interactions of muons with the target material, the yield of which may be reliably estimated by Monte Carlo simulations, are excluded by this experimental setup, and only X-rays of W, Pb and Au samples produced by all secondaries from muon interactions with the lead shield are present in the HPGe spectra. The production rate of Kα X-rays per unit mass of all the elements studied (74

  16. A Monte Carlo Calculation of Muon Flux at Ground Level from Primary Cosmic Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    The Monte Carlo program FLUKA was used to calculate the number of muons reaching detection level in events initiated by primary cosmic gamma ray interactions in the atmosphere. The calculation was motivated by the desire to gauge the sensitivity of arrays like that of Project GRAND to primary gamma cosmic rays while measuring single muons at detection level. Because direct gamma pair production is not a significant source of muons, normally the presence of muons is not considered as a signal for gamma rays. However, due to their non-negligible cross section for hadron production, high-energy gamma rays can initiate hadronic showers containing a large number of pions. These can decay producing secondary muons which then have a good chance of reaching detection level. The complete kinetic energy and space distribution of such muons can be predicted by simulating in detail the whole process by means of Monte Carlo techniques. However, the code used must be capable of handling both hadron-nucleus and photon-nucleus interactions. Unlike most available Monte Carlo particle transport programs, such interactions are implemented in FLUKA, up to several tens of TeV, based on Dual Parton and Vector Meson Dominance models. The FLUKA capability to describe hadronic cascades generated in the atmosphere by primary cosmic hadrons has already been shown in several studies. In the present paper, the investigation has been extended to primary gamma rays. The number of muons per photon is presented as a function of the primary energy in the region between 3 GeV and 10 TeV. As the energy of primary photons rises, their flux falls, whereas the number of muons per gamma rises. Combining these two effects, it can be predicted that gamma ray energies in the 30 GeV region produce the most muons at detection level. The radial and kinetic energy distributions of the muons are also presented.

  17. Seasonal modulations of the underground cosmic-ray muon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-08-15

    The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the intensity of muons and cosmogenic neutrons generated by them at a mean muon energy of 280 GeV have been determined in the LVD (Large Volume Detector) experiment. The modulations of muons and neutrons are caused by a temperature effect, the seasonal temperature and density variations of the upper atmospheric layers. The analysis performed here leads to the conclusion that the variations in the mean energy of the muon flux are the main source of underground cosmogenic neutron variations, because the energy of muons is more sensitive to the temperature effect than their intensity. The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the mean energy of muons and the flux of cosmogenic neutrons at the LVD depth have been determined from the data obtained over seven years of LVD operation.

  18. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  19. Imaging a nuclear reactor using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, John; Azzouz, Mara; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Chen, Elliott; Fabritius, Joseph II; Milner, Edward; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Roybal, Jonathan; Wang, Zhehui; Busch, Bob; Carpenter, Ken; Hecht, Adam A.; Masuda, Koji; Spore, Candace; Toleman, Nathan; Aberle, Derek; Lukic, Zarija

    2013-05-14

    The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei. The muon interaction with electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The muon interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. We present experimental images of a nuclear reactor, the AGN-201M reactor at the University of New Mexico, using data measured with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes. The data are compared with a geant4 model. In both the data and simulation, we identify specific regions corresponding to elements of the reactor structure, including its core, moderator, and shield.

  20. Study of Cosmic Ray Muon Lateral Distribution with Geant4 Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajlic, Olesya; He, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    Cosmic ray radiation has galactic origin and consists primarily of protons and a small percentage of heavier nuclei. The primary cosmic ray particles interact with the molecules in the atmosphere and produce showers of secondary particles at about 15 km altitude. In recent years, with the advancement in particle detection technology, there is a growing interest of exploring the applications of cosmic ray muons ranging from Homeland Security, correlation study with the atmospheric weather, etc. A Geant4-based cosmic ray shower simulation is developed to study secondary cosmic ray particle showers in the full range of the Earth's atmosphere. In this talk, the diurnal and latitudinal variations of muon lateral distributions will be presented.

  1. Measurement Over Large Solid Angle of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Muon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, H. F., III; Schwitters, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in portable muon detectors have made cosmic ray imaging practical for many diverse applications. Working muon attenuation detectors have been built at the University of Texas and are already successfully being used to image tunnels, structures, and Mayan pyramids. Most previous studies have focused on energy measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum from of 1 GeV or higher. We have performed an accurate measurement of the ultra-low energy (<2 GeV in E cos θ) muon spectrum down to the acceptance level of our detector, around one hundred MeV. Measurements include angular dependence, with acceptance approaching horizontal. Measurements were made underwater using a custom enclosure in Lake Travis, Austin, TX. This measurement will allow more accurate predictions and simulations of attenuation for small (<5 m) targets for muon tomography.

  2. A large area cosmic muon detector located at Ohya stone mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nii, N.; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Matsuno, S.; Muraki, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Kamiya, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays between 10 to the 15th power eV and 10 to the 18th power eV were determined by a Large Area Cosmic Muon Detector located at Ohya stone mine. The experimental aims of Ohya project are; (1) search for the ultra high-energy gamma-rays; (2) search for the GUT monopole created by Big Bang; and (3) search for the muon bundle. A large number of muon chambers were installed at the shallow underground near Nikko (approx. 100 Km north of Tokyo, situated at Ohya-town, Utsunomiya-city). At the surface of the mine, very fast 100 channel scintillation counters were equipped in order to measure the direction of air showers. These air shower arrays were operated at the same time, together with the underground muon chamber.

  3. Angular distribution of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boliev, M. M.; Buckevich, A. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Leonov-Vendrovsky, A. V.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Zakidyshev, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the upgoing muons flux, produced by cosmic ray neutrinos is aiming at: (1) search for neutrino oscillation; (2); search for extraterrestrial neutrinos from local sources; and (3); search for any hypothetical neutral penetrating radiation different from neutrinos. Experimental data of the Baksan underground telescope on intensity of upward muons for three years of living time, was analyzed having in mind mainly neutrino oscillation.

  4. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  5. Review of possible applications of cosmic muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Muon radiographic methods can be used to explore inaccessible volumes profiting of the property of muons to penetrate thick materials. An extension of the muon radiographic methods, the muon scattering tomography, was proposed for the first time in 2003 and it is based on the measurement of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons crossing the volume under investigation. In this talk, the principles of tomographic image reconstruction are first outlined and then the experimental setup and the most adequate detectors are described. A review of the possible applications of this technique is reported, with specific reference to security in transports and monitoring of industrial processes. The technique can also be used to provide precise measurements of the properties of various materials. The experimental challenge related to this activity is discussed.

  6. Students using large muon detectors to investigate an array of cosmic ray phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedita, Paul; McFarland, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    During the summers of 2004 to 2008 high school students were given the opportunity to refurbish, characterize and ultimately experiment with large muon detectors at the University of Rochester. The 2.3 m^2 panels used for the cosmic ray investigations were remnants of the NuTeV experiment conducted at Fermilab in the late 1990's, and provided a means for measuring surface cosmic ray muon rates with high precision over many years of time. The first set of experiments carried out by students used data from two stacked paddles running in coincidence mode to detect significant muon fluctuations due to solar events, model an indirect relationship between muon frequency and atmospheric pressure, and determine if muon rates were dependent of the time of day. Current and archived data can be accessed at http://muon2.pas.rochester.edu/data/. In subsequent summers, students and teachers utilized four panel arrays to characterize directionality, angular distribution and frequency of atmospheric muon shower events. For all investigations students presented their findings to their peers and mentors via weekly seminars, e-logs, and poster sessions.

  7. Lateral distribution of muons in IceCube cosmic ray events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

    2013-01-01

    In cosmic ray air showers, the muon lateral separation from the center of the shower is a measure of the transverse momentum that the muon parent acquired in the cosmic ray interaction. IceCube has observed cosmic ray interactions that produce muons laterally separated by up to 400 m from the shower core, a factor of 6 larger distance than previous measurements. These muons originate in high pT (>2GeV/c) interactions from the incident cosmic ray, or high-energy secondary interactions. The separation distribution shows a transition to a power law at large values, indicating the presence of a hard pT component that can be described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. However, the rates and the zenith angle distributions of these events are not well reproduced with the cosmic ray models tested here, even those that include charm interactions. This discrepancy may be explained by a larger fraction of kaons and charmed particles than is currently incorporated in the simulations.

  8. Cosmic-Ray Muons in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, John Mason

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present the SPS (Short Prototype String) muon data and to compare the data with previous measurements and with the current theories of muon energy losses. The experiment with the SPS was an international collaborative effort, whose purpose was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing muon trajectories in the ocean from measurements, with a sparse array of photomultipliers, of the Cerenkov light from the muons. The successful measurement of the angular distributions and vertical fluxes at several ocean depths by reconstructing muon trajectories from the photomultipler signals demonstrates the feasibility of DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector). DUMAND will be a large array of photomultipliers anchored to the bottom of the ocean and used to detect the resulting Cerenkov light from high energy muons produced by the neutrino charged current interactions. The search for sources of very high energy neutrinos in the universe will be DUMAND's primary goal. This technique for reconstructing the muon has been successfully applied in several previous experiments with much more closely spaced detectors and with sensitive volumes several orders of magnitude smaller than required by DUMAND. Moreover, the backgrounds from bioluminescence and from 40K decay in the ocean present a very different set of problems for this extension of the technique. The results presented here show that this technique remains practical despite these additional problems. The SPS, which was the first stage of DUMAND, was a vertical string of seven Cerenkov detectors tethered to a ship. The detector achieved an average effective area of 322 +/- 64m^2 . The experiment was performed at the DUMAND site. Muons were successfully detected and reconstructed at depths ranging from 2km to 4km at 500m intervals. The average effective area and the associated muon rate at the respective depths give fluxes consistent with the previous measurements at

  9. Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks

    DOE PAGES

    Poulson, Daniel Cris; Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; ...

    2017-10-22

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This article describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon scattering imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casksmore » is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, simulations indicate that missing fuel bundles can be detected with a statistical significance of ~18σ in less than two days exposure and a sensitivity at 1σ to a 5% missing portion of a fuel bundle. Finally, we discuss potential detector technologies and geometries.« less

  10. Lifetime of Cosmic-Ray Muons and the Standard Model of Fundamental Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Sahansha; Shevde, Yash; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Muon is one of the twelve fundamental particles of matter, having the longest free-particle lifetime. It decays into three other leptons through an exchange of the weak vector bosons W+/W-. Muons are present in the secondary cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere, reaching the sea level. By detecting time delay between arrival of the muon and an appearance of the decay electron in our single scintillation detector (donated by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA), we measured muon's lifetime at rest. It compares well with the value predicted by the Standard Model of Particles. From the lifetime we were able to calculate the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (an analog of the electric charge) to the mass of the W-boson MW. Using further Standard Model relations and an experimental value for MW, we calculated the weak coupling constant, the electric charge of the muon, and the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. We determined the sea-level flux of cosmic muons.

  11. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Tanaka, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Perez, N.; Barrancos, J.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  12. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  13. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  14. Special Relativity in the School Laboratory: A Simple Apparatus for Cosmic-Ray Muon Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity…

  15. Special Relativity in the School Laboratory: A Simple Apparatus for Cosmic-Ray Muon Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity…

  16. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 3: Automatic film scanning equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    In the regular operation of the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer, about 2000 events per day will be recorded on the photographic film. To derive the track locations from such a huge number of photographs with high accuracy in a short time, an automatic film scanning device has been developed.

  17. High-energy multiple muons and heavy primary cosmic-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were carried out on high-energy multiple muons. On the lateral spread, the comparison with the deep underground observations indicates that the primary cosmic rays include heavy nuclei of high content. A method to determine the average mass number of primary particles in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV is suggested.

  18. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    DOE PAGES

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; ...

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may findmore » other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.« less

  19. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 2: Track detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Iijima, K.; Kamiya, Y.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    The twelve wide gap spark chambers were utilized as the track detectors of the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer not only to obtain the precise locations of particles, but also to get some information about the correspondences between segments of trajectories. The area of each chamber is 150 x 70 sq cm and the width of a gap is 5 cm. The gas used is He at the atmospheric pressure. Each three pairs of them are placed on both sides of the deflection magnet. All images of sparks for each event are projected through the mirror system and recorded by two cameras stereoscopically. The mean detection efficiency of each chamber is 95 + or - 2% and the spacial resolution (jitter and drift) obtained from the prototype-experiment is 0.12 mm. Maximum detectable momentum of the spectrometer is estimated at about 10 TeV/c taking into account these characteristics together with the effects of the energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering of muons in the iron magnet.

  20. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray composition from surface air shower and underground muon measurements at Soudan 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, N. P.; Bode, C. R.; Border, P. M.; Courant, H.; Demuth, D. M.; Gray, R. N.; Johns, K.; Kasahara, S. M.; Lowe, M. J.; Marshak, M. L.; Miller, W. H.; Mualem, L.; Peterson, E. A.; Roback, D. M.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D. J.; Schub, M. H.; Shupe, M. A.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Werkema, S. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Fields, T. H.; Gallagher, H. M.; Goodman, M. C.; Lopez, F. V.; May, E. N.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R. V.; Thron, J. L.; Trost, H.-J.; Uretsky, J. L.; Allison, W. W.; Barr, G. D.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Giller, G. L.; Stassinakis, A.; Thomson, M. A.; West, N.; Wielgosz, U.; Alner, G. J.; Cockerill, D. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Litchfield, P. J.; Pearce, G. F.; Ewen, B.; Kafka, T.; Kochocki, J.; Leeson, W.; Mann, W. A.; Milburn, R. H.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W.; Saitta, B.; Schneps, J.; Sundaralingam, N.; Barrett, W. L.

    1995-09-01

    The Soudan 2 experiment has performed time-coincident cosmic ray air shower and underground muon measurements. Comparisons to Monte Carlo predictions show that such measurements can make statistically significant tests of the primary composition in the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum. The results do not support any significant increase in the average primary mass with energy in the range of ~104 TeV per nucleus. Some systematic uncertainties remain, however, particularly in the Monte Carlo modeling of the cosmic ray shower.

  1. Uncertainties in Atmospheric Muon-Neutrino Fluxes Arising from Cosmic-Ray Primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porzio, Salvatore Davide; Evans, Justin; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Wren, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We present an updated calculation of the atmospheric muon-neutrino flux uncertainties arising from cosmic-ray primaries, including for the first time the information from recent measurements of the cosmic-ray primaries. We apply a statistical technique that allows the determination of correlations between the parameters of the GSHL primary-flux parametrisation, and the incorporation of these correlations into the uncertainty on the muon-neutrino flux. Given the unexpected hardening of the spectrum of primaries above 100 GeV observed in recent measurements, we propose an alternative parametrisation and discuss its impact on the neutrino flux uncertainties. We obtain an uncertainty on the primary cosmic-ray component of (5- 10) % , depending on energy, which is a about a factor of two smaller than for the previous fit. The hadron production uncertainty is added in quadrature to obtain the total uncertainty on the neutrino flux. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the Royal Society.

  2. The MU-RAY project: volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noli, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    The MU-RAY project: volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few hundred meters of a volcanic cone. it is based on the high penetration capability of the high energy muon component of the cosmic radiation.The measurement of the flux variation allows the evaluation of the average density along the observation line with few percents precision and spatial resolution up to tens of meters, in optimal detection conditions. Muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods.Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project developed a muon telescopes prototype for muon radiography. The telescopes is required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of three X-Y planes of one square meter area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fibre coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC/EASIROC ASIC. The prototype is under test and will be soon installed at the Mt Vesuvio in Naples.Detector technology and first results will be presented.

  3. Generation of Runaway Electrons Induced by Cosmic-Ray Muons in Thunderstorm Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.; Nishijima, T.; Sugita, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2004-05-01

    Gamma ray dose-rate increases associated with winter thunderstorm activities have been observed in the coastal areas facing the Sea of Japan [1]. In order to investigate the generation of energetic photons which originate in thunderstorm electric fields, we have calculated the behavior of secondary cosmic ray electrons and photons in electric fields with Monte Carlo method. In the calculation, the electron and photon fluxes have increased greatly in the region where the field strength exceeds about 280 P(z) kV/m-atm, and these energy spectra show a large increase in the energy region up to several MeV [2]. In addition to the analysis of the electromagnetic component of cosmic rays, we have carried out the Monte Carlo transport calculations of the cosmic-ray muons and associated particles (e.g. knock-on electrons and bremsstrahlung photons) in thunderstorm electric fields, using GEANT4 code [3]. Muons form a large part of the secondary cosmic-rays and directly reach the regions of strong electric fields owing to their high penetrability in the atmosphere. Therefore, they can serve as the source of a considerable amount of runaway electrons, through their ionization process with air molecules, and their decay into energetic electrons. The electron and photon fluxes show notable increases in the strong electric field, while the muon flux does not fluctuate significantly. These results indicate that the production of energetic electrons by cosmic ray muons plays an important role in the enhancement of electron and photon fluxes in thunderstorm electric fields. Finally, we discuss a feasibility of muon-triggered lightning deduced from the muon transport calculation inside thunderstorm electric fields. From the calculation results, we estimate that the irradiation of muon beams rapidly increases energy deposition in the region of strong electric fields, and produce numerous electron - ion pairs. These productions may induce the lightning discharge by the runaway

  4. Subsurface density mapping of the earth with cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2013-10-01

    Since its original discovery by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen in 1895, one of the directions of researchers pursued was an application of x-ray radiography to larger objects, while the advent of high voltage x-ray tubes allowed radiographs of industrial objects to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In spite of the great motivation we have to survey the earth's interior, we now know that x rays are not sufficiently penetrative to successfully target geophysical objects. Our current knowledge about the cross sections of the muon with matter solves the problem about this x-ray's inspectable size limit. These particles do not interact strongly with matter, and those with relativistic momentum travel long distances penetrating deep into rock. By tracking the ray paths of the muon after passing through the object, the method gives researchers the ability to study the earth in new ways. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing the earth's interior with muons.

  5. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelling, M.; Hashim, N.O.; Grupen, C.; Luitz, S.; Maciuc, F.; Mailov, A.; Muller, A.-S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Tcaciuc, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zuber, K.; /Dresden, Tech. U.

    2012-09-14

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10{sup 15} eV.

  6. NEW APPROACHES: Measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons in the A-level laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Peter; Costich, David; O'Sullivan, Sean

    1998-09-01

    The Turning Points in Physics module from the NEAB A-level Modular Physics syllabus requires students to have an understanding of relativistic time dilation and offers the measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons as an example of supporting experimental evidence. This article describes a direct measurement of muon lifetime carried out in the A-level laboratory.

  7. Study of cosmic ray composition in the knee region using multiple muon events in the Soudan 2 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, S. M.; Allison, W. W.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C. R.; Border, P. M.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Courant, H.; Demuth, D. M.; Ewen, B.; Fields, T. H.; Gallagher, H. R.; Goodman, M. C.; Gran, R. W.; Gray, R. N.; Johns, K.; Kafka, T.; Leeson, W.; Litchfield, P. J.; Longley, N. P.; Lowe, M. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; May, E. N.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, W. H.; Mualem, L.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W.; Pearce, G. F.; Peterson, E. A.; Price, L. E.; Roback, D. M.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D. J.; Schneps, J.; Schub, M. H.; Seidlein, R. V.; Shupe, M. A.; Sundaralingam, N.; Thron, J. L.; Trost, H. J.; Uretsky, J. L.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Wakely, S. P.; Wall, D.; Werkema, S. J.; West, N.

    1997-05-01

    Deep underground muon events recorded by the Soudan 2 detector, located at a depth of 2100 m of water equivalent, have been used to infer the nuclear composition of cosmic rays in the ``knee'' region of the cosmic ray energy spectrum. The observed muon multiplicity distribution favors a composition model with a substantial proton content in the energy region 8×105-1.3×107 GeV/nucleus.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  9. Dependence of the muon pseudorapidity on the cosmic ray mass composition around the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, Gohar; Nemati, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    In order to identify the mass composition of cosmic rays (CRs), we have investigated the mean muon pseudorapidity (<η>) values of muonic component in extensive air showers (EASs). For this purpose we have simulated EASs by CORSIKA 7.4 code for Hydrogen, Oxygen and Iron nucleus. The energy range was selected between 1014 eV and 1016 eV with zenith angle from 0°-18°. We have compared our calculations with KASCADE muon tracking detector (MTD) measurements to obtain results on the primary mass relationship with mean muon pseudorapidity values of EASs muonic component. It is shown that after the knee energies, experimental data tend to the heavy primaries and mass composition becomes heavier. Finally, linear equations between the mass of primary and mean η values for different energies are obtained.

  10. The cosmic ray muon tomography facility based on large scale MRPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuewu; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ziran; Yue, Xiaoguang; Luo, Zhifei; Yi, Hengguan; Yu, Baihui; Cheng, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray muon tomography is a novel technology to detect high-Z material. A prototype of TUMUTY with 73.6 cm×73.6 cm large scale position sensitive MRPC detectors has been developed and is introduced in this paper. Three test kits have been tested and image is reconstructed using MAP algorithm. The reconstruction results show that the prototype is working well and the objects with complex structure and small size (20 mm) can be imaged on it, while the high-Z material is distinguishable from the low-Z one. This prototype provides a good platform for our further studies of the physical characteristics and the performances of cosmic ray muon tomography.

  11. First measurement of ice-bedrock interface of alpine glaciers by cosmic muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, R.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Käser, S.; Lechmann, A.; Mair, D.; Scampoli, P.; Vladymyrov, M.; Ereditato, A.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-06-01

    The shape of the bedrock underneath alpine glaciers bears vital information on the erosional mechanism related to the flow of ice. So far, several geophysical exploration methods have been proposed to map the bedrock topography though with limited accuracy. Here we illustrate the first results from a technology, called cosmic ray muon radiography, newly applied in glacial geology to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath the Aletsch Glacier situated in the Central Swiss Alps. For this purpose we installed new cosmic muon detectors made of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel and measured the shape of the bedrock under the uppermost part of Aletsch Glacier (Jungfraufirn). Our results constrain the continuation of the bedrock-ice interface up to a depth of 50 m below the surface, where the bedrock underneath the glacier strikes NE-SW and dips at 45° ± 5°. This documents the first successful application of this technology to a glaciated environment.

  12. Special relativity in the school laboratory: a simple apparatus for cosmic-ray muon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-05-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity and to extended investigations for more inquisitive students.

  13. Primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in terms of the GAMMA muon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garyaka, A. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Jones, L. W.; Procureur, J.

    2009-12-01

    The energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays is obtained by conversion from the truncated muon size spectrum of EAS studied with the GAMMA array. The previously observed dependence of E on Nμtr at various zenith angles is used. It is shown that the present spectrum has the same structure (“bump”) as the spectrum determined by another independent multi-parametric energy estimation method confirming that the “bump” structure is not produced by uncertainties in our methods.

  14. Measurements with a Ge detector and Monte Carlo computations of dose rate yields due to cosmic muons.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2003-02-01

    The present work shows how portable Ge detectors can be useful for measurements of the dose rate due to ionizing cosmic radiation. The methodology proposed converts the cosmic radiation induced background in a Ge crystal (energy range above 3 MeV) to the absorbed dose rate due to muons, which are responsible for 75% of the cosmic radiation dose rate at sea level. The key point is to observe in the high energy range (above 20 MeV) the broad muon peak resulting from the most probable energy loss of muons in the Ge detector. An energy shift of the muon peak was observed, as expected, for increasing dimensions of three Ge crystals (10%, 20%, and 70% efficiency). Taking into account the dimensions of the three detectors the location of the three muon peaks was reproduced by Monte Carlo computations using the GEANT code. The absorbed dose rate due to muons has been measured in 50 indoor and outdoor locations at Thessaloniki, the second largest town of Greece, with a portable Ge detector and converted to the absorbed dose rate due to muons in an ICRU sphere representing the human body by using a factor derived from Monte Carlo computations. The outdoor and indoor mean muon dose rate was 25 nGy h(-1) and 17.8 nGy h(-1), respectively. The shielding factor for the 40 indoor measurements ranges from 0.5 to 0.9 with a most probable value between 0.7-0.8.

  15. Density tomography using cosmic ray muons: feasibility domain and field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Déclais, Y.; Carbone, D.; Galichet, E.

    2010-12-01

    Muons are continuously produced when the protons forming the primary cosmic rays decay during their interactions with the molecules of the upper atmosphere. Both their short cross-section and their long life-time make the muons able to cross hectometers and even kilometers of rock before disintegrating. The flux of muons crossing a geological volume strongly depends on the quantity of matter encountered along their trajectories and, depending on both its size and its density, the geological object appears more or less opaque to muons. By measuring the muon flux emerging from the studied object and correcting for its geometry, the density structure can be deduced. The primary information obtained is the density averaged along muons trajectories and, to recover the 3D density distribution. The detector has to be moved around the target to acquire multi-angle images of the density structure. The inverse problem to be solved shares common features with seismic travel-time tomography and X-ray medical scans, but it also has specificities like Poissonian statistics, low signal-to-noise ratio and scattering which are discussed. Muon telescopes have been designed to sustain installations in harsh conditions such as might be encountered on volcanoes. Data acquired in open sky at various latitude and altitude allow to adjust the incoming muon flux model and to observe its temporal variations. The muon interactions with matter and the underground flux are constrained with data sets acquired inside the underground laboratory of the Mont Terri. The data analysis and the telescope model development are detailed. A model of the muon flux across a volcano is confronted to first measurements on La Soufrière de Guadeloupe volcano. The model takes into account a priori informations and solving kernels are computed to deduce the spatial resolution in order to define the elements size of the model heterogeneities. The spatio-temporal resolution of the method is in relation with the

  16. The EEE Project: a sparse array of telescopes for the measurement of cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rocca, P.; Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccetti, F.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferraro, A.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Liciulli, F.; Maggiora, A.; Maragoto Rodriguez, O.; Maron, G.; Martelli, B.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M.; Paoletti, R.; Park, W.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rizzi, M.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stori, L.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Visnyei, O. B.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is meant to be the most extensive experiment to detect secondary cosmic particles in Italy. To this aim, more than 50 telescopes have been built at CERN and installed in high schools distributed all over the Italian territory. Each EEE telescope comprises three large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) and is capable of reconstructing the trajectories of the charged particles traversing it with a good angular resolution. The excellent performance of the EEE telescopes allows a large variety of studies, from measuring the local muon flux in a single telescope, to detecting extensive air showers producing time correlations in the same metropolitan area, to searching for large-scale correlations between showers detected in telescopes tens, hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart. In addition to its scientific goal, the EEE Project also has an educational and outreach objective, its aim being to motivate young people by involving them directly in a real experiment. High school students and teachers are involved in the construction, testing and start-up of the EEE telescope in their school, then in its maintenance and data-acquisition, and later in the analysis of the data. During the last couple of years a great boost has been given to the EEE Project through the organization of simultaneous and centralized data taking with the whole telescope array. The raw data from all telescopes are transferred to CNAF (Bologna), where they are reconstructed and stored. The data are currently being analyzed, looking at various topics: variation of the rate of cosmic muons with time, upward going muons, muon lifetime, search for anisotropies in the muon angular distribution and for time coincidences between stations. In this paper an overall description of the experiment is given, including the design, construction and performance of the telescopes. The operation of the whole array is also presented by showing the most recent

  17. Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons in various materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, K. V.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Yudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The results obtained by studying the background of neutrons produced by cosmic-raymuons in underground experimental facilities intended for rare-event searches and in surrounding rock are presented. The types of this rock may include granite, sedimentary rock, gypsum, and rock salt. Neutron production and transfer were simulated using the Geant4 and SHIELD transport codes. These codes were tuned via a comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data—in particular, with data of the Artemovsk research station of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow, Russia)—as well as via an intercomparison of results of calculations with the Geant4 and SHIELD codes. It turns out that the atomic-number dependence of the production and yield of neutrons has an irregular character and does not allow a description in terms of a universal function of the atomic number. The parameters of this dependence are different for two groups of nuclei—nuclei consisting of alpha particles and all of the remaining nuclei. Moreover, there are manifest exceptions from a power-law dependence—for example, argon. This may entail important consequences both for the existing underground experimental facilities and for those under construction. Investigation of cosmic-ray-induced neutron production in various materials is of paramount importance for the interpretation of experiments conducted at large depths under the Earth's surface.

  18. Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons in various materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manukovsky, K. V.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Yudin, A. V.

    2016-07-15

    The results obtained by studying the background of neutrons produced by cosmic-raymuons in underground experimental facilities intended for rare-event searches and in surrounding rock are presented. The types of this rock may include granite, sedimentary rock, gypsum, and rock salt. Neutron production and transfer were simulated using the Geant4 and SHIELD transport codes. These codes were tuned via a comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data—in particular, with data of the Artemovsk research station of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow, Russia)—as well as via an intercomparison of results of calculations with the Geant4 and SHIELD codes. It turns out that the atomic-number dependence of the production and yield of neutrons has an irregular character and does not allow a description in terms of a universal function of the atomic number. The parameters of this dependence are different for two groups of nuclei—nuclei consisting of alpha particles and all of the remaining nuclei. Moreover, there are manifest exceptions from a power-law dependence—for example, argon. This may entail important consequences both for the existing underground experimental facilities and for those under construction. Investigation of cosmic-ray-induced neutron production in various materials is of paramount importance for the interpretation of experiments conducted at large depths under the Earth’s surface.

  19. A plastic scintillator-based muon tomography system with an integrated muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, V.; Armitage, J.; Baig, F.; Boniface, K.; Boudjemline, K.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Drouin, P.-L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Gazit, R.; Godin, D.; Golovko, V. V.; Howard, C.; Hydomako, R.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; Robichaud, A.; Stocki, T. J.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2015-10-01

    A muon scattering tomography system which uses extruded plastic scintillator bars for muon tracking and a dedicated muon spectrometer that measures scattering through steel slabs has been constructed and successfully tested. The atmospheric muon detection efficiency is measured to be 97% per plane on average and the average intrinsic hit resolution is 2.5 mm. In addition to creating a variety of three-dimensional images of objects of interest, a quantitative study has been carried out to investigate the impact of including muon momentum measurements when attempting to detect high-density, high-Z material. As expected, the addition of momentum information improves the performance of the system. For a fixed data-taking time of 60 s and a fixed false positive fraction, the probability to detect a target increases when momentum information is used. This is the first demonstration of the use of muon momentum information from dedicated spectrometer measurements in muon scattering tomography.

  20. Electron lifetime measurement using cosmic ray muons at the MicroBooNE LArTPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddage, Varuna Crishan; MicroBooNE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE, a 170 ton liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) located on the Fermilab's Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB), is designed to both probe neutrino physics phenomena and further develop the LArTPC detector technology. MicroBooNE is the largest currently operating LArTPC detector and began collecting data in Fall 2015. LArTPCs are imaging detectors that offer exceptional capabilities for studying neutrinos. A fundamental requirement for the performance of such detectors is to maintain electronegative contaminants such as oxygen and water at extremely low concentrations, which otherwise can absorb the ionization electrons. The impurity levels in liquid argon can be estimated from the drift electron lifetime as they are inversely proportional to each other. This talk presents a measurement of the drift electron lifetime using cosmic ray muon data collected by MicroBooNE. An interpretation of the observed drift electron lifetime as a function of time indicates that the electron attenuation due to impurities in the liquid argon is negligible during normal operations, implying that the argon purification and gas recirculation system in MicroBooNE is performing successfully.

  1. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Andersen, T.C.; Anthony, A.E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M.G.; Burritt, T.H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M.C.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P.J.; Dosanjh, R.S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.TM.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Harvey, P.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A.J.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O?Keeffe, H.M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser, S.M.; Ott, R.A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Sonley, T.J.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue, C.J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C.E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D.L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters, J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-02-16

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Biological effects of muons from cosmic rays originating from nearby supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Michael; Melott, Adrian; Fisher, Chistopher

    2013-04-01

    While it is nearly certain that nearby supernovae have affected life on Earth, a determination of the precise effects of these events is frustrated by the lack of certain key information. Indeed, although most cosmic ray primaries are stopped in the atmosphere, secondary particles have the potential to impact both terrestrial and marine life. Of particular interest are muons, which would contribute substantially to the flux associated with a supernova. However, since muons are not an important part of the impact of conventional terrestrial radiation sources, their effects on life have not been well characterized. This can be remedied by experimental studies of effects on DNA from muons produced in neutrino beams. These experiments will be the first serious measurements of muon effects on biological molecules. We also plan to clarify the important relation of damage rates to repair rates, leading toward future in vivo work. This will allow a more complete and accurate treatment of these hazards and a comparison with the biological stress resulting from radiation-initiated ozone depletion and solar UVB increase.

  4. The MU-RAY project: Volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, G.; Ambrosino, F.; Battiston, R.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Cassese, F.; Castellini, G.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cozzolino, F.; D'Alessandro, R.; de La Taille, C.; Iacobucci, G.; Marotta, A.; Masone, V.; Martini, M.; Nishiyama, R.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Parascandolo, L.; Parascandolo, P.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rocco, R.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Strolin, P.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Tanaka, M.; Trattino, P.; Uchida, T.; Yokoyamao, I.

    2011-02-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few 100 m of a volcanic cone. With resolutions up to 10s of meters in optimal detection conditions, muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods. Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project aims at the construction of muon telescopes and the development of new analysis tools for muon radiography. The telescopes are required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of two X-Y planes of 2×2 square meters area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fiber coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC chip.

  5. Uncertainties in atmospheric muon-neutrino fluxes arising from cosmic-ray primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Justin; Garcia Gamez, Diego; Porzio, Salvatore Davide; Söldner-Rembold, Stefan; Wren, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We present an updated calculation of the uncertainties on the atmospheric muon-neutrino flux arising from cosmic-ray primaries. For the first time, we include recent measurements of the cosmic-ray primaries collected since 2005. We apply a statistical technique that allows the determination of correlations between the parameters of the Gaisser, Stanev, Honda, and Lipari primary-flux parametrization and the incorporation of these correlations into the uncertainty on the muon-neutrino flux. We obtain an uncertainty related to the primary cosmic rays of around (5-15)%, depending on energy, which is about a factor of 2 smaller than the previously determined uncertainty. The hadron production uncertainty is added in quadrature to obtain the total uncertainty on the neutrino flux, which is reduced by ≈5 % . To take into account an unexpected hardening of the spectrum of primaries above energies of 100 GeV observed in recent measurements, we propose an alternative parametrization and discuss its impact on the neutrino flux uncertainties.

  6. Calculation on cosmic-ray muon exposure rate in non-walled concrete buildings.

    PubMed

    Fujitaka, K; Abe, S

    1984-06-01

    Computer simulations on the exposure indoors from cosmic ray muons were practiced in the framework of non-scattering and non-cascade assumptions. The model buildings were two-dimensional, rectangular, and were made of a normal concrete. A stratified structure was assumed in each building, where no mezzanine was considered. Walls were not taken into account yet. The distributions of the exposure rates in 26-story buildings were illustrated in contour maps for various sets of parameters. All of them gave basically archlike patterns. Analyses of the results showed that the exposure rate is affected most largely by the floor board thickness. The ceiling height would be an insignificant factor for short buildings. The min/max ratio of the muon exposure rate in a moderate size building was estimated to be more than 0.7.

  7. A compact muon tracking system for didactic and outreach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, R.; Candela, A.; Conicella, V.; De Deo, M.; D` Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Franchi, G.; d`Inzeo, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a cosmic ray telescope based on the use of plastic scintillator bars coupled to ASD-RGB1S-M Advansid Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifter fibers. The system is comprised of 200 electronic channels organized into 10 couples of orthogonal planes allowing the 3D reconstruction of crossing muons. Two monolithic PCB boards have been designed to bias, readout all the SiPMs enclosed in the system, to monitor the working parameters and to remotely connect the detector. To make easier the display of muon tracks to non-expert users, two LED matrices, triggered by particle interactions, have been implemented. To improve the usability of the muon telescope, a controller board unit permits to select different levels of trigger and allows data acquisition for refined analyses for the more proficient user. A first prototype, funded by INFN and deployed in collaboration with NYUAD, is operating at the Toledo Metro station of Naples, while two further detectors will be developed and installed in Abu Dhabi in the next few months.

  8. Study of multi-muon bundles in cosmic ray showers detected with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delphi Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R. C.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2007-11-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP has been used to measure multi-muon bundles originating from cosmic ray interactions with air. The cosmic events were recorded in “parasitic mode” between individual e+e- interactions and the total live time of this data taking is equivalent to 1.6 × 106 s. The DELPHI apparatus is located about 100 m underground and the 84 metres rock overburden imposes a cutoff of about 52 GeV/c on muon momenta. The data from the large volume Hadron Calorimeter allowed the muon multiplicity of 54,201 events to be reconstructed. The resulting muon multiplicity distribution is compared with the prediction of the Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJET01. The model fails to describe the abundance of high multiplicity events. The impact of QGSJET internal parameters on the results is also studied.

  9. Wavelet and Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic ray muon and neutron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. R.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Echer, E.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Vieira, L. E. A.; de Lucas, A.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Schuch, N. J.

    Many times series in geophysics may contain dominant periodic signals These signals can vary in both amplitude and frequency over long periods of time The wavelet analysis is a powerful toll to spectral analyses of time series because this analysis decomposes a time series into time frequency space simultaneously One gets information on both the amplitude of the interest periodic signal within the series and how this amplitude varies with time In this work we will make a spectral wavelet and multitaper analysis of muon and neutron cosmic ray and compare these two kinds of spectral analysis and particles with each other and will find the mainly periodicities in these time series

  10. Alignment of the Near Detector scintillator modules using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Ospanov, Rustem; Lang, Karol; /Texas U.

    2008-05-01

    The authors describe the procedures and the results of the first alignment of the Near Detector. Using 15.5 million cosmic ray muon tracks, collected from October, 2004 through early january, 2005, they derive the effective transverse positions of the calorimeter scintillator modules. The residuals from straight line fits indicate that the current alignment has achieved better than 1 mm precision. They estimate the size of the remaining misalignment and using tracks recorded with a magnetic field test the effect of the magnetic field on the alignment.

  11. Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Imaging Using Multiple Coulomb Scattering of Cosmic Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Choi, Chan K.; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons passing through matter lose energy from inelastic collisions with electrons and are deflected from nuclei due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The strong dependence of scattering on atomic number Z and the recent developments on position sensitive muon detectors indicate that multiple Coulomb scattering could be an excellent candidate for spent nuclear fuel imaging. Muons present significant advantages over existing monitoring and imaging techniques and can play a central role in monitoring nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel stored in dense well shielded containers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of multiple Coulomb scattering for imaging of spent nuclear fuel dry casks stored within vertical and horizontal commercial storage dry casks. Calculations of muon scattering were performed for various scenarios, including vertical and horizontal fully loaded dry casks, half loaded dry casks, dry casks with one row of fuel assemblies missing, dry casks with one fuel assembly missing and empty dry casks. Various detector sizes (1.2 m ×1.2 m, 2.4 m ×2.4 m and 3.6 m ×3.6 m) and number of muons (105, 5 · 105, 106 and 107) were used to assess the effect on image resolution. The Point-of-Closest-Approach (PoCA) algorithm was used for the reconstruction of the stored contents. The results demonstrate that multiple Coulomb scattering can be used to successfully reconstruct the dry cask contents and allow identification of all scenarios with the exception of one fuel assembly missing. In this case, an indication exists that a fuel assembly is not present; however, the resolution of the imaging algorithm was not enough to identify exact location.

  12. Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaralingam, Nakamuthu

    1993-06-08

    We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth`s surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 105TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment`s fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m x 10 m x 31 m proportional tube array (the ``active shield``). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ``knee`` region (103 - 104 TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events.

  13. Results of investigation of muon fluxes of superhigh energy cosmic rays with X-ray emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanenko, I. P.; Ivanova, M. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Ilyina, N. P.; Mandritskaya, K. V.; Osipova, E. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall data from the investigation of the cosmic ray muon flux in the range of zenith angles (0-90) deg within the energy range (3.5 to 5.0) TeV is presented. The exposure of large X-ray emulsion chambers underground was 1200 tons. year. The data were processe using the method which was applied in the experiment Pamir and differred from the earlier applied one. The obtained value of a slope power index of the differential energy spectrum of the global muon flux is =3.7 that corresponds to the slope of the pion generation differential spectrum, gamma sub PI = 2.75 + or - .04. The analysis of the muon zenith-angular distribution showed that the contribution of rapid generation muons in the total muon flux agree the best with the value .2% and less with .7% at a 90% reliability level.

  14. A search for flaring very-high-energy cosmic γ-ray sources with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L3 Collaboration; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; van den Akker, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bähr, J.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiarusi, T.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de La Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; de Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Ding, L. K.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Duran, I.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Faber, G.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Groenstege, H.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; Guo, Y. N.; Gupta, S. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Haller, Ch.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z. X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Huo, A. X.; Ito, N.; Jin, B. N.; Jindal, P.; Jing, C. L.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Kantserov, V.; Kaur, M.; Kawakami, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kok, E.; Korn, A.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kuang, H. H.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Coultre, P. Le; Goff, J. M. Le; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, Z. C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Ma, X. H.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Meng, X. W.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Monteleoni, B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumov, V. A.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Qing, C. R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ravindran, K. C.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Rewiersma, P.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Rojkov, A.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saidi, R.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitt, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shen, C. Q.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sulanke, H.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Unger, M.; Valente, E.; Verkooijen, H.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. W.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnen, T. A. M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Y. P.; Xu, J. S.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yang, X. F.; Yao, Z. G.; Yeh, S. C.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, S. J.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zöller, M.; Zwart, A. N. M.

    2006-06-01

    The L3+C muon detector at the CERN electron positron collider, LEP, is used for the detection of very-high-energy cosmic γ-ray sources through the observation of muons of energies above 20, 30, 50 and 100 GeV. Daily or monthly excesses in the rate of single-muon events pointing to some particular direction in the sky are searched for. The periods from mid July to November 1999, and April to November 2000 are considered. Special attention is also given to a selection of known γ-ray sources. No statistically significant excess is observed for any direction or any particular source.

  15. PHENIX Muon Tracking Detector Gas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Pisani, R. P.; Tretiakov, G.; Trofimov, V.

    2007-07-01

    The Muon Tracking Detector Gas System was designed and fabricated to supply Ar+30% CO 2+20% CF 4 mixture to the PHENIX [K. Adcox, S.S. Adler, M. Aizam, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 499 (2003) 669.] [1]. Muon Tracking (MuTr) chambers located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Nation Lab (BNL). The gas system purpose is to provide gas at the requested mixture at a constant controlled pressure and at various flow rates. The system can do this while monitoring the mixture's temperature, pressure, flow rate, and CO 2, oxygen, and moisture content. A custom computer data acquisition system collects and logs the gas system operating parameters. This system can also be alarmed to provide automatic responses to undesired system conditions.

  16. Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Farine, J.; Fleurot, F.; Hallman, E. D.; Krueger, A.; Luoma, S.; Schwendener, M. H.; Virtue, C. J.; Ahmed, S. N.; Cai, B.; Chen, M.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Guillian, E.; Harvey, P. J.; Kos, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, J. R.; MacLellan, R.; Mak, H. B.

    2009-07-01

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and unoscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muonlike events are measured between -1{<=}cos{theta}{sub zenith}{<=}0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30x10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22{+-}0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos{theta}{sub zenith}>0.4 is measured to be (3.31{+-}0.01(stat){+-}0.09(sys))x10{sup -10} {mu}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  17. Production of radioactive isotopes through cosmic muon spallation in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.

    2010-02-15

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare-event detection in nu detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka liquid-scintillator antineutrino detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillators, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and GEANT4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be Y{sub n}=(2.8+-0.3)x10{sup -4} mu{sup -1} g{sup -1} cm{sup 2}. For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  18. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  19. Propagation and energy deposition of cosmic rays' muons on terrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Franciole; Paulucci, Laura; Galante, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    The Earth is constantly struck by radiation coming from the interstellar medium. The very low energy end of the spectrum is shielded by the geomagnetic field but charged particles with energies higher than the geomagnetic cutoff will penetrate the atmosphere and are likely to interact, giving rise to secondary particles. Some astrophysical events, such as γ-ray bursts and supernovae, when happening at short distances, may affect the planet's biosphere, due to the temporary enhanced radiation flux. Muons are abundantly produced by high-energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. These particles, due to their low cross-section, are able to penetrate deep both underground and underwater, with the possibility of affecting biological niches normally considered shielded from radiation. We investigate the interaction of muons produced by high-energy cosmic rays on the Earth's atmosphere using the Geant4 toolkit. We analyse its penetration power in water and crust and also the interaction effects within bacteria-like material according to the particle type and energy, and noticed the possibility of off-track damage due to secondary particles.

  20. Estimation of vertical sea level muon energy spectra from the latest primary cosmic ray elemental spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, M.; Molla, N. H.; Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The directly measured elemental spectra of primary cosmic rays obtained from Webber et al., Seo et al., Menn et al., Ryan et al. and experiments like JACEE, CRN, SOKOL, RICH on P, He, CNO, Ne-S and Fe have been considered to estimate the vertical sea level muon energy spectra. The primary elemental energy spectra of P, He, CNO, Ne-S and Fe available from the different experimental data duly fitted by power law are given by Np(E)dE = 1.2216E-2.68 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NHe(E)dE = 0.0424E-2.59 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NCNO(E)dE = 0.0026E-2.57 dE[cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NNe-S(E)dE = 0.00066E-2.57 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NF e(E)dE = 0.0056E-2.55 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 Using the conventional superposition model the all nucleon primary cosmic ray spectrum has been derived which is of the form N(E)dE = 1.42E-2.66 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 We have considered all these spectra separately as parents of the secondary mesons and finallty the sea level muon fluxes at 00 from each species have been derived. To evaluate the meson spectra which are the initial air shower interaction products initiated by the primary nucleon air collisions, the hadronic energy moments have been calculated from the CERN LEBCEHS data for pp collisions and FNAL data for πp collisions. Pion production by secondary pions have been taken into account and the final total muon spectrum has been derived from pp rightarrowπ± x, pp → K± x, πp → π± x channels. The Z-factors have been corrected for p-air collisions. We have adopted the constant values of σp-air and σπ-air crosssections which are 273 mb and 213 mb, respectively. The adopted inelastic cross-sections for pp and πp interactions are 35 mb and 22 mb, respectively. The Q-G plasma correction of Z-factors have also been incorporated in the final form. The solution to the standard differential equation for mesons is considered for muon flux estimation from Ngenerations of the parent mesons. By this formulation vertical muon spectra from each element

  1. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. E.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. X.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; Dale, E.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Ge, L. Q.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, G. H.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. L.; Ji, X. P.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kebwaro, J. M.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. Q.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Nemchenok, I.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Pearson, C. E.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tam, Y. H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G. H.; Xu, J.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, J. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described.

  2. The Muon System of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    An, F. P.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Brown, R. E.; ...

    2014-10-05

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described. (auth)

  3. The Muon System of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    An, F. P.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Brown, R. E.; Chasman, C.; Dale, E.; Diwan, M. V.; Gill, R.; Hans, S.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Littenberg, L.; Pearson, C. E.; Qian, X.; Theman, H.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2014-10-05

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described. (auth)

  4. Development of low noise cosmic ray muon detector for imaging density structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagaya, T.; Tanaka, H.; Taketa, A.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing low noise cosmic ray muon detector to image a density structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan by muon radiography. Intensity of cosmic ray muon penetrating through the object is expressed as a function of the product of muon path length and density along muon path. And, the intensity of penetrating muon steeply decreases if muon path length becomes longer or density along muon path becomes larger. The detector that we are developing is called hodoscope that consists of multiple Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). A PSD has NxM grids consisting of N vertically aligned Scintillation Counters (SC: a plastic scintillator attached to a photo multiplier tube) and M horizontally aligned SCs. We can identify a muon path direction with two or more PSDs by connecting muon-detecting points in each PSD. But, Usu Volcano is so large that the intensity of penetrating muon becomes lower, and then noise rate becomes higher: the count of penetrating cosmic ray muon is estimated to be a few counts per month with the detector of which has the cross-section area of one square meter and the solid angle of 0.01 steradian. The noise is defined as a particle other than the muon penetrating the observed object such as electrons, photons, vertically arriving muons and so on. If noise rate becomes higher, the measured intensity of penetrating muon becomes higher than the theoretical intensity of that. Then we get a wrong result as if there were matter of lower density relative to real. So we need to develop a low noise detector. The ElectroMagnetic (EM) shower that consists of many electrons and photons is thought to be one of noise. When EM shower reaches the detector, each PSD detects arriving particles and detecting points are sometimes connected by a straight line. In that case, we cannot discriminate the penetrating muon from EM shower, and we count it as a muon event. This results noise. In order to discriminate the noise event, the use of more PSDs for our

  5. Muon astrophysics with the MACRO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; de Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; de Marzo, C.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J. T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyeizopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittelbrun, M.; Monacelli, P.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicoló, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pavesi, B.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N. D.; Pistilli, P.; Rainó, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzgiri, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steele, J.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Vilela, E.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.; Worstell, W.

    1994-05-01

    Muon events collected with the streamer tube system of MACRO have been used to study the vertical muon intensity and to search for astrophysical point sources. New upper limits on the muon fluxes coming from source candidates have been obtained. The μ pair distance distribution and multimuon rates are presented and compared with Monte Carlo predictions for different primary cosmic rays composition models.

  6. The possibilities of Cherenkov telescopes to perform cosmic-ray muon imaging of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic activity is regulated by the interaction of gas-liquid flow with conduit geometry. Hence, the quantitative understanding of the inner shallow structure of a volcano is mandatory to forecast the occurrence of dangerous stages of activity and mitigate volcanic hazards. Among the techniques used to investigate the underground structure of a volcano, muon imaging offers some advantages, as it provides a fine spatial resolution, and does not require neither spatially dense measurements in active zones, nor the implementation of cost demanding energizing systems, as when electric or active seismic sources are utilized. The principle of muon radiography is essentially the same as X-ray radiography: muons are more attenuated by higher density parts inside the target and thus information about its inner structure are obtained from the differential muon absorption. Up-to-date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly accomplished with detectors that employ planes of scintillator strips. These telescopes are exposed to different types of background noise (accidental coincidence of vertical shower particles, horizontal high-energy electrons, flux of upward going particles), whose amplitude is high relative to the tiny flux of interest. An alternative technique is based on the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by muons. The latter can be imaged as an annular pattern that contains the information needed to reconstruct both direction and energy of the particle. Cherenkov telescopes have never been utilized to perform muon imaging of volcanoes. Nonetheless, thanks to intrinsic features, they offer the possibility to detect the through-target muon flux with negligible levels of background noise. Under some circumstances, they would also provide a better spatial resolution and acceptance than scintillator-based telescopes. Furthermore, contrarily to the latter systems, Cherenkov detectors allow in-situ measurements of the open-sky energy spectrum of

  7. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρμ > 5.9 m-2. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 1016 eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  8. Effect of copper and aluminium on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altameemi, Rasha N. I.; Gopir, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we determine the effect of aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu) shielding on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level. The experiment was performed at Bangi in Malaysia with coordinates of 101.78° E, 2.92° N and elevation 30 m above sea level. Measurements were made along the vertical direction using muon telescopes (MTs) of parallel Geiger-Muller (GM) tubes with metal sheets above the MTs of up to 2.4 cm for Al and 2.7 cm for Cu. For these ranges of metal thicknesses, we find that the muon count rates increase linearly with the increase in metal thicknesses. The observed increase rate values are (0.18 ± 0.10) cm-1 and (0.26 ± 0.10)cm-1 for Al and Cu, respectively, with the larger value for Cu as expected from its higher atomic number and density. This indicates that for this thickness range, only the lower region of the Rossi curve is observed, with incoming cosmic ray muons producing charged particles in the metal layers, resulting in shower events or electromagnetic cascade. Thus, for this range of layer thickness, both aluminium and copper are not suitable to be used as shielding materials for ground level cosmic ray muons.

  9. Installation for the study of the angular distribution of cosmic muons with super-high energies at large zenith angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borog, V. V.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V. G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shestakov, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    An installation consisting of an ionization calorimeter and a counter hodoscope can be used to record cascade showers caused by the electromagnetic interactions of muons with superhigh energies in the cosmic ray horizontal flux. The direction of the muons is determined by a hodoscope consisting of 2196 counters. The information obtained makes it possible to restore the angular and energy distribution of the cosmic muons, which, in turn, makes it possible to determine the mechanism of their generation. The accuracy with which the angle of the passing particle is determined is discussed in detail in addition to the causes which can introduce distortions, such as shower accompaniment of neutrons, escape of shower electrons from the calorimeter, random coincidences, etc.

  10. Visualization of the Internal Structure of Volcanoes with Cosmic-ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy muons that are produced via the reaction between primary cosmic rays and the Earth's atmosphere can be used as a radiographic probe to explore the density distribution in gigantic objects including shallow parts of a volcano's interior. This new subterranean imaging technique is called muography. So far, muographic results have been acquired from eight volcanoes around the world as well as various targets including limestone caves, fault zones, industrial plants, and historical ruins. Taking all of the observational data together, it appears that muography can serve as a new and alternative high-resolution imaging technique, providing a fresh approach to Earth studies. This review describes observational studies in which muography has been used to explore the Earth's interior. Particular attention is paid to muography of magma convection and pathways in volcanoes around the world. The results are summarized here, and an outlook regarding anticipated future observations is briefly discussed.

  11. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Appel, S.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Corpace, O.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Givaudan, A.; Gögger-Neff, M.; Gómez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodman, M.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kale, K.; Kampmann, P.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C.; Laserre, T.; Lastoria, C.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Oralbaev, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I.; Pronost, G.; Reinhold, B.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Sharankova, R.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, P.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2017-02-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ~120 and ~300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10-4 cm-2s-1 for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10-5 cm-2s-1 for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of αT = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  12. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  13. Operational Experience of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colafranceschi, S.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, L.; Giardoni, M.; Ortenzi, B.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Piccolo, D.; Pierluigi, D.; Ponzio, B.; Russo, A.; Colaleo, A.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Ranieri, A.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Marangeli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Romano, F.; Roselli, G.; Trentadue, R.; Tupputi, S.; Guida, R.; Polese, G.; Sharma, A.; Cimmino, A.; Lomidze, D.; Paolucci, D.; Baesso, P.; Necchi, M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    2010-05-01

    Performances of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detectors after one year of operation at the scaled down closed loop recirculation gas system are presented. The GGM is made of 12 single-gap RPC's arranged in a cosmic ray telescope, with charge readout for online monitoring of working point. Preliminary results on sensitivity to gas changes and to environmental variables will be reported on.

  14. Thunderstorms' atmospheric electric field effects in the intensity of cosmic ray muons and in neutron monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Ne'Eman, Y.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Signoretti, F.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Zukerman, I. G.

    2003-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the influence of thunderstorms' atmospheric electric field on cosmic ray secondary components are presented. On the basis of the approach proposed by [1987], theoretical models for a correct numerical evaluation of these effects on hard muon, soft muon, and neutron monitor component are developed. For hard and soft muons the validity of the models are checked by their comparison with experimental results of the Baksan muon detector. For the first time, the effect of thunderstorms' atmospheric electric field on cosmic rays is investigated by simultaneous measurements of one-minute neutron monitor intensity and of atmospheric electric field at the Emilio Segre' Observatory on Mt. Hermon (Israel). A series of large thunderstorms during February 2000 is investigated; for each thunderstorm the maximum atmospheric electric field intensity was ranging from 10 to about 100 kV/m. Clear correlation between field intensity and neutron monitor intensity variations is presented for total intensity and for different detected multiplicity channels. This correlation is quantitatively in agreement with the developed model which takes into account the formation of short-living meso-atoms by the capture of slow negative muons in the lead of the monitor. The effect is relevant only for neutron events with detected multiplicity m = 1 and evident for multiplicity m = 2; the other multiplicity channels are not influenced by neutrons from meso-atoms.

  15. Cosmic ray hazards in the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milford, S. N.

    1965-01-01

    Cosmic ray hazards in solar system considered from measurements of cosmic ray energy and charge spectra near Earth and in interplanetary space near Earth, together with interaction of cosmic rays with Moon surface

  16. Observation of a VHE cosmic-ray flare-signal with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; van den Akker, M.; Aziz, T.; Bähr, J.; Banerjee, S.; Becattini, F.; Bellucci, L.; Betev, B. L.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Cartacci, A.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chiarusi, T.; Coignet, G.; Ding, L. K.; Duran, I.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Faber, G.; Fay, J.; Filthaut, F.; Ganguli, S. N.; Gong, Z. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Groenstege, H.; Guo, Y. N.; Gupta, S.; Gurtu, A.; Haller, Ch.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z. X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Huo, A. X.; Ito, N.; Jing, C. L.; Jones, L. W.; Kantserov, V.; Kawakami, S.; Kittel, W.; König, A. C.; Kok, E.; Kuang, H. H.; Kuijpers, J.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Li, L.; Li, Z. C.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Ma, W. G.; Ma, X. H.; Ma, Y. Q.; Mele, S.; Meng, X. W.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; van Mil, A.; Milcent, H.; Mohanty, G. B.; Monteleoni, B.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumov, V. A.; Nowak, H.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Pauss, F.; Petersen, B.; Pieri, M.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Qing, C. R.; Ramelli, R.; Ranieri, R.; Ravindran, K. C.; Rewiersma, P.; Riemann, S.; Rojkov, A.; Romero, L.; Schmitt, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shen, C. Q.; Spillantini, P.; Sulanke, H.; Tang, X. W.; Timmermans, C.; Tonwar, S. C.; Trowitzsch, G.; Unger, M.; Verkooijen, H.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vogt, H.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. W.; Wang, Z. M.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnen, T. A. M.; Wilkens, H.; Xu, Y. P.; Xu, J. S.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, X. F.; Yao, Z. G.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, S. J.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zwart, A. N. M.; L3+C Collaboration

    2010-02-01

    The data collected by the L3+C muon spectrometer at the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, have been used to search for short duration signals emitted by cosmic point sources. A sky survey performed from July to November 1999 and from April to November 2000 has revealed one single flux enhancement (chance probability=2.6×10-3) between the 17th and 20th of August 2000 from a direction with a galactic longitude of (265.02 ± 0.42)° and latitude of (55.58 ± 0.24)°. The energy of the detected muons was above 15 GeV.

  17. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  18. Angular and energy distribution for parent primaries of cosmic muons at the sea level using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Halil; Bektasoglu, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The angular and energy distributions of the primary cosmic rays that are responsible for the muons reaching the sea level have been estimated using the Geant4 simulation package. The models used in the simulations were tested by comparing the simulation results for the differential muon flux with the BESS measurements performed in Lynn Lake, Canada. Then, direct relationship between the propagation directions of the muons and those of the responsible primary particles has been investigated. The median energies for the parent primaries of vertical muons reaching the sea level with the threshold energies (Eμ) in the range 0.5-300 GeV were obtained. Simulation results for the median primary energies, 15.5Eμ and 11.2Eμ for Eμ = 14 GeV and Eμ = 100 GeV, have been found to be in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, median primary energies for the low energy muons with large zenith angle have been seen to be relatively higher than the ones for the muons with narrower angles.

  19. Energy spectrum of cascade showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the range from 50 GeV to 5 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashitkov, V. D.; Kirina, T. M.; Klimakov, A. P.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Yumatov, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cascade showers induced by electromagnetic interactions of high energy muons of horizontal cosmic ray flux in iron absorber was measured. The total observation time exceeded 22,000 hours. Both the energy spectrum and angular distributions of cascade showers are fairly described in terms of the usual muon generation processes, with a single power index of the parent meson spectrum over the muon energy range from 150 GeV to 5 TeV.

  20. An Educational MONTE CARLO Simulation/Animation Program for the Cosmic Rays Muons and a Prototype Computer-Driven Hardware Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkanis, G.; Sarris, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an educational software program for the study of and detection methods for the cosmic ray muons passing through several light transparent materials (i.e., water, air, etc.). Simulates muons and Cherenkov photons' paths and interactions and visualizes/animates them on the computer screen using Monte Carlo methods/techniques which employ…

  1. An Educational MONTE CARLO Simulation/Animation Program for the Cosmic Rays Muons and a Prototype Computer-Driven Hardware Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkanis, G.; Sarris, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an educational software program for the study of and detection methods for the cosmic ray muons passing through several light transparent materials (i.e., water, air, etc.). Simulates muons and Cherenkov photons' paths and interactions and visualizes/animates them on the computer screen using Monte Carlo methods/techniques which employ…

  2. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, J.

    2016-01-19

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Here, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. Our analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more thanmore » 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density rho(mu) > 5.9 m(-2). Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10(16) eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. Furthermore, the development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.« less

  3. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρ{sub μ} > 5.9 m{sup −2}. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 16} eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  4. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.

    2016-01-19

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Here, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. Our analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density rho(mu) > 5.9 m(-2). Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10(16) eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. Furthermore, the development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  5. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijay, Biplab; Banik, Prabir; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-09-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  6. Test of a conceptual prototype of the total internal reflection Cherenkov imaging detector (DIRC) with cosmic muons

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Kawahara, H.; McShurley, D.; Muller, D.; Oxoby, G.; Hearty, C.; Kadyk, J.; Lynch, G.; Lu, A.

    1994-12-01

    The DIRC is a totally internally reflecting Cherenkov imaging detector proposed for particle identification at the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} B factories. First test results from a conceptual prototype using cosmic muons are reported. The photo-electron yield and the single Cherenkov photon resolution at various track dip angles and positions along the radiator bar have been measured. The results are consistent with estimates and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  7. Feasibility of Sea-level Cosmic-Ray Muon-Capture SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L; Bernstein, A

    2005-03-11

    The first part of this report argues the average time between signal events for X-rays from negative muon capture on SNM is from a few to a few 10's of minutes, depending on how sophisticated one care's to make the detector. The second part of this report argues that the recoil proton background in the energy resolution window can be orders of magnitude larger than the expected signal. How could one evade this result? Firstly, one could conceive of a very highly segmented muon counter (or electromagnetic calorimeter) system to actually detect a stopping muon. This would be extraordinarily expensive for a large area and volume of a cargo container. There are also quite a few assumptions we applied to make the calculations tractable. For instance, we assumed the detector was fully efficient for a neutron recoil. probably something like 25% or 50% is more appropriate. However, probably the biggest uncertainty is the neutron energy spectrum. The Boehm et al. paper discusses the range of spectrum parameterizations, some of which are considerably softer and will lower the high-energy proton yield. This outcome is certainly possible. However, given the difference between signal and background rates, it would take a considerable change in detector parameters and particle yields to change the basic conclusion that this technique does not appear promising.

  8. Material discrimination using scattering and stopping of cosmic ray muons and electrons: Differentiating heavier from lighter metals as well as low-atomic weight materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpied, Gary; Kumar, Sankaran; Dorroh, Dustin; Morgan, Craig; Blanpied, Isabelle; Sossong, Michael; McKenney, Shawn; Nelson, Beth

    2015-06-01

    Reported is a new method to apply cosmic-ray tomography in a manner that can detect and characterize not only dense assemblages of heavy nuclei (like Special Nuclear Materials, SNM) but also assemblages of medium- and light-atomic-mass materials (such as metal parts, conventional explosives, and organic materials). Characterization may enable discrimination between permitted contents in commerce and contraband (explosives, illegal drugs, and the like). Our Multi-Mode Passive Detection System (MMPDS) relies primarily on the muon component of cosmic rays to interrogate Volumes of Interest (VOI). Muons, highly energetic and massive, pass essentially un-scattered through materials of light atomic mass and are only weakly scattered by conventional metals used in industry. Substantial scattering and absorption only occur when muons encounter sufficient thicknesses of heavy elements characteristic of lead and SNM. Electrons are appreciably scattered by light elements and stopped by sufficient thicknesses of materials containing medium-atomic-mass elements (mostly metals). Data include simulations based upon GEANT and measurements in the HMT (Half Muon Tracker) detector in Poway, CA and a package scanner in both Poway and Socorro NM. A key aspect of the present work is development of a useful parameter, designated the "stopping power" of a sample. The low-density regime, comprising organic materials up to aluminum, is characterized using very little scattering but a strong variation in stopping power. The medium-to-high density regime shows a larger variation in scattering than in stopping power. The detection of emitted gamma rays is another useful signature of some materials.

  9. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Choi, C. K.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 106 muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  10. An underground cosmic ray muon telescope for observation of cosmic ray anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. W.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A telescope housed in a tunnel laboratory has an overburden of 573 hg cm(-2) and is located under the center of a saddle-shaped landscape. It is composed of triple layers of proportional counters, each layer of area approx. 4m x 2m and their separation 0.5m. Events are selected by triple coincidence and software track identification. The telescope is in operation for over a year and the overall count rate is 1280 hr(-1). The structure and operation of the system is reported.

  11. Performance of resistive plate counters with freonless gas mixtures for measurements of cosmic ray muons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganter, S.; Wentz, J.; Haungs, A.; Mathes, H. J.; Rebel, H.

    1998-09-01

    Various operational features of bakelite resistive plate counters with a bulk resistivity of 1012Ωcm are studied with different argon, methane and isobutane mixtures, but avoiding freon as counter gas contribution. The efficiency and the time resolution of the detector as well as the cross-talk behavior of neighbored read-out pads are investigated for different voltages by use of cosmic ray muons. The signals of the detector are classified by number and shape of the afterpulses. Relative abundances of these classes are measured and the timely appearance of the afterpulses is investigated. An efficiency of more than 90% is found for argon-isobutane mixtures and less than 27% for argon-methane mixtures. The time resolution differs between 1.27 and 4.19 ns, depending on the kind of quenching gas. A strong asymmetry of the time resolution spectra of the various gas mixtures has been observed. The shape of the signals depends on the used quenching gas.

  12. Alignment of the Muon System at the CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Ryan; Perniè, Luca; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Kamon, Teruki; Safonov, Alexei; Brown, Malachi

    2017-01-01

    The muon detectors of the CMS experiment provide fast trigger decisions, muon identifications and muon track measurements. Alignment of the muon detectors is crucial for accurate reconstruction of events with high pT muons that are present in signatures for many new physics scenarios. The muon detector's relative positions and orientations with respect to the inner silicon tracker may be precisely measured using reconstructed tracks propagating from the interaction point. This track-based alignment procedure is capable of aligning individual muon detectors to within 100 microns along sensitive modes. However, weak (insensitive) modes may not be well measured due to the system's design and cause systematic miss-measurements. In this report, we present a new track-based procedure which enables all 6 alignment parameters - 3 positions and 3 rotations for each individual muon detector. The improved algorithm allows for measurement of weak modes and considerably reduced related systematic uncertainties. We describe results of the alignment procedure obtained with 2016 data.

  13. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  14. Bedrock topography beneath uppermost part of Aletsch glacier, Central Swiss Alps, revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Käser, Samuel; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Ereditato, Antonio; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    In mountainous landscapes such as the Central Alps of Europe, the bedrock topography is one of the most interesting subjects of study since it separates the geological substratum (bedrock) from the overlying unconsolidated units (ice). The geometry of the bedrock topography puts a tight constraint on the erosional mechanism of glaciers. In previous studies, it has been inferred mainly from landscapes where glaciers have disappeared after the termination of the last glacial epoch. However, the number of studies with a focus on the structure beneath active glaciers is limited, because existing exploration methods have limitation in resolution and mobility. The Eiger-μ project proposes a new technology, called muon radiography, to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath active glaciers. The muon radiography is a recent technique that relies on the high penetration power of muon components in natural cosmic rays. Specifically, one can resolve the internal density profile of a gigantic object by measuring the attenuation rate of the intensity of muons after passing through it, as in medical X-ray diagnostic. This technique has been applied to many fields such as volcano monitoring (eg. Ambrosino et al., 2015; Jourde et al., 2016; Nishiyama et al., 2016), detection of seismic faults (eg. Tanaka et al., 2011), inspection inside nuclear reactors, etc. The first feasibility test of the Eiger-μ project has been performed at Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps, Switzerland. We installed cosmic-ray detectors consisting of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel facing Aletsch glacier (Jungfraufirn). The detectors stayed 47 days in the tunnel and recorded the tracks of muons which passed through the glacier and bedrock (thickness is about 100 m). Successively the films were chemically developed and scanned at University of Bern with microscopes originally developed for the analysis of physics experiments on neutrino oscillation. The analysis of muon

  15. Investigation of the solar influence on the cosmic muon flux using WILLI detector

    SciTech Connect

    Saftoiu, A.; Brancus, I. M.; Duma, M.; Mitrica, B.; Petcu, M.; Toma, G.; Bercuci, A.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2010-11-24

    A fesibility study to explore the capability of the WILLI detector to observe the solar events/activity by recording the muon intensity at ground level is presented.The WILLI detector, set up in National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, is a 1 m{sup 2} incident area sampling calorimeter. It can measure simultaneously muon events with the muon energy {>=}0.4 GeV and, if the muons are stopped in the detector, and muon energy between 0.4muons pass the minimum of 2 plates of the detector stack.Taking into account muon events with energy {>=}0.4 GeV, a modulation of the muon intensity as a diurnal variation is observed. Muon events for a smaller energy range (0.4-0.6 GeV) seem to exhibit an aperiodic variation of the muon intensity, which could be correlated with magnetic activity indicated by the planetary K{sub p} index.

  16. High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. I. Analysis methods and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Montaruli, T.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Fantini, R.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Barish, B.C.; Goretti, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Michael, D.G.; Nolty, R.; Peck, C.W.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C.W.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Carboni, M.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Sciubba, A.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Antolini, R.; Bosio, T.; Di Credico, A.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Parlati, S.; Reynoldson, J.; Scapparone, E.; Bower, C.; Habig, A.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; De Mitri, I.; Monacelli, P.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Palamara, O.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Ricciardi, M.; Surdo, A.; Baker, R.; and others

    1997-08-01

    In this paper, the first of a two-part work, we present the reconstruction and measurement of muon events detected underground by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso (E{sub {mu}}{ge} 1.3 TeV in atmosphere). The main aim of this work is to discuss the muon multiplicity distribution as measured in the detector. The data sample analyzed consists of 4.4{times}10{sup 6} muon events, of which {approximately} 263000 are multiple muons, corresponding to a total live time of 5850 h. In this sample, the observed multiplicities extend above N{sub {mu}}=35, with intermuon separations up to 50 m and beyond. Additional complementing measurements, such as the inclusive muon flux, the angular distribution, and the muon separation distribution (decoherence), are also included. The physical interpretation of the results presented here is reported in the following companion paper. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  18. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms

    PubMed Central

    NAGAMINE, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described. PMID:27725469

  19. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described.

  20. Measurement of integrated flux of cosmic ray muons at sea level using the INO-ICAL prototype detector

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, S.; Acharya, B.S.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Satyanarayana, B. E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in E-mail: nkm@tifr.res.in E-mail: bsn@tifr.res.in

    2012-07-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to set-up a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter (ICAL) to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with precise measurements of oscillations parameters. The ICAL uses 50 kton iron as target mass and about 28800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) of 2 m × 2 m in area as active detector elements. As part of its R and D program, a prototype detector stack comprising 12 layers of RPCs of 1 m × 1 m in area has been set-up at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to study the detector parameters using cosmic ray muons. We present here a study of muon flux measurement at sea level and lower latitude. (Site latitude: 18°54'N, longitude: 72°48'E.)

  1. Measurement of 56Fe activity produced in inelastic scattering of neutrons created by cosmic muons in an iron shield.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Jovančević, N; Nikolić, D

    2012-01-01

    We report on the study of the intensities of several gamma lines emitted after the inelastic scattering of neutrons in (56)Fe. Neutrons were produced via nuclear processes induced by cosmic muons in the 20tons massive iron cube placed at the Earth's surface and used as a passive shield for the HPGe detector. Relative intensities of detected gamma lines are compared with the results collected in the same iron shield by the use of the (252)Cf neutrons. Assessment against the published data from neutron scattering experiments at energies up to 14MeV is also provided. It allowed us to infer the qualitative information about the average energy of muon-created neutrons in the iron shield.

  2. Average Spatial Distribution of Cosmic Rays behind the Interplanetary Shock—Global Muon Detector Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.; Tokumaru, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east-west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ˜60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ˜10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic-y component of the density gradient, G y , shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G z shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G z changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  3. Multidirectional Muon Telescopes and eEAS Arrays for High Energy Cosmic Ray Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Lev I.

    2007-11-01

    Two multidirectional muon telescopes with EAS arrays are now under construction in Israel: one from 24 scintillators on Mt. Hermon (in combination with neutron monitor), and one from 96 scintillators as semi-underground (in the big bomb-shelter in Qazrin at a distance of about 1 nkm from the Central Laboratory of the Israel Cosmic Ray & Space Weather Center). The big one consists from 49 scintillation detectors inside the special constructed building with very light roof over the bomb-shelter and 49 scintillation detectors underground inside the bomb-shelter. This multidirectional telescope contain more than two thousand elementary telescopes directed at different zenith and az-imuthal angles and formed by double coincidences of any top scintillator with each bottom scintillator (the effective energy of primary CR from about 50 GeV for vertical direction to about 1-2 TeV for very inclined directions). It will give possibility to investigate global and other types of galactic CR modulations in the Heliosphere at very high energies, near the upper limit of CR energy on which magnetic fields frozen in solar wind may yet influence. Also we plane to obtain detailed information on the sidereal CR anisotropy in this range of energy. We will measure also three types of EAS. Our estimations show that by EAS array we can continue measure high energy CR time variations in the broad range from about 1-2 TeV to about 10,000 TeV. By this experiment, we suppose to investigate with a high accuracy CR anisotropy in the Galaxy in dependence of particle energy and CR modulation in the Heliosphere at high-energy range.

  4. Measurements of Cosmic Ray Muons Performed with WILLI Detector - Status and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, B.; Brancus, I. M.; Bercuci, A.; Petcu, M.; Toma, G.; Duma, M.; Aiftimiei, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Cata-Danil, G.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Sima, O.; Radu, A.

    2007-04-23

    The WILLI detector, installed in the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Horia Hulubei Bucharest has been devised for studies of atmospheric muons, in particular of the muon charge ratio. We report on the results of studies for various muon energies (p{mu} < 1 GeV/c). The results are compared with Monte-Carlo simulations performed with the CORSIKA and GEANT codes. We are exploring the potential of a small detector array to be set up nearby the actual WILLI detector for triggering the muon charge ratio measurements by Extended Air Shower (EAS) events.

  5. A cosmic Ray Muon Experiment: a Way to Teach Standard Model of Particles at Community Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazandeh, C.; Gutarra-Leon, A.; Rivas, R.; Glaser, H.; Majewski, W.

    2016-11-01

    This experiment is an example of research for early undergraduate students and of its benefits and challenges as an accessible strategy for community colleges, in the spirit of the report on improving undergraduate STEM education from the US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. The goals of this project include measuring average low- energy muon flux, day/night flux difference, time dilation, energy spectra of electrons and muons in arbitrary units, muon decay curve, average lifetime of muons. From the lifetime data we calculate the weak coupling constant gw, electric charge e and the Higgs energy density.

  6. Deriving the solar activity cycle modulation on cosmic ray intensity observed by Nagoya muon detector from October 1970 until December 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendonça, Rafael R. S.; Braga, Carlos. R.; Echer, Ezequiel; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rockenbach, Marlos; Schuch, Nelson J.; Munakata, Kazuoki

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that the cosmic ray intensity observed at the Earth's surface presents an 11 and 22-yr variations associated with the solar activity cycle. However, the observation and analysis of this modulation through ground muon detectors datahave been difficult due to the temperature effect. Furthermore, instrumental changes or temporary problems may difficult the analysis of these variations. In this work, we analyze the cosmic ray intensity observed since October 1970 until December 2012 by the Nagoya muon detector. We show the results obtained after analyzing all discontinuities and gaps present in this data and removing changes not related to natural phenomena. We also show the results found using the mass weighted method for eliminate the influence of atmospheric temperature changes on muon intensity observed at ground. As a preliminary result of our analyses, we show the solar cycle modulation in the muon intensity observed for more than 40 years.

  7. Looking at the sub-TeV sky with cosmic muons detected in the EEE MRPC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferraro, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2015-09-01

    Distributions of secondary cosmic muons were measured by the Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) telescopes of the Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project, spanning a large angular and temporal acceptance through its sparse sites, to test the possibility to search for any anomaly over long runs. After correcting for the time exposure and geometrical acceptance of the telescopes, data were transformed into equatorial coordinates, and equatorial sky maps were obtained from different sites on a preliminary dataset of 110M events in the energy range at sub-TeV scale.

  8. Method of flicker-noise spectroscopy of cosmic ray muon flux variations caused by non-stationary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borog, V. V.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kovylyaeva, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A new method of identifying signals in a statistically noisy non-stationary time series is presented. Unlike in the Fourier and wavelet analyses, in the processing of data no assumptions about the structure of analyzed signal is made. The proposed method of flicker-noise spectroscopy is illustrated with a real time series related to monitoring of solar and cosmic radiation during GLE#72 event using ground-level muon hodoscope. The method is applicable for the analysis of a wide range of various helio- and geophysical processes.

  9. Joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux to detect shallow subsurface density structure beneath volcanoes: Testing the method at a well-characterized site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Lewis, M.; George, N. K.; Johnson, A.; Dichter, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.

    2016-12-01

    The joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux measurements has been utilized by a number of groups to image subsurface density structure in a variety of settings, including volcanic edifices. Cosmic ray muons are variably-attenuated depending upon the density structure of the material they traverse, so measuring muon flux through a region of interest provides an independent constraint on the density structure. Previous theoretical studies have argued that the primary advantage of combining gravity and muon data is enhanced resolution in regions not sampled by crossing muon trajectories, e.g. in sensing deeper structure or structure adjacent to the region sampled by muons. We test these ideas by investigating the ability of gravity data alone and the joint-inversion of gravity and muon flux to image subsurface density structure, including voids, in a well-characterized field location. Our study area is a tunnel vault located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory within Quaternary ash-flow tuffs on the Pajarito Plateau, flanking the Jemez Volcano in New Mexico. The regional geology of the area is well-characterized (with density measurements in nearby wells) and the geometry of the tunnel and the surrounding terrain is known. Gravity measurements were made using a Lacoste and Romberg D meter and the muon detector has a conical acceptance region of 45 degrees from the vertical and track resolution of several milliradians. We obtain individual and joint resolution kernels for gravity and muon flux specific to our experimental design and plan to combine measurements of gravity and muon flux both within and above the tunnel to infer density structure. We plan to compare our inferred density structure against the expected densities from the known regional hydro-geologic framework.

  10. Cosmic ray modulation and noise level on the extended multidirectional muons detector telescope installed in south of Brazil: preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, C. R.; Savian, J. F.; da Silva, M. R.; da Silva, S. M.; da Silva, C. W.; Dal Lago, A.; Kuwabara, T.; Munakata, K.; Bieber, J. W.; Schuch, N. J.; All

    Because of the large detector mass required to detect high-energy cosmic rays ground-based instruments remain the state-of-the-art method for studying these particles At energies up to 100 GeV primary galactic cosmic rays experience significant variation in response to solar wind disturbances such as interplanetary coronal mass ejections ICMEs In this way ground-based detectors can provide unique information on conditions in the near-earth interplanetary medium Since 2001 a prototype multidirectional high energy 50 GeV cosmic-ray muons detector telescope was operating in the Southern Space Observatory SSO CRSPE INPE - MCT Brazil geomagnetic coordinates 19o 13 S and 16o 30 E In December 2005 an upgrade increased the collection area in 600 becoming two layers of 28 m2 each The objective of this work is to analyze cosmic ray count rates observed by ground-based detector in order to find both variations not associated with interplanetary structures possible associated with the noise from the instrument and decrease rates caused by cosmic ray modulation due to interplanetary structures near Earth We use 1 minute resolution data from the extended telescope collected since January 2006 which is the first data since the update of the instrument on December 2005 We also use the disturbance storm time Dst index from Kyoto plasma and interplanetary magnetic field from the ACE satellite In the future this study will help to separate cosmic ray modulation caused by interplanetary structures from those variations in short periods less than 1 month

  11. Perspectives for the radiography of Mt. Vesuvius by cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, S.; D'Auria, L.; de Lellis, G.; Festa, G.; Gasparini, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Marotta, A.; Martini, M.; Miele, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Pisanti, O.; Strolin, P.; Vassallo, M.; Zollo, A.

    2010-02-01

    The measurements performed in Japan have shown that muon radiography is an "imaging technique" capable of providing information of the internal structure of volcanoes with a resolution and richness of details beyond the reach of conventional, non-imaging techniques. The measurements have been performed using electronic detectors or nuclear emulsions. The latter have shown excellent muon tracking capabilities and space resolution, but are lacking of the capability of electronic detectors to provide data in real time. In this paper, we examine the possibility of developing an electronic detector giving a resolution comparable to that of nuclear emulsions and with a larger area than used so far, in order to see deeper structures inside volcanoes in spite of the strong muon absorption in the rock. We specifically discuss the very challenging application of muon radiography to Mt. Vesuvius, driven by the strong social interest coming from the enormous potential danger which it represents. Applications to other volcanoes can be envisaged.

  12. Performance of the Majorana Demonstrator Muon Veto System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Clinton; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment operating at the 4850-ft. level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The low-background goals of this Ge-based experiment require a muon veto system. The operation of the partial veto panel array (2/3 coverage) provides the first opportunity to study muon events during the commissioning of the Ge detectors. The Prototype Ge detector module operated in the Demonstrator shield for a total exposure of over 600 kg*day with the partial veto system. The operation of Module 1, consisting of 22.5 kg of Ge mass, in the shield with full veto panel coverage will provide a complete array to study muon-induced events in the experiment. The veto panels are synchronized with Ge detectors using a common 100MHz clock, presenting a unique opportunity to 1) study the flux and angular distribution of muons incident on the Demonstrator using the experiment's modular veto panel design, and 2) examine the effect of muon-related events on the Ge detectors. In this talk the performance of the muon veto system, including an analysis of the coincidence patterns of the incident muons and the corresponding spectra produced in the Ge detectors, is presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  13. Characterising Encapsulated Nuclear Waste using Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography (MT)

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, Anthony; Ireland, Dave G.; Al Jebali, Ramsey; Kaiser, Ralf; Lumsden, Scott; Mahon, David; Yang, Guangliang; Mountford, David; Ryan, Matt; Shearer, Craig

    2015-07-01

    A prototype scintillating-fibre detector system has been developed at the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) for the nondestructive assay of UK legacy nuclear waste containers. This system consists of four tracking modules, two above and two below the container under interrogation. Each module consists of two orthogonal planes of 2 mm-pitch fibres yielding one space point. Per plane, 128 fibres are read out by a single Hamamatsu H8500 64-channel MAPMT with two fibres multiplexed onto each pixel. The configuration allows the reconstruction of the incoming and scattered muon trajectories, thus enabling the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Results are shown from experimental data collected for high-Z objects within an air matrix and within a shielded, concrete-filled container. These reconstructed images show clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials present, with dimensions and positions determined with sub-centimetre precision. (authors)

  14. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherini, Y.; Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Cozzi, M.; Dekhissi, H.; Derkaoui, J.; Esposito, L. S.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Giglietto, N.; Maaroufi, F.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Manzoor, S.; Moussa, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.

    2005-04-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  15. Stopping rate of negative cosmic-ray muons near sea level.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spannagel, G.; Fireman, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A relatively simple method for measuring with high sensitivity the rate of stopped negative muons is described. A process in which Ar-37 is obtained from K-39 in connection with the stopping of a negative muon was used in the experiments. The Ar-37 activity can be measured in small proportional counters with extremely low backgrounds. It is possible to remove Ar-37 from potassium acetate powder at room temperature with almost 100 per cent efficiency merely by trapping the gas from the storage container with a charcoal trap at the liquid nitrogen temperature.

  16. Muon Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duldig, Marc L.

    2000-07-01

    Muon observations are complementary to neutron monitor observations but there are some important differences in the two techniques. Unlike neutron monitors, muon telescope systems use coincidence techniques to obtain directional information about the arriving particle. Neutron monitor observations require simple corrections for pressure variations to compensate for the varying mass of atmospheric absorber over a site. In contrast, muon observations require additional corrections for the positive and negative temperature effects. Muon observations commenced many years before neutron monitors were constructed. Thus, muon data over a larger number of solar cycles is available to study solar modulation on anisotropies and other cosmic ray variations. The solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations have been studied for many years. Using the techniques of Bieber and Chen it has been possible to derive the radial gradient, parallel mean-free path and symmetric latitude gradient of cosmic rays for rigidities <200 GV. The radial gradient varies with the 11-year solar activity cycle whereas the parallel mean-free path appears to vary with the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The symmetric latitudinal gradient reverses at each solar polarity reversal. These results are in general agreement with predictions from modulation models. In undertaking these analyses the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular mean-free path must be assumed. There is strong contention in the literature about the correct value to employ but the results are sufficiently robust for this to be, at most, a minor problem. An asymmetric latitude gradient of highly variable nature has been found. These observations do not support current modulation models. Our view of the sidereal variation has undergone a revolution in recent times. Nagashima, Fujimoto and Jacklyn proposed a narrow Tail-In source anisotropy and separate Loss-Cone anisotropy as being responsible for the observed variations. A new analysis

  17. A method to monitor and measure the water transparency in LHAASO-WCDA using cosmic muon signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Cai; Yao, Zhi-Guo; Yu, Chun-Xu; Chen, Ming-Jun; Wu, Han-Rong; Zha, Min; Gao, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Yan; Liao, Wen-Ying; LHAASO collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Daocheng, Sichuan Province, China. As one of the major components of the LHAASO project, a Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA), with an area of 78000 m2, contains 350000 tons of purified water. The water transparency and its stability are critical for successful long-term operation of this project. To gain full knowledge of the water Cherenkov technique and investigate the engineering issues, a 9-cell detector array has been built at the Yangbajing site, Tibet, China. With the help of the distribution of single cosmic muon signals, the monitoring and measurement of water transparency are studied. The results show that a precision of several percent can be obtained for the attenuation length measurement, which satisfies the requirements of the experiment. In the near future, this method could be applied to the LHAASO-WCDA project. Supported by U1332201, U1532258 and NSFC (11375224, 11675187)

  18. Relevance of multiple muons detected underground to the mass composition of primary cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabelski, J.; Wdowczyk, J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations have been made of the expected frequencies of multiple muons in the Soudan underground proton decay detector. It is concluded that the flux of heavy nuclei (z 10) in the range 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV/nucleus is at most 25% of the total particle flux in the same range.

  19. First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Wendell, R. A.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Richard, E.; Okumura, K.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Nantais, C. M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Jang, J. S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Suda, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Marti, Ll.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with β decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande IV in order to determine the production rates of 12B, 12N, 16N, 11Be, 9Li, 8He, 9C, 8Li, 8B, and 15C. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter β 's by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since >9Li can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a β +n cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this 9Li measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes 9Li / 8B and 9Li.

  20. The composition of cosmic rays near the Bend (10 to the 15th power eV) from a study of muons in air showers at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. A.; Gupta, S. C.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Sivaprasad, K.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Goodman, M. C.; Bogert, M. C.; Burnstein, R.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muons near shower cores was studied at sea level at Fermilab using the E594 neutrino detector to sample the muon with E testing 3 GeV. These data are compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations to derive conclusions about the composition of cosmic rays near the bend in the all particle spectrum. Monte Carlo simulations generating extensive air showers (EAS) with primary energy in excess of 50 TeV are described. Each shower record contains details of the electron lateral distribution and the muon and hadron lateral distributions as a function of energy, at the observation level of 100g/cm. The number of detected electrons and muons in each case was determined by a Poisson fluctuation of the number incident. The resultant predicted distribution of muons, electrons, the rate events are compared to those observed. Preliminary results on the rate favor a heavy primary dominated cosmic ray spectrum in energy range 50 to 1000 TeV.

  1. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Because each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  2. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.

    2015-11-05

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Due to each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, therefore, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  3. Scintillator Based Tracking Detectors for a Muon System at Future Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukic, Strahinja; Ujic, Predrag

    2017-01-01

    Extruded scintilator +WLS strips with SiPM readout for large muon detection systems were tested in the muon beam of the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Light yield of up to 140 photoelectrons per muon per strip has been observed, as well as time resolution of 330 ps and position resolution along the strip of 5.4 cm. With such excellent performance parameters this detector is natural option for large scale future colliders muon systems.

  4. The EEE Project: An extended network of muon telescopes for the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Event) Project's goal is the study of high energy Extensive Air Showers (EAS) over a very large area, using an array of muon telescopes, based on position-sensitive Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). Young students are directly involved in assembling and monitoring the telescopes, with the aim to introduce them to advanced physics research. At present the array is composed of more than 40 stations, distributed on a total area of 3 ×105km2. Most of them are independently taking data since several years. A new combined run (RUN-1) has started in February 2015, with 35 telescopes taking data simultaneously for a collected statistics larger than 4 ×109 reconstructed events. An overview of the experiment and some results from studies on correlated muons from the same EAS, and on solar events as Forbush decreases, will be shown.

  5. Development of a novel micro pattern gaseous detector for cosmic ray muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglietti, M.; Canale, V.; Franchino, S.; Iengo, P.; Iodice, M.; Petrucci, F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel detector (Thick Groove Detector, TGD) designed for cosmic ray tomography with a spatial resolution of 500 μm, trying to keep the construction procedure as simple as possible and to reduce the operating costs. The TGD belongs to the category of MPGDs with an amplification region less than 1 mm wide formed by alternate anode/cathode microstrips layers at different heights. A first 10×10 cm2 prototype has been built, divided in four sections with different test geometries. We present the construction procedure and the first results in terms of gain and stability. Preliminary studies with cosmic rays are also reported.

  6. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  7. Superconducting helical solenoid systems for muon cooling experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Andreev, Nikolai; Johnson, Rolland P.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael J.; Romanov, Gennady; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    Novel configurations of superconducting magnet system for Muon Beam Cooling Experiment is under design at Fermilab. The magnet system has to generate longitudinal and transverse dipole and quadrupole helical magnetic fields providing a muon beam motion along helical orbit. It was found that such complicated field configuration can be formed by a set of circular coils shifted in transverse directions in such a way that their centers lay on the center of the helical beam orbit. Closed beam orbit configurations were also proposed and investigated. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical designs and parameters of such magnetic system based on a NbTi Rutherford type cable. The helical solenoid fabrication, assembly and quench protection issues are presented.

  8. Historical building monitoring by means of a cosmic ray tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Zenoni, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension image reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)

  9. Historical Building Stability Monitoring by Means of a Cosmic Ray Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Zenoni, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension image reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)

  10. A Helical Cooling Channel System for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuya Yonehara, Rolland Johnson, Michael Neubauer, Yaroslav Derbenev

    2010-03-01

    Fast muon beam six dimensional (6D) phase space cooling is essential for muon colliders. The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) uses hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities imbedded in a magnet system with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components that provide the continuous dispersion needed for emittance exchange and effective 6D beam cooling. A series of HCC segments, each with sequentially smaller aperture, higher magnetic field, and higher RF frequency to match the beam size as it is cooled, has been optimized by numerical simulation to achieve a factor of 105 emittance reduction in a 300 m long channel with only a 40% loss of beam. Conceptual designs of the hardware required for this HCC system and the status of the RF studies and HTS helical solenoid magnet prototypes are described.

  11. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  12. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...Limited Chalk River, Ontario Canada K0J 1J0 Énergie Atomique du Canada Limitée Chalk River (Ontario) Canada K0J 1J0 Jonkmans Guy - R&D Scientist...2.5.3 Geotomography .......................................................................................... 2-5 3. INSTALLATION AT CHALK RIVER

  13. Calibration of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Calorimeter TileCal using 2008, 2009 and 2010 Cosmic-ray Muon Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Zhili; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    The ATLAS iron-scintillator hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides precision measurements of jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC proton-proton collisions. Results assessing the calorimeter calibration obtained using cosmic ray muons collected in 2008, 2009 and 2010 are presented. The analysis was based on the comparison between experimental and simulated data, and addresses three issues. First the average non-uniformity of the response of the cells within a layer was estimated to be about ±2%. Second, the average response of different layers was found to be not inter-calibrated, considering the sources of error. The largest difference between the responses of two layers was 4%. Finally, the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at test beams using electrons was found to range between -3% and +1%. The sources of uncertainties in the response measurements were strongly correlated, including the uncertainty in the simulation. The total error of each layer determinations was 2%. Stable response values were obtained for the three data-taking periods. The uncertainties on the comparisons were less than ±1% for the Long Barrel layers and less than ±3% for the Extended Barrel ones.

  14. Sensitivity of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the muon shower size to the cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younk, Patrick; Risse, Markus

    2012-07-01

    The composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an important issue in astroparticle physics research, and additional experimental results are required for further progress. Here we investigate what can be learned from the statistical correlation factor r between the depth of shower maximum and the muon shower size, when these observables are measured simultaneously for a set of air showers. The correlation factor r contains the lowest-order moment of a two-dimensional distribution taking both observables into account, and it is independent of systematic uncertainties of the absolute scales of the two observables. We find that, assuming realistic measurement uncertainties, the value of r can provide a measure of the spread of masses in the primary beam. Particularly, one can differentiate between a well-mixed composition (i.e., a beam that contains large fractions of both light and heavy primaries) and a relatively pure composition (i.e., a beam that contains species all of a similar mass). The number of events required for a statistically significant differentiation is ˜200. This differentiation, though diluted, is maintained to a significant extent in the presence of uncertainties in the phenomenology of high energy hadronic interactions. Testing whether the beam is pure or well-mixed is well motivated by recent measurements of the depth of shower maximum.

  15. Cosmic ray produced isotopes in terrestrial systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.

    1998-12-01

    Continuing improvements in the sensitivity of measurement of cosmic ray produced isotopes in environmental samples have progressively broadened the scope of their applications to characterise and quantify a wide variety of processes in Earth and planetary sciences. In this article, the author concentrates on the new developments in the field of nuclear geophysics, based on isotopic changes produced by cosmic rays in the terrestrial systems. This field, which is best described as cosmic ray geophysics, has roots with the discovery of cosmogenic 14C on the Earth by Willard Libby in 1948, and grew rapidly at first, but slowed down during the '60s and '70s. In the '80s, there was a renaissance in cosmic ray produced isotope studies, thanks mainly to the developments of the accelerator mass spectrometry technique capable of measuring minute amounts of radioactivity in terrestrial samples. This technological advance has considerably enhanced the applications of cosmic ray produced isotopes and today one finds them being used to address diverse problems in Earth and planetary sciences. The author discusses the present scope of the field of cosmic ray geophysics with an emphasis on geomorphology. It is stressed that this is the decade in which this field, which has been studied passionately by geographers, geomorphologists and geochemists for more than five decades, has at its service nuclear methods to introduce numeric time controls in the range of centuries to millions of years.

  16. Performances of linseed oil-free bakelite RPC prototypes with cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bose, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Saha, S.; Sharan, M. K.; Viyogi, Y. P.

    2009-05-01

    A comparative study has been performed on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) made of two different grades of bakelite paper laminates, produced and commercially available in India. The chambers, operated in the streamer mode using argon, tetrafluroethane and isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio, are tested for the efficiency and the stability with cosmic rays. A particular grade of bakelite (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions, was found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of >96% continuously for more than 130 days. A thin coating of silicone fluid on the inner surfaces of the bakelite RPC is found to be necessary for the operation of the detector.

  17. Cosmic ray chemical composition estimated between 2 × 10 14 eV and 2 × 10 16 eV using muon size fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, K.; Aoki, T.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Muraki, Y.; Maehara, O.; Kojima, H.; Shibata, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Capdevielle, J. N.

    1995-03-01

    Accurate measurement of the total number of muons in an air shower is important for estimating the cosmic ray chemical composition. In order to translate this view into action, we have constructed an air shower array at Ohya. Many large muon detectors have been deployed in the stone mine and the total area amounts to about 400 m 2. At the ground surface, scintillation counters have been deployed for determining the shower size and arrival direction of an air shower. From the data obtained, we estimated the cosmic ray chemical composition between 2 × 10 14 eV and 2 × 10 16 eV, which includes the well known spectrum's "knee". As a method of estimation, we took the muon size fluctuation. The estimated rate of protons becomes relatively low, and that of helium nuclei increases, above an energy of 2 × 10 15 eV. Also, the fraction of very heavy nuclei such as iron increases above this energy.

  18. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  19. Muon colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Baltz, A. J.; Chen, P.; Cheng, W.-H.; Cho, Y.; Courant, E.; Fernow, R. C.; Gallardo, J. C.; Garren, A.; Green, M.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mills, F.; Mokhov, N.; Morgan, G.; Neuffer, D.; Noble, R.; Norem, J.; Popovic, M.; Schachinger, L.; Silvestrov, G.; Summers, D.; Stumer, I.; Syphers, M.; Torun, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Turner, W.; Van Ginneken, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.; Weggel, R.; Willen, E.; Winn, D.; Wurtele, J.

    1996-05-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity μ+μ- colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  20. Polarized muon beams for muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinsky, A. N.

    1996-11-01

    An option for the production of intense and highly polarized muon beams, suitable for a high-luminosity muon collider, is described briefly. It is based on a multi-channel pion-collection system, narrow-band pion-to-muon decay channels, proper muon spin gymnastics, and ionization cooling to combine all of the muon beams into a single bunch of ultimately low emittance.

  1. High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Montaruli, T.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Fantini, R.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Barish, B.C.; Goretti, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Michael, D.G.; Nolty, R.; Peck, C.W.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C.W.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Carboni, M.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Sciubba, A.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Antolini, R.; Bosio, T.; Di Credico, A.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Parlati, S.; Reynoldson, J.; Scapparone, E.; Bower, C.; Habig, A.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; De Mitri, I.; Monacelli, P.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Palamara, O.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Ricciardi, M.; Surdo, A.; Baker, R.; and others

    1997-08-01

    Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56{plus_minus}0.05 for E{lt}500 TeV and 2.9{plus_minus}0.3 for E{gt}5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1{plus_minus}2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from {approximately} 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  3. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  4. Forward muon system for the D/Ø detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Babintsev, V.; Baldin, B.; Butler, J.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.; Bojko, N.; Burtovoi, V.; Chekulaev, S.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.; Diehl, T.; Dodonov, V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eroshin, O.; Evdokimov, V.; Galyaev, A.; Goncharov, P.; Gornushkin, Yu.; Green, D.; Gurzhiev, S.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hedin, D.; Ito, A.; Johns, K.; Kalinin, A.; Kostritskiy, A.; Kozelov, A.; Kozlovski, E.; Leitner, R.; Lokajíček, M.; Los, S.; Malyshev , V.; Mayorov, A.; Medovikov, V.; Mokhov, N.; Nozdrin, A.; Pisarev, I.; Pospíšil, S.; Raskowski, J.; Sabirov, B.; Šimák, V.; Smith, G.; Stefanik, A.; Stoianova, D.; Suk, M.; Tokmenin, V.; Vaniov, V.; Volkov, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Vrba, V.; Williams, R.; Wood, D.; Yatsunenko, Yu.; Yoffe, F.; Zimin, S.

    1998-12-01

    The design and main parameters of the completly redesigned DØ Forward Angle MUon System (FAMUS: 1.0<| η|<2.0) for the next high luminosity Tevatron Collider run are reported. Results of the studies of trigger scintillation counters based on fast scintillator Bicron 404A and WLS bars SOFZ-105 are presented. We report about results of test beam studies of prototype counters including minimum ionizing particles detection efficiency, time resolution and amplitude response. Radiation ageing of scintillating materials for the doses up to 1 Mrad, phototubes magnetic shielding in the fields of up to 700 G and ageing of phototubes are presented. Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) are chosen as FAMUS tracking detectors. The detector is a drift wire chamber with a metallic cathode. The detector operates in proportional mode with a fast freon-methane gas mixture to provide high drift velocity, adequate counting rate and low ageing. A description of the performance of the MDT is given. Studies of two prototypes in test beams were performed at FNAL and JINR. Obtained coordinate accuracy is around 0.5 mm r.m.s. All tests show robustness of MDT as tracking detector of the new muon system for a long period in high DØ background radiation conditions.

  5. Impact of the GE1/1 upgrade on CMS muon system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Sha, A. H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-01-01

    During the future LHC upgrade planned in 2018, the forward endcap region of the CMS muon spectrometer will be upgraded with GEM chambers. GEM technology is able to withstand the radiation environment expected in the forward region. The GE1/1 station will be included in the muon L1 trigger, allowing to keep low pT threshold even at high luminosity. Moreover, it will bring detection redundancy in the most critical part of the CMS muon system, along with benefits to muon reconstruction performance.

  6. Cosmic emergy based ecological systems modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Chen, G. Q.; Ji, X.

    2010-09-01

    Ecological systems modelling based on the unified biophysical measure of cosmic emergy in terms of embodied cosmic exergy is illustrated in this paper with ecological accounting, simulation and scenario analysis, by a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem associated with the municipality of Beijing. An urbanized regional ecosystem model with eight subsystems of natural support, agriculture, urban production, population, finance, land area, potential environmental impact, and culture is representatively presented in exergy circuit language with 12 state variables governing by corresponding ecodynamic equations, and 60 flows and auxiliary variables. To characterize the regional socio-economy as an ecosystem, a series of ecological indicators based on cosmic emergy are devised. For a systematic ecological account, cosmic exergy transformities are provided for various dimensions including climate flows, natural resources, industrial products, cultural products, population with educational hierarchy, and environmental emissions. For the urban ecosystem of Beijing in the period from 1990 to 2005, ecological accounting is carried out and characterized in full details. Taking 2000 as the starting point, systems modelling is realized to predict the urban evolution in a one hundred time horizon. For systems regulation, scenario analyses with essential policy-making implications are made to illustrate the long term systems effects of the expected water diversion and rise in energy price.

  7. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O`Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Green, D.; Martin, P.; Morfin, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Okusawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Asano, Y.; Mann, T.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal.

  8. Study of the solar anisotropy of cosmic ray primaries of about 200 GeV energy with the L3+C muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L3 Collaboration; Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; van den Akker, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bähr, J.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiarusi, T.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Ding, L. K.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Duran, I.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Faber, G.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Groenstege, H.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guo, Y. N.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Haller, Ch.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z. X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hoferjun, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Huo, A. X.; Ito, N.; Jin, B. N.; Jindal, P.; Jing, C. L.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Kantserov, V.; Kaur, M.; Kawakami, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kok, E.; Korn, A.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kuang, H. H.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, Z. C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Ma, X. H.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Meng, X. W.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mohanty, G. B.; Monteleoni, B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumov, V. A.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Qing, C. R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ravindran, K. C.; Razis, P.; Rembeczki, S.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Rewiersma, P.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Rojkov, A.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saidi, R.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitt, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shen, C. Q.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sulanke, H.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Unger, M.; Valente, E.; Verkooijen, H.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. W.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnen, T. A. M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Y. P.; Xu, J. S.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yang, X. F.; Yao, Z. G.; Yeh, S. C.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, S. J.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zöller, M.; Zwart, A. N. M.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the non-uniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. Aims: A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. Methods: The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. Results: A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10-4. The measurements were performed in the years 1999 and 2000.

  9. Tests of Scintillator+WLS Strips for Muon System at Future Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja

    2015-10-11

    Prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been achieved, as well as time resolution of 0.5 ns and position resolution of ~ 7 cm.

  10. Pattern Comparator Trigger (PACT) for the muon system of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andlinger, M.; Kluge, A.; Szoncso, F.; Walzel, G.; Wulz, C.-E.; Gorodenski, P.; Klefenz, F.; Männer, R.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Csilling, Á.; Czyrkowski, H.; Dabrowski, R.; Dominik, W.; Konecki, M.; Królikowski, J.; Lewandowski, M.; Mazur, Z.; Sułowski, K.; Górski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Della Negra, M.; Kudła, I.; Pimiä, M.; Radermacher, E.; Seez, C.; Wrochna, G.

    1996-02-01

    The general scheme for the fast, pipelined first level trigger on high pt muons in the CMS detector at LHC is presented. The prototype PACT system was tested in the high momentum muon beams in the RD5 experiment during 1993/94 runs. The obtained efficiency curves are shown.

  11. The cosmic ray veto system of the Mario Schenberg gravitational wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Fauth, A. C.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2014-07-01

    The Mario Schenberg gravitational wave antenna is a spherical cryogenic resonant mass detector located at IFUSP, São Paulo. It is well known that cosmic rays interact with cryogenic resonant mass detectors generating acoustic signals. Depending on the shower energy, they could provide a substantial background noise which should be vetoed to reduce the false alarm rate. For this purpose, in December 2011, we have installed a cosmic ray veto system which is, since then, acquiring data. The cosmic ray veto system is composed of three particle detectors containing each one a scintillator, a photomultiplier and a tension divider. As the shower number of particles is used to define a threshold for the veto, it is important that the cosmic ray veto provides a linear response to high-energy cosmic ray events. The veto setup response was optimized and allows measurements up to 23,000 equivalent muon charge particles per square meter. We present here the experimental setup, its calibration and performance. Finally, to confirm the linearity of the data acquisition we show the measured particle multiplicity.

  12. The PHENIX Muon Trigger Upgrade Level-1 Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, John; Kempel, Todd

    2010-02-01

    The PHENIX Muon Trigger Upgrade adds a set of Level-1 trigger detectors to the existing muon spectrometers and will enhance the ability of the experiment to pursue a rich program of spin physics in polarized proton collisions. The upgrade will allow the experiment to select high momentum muons from the decay of W bosons and reject both beam-associated and low-momentum collision background, enabling the study of quark and antiquark polarization in the proton. The Muon Trigger Upgrade will add momentum and timing information to the present muon Level-1 trigger, which only makes use of tracking in the PHENIX muon identifier (MuID) panels. Signals from new Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and re-instrumented planes in the existing muon tracking (MuTr) chambers will provide momentum and timing information for the new Level-1 trigger. An RPC timing resolution of ˜2 ns will permit rejection of beam related backgrounds while tracking information from the RPCs and MuTr station will be used by the trigger to select events with high momentum muon candidates. The RPC and MuTr hit information will be sent by optical fibers to a set of Level-1 trigger processors that will make use of cutting edge FPGA technology to provide very high data densities in a compact form factor. The layout of the upgrade, details of the Level-1 electronics and trigger algorithm development will be presented. )

  13. Mercury Handling for the Target System for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Mcdonald, K; Kirk, H.; Weggel, Robert; Souchlas, Nicholas; Sayed, H; Ding, X

    2012-01-01

    The baseline target concept for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory is a free-stream mercury jet being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. The target is located within a 20-T magnetic field, which captures the generated pions that are conducted to a downstream decay channel. Both the mercury and the proton beam are introduced at slight downward angles to the magnetic axis. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton beam. The impact energy of the remaining beam and jet are substantial, and it is required that splashes and waves be controlled in order to minimize the potential for interference of pion production at the target. Design issues discussed in this paper include the nozzle, splash mitigation in the mercury pool, the mercury containment vessel, and the mercury recirculation system.

  14. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Mahon, David; Clarkson, Anthony; Ireland, Dave G; Kaiser, Ralf; Mountford, David; Ryan, Matt; Shearer, Craig; Yang, Guangliang

    2015-07-01

    A prototype scintillating-fibre detector system has been developed at the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) for the nondestructive assay of UK legacy nuclear waste containers. This system consists of two tracking modules above, and two below, the container under interrogation. Each module consists of two orthogonal planes of 2 mm-pitch fibres yielding one space point. Per plane, 128 fibres are read out by a single Hamamatsu H8500 64-channel MAPMT with two fibres multiplexed onto each pixel. A dedicated mapping scheme has been developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution provided by the fibres. The configuration allows the reconstruction of the incoming and scattered muon trajectories, thus enabling the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Results are shown from experimental data collected for high-Z objects within an air matrix and, for the first time, within a shielded, concrete-filled container. These reconstructed images show clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials present, with dimensions and positions determined with sub-centimetre precision. (authors)

  15. Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Craig J.

    2013-12-30

    It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.

  16. High Precision Magnetic Field Scanning System for the New Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ran; Muon g-2 collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The New Muon g-2 Experiment (E989) at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of muon aμ aiming at a precision of 140 ppb. This new experiment will shed light on the long-standing 3.5 standard deviation between the previous muon g-2 measurement (E821) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Standard Model calculation, and potentially discover new physics. The New Muon g-2 Experiment measures the precession frequency of muon in a uniform magnetic field, and the magnetic field experienced by the muons needs to be measured with a precision better than 70 ppb. For the measurement of the magnetic field in the muon storage region, the former trolley system from E821 with 17 NMR probes was refurbished and upgraded with new electronics, probes and a modern motion control system. A test solenoid magnet was set up at Argonne National Laboratory for calibrating the NMR probes and the precision studies of systematic uncertainties. In this presentation, we will describe the trolley motion control scheme, the trolley position measurement methods, the electronic system for activating and reading the NMR probes and the test solenoid facility.

  17. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  18. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  19. LED Monitoring System of the Phenix Muon Piston Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motschwiller, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC has a monitoring system consisting of LEDs and PIN diodes to calibrate out the time dependent changes to the detector. The LEDs track the temperature and radiation-damage changes to the response of the MPC, while the absolute calibration can be done using 0̂ decays. To execute this, LEDs flash light through the PbWO4 crystal to the Avalanche Photo Diodes The MPC is made up of 416 independent electromagnetic calorimeter towers. By using the LEDs we can correct for changes in the gains of each tower in the MPC, on a run by run basis. Because the LED value only gives a relative measurement of the gain over time, this method of calibration can only be used in conjunction with absolute calibrations provided by 0̂ decays or by minimum ionizing peaks . This work will be used to make a final measurement on Transverse energy at √sNN = 200 GV in Au+Au collisions.

  20. Time and position resolution of the scintillator strips for a muon system at future colliders

    DOE PAGES

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukic, Strahinja

    2016-03-31

    In this study, prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for a muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been observed, as well as time resolution of 0.45 ns and position resolution along the strip of 7.7 cm.

  1. Time and position resolution of the scintillator strips for a muon system at future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukic, Strahinja

    2016-03-31

    In this study, prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for a muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been observed, as well as time resolution of 0.45 ns and position resolution along the strip of 7.7 cm.

  2. Final muon cooling for a muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Castillo, John Gabriel

    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 mus and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough beta* region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers.

  3. The D0 muon system and early results on its performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, D. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 detector is a large, general-purpose detector designed to take full advantage of the 2 TeV energy of the Fermilab collider. The design of the experiment emphasizes accurate identification, complete angular acceptance, and precise measurement of the decay products of W and Z bosons: charged leptons (both electrons and muons), quarks and gluons, which emerge as collimated jets of particles, and noninteracting particles, such as neutrinos. The primary physics goals of D0 include searching for new phenomena, such as the top quark or particles outside the standard model, and high-precision studies of the W and Z bosons. In addition, the excellent muon identification will allow the study of b-quark production and decay. This report will describe D0's muon system, give preliminary measurements of chamber and trigger rates, and discuss muon identification.

  4. The CMS muon system: status and upgrades for LHC Run-2 and performance of muon reconstruction with 13 TeV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilana, C.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS muon system has played a key role for many physics results obtained from the LHC Run-1 and Run-2 data. During the Long Shutdown (2013-2014), as well as during the last year-end technical stop (2015-2016), significant consolidation and upgrades have been carried out on the muon detectors and on the L1 muon trigger. The algorithms for muon reconstruction and identification have also been improved for both the High-Level Trigger and the offline reconstruction. Results of the performance of muon detectors, reconstruction and trigger, obtained using data collected at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy during the 2015 and 2016 LHC runs, will be presented. Comparison of simulation with experimental data will also be discussed where relevant. The system's state of the art performance will be shown, and the improvements foreseen to achieve excellent overall quality of muon reconstruction in CMS, in the conditions expected during the high-luminosity phase of Run-2, will be described.

  5. Status and future prospects of the Muon Drift Tubes System of CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    A key component of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment is its muon system. The tracking and triggering of muons in the central part relies on Drift Tube (DT) chambers. In 2013 and 2014 a number of improvements and upgrades were implemented, in particular concerning the readout and trigger electronics. The increase of luminosity expected by LHC will impose several constraints for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. In order to exploit the muon detector redundancy, a new trigger system has been designed. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that combines the primitives information from different subdetectors: DT, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO). Regarding the long term operation of the DT system, in order to cope with up to a factor 2 nominal LHC luminosity, several improvements will be implemented. The in-chamber local electronics will be modified to cope with the new rate and radiation environment. This paper will present, along with the main system improvements implemented in the system, the first performance results from data collected at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy during 2016, confirming the satisfactory operation of both DT performance and the TwinMux system. A review of the present status and plans for the DT system upgrades will be also described.

  6. The cosmic ray primary composition between 1015 and 1016 eV from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Cini, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Stamerra, A.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B. C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; de Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; de Marzo, C.; de Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolò, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Rainò, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlè, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.

    2004-03-01

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 1015 and 1016 eV, i.e., around the ``knee'' of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 105 m2 collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m2 effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (Ne) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (Nμ) recorded by MACRO. The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30°. The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual Nμ-Ne studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming heavier at the knee of the primary spectrum, the knee itself resulting from the steepening of the spectrum of a primary light component (p, He) of Δγ=0.7+/-0.4 at E0~4×1015 eV. The result confirms the ones reported from the observation of the low energy muons at the surface (typically in the GeV energy range), showing that the conclusions do not depend on the production region kinematics. Thus, the hadronic interaction model used (CORSIKA/QGSJET) provides consistent composition results from data related to secondaries produced in a rapidity region exceeding the central one. Such an evolution of the composition in the knee region supports the ``standard'' galactic acceleration/propagation models that imply rigidity dependent breaks of the different components, and therefore breaks occurring at lower energies in the spectra of the light nuclei.

  7. Numerical study of the electron and muon lateral distribution in atmospheric showers of high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgios, Atreidis

    2017-03-01

    The lateral distribution of an atmospheric shower depends on the characteristics of the high energy interactions and the type of the primary particle. The influence of the primary particle in the secondary development of the shower into the atmosphere, is studied by analyzing the lateral distribution of electron and muon showers having as primary particle, proton, photon or iron nucleus. This study of the lateral distribution can provide useful conclusions for the mass and energy of the primary particle. This paper compares the data that we get from simulations with CORSIKA program with experimental data and the theoretical NKG function expressing lateral electron and muon distribution. Then we modify the original NKG function to fit better to the simulation data and propose a method for determining the mass of the original particle started the atmospheric shower.

  8. Radiation tests of real-sized prototype RPCs for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S. Y.; Hong, B.; Go, Y.; Kang, M. H.; Lim, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Rios, A. A. O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; van Doninck, W.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumarl, R.; Metha, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Awan, I. M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Muhammad, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shahzad, H.; Kim, M. S.; Goutzvitz, M.; Grenier, G.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Carpinteyro Bernardino, S.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Pedraza, I.; Severiano, C. B.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L. M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Orso, I.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a systematic study of double-gap and four-gap phenolic resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for the Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS muon system at high η. In the present study, we constructed real-sized double-gap and four-gap RPCs with gap thicknesses of 1.6 and 0.8 mm, respectively, with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. We examined the prototype RPCs with cosmic rays and with 100-GeV muons provided by the SPS H4 beam line at CERN. To examine the rate capability of the prototype RPCs both at Korea University and at the CERN GIF++ facility, the chambers were irradiated with 137Cs sources providing maximum gamma rates of about 1.5 kHz cm-2. For the 1.6-mm-thick double-gap RPCs, we found the relatively high threshold on the produced detector charge was conducive to effectively suppressing the rapid increase of strip cluster sizes of muon hits with high voltage, especially when measuring the narrow-pitch strips. The gamma-induced currents drawn in the four-gap RPC were about one-fourth of those drawn in the double-gap RPC. The rate capabilities of both RPC types, proven through the present testing using gamma-ray sources, far exceeded the maximum rate expected in the new high-η endcap RPCs planned for future phase-II runs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  9. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabady, Dinyar; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger.

  10. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  11. Status report of the upgrade of the CMS muon system with Triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A. H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-07-01

    For the High Luminosity LHC CMS is planning to install new large size Triple-GEM detectors, equipped with a new readout system in the forward region of its muon system (1.5 < | η | < 2.2). In this note we report on the status of the project, the main achievements regarding the detectors as well as the electronics and readout system.

  12. SOLAR CYCLE DEPENDENCE OF THE DIURNAL ANISOTROPY OF 0.6 TeV COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY OBSERVED WITH THE MATSUSHIRO UNDERGROUND MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Mori, S.; Takita, M.; Kota, J.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze the temporal variation of the diurnal anisotropy of sub-TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed with the Matsushiro (Japan) underground muon detector over two full solar activity cycles in 1985-2008. We find an anisotropy component in the solar diurnal anisotropy superimposed on the Compton-Getting anisotropy due to Earth's orbital motion around the Sun. The phase of this additional anisotropy is almost constant at {approx}15:00 local solar time corresponding to the direction perpendicular to the average interplanetary magnetic field at Earth's orbit, while the amplitude varies between a maximum (0.043% +- 0.002%) and minimum ({approx}0.008% +- 0.002%) in a clear correlation with the solar activity. We find a significant time lag between the temporal variations of the amplitude and the sunspot number (SSN) and obtain the best correlation coefficient of +0.74 with the SSN delayed for 26 months. We suggest that this anisotropy might be interpreted in terms of the energy change due to the solar-wind-induced electric field expected for galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) crossing the wavy neutral sheet. The average amplitude of the sidereal diurnal variation over the entire period is 0.034% +- 0.003%, which is roughly one-third of the amplitude reported from air shower and deep-underground muon experiments monitoring multi-TeV GCR intensity suggesting a significant attenuation of the anisotropy due to the solar modulation. We find, on the other hand, only a weak positive correlation between the sidereal diurnal anisotropy and the solar activity cycle in which the amplitude in the 'active' solar activity epoch is about twice the amplitude in the 'quiet' solar activity epoch. This implies that only one-fourth of the total attenuation varies in correlation with the solar activity cycle and/or the solar magnetic cycle. We finally examine the temporal variation of the 'single-band valley depth' (SBVD) quoted by the Milagro experiment and, in contrast with recent Milagro

  13. Cosmic Rays - A Word-Wide Student Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The QuarkNet program has distributed hundreds of cosmic ray detectors for use in high schools and research facilities throughout the world over the last decade. Data collected by those students has been uploaded to a central server where web-based analysis tools enable users to characterize and to analyze everyone's cosmic ray data. Since muons rain down on everyone in the world, all students can participate in this free, high energy particle environment. Through self-directed inquiry students have designed their own experiments: exploring cosmic ray rates and air shower structure; and using muons to measure their speed, time dilation, lifetime, and affects on biological systems. We also plan to expand our annual International Muon Week project to create a large student-led collaboration where similar cosmic ray measurements are performed simultaneously throughout the world.

  14. Muon-pair production by atmospheric muons in CosmoALEPH.

    PubMed

    Maciuc, F; Grupen, C; Hashim, N-O; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A-S; Putzer, A; Sander, H-G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, Th; Zuber, K

    2006-01-20

    Data from a dedicated cosmic ray run of the ALEPH detector were used in a study of muon trident production, i.e., muon pairs produced by muons. Here the overburden and the calorimeters are the target materials while the ALEPH time projection chamber provides the momentum measurements. A theoretical estimate of the muon trident cross section is obtained by developing a Monte Carlo simulation for muon propagation in the overburden and the detector. Two muon trident candidates were found to match the expected theoretical pattern. The observed production rate implies that the nuclear form factor cannot be neglected for muon tridents.

  15. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  16. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Measurements for Space in the A-Stub Muon System

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, H.; /Fermilab

    1995-09-25

    Measurements are given for the A layer Stub counters of the D-Zero Muon system. The purpose of the measurements is to determine the amount of space available for the A-stub muon counters. The counters will be positioned in between the central A layer PDTs and the cryostats. The given measurements are taken from the A layer PDTs towards the cryostat around the central portion of the detector. Drawings of the position and depth of the obstructions in a 5 inch clear zone are given.

  17. Muon Production Height from the Muon Tracking Detector in KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, C.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The Muon Tracking Detector (MTD; Eµh =0.8 GeV) [5] of the KASCADEt Grande experiment enables the analysis of the longitudinal shower development by means of the Muon production Height (MPH). The analysis employes radial and tangential angles of the muon track with respect to the shower direction, and the distance of the muon hit to the shower core. Comparing analysed MPH of distributions with Monte Carlo simulations (CORSIKA) [6] an increase of ln A d f the primary cosmic rays with lg(Nµr ) is observed. t

  18. Long-term variation of the solar diurnal anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays observed with the Nagoya multi-directional muon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Kóta, J.

    2014-08-10

    We analyze the three-dimensional anisotropy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensities observed independently with a muon detector at Nagoya in Japan and neutron monitors over four solar activity cycles. We clearly see the phase of the free-space diurnal anisotropy shifting toward earlier hours around solar activity minima in A > 0 epochs, due to the reduced anisotropy component parallel to the mean magnetic field. This component is consistent with a rigidity-independent spectrum, while the perpendicular anisotropy component increases with GCR rigidity. We suggest that this harder spectrum of the perpendicular component is due to contribution from the drift streaming. We find that the bi-directional latitudinal density gradient is positive in the A > 0 epoch, while it is negative in the A < 0 epoch, in agreement with the drift model prediction. The radial density gradient of GCRs, on the other hand, varies with a ∼11 yr cycle with maxima (minima) in solar maximum (minimum) periods, but we find no significant difference between the radial gradients in the A > 0 and A < 0 epochs. The corresponding parallel mean free path is larger in A < 0 than in A > 0. We also find, however, that the parallel mean free path (radial gradient) appears to persistently increase (decrease) in the last three cycles of weakening solar activity. We suggest that simple differences between these parameters in A > 0 and A < 0 epochs are seriously biased by these long-term trends.

  19. Determining the muon mass using a scintillator-based detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Neal; Essick, John

    2017-08-01

    A scintillator-based detection system, of the type employed in the popular muon-lifetime instructional lab experiment, is used to measure the muon mass. The photomultiplier pulse pairs produced by the decay of cosmic ray muons into product electrons and positrons within the scintillator are detected by a digitizing oscilloscope and the energies of the product particles are quantified by integrating the area under their associated pulses. The observed distribution of product-particle energies is then compared with Monte Carlo simulated distributions assuming different values of the muon mass mμc2 , where the modeling of product-particle energy loss within the scintillator accounts for collisional and radiative effects in a detailed way. Via a least-squares comparison, it is found that the simulated distribution based on a value of mμc2=105 ±5 MeV most closely matches the experimental distribution.

  20. Cosmic-ray record in solar system matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Lal, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) with bodies in the solar system is discussed, and what the record of that interaction reveals about the history of the solar system is considered. The influence of the energy, charge, and mass of the particles on the interaction is addressed, showing long-term average fluxes of solar protons, predicted production rates for heavy-nuclei tracks and various radionuclides as a function of depth in lunar rock, and integral fluxes of protons emitted by solar flares. The variation of the earth's magnetic field, the gardening of the lunar surface, and the source of meteorites and cosmic dust are studied using the cosmic ray record. The time variation of GCR, SCR, and VH and VVH nuclei is discussed for both the short and the long term.

  1. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  2. Implementation of the data acquisition system for the Overlap Muon Track Finder in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, W. M.; Bluj, M.; Buńkowski, K.; Byszuk, A. P.; Dobosz, J.; Doroba, K.; Drabik, P.; Górski, M.; Kalinowski, A.; Kierzkowski, K. Z.; Konecki, M.; Okliński, W.; Olszewski, M.; Poźniak, K.; Zawistowski, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) is the new system developed during the upgrade of the CMS experiment which includes the upgrade of its Level-1 trigger. It uses the novelty approach to finding muon candidates based on data received from three types of detectors: RPC, DT, and CSC . The upgrade of the trigger system requires also upgrade of the associated Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. The OMTF DAQ transmits the data from the connected detectors that were the basis for the Level-1 trigger decision. To increase its diagnostic potential, it may also transmit the data from a few bunch crossings (BXes) preceding or following the BX, in which the L1 trigger was generated. The paper describes the technical concepts and solutions used in the OMTF DAQ system. The system is still under development. However, it successfully passed the first tests.

  3. JTAG test system for RPC muon trigger in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Rutkowski, Piotr Z.; Kudla, Ignacy M.; Pietrusinski, Michal

    2003-10-01

    Theoretical and practical realization of the JTAG testing system for the RPC Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN laboratory (Geneva) is presented. The paper covers issues related to tests of connections of the printed circuit boards (PCB) of the RPC Trigger. Functionality test of devices and modules were performed. Special test were designed for large PLD FPGA. Testing environment for the JTAG model is discussed. The model is based on some existing and some newly developed testing algorithms. Practical system realization is presented. The system consists of the hardware interface and the software layer. Software was built using C++ object oriented language and databases. Exemplary test of the RPC Muon Trigger electronics was performed and the results were given.

  4. The Muon Portal Project: Design and construction of a scanning portal based on muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuccio, V.; Bandieramonte, M.; Becciani, U.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bonanno, G.; Bongiovanni, D.; Fallica, P. G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; La Rocca, P.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Marano, D.; Parasole, O.; Pugliatti, C.; Randazzo, N.; Riggi, F.; Riggi, S.; Romeo, G.; Romeo, M.; Russo, G. V.; Santagati, G.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Valvo, G.

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray tomography is a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of highly penetrating cosmic ray-produced muons to perform non-destructive inspection of high-Z materials without the use of artificial radiation. A muon tomography detection system can be used as a portal monitor at border crossing points for detecting illegal targeted objects. The Muon Portal Project is a joint initiative between Italian research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real size detector prototype (6×3×7 m3) for the inspection of cargo containers by the muon scattering technique. The detector consists of four XY tracking planes, two placed above and two below the container to be inspected. After a research and development phase, which led to the choice and test of the individual components, the construction and installation of the detection modules is almost completed. In this paper the present status of the Project is reported, focusing on the design and construction phase, as well as on the preliminary results obtained with the first detection planes.

  5. Development and performance of Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the muon system of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vai, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Sha, A. H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration is evaluating GEM detectors for the upgrade of the muon system. This contribution will focus on the R&D performed on chambers design features and will discuss the performance of the upgraded detector.

  6. Muon collider design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Baltz, A.; Caspi, S.; P., Chen; W-H., Cheng; Y., Cho; Cline, D.; Courant, E.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.; Garren, A.; Gordon, H.; Green, M.; Gupta, R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnstone, C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Kycia, T.; Y., Lee; Lissauer, D.; Luccio, A.; McInturff, A.; Mills, F.; Mokhov, N.; Morgan, G.; Neuffer, D.; K-Y., Ng; Noble, R.; Norem, J.; Norum, B.; Oide, K.; Parsa, Z.; Polychronakos, V.; Popovic, M.; Rehak, P.; Roser, T.; Rossmanith, R.; Scanlan, R.; Schachinger, L.; Silvestrov, G.; Stumer, I.; Summers, D.; Syphers, M.; Takahashi, H.; Torun, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Turner, W.; van Ginneken, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.; Weggel, R.; Willen, E.; Willis, W.; Winn, D.; Wurtele, J.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity \\mu^+ \\mu^- colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are discussed.

  7. COSMIC: A high resolution, large collecting area telescope. [Coherent Optical System of Modular Imaging Collectors (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W. A.; Carleton, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    The spaceborne Coherent Optical System of Modular Imaging Collectors (COSMIC) is presented. It has high angular resolution and can produce images of complex, low-surface-brightness objects such as distant galaxies. If configured as a 36 m filled linear array, COSMIC can have 15 times better angular resolution and 10 times greater collecting area than the Space Telescope. Alternatively, if the collecting area is spread out to create an unfilled two-dimensional array, there is the additional advantage of not needing to rotate the array in order to build up a reconstructed image. Considerations which led to the design concept, scientific goals, and the potentially useful role of a space station for assembly are discussed.

  8. Violation of cosmic censorship in dynamical p -brane systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kengo; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2016-02-01

    We study the cosmic censorship of dynamical p -brane systems in a D -dimensional background. This is the generalization of the analysis in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory, which was discussed by Horne and Horowitz [Phys. Rev. D 48, R5457 (1993)]. We show that a timelike curvature singularity generically appears from an asymptotic region in the time evolution of the p -brane solution. Since we can set regular and smooth initial data in a dynamical M5-brane system in 11-dimensional supergravity, this implies a violation of cosmic censorship.

  9. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Pocanic, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2015-12-02

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g–2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. Here, we report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0–4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  10. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; ...

    2015-12-02

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g–2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. Here, we report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0–4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  11. The calorimeter system of the new muon g -2 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Počanić, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2016-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g-2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 $\\check{C}$erenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0–4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  12. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Počanić, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2016-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g-2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Čerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0-4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  13. Subglacial bedrock topography of an active mountain glacier in a high Alpine setting - insights from high resolution 3D cosmic-muon radiography of the Eiger glacier (Bern, Central Alps, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, David; Lechmann, Alessandro; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Schlunegger, Fritz; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Ereditato, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock topography and therefore the spatial-altitudinal distribution of ice thickness constrain the ice flow as well as the erosional mechanisms of glaciers. Although the processes by which glaciers have shaped modern and past landscapes have been well investigated, little information is still available about the shape of the bedrock beneath active glaciers in steep Alpine cirques. Here, we we apply the cosmic-muon radiography technology, which uses nuclear emulsion detectors for imaging the bedrock surface. This method should provide information on the bedrock topography beneath a glacier and related ice thicknesses and subglacial meltwater pathways. We apply this technology to the cirque of the Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of Eiger mountain, Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier originates on the western flank of the Eiger at 3700 m a.s.l., from where it stretches along 2.6 km to the current elevation at 2300 m a.s.l.. The glacier consists of a concave cirque bordered by >40° steep flanks, thereby utilizing weaknesses within the fabric of the bedrock such as folds, joints and foliations. The middle reach hosts a bedrock ridge where glacier diffluence occurs. The lower reaches of the glacier are characterized by several transverse crevasses, while the terminal lobe hosts multiple longitudinal crevasses. A basal till and lateral margins border the ice flow along the lowermost reach. While subglacial erosion in the cirque has probably been accomplished by plucking and abrasion where the glacier might be cold-based, sub glacial melt water might have contributed to bedrock sculpting farther downslope where the ice flow is constrained by bedrock. Overdeepening of some tens of meters is expected in the upper reach of the glacier, which is quite common in cirques (Cook & Swift, 2012). Contrariwise, we expect several tens of meters-deep bedrock excavations (characterized by concave curvatures of bedrock surface) at the site of ice diffluence. The next

  14. Investigation of EAS electron and muon components by means of the NEVOD calibration telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelchakov, M. B.; Bogdanov, A. G.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Shulzhenko, I. A.; Yashin, I. I.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the long-term investigations of very high energy extensive air showers with the calibration telescope system of the NEVOD experimental complex are presented. The top plane of the setup is used to register the electron EAS component in the primary particle energy range of 1014-1015 eV, while the bottom plane can register muon component in the primary energy range of 1016-1018 eV. Two independent reconstruction methods of the charged particle local density spectrum are considered. The effects of building construction and water pool on the measurement results were calculated using Geant4. The exponents of charged particles local density spectra are obtained for different energy ranges, and the presence of the second “knee” in the spectrum of the EAS muon component is confirmed. The results are compared with CORSIKA-based calculations and data from other setups.

  15. Alignment and measurement of the magnetic field for the BESIII muon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing; Zhang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Chun-Hua; Yin, Jun-Hao

    2016-11-01

    Based on cosmic ray events without a magnetic field taken with the BESIII detector during the summer shutdown of BEPCII in 2012 and di-muon events from a data sample taken at center-of-mass energy of 3.686 GeV in 2009, we compare the coordinates of hits registered in the BESIII muon counter with the expected interaction point extrapolated from reconstructed tracks from the inner tracking system in the absence of a magnetic field. By minimizing the difference, we align the muon counter with the inner tracking system. Moreover, the strength of the magnetic field in the muon counter is measured for the first time with di-muon events from data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 3.686 GeV. After the alignment and the magnetic field strength measurement, the offsets in the reconstructed hit positions for muon tracks are reduced, which improves the muon identification. The alignment and magnetic field strength measurement have been adopted in the latest version of the BESIII offline software system. This addition to the software reduces the systematic uncertainty for the physics analysis in cases where the muon counter information is used. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856701), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11475187, 11575198, 11521505), 100 Talents Program of CAS (U-25)

  16. Upgrade of the Muon Sorter in the Cathode Strip Chamber Level 1 Trigger System at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, D.; Ecklund, K.; Furic, I.; Liu, J.; Madorsky, A.; Matveev, M.; Padley, P.

    2013-11-01

    The top level of the Level 1 Trigger System in the Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) detector at CMS consists of the Track Finder (TF) crate with 12 Sector Processors (SP) and one Muon Sorter (MS) board. The MS provides sorting of up to 36 trigger objects from the SP boards, selects the four best (by a definable criterion) ones, and transmits then to the Global Trigger crate of CMS. With the anticipated LHC luminosity increase above 1034 cm-2s-1 at an energy of 6.5-7 TeV/beam the CSC TF needs to be upgraded. The new CSCTF will be robust to higher occupancies, provide improved transverse momentum assignment and increased precision of the muon output variables. A transition from the current 9U VME electronic standard to the more flexible uTCA and utilization of the Xilinx Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs, with multiple embedded gigabit links, will allow us to build a higher performance TF such that the MS functions can be performed by one of the SP modules. We present here the results of our efforts in the past year to upgrade the CSC Muon Sorter, including the short term modifications of the existing VME board, long-term transition to the uTCA as well as firmware development for both of these projects.

  17. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Mahbubani, Rakhi E-mail: rakhi@cern.ch

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2σ. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a surprising observation for such high energy muons. We do not see this same period in the stratospheric temperature data.

  18. Mapping Overburden and Cave Networks with Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Titus, T. N.; Boston, P. J.; Koontz, S. L.; Miller, R. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the use of highly-penetrating muons produced by cosmic ray showers to measure overburden and image the rock formation around terrestrial/extraterrestrial caves, and implications for cave science, exploration, and habitation.

  19. Tracing high redshift cosmic web with quasar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, Maret

    2016-10-01

    We study the cosmic web at redshifts 1.0 <= <= 1.8 using quasar systems based on quasar data from the SDSS DR7 QSO catalogue. Quasar systems were determined with a friend-of-friend (FoF) algorithm at a series of linking lengths. At the linking lengths l <= 30 h -1 Mpc the diameters of quasar systems are smaller than the diameters of random systems, and are comparable to the sizes of galaxy superclusters in the local Universe. The mean space density of quasar systems is close to the mean space density of local rich superclusters. At larger linking lengths the diameters of quasar systems are comparable with the sizes of supercluster complexes in our cosmic neighbourhood. The richest quasar systems have diameters exceeding 500h Mpc. Very rich systems can be found also in random distribution but the percolating system which penetrate the whole sample volume appears in quasar sample at smaller linking length than in random samples showing that the large-scale distribution of quasar systems differs from random distribution. Quasar system catalogues at our web pages (http://www.aai.ee/maret/QSOsystems.html) serve as a database to search for superclusters of galaxies and to trace the cosmic web at high redshifts.

  20. Improving scintillation crystals using muon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Fineman, B.J.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic ray muon scanning array provides information on NaI(T1) crystals using some 65,536 trajectories, each measuring the NaI(T1) response to high energy muons. With this information, it is possible to use established computer-aided-tomography techniques to deconvolute these integrated responses and produce a detailed picture of the detector's interior.

  1. The longitudinal development of muons in cosmic ray air showers at energies 10(15) - 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal development of muons and conventional equi-intensity cuts is carefully investigated. The development of muons in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) has been calculated using simulation with a scaling violation model at the highest energies and mixed primary composition. Profiles of equi-intensity cuts expected at observation altitudes of 550, 690 and 930/sq cm can fit the observed data very well.

  2. Using Muons to Image the Subsurface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonal, Nedra; Cashion, Avery Ted; Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Dorsey, Daniel J.; Foris, Adam; Miller, Timothy J.; Roberts, Barry L; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Dreesen, Wendi; Green, J. Andrew; Schwellenbach, David

    2016-11-01

    Muons are subatomic particles that can penetrate the earth 's crust several kilometers and may be useful for subsurface characterization . The absorption rate of muons depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity, making them beneficial for subsurface investigation . Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. This work consists of three parts to address the use of muons for subsurface characterization : 1) assess the use of muon scattering for estimating density differences of common rock types, 2 ) using muon flux to detect a void in rock, 3) measure muon direction by designing a new detector. Results from this project lay the groundwork for future directions in this field. Low-density objects can be detected by muons even when enclosed in high-density material like lead, and even small changes in density (e.g. changes due to fracturing of material) can be detected. Rock density has a linear relationship with muon scattering density per rock volume when this ratio is greater than 0.10 . Limitations on using muon scattering to assess density changes among common rock types have been identified. However, other analysis methods may show improved results for these relatively low density materials. Simulations show that muons can be used to image void space (e.g. tunnels) within rock but experimental results have been ambiguous. Improvements are suggested to improve imaging voids such as tunnels through rocks. Finally, a muon detector has been designed and tested to measure muon direction, which will improve signal-to-noise ratio and help address fundamental questions about the source of upgoing muons .

  3. Theoretical Study of the Effects of Di-Muonic Molecules on Muon-Catalyzed Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    particles (≥ 140 MeV particles) [4:17; 5:367-385] and decay products from particles produced when primary cosmic rays interact with the atmosphere.[6...323] Accelerator produced muons can be produced and/or moderated to yield muons with energies between about an eV and 100 GeV. Cosmic ray muons have...typical energies in the GeV to TeV range. The moderation of cosmic ray muons is problematic. Due to their energy, cosmic muons are extremely

  4. Studies of Cosmic Rays Using Proportional Wire Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Younan

    Project GRAND is an extensive air shower array using proportional wire chambers and is partially completed at the University of Notre Dame. At present, one fourth of the full array has been operating. A multi-processor controlled data acquisition system (DAS) has been designed and constructed. The DAS utilizes 68020 microprocessors designed by Advanced Computer Program group at Fermi National Laboratory, VMEbus system, 8 mm tape drive, VMEbus-SCSlbus interface and a number of custom designed electronics. The DAS can handle data acquisition at peak data rate 96 million -bit/second. The software has additional data compression and filtering capability at the system level, which makes the DAS especially efficient for the data acquisition of single tracks. The muon-electron identification experiment has been completed. The results show that the GRAND detectors can identify each recorded track as an electron or a muon. Misidentification is 3.4% and 4.4% for electrons and muons respectively. The angular correlation between single muons at sea level and their parent cosmic rays involves a number of physical processes. The first experimental investigation of this angular correlation by measuring the shadowing of primary cosmic rays by the moon, using single muons, has been performed. More than 75,000 muons per square degree in the vicinity of the moon have been accumulated during the last 12 months. The results show a deficit in a 14^circ times 14^circ aperture caused by the moon's shadow with a 3.3 sigma significance. A detailed chi-square-fitting results show the shadow of the moon matches standard two dimensional Gaussian distribution with sigma_{rm x} (east-west direction) = 5.70^circ + 1.20^circ -0.90^ circ and sigma_{ rm y} (north-south direction) = 3.00 ^circ + 0.35^ circ-0.40^circ. A smaller sigma is obtained from muons with a larger zenith angle (higher energies at birth). The added width in east-west direction is due to the deflection in the Earth's magnetic

  5. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  6. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGES

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQmore » building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.« less

  7. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGES

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; ...

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all ofmore » these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.« less

  8. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, R.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  9. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Yildiz, S. C.

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all of these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.

  10. The digital data acquisition chain and the cosmic ray trigger system for the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuti, A.; Piemontese, L.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Burrows, P.N.; Cartwright, S.L.; Gonzales, S.; Lath, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Castro, A.; Galvagni, S.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Wyss, J.; Alpat, B.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Dell'Orso, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Servoli, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Messn

    1989-08-01

    The entire data-acquisition chain, from the custom-made front-end electronics to the Fastbus readout and data-reduction module, for the digital readout of the SLD limited streamer tube Warm Iron Calorimeter and Muon Identifier is described. Also described is a Fastbus Cosmic Logic Unit being developed to achieve the capability of reading cosmic ray events, also during the inter-crossing time, for apparatus monitoring and calibration purposes. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Design and testing of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; DeGraff, B.D.; Leibfritz, J.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab building. The facility will be used for testing and validating cryomodule designs as well as support systems. For the initial phase of the project, a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule will be cooled and tested using a single Tevatron style standalone refrigerator. Subsequent phases involve testing as many as two full RF units consisting of up to six 1.3 GHz cryomodules with the addition of a new cryogenic plant. The cryogenic infrastructure consists of the refrigerator system, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2 K operations with supporting purification systems. A discussion of the available capacity for the various phases versus the proposed heat loads is included as well as commissioning results and testing schedule. This paper describes the plans, status and challenges of this initial phase of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

  12. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-05-01

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  13. Real-Time Data Processing in the muon system of the D0 detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Neeti Parashar et al.

    2001-07-03

    This paper presents a real-time application of the 16-bit fixed point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), in the Muon System of the D0 detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron, presently the world's highest-energy hadron collider. As part of the Upgrade for a run beginning in the year 2000, the system is required to process data at an input event rate of 10 KHz without incurring significant deadtime in readout. The ADSP21csp01 processor has high I/O bandwidth, single cycle instruction execution and fast task switching support to provide efficient multisignal processing. The processor's internal memory consists of 4K words of Program Memory and 4K words of Data Memory. In addition there is an external memory of 32K words for general event buffering and 16K words of Dual port Memory for input data queuing. This DSP fulfills the requirement of the Muon subdetector systems for data readout. All error handling, buffering, formatting and transferring of the data to the various trigger levels of the data acquisition system is done in software. The algorithms developed for the system complete these tasks in about 20 {micro}s per event.

  14. Photomultiplier characteristics considerations for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-23

    The results of an investigation of the characteristics of photomultipliers for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System are discussed. The pulse-height resolution, the afterpulsing phenomena and the gain sensitivity to the ambient magnetic field have been determined for large photocathode area photomultipliers. Furthermore, the transient time difference, the single photoelectron time spread, and the collection and photocathode quantum efficiency uniformity as a function of the position of the photocathode sensing area have been reviewed. Finally, an attempt has been made to estimate the photomultiplier reliability and its lifetime.

  15. Reliability considerations of electronics components for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-01

    The reliability of some electronics components for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System is discussed. An introductory overview of engineering concepts and technique for reliability assessment is given. Component reliability is discussed in the contest of major factors causing failures, particularly with respect to physical and chemical causes, process technology and testing, and screening procedures. Failure rates are presented for discrete devices and for integrated circuits as well as for basic electronics components. Furthermore, the military reliability specifications and standards for semiconductor devices are reviewed.

  16. The Triple GEM Detector Control System for CMS forward muon spectrometer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi. Akl, M.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Holme, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Khan, S. A.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; Lentdecker, G. De.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Shah, A. H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig. Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment at LHC will upgrade its forward muon spectrometer by incorporating Triple-GEM detectors. This upgrade referred to as GEM Endcap (GE1/1), consists of adding two back-to-back Triple-GEM detectors in front of the existing Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) in the innermost ring of the endcap muon spectrometer. Before the full installation of 144 detectors in 2019-2020, CMS will first install ten single chamber prototypes during the early 2017. This pre-installation is referred as the slice test. These ten detectors will be read-out by VFAT2 chips [1]. On-detector there is also a FPGA mezzanine card which sends VFAT2 data optically to the μTCA back-end electronics. The correct and safe operation of the GEM system requires a sophisticated and powerful online Detector Control System, able to monitor and control many heterogeneous hardware devices. The DCS system developed for the slice test has been tested with CMS Triple-GEM detectors in the laboratory. In this paper we describe the newly developed DCS system and present the first results obtained in the GEM assembly and quality assurance laboratory.

  17. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  18. Cosmic - the SLC control system migration challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    The current SLC control system was designed and constructed over 20 years ago. Many of the technologies on which it was based are obsolete and difficult to maintain. The VMS system that forms the core of the Control System is still robust but third party applications are almost non-existent and its long-term future is in doubt. The need for a Control System at SLAC that can support experiments for the foreseeable future is not in doubt. The present B-Factory or PEPII experiment is projected to run at least 10 years. An FEL laser of unprecedented intensity plus an ongoing series of fixed target experiments is also in our future. The Next Linear Collider or NLC may also be in our future although somewhat farther distant in time. The NLC has performance requirements an order of magnitude greater than anything we have built to date. In addition to large numbers of IOCs and process variables, Physicists would like to archive everything all the time. This makes the NLC Control System a bit like a detector system as well. The NLC Control System will also need the rich suite of accelerator applications that are available with the current SLC Control System plus many more that are now only a glimmer in the eyes of Accelerator Physicists. How can we migrate gradually away from the current SLC Control System towards a design that will scale to the NLC while keeping everything operating smoothly for the ongoing experiments.

  19. COSMIC - The SLAC Control System Migration Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, Ronald R.

    2002-01-18

    The current SLC control system was designed and constructed over 20 years ago. Many of the technologies on which it was based are obsolete and difficult to maintain. The VMS system that forms the core of the Control System is still robust but third party applications are almost non-existent and its long-term future is in doubt. The need for a Control System at SLAC that can support experiments for the foreseeable future is not in doubt. The present B-Factory or PEPII experiment is projected to run at least 10 years. An FEL laser of unprecedented intensity plus an ongoing series of fixed target experiments is also in our future. The Next Linear Collider or NLC may also be in our future although somewhat farther distant in time. The NLC has performance requirements an order of magnitude greater than anything we have built to date. In addition to large numbers of IOCs and process variables, Physicists would like to archive everything all the time. This makes the NLC Control System a bit like a detector system as well. The NLC Control System will also need the rich suite of accelerator applications that are available with the current SLC Control System plus many more that are now only a glimmer in the eyes of Accelerator Physicists. How can we migrate gradually away from the current SLC Control System towards a design that will scale to the NLC while keeping everything operating smoothly for the ongoing experiments?

  20. Observation of an excess of cosmic ray muons of energies 2 TeV from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A high flux of muons from the Cygnus X-3 direction has been observed in NUSEX experiment at depths greater than 4600 hg/sq cm s.r. The excess muons show the 4.8 hour modulation in arrival time typical of this source. A study of this modulation was done in order to find the best value of the period and of the period derivative. The muon flux underground from NUSEX and SOUDAN (1800 hg/sq cm) experiments are used to determine the energy spectrum at sea level. The shape and the absolute intensities are found similar to those attributed to gamma rays responsible for production of air showers detected in direction of Cygnus X-3 in the energy range 10 to the 12th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  1. Joint Tomographic Imaging of 3-­-D Density Structure Using Cosmic Ray Muons and High-­-Precision Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.; Roy, M.; Dichter, M.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the CO2 reservoir muon imaging project headed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboraory (PNNL) under the U.S. Department of Energy Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration (SubTER) iniative, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) plan to leverage the recently decommissioned and easily accessible Tunnel Vault on LANL property to test the complementary modeling strengths of muon radiography and high-precision gravity surveys. This tunnel extends roughly 300 feet into the hillside, with a maximum depth below the surface of approximately 300 feet. We will deploy LANL's Mini Muon Tracker (MMT), a detector consisting of 576 drift tubes arranged in alternating parallel planes of orthogonally oriented tubes. This detector is capable of precise determination of trajectories for incoming muons with angular resolution of a few milliradians. We will deploy the MMT at several locations within the tunnel, to obtain numerous crossing muon trajectories and permit a 3D tomographic image of the overburden to be built. In the same project, UNM will use a Scintrex digital gravimeter to collect high-precision gravity data from a dense grid on the hill slope above the tunnel as well as within the tunnel itself. This will provide both direct and differential gravity readings for density modeling of the overburden. By leveraging detailed geologic knowledge of the canyon and the lithology overlying the tunnel, as well as the structural elements, elevations and blueprints of the tunnel itself, we will evaluate the muon and gravity data both independently and in a simultaneous, joint inversion to build a combined 3D density model of the overburden.

  2. SUPERCONDUCTING SOLENOIDS FOR THE MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.A.; EYSSA,Y.; KENNY,S.; MILLER,J.R.; PRESTEMON,S.; WEGGEL,R.J.

    2000-06-12

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Muons, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muons is their short life time (2.1 {micro}s at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As the authors see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon collider muon production and cooling systems. This report describes the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration.

  3. A Prototype Large Area Detector Module for Muon Scattering Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, C.A.; Boakes, J.; Burns, J.; Snow, S.; Stapleton, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Quillin, S.

    2015-07-01

    Abstract-Shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) are of concern as some fissile isotopes have low gamma and neutron emission rates. These materials are also easily shielded to the point where their passive emissions are comparable to background. Consequently, shielded SNM is very challenging for passive radiation detection portals which scan cargo containers. One potential solution for this is to utilise the natural cosmic ray muon background and examine how these muons scatter from materials inside the container volume, terms; the muon scattering tomography (MST) technique measures the three-dimensional localised scattering at all points within a cargo container, providing a degree of material discrimination. There is the additional benefit that the MST signal increases with the presence of more high density shielding materials, in contrast to passive radiation detection. Simulations and calculations suggest that the effectiveness of the technique is sensitive to the tracking accuracy amongst other parameters, motivating the need to develop practical detector systems that are capable of tracking cosmic ray muons. To this end, we have constructed and tested a 2 m by 2 m demonstration module based on gaseous drift chambers and triggered by a large area scintillator-based detector, which is readout by wavelength shifting fibres. We discuss its design, construction, characterisation and operational challenges. (authors)

  4. MAPMT H7546B anode current response study for ILC SiD muon system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Blazey, G.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Fisk, H.; Milstene, C.; Abrams, R.; /Indiana U.

    2007-10-01

    The proposed Silicon Detector (SiD) concept for the ILC has barrel and end cap muon systems. An SiD scintillator based muon system prototype has 256 strips and was constructed from extruded strips, WLS fibers, clear fibers, and multianode photo multiplier tubes (MAPMT) Hamamatsu H7546B. Six MAPMTs were used. As a first step to understand strip output, the response of every anode to a given brightness of light and applied voltage must be measured. For the test, a custom made light source was used. Each MAPMT output was measured independently. The anode currents were measured at constant (green) input light brightness and the same photocathode to anode voltage (800V). The anode currents have a wide spread; for all tubes the maximum value is 5.23 times larger than the minimum value. The MAPMT cross talk was measured for one of the central inputs. The maximum cross talk value is about 4.9%. The average cross talk for the nearest four neighboring channels is 3.9%, for the farthest four is 1%. To assure the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements, the double reference method was used.

  5. Performance of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detector and effective working point fine tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colafranceschi, S.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Passamonti, L.; Piccolo, D.; Pierluigi, D.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Vendittozzi, C.; Abbrescia, M.; Aleksandrov, A.; Berzano, U.; Calabria, C.; Carrillo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K. S.; Loddo, F.; Park, S. K.; Pugliese, G.; Maggi, M.; Shin, S.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Verwilligen, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms.

  6. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, W. M.; Byszuk, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment Level-1 trigger system is undergoing an upgrade. In the barrel-endcap transition region, it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of muon detectors—RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novel approach to concentrate and process those data in a uniform manner to identify muons and their transversal momentum. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. It is foreseen that the OMTF will be subject to significant changes resulting from optimization which will be done with the aid of physics simulations. Therefore, a special, high-level, parameterized HDL implementation is necessary.

  7. Front-end electronics for the Muon Portal project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Bonanno, G.; Grillo, A.; Romeo, G.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Lo Presti, D.; Riggi, F.; Russo, V.; Bonanno, D.; La Rocca, P.; Longhitano, F.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Fallica, G.; Valvo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The Muon Portal Project was born as a joint initiative between Italian research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real-size working detector prototype to inspect the content of traveling containers by means of secondary cosmic-ray muon radiation and recognize potentially dangerous hidden materials. The tomographic image is obtained by reconstructing the incoming and outgoing muon trajectories when crossing the inspected volume, employing two tracker planes located above and below the container under inspection. In this paper, the design and development of the front-end electronics of the Muon Portal detector is presented, with particular emphasis being devoted to the photo-sensor devices detecting the scintillation light and to the read-out circuitry which is in charge of processing and digitizing the analog pulse signals. In addition, the remote control system, mechanical housing, and thermal cooling system of all structural blocks of the Muon Portal tracker are also discussed, demonstrating the effectiveness and functionality of the adopted design.

  8. Cosmic infinity: a dynamical system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Marto, João; Morais, João; Silva, César M.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamical system techniques are extremely useful to study cosmology. It turns out that in most of the cases, we deal with finite isolated fixed points corresponding to a given cosmological epoch. However, it is equally important to analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the universe. On this paper, we show how this can be carried out for 3-form models. In fact, we show that there are fixed points at infinity mainly by introducing appropriate compactifications and defining a new time variable that washes away any potential divergence of the system. The richness of 3-form models allows us as well to identify normally hyperbolic non-isolated fixed points. We apply this analysis to three physically interesting situations: (i) a pre-inflationary era; (ii) an inflationary era; (iii) the late-time dark matter/dark energy epoch.

  9. Elena Guardincerri: Tracking muons to reduce nuclear threats and help preserve architectural treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mauro, Diana; Guardincerri, Elena

    2016-02-29

    When Elena Guardincerri was a physics PhD student at the University of Genova, she considered muons a nuisance. She built muon detectors to snare these secondary cosmic rays, which were interfering with her experiments to study elusive neutrinos.

  10. Cosmic rays and other space phenomena dangerous for the Earth's civilization: Foundation of cosmic ray warning system and beginning steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    difference between consequences Alerts became much smaller than errors. In our report "Cosmic Rays and other Space Weather Effects Influenced on Satellites Operation, Technologies, Biosphere and People Health" it was shown that very important element of Space Weather, influenced on satellites operation, technologies, and people health are strong magnetic storms, accompanied usually by CR Forbush effects. We discuss here on the possibility to include in the "Cosmic Ray Warning System" possibility to forecast this phenomenon, also dangerous for the Earth's Civilization. In the report "Cosmic Rays and other Space Phenomena Influenced on the Earth's Climate" on this Conference it was shown that very big changes in climate, dangerous for the Earth's Civilization, are caused by interactions of Solar system with molecular-dust clouds (caused the Great Ice Periods during many thousand years). Very dangerous for the Earth's Civilization are also nearby supernova explosions with great influence on biosphere and climate. We show that by CR data in the frame of "Cosmic Ray Warning System" is possible to forecast for many years before starting these dangerous phenomena, so the Earth's Civilization will have enough time for preparing to the new type of life. For this forecasting we need to add to the "Cosmic Ray Warning System" in near future several CR stations for continue measuring CR with much higher energies (1013 - 1014 eV). We hope to organize the mostly automatic working "Cosmic Ray Warning System" in cooperation with Azerbaijan, Israel, and many CR stations in the World. The Project will be open for any country and organizations (ESA, NASA and so on) and will be start as soon as possible. In the first 3 - 5 years we hope that forecasting of radiation hazards will be made fully automatically as it was described in this report. In the next 5-10 years the Project will be expanded for forecasting dangerous magnetic storms (in this case we need to use also muon telescopes data), and

  11. Delivering the world's most intense muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Edmonds, A.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Tran, N. H.; Truong, N. M.; Wing, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2017-03-01

    A new muon beam line, the muon science innovative channel, was set up at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, in Osaka, Japan, using the 392 MeV proton beam impinging on a target. The production of an intense muon beam relies on the efficient capture of pions, which subsequently decay to muons, using a novel superconducting solenoid magnet system. After the pion-capture solenoid, the first 36° of the curved muon transport line was commissioned and the muon flux was measured. In order to detect muons, a target of either copper or magnesium was placed to stop muons at the end of the muon beam line. Two stations of plastic scintillators located upstream and downstream from the muon target were used to reconstruct the decay spectrum of muons. In a complementary method to detect negatively charged muons, the x-ray spectrum yielded by muonic atoms in the target was measured in a germanium detector. Measurements, at a proton beam current of 6 pA, yielded (10.4 ±2.7 )×1 05 muons per watt of proton beam power (μ+ and μ-), far in excess of other facilities. At full beam power (400 W), this implies a rate of muons of (4.2 ±1.1 )×1 08 muons s-1 , among the highest in the world. The number of μ- measured was about a factor of 10 lower, again by far the most efficient muon beam produced. The setup is a prototype for future experiments requiring a high-intensity muon beam, such as a muon collider or neutrino factory, or the search for rare muon decays which would be a signature for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such a muon beam can also be used in other branches of physics, nuclear and condensed matter, as well as other areas of scientific research.

  12. First measurements of muon production rate using a novel pion capture system at MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Nam, T. H.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Truong, N. M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Wing, M.

    2013-02-01

    The MuSIC (Muon Science Innovative Channel) beam line at RCNP (Research Centre for Nuclear Physics), Osaka will be the most intense source of muons in the world. A proton beam is incident on a target and, by using a novel capture solenoid, guides the produced pions into the beam line where they subsequently decay to muons. This increased muon flux will allow more precise measurements of cLFV (charged Lepton Flavour Violation) as well as making muon beams more economically feasible. Currently the first 36° of solenoid beam pipe have been completed and installed for testing with low proton current of 1 nA. Measurements of the total particle flux and the muon life time were made. The measurements were taken using thin plastic scintillators coupled to MPPCs (Multi-Pixel Photon Counter) that surrounded a magnesium or copper stopping target. The scintillators were used to record which particles stopped and their subsequent decay times giving a muon yield of 8.5 × 105 muons W-1proton beam or 3 × 108 muons s-1 when using the RCNP's full power (400 W).

  13. Electronics for CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger System Phase-1 and HL LHC upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madorsky, A.

    2017-07-01

    To accommodate high-luminosity LHC operation at a 13 TeV collision energy, the CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger system had to be significantly modified. To provide robust track reconstruction, the trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by the Cathode Strip Chambers and by certain other subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also required significant increase in logic and memory resources. To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit has been designed. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the track-finding logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Pt Lookup table (PTLUT) module contains 1 GB of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final Pt to reconstructed muon tracks. The μ TCA architecture (adopted by CMS) was used for this design. The talk presents the details of the hardware and firmware design of the production system based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA family. The next round of LHC and CMS upgrades starts in 2019, followed by a major High-Luminosity (HL) LHC upgrade starting in 2024. In the course of these upgrades, new Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors and more RPC chambers will be added to the Endcap Muon system. In order to keep up with all these changes, a new Advanced Processor unit is being designed. This device will be based on Xilinx UltraScale+ FPGAs. It will be able to accommodate up to 100 serial links with bit rates of up to 25 Gb/s, and provide up to 2.5 times more logic resources than the device used currently. The amount of PTLUT memory will be significantly increased to provide more flexibility for the Pt assignment algorithm. The talk presents preliminary details of the hardware design program.

  14. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  15. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as Observed by a Small Multiwire Detector Operated at High Cutoff Rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, Abdullrahnan; AlAnazi, Mohammed; Aldosari, A.; Almuteri, M.

    2017-03-01

    Solar disturbances modulate primary cosmic rays on different time scales. Studying cosmic ray variation is an important subject that attracts scientists from different disciplines. We have constructed and installed (in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Rc =14.4 GV) a three-layer small (20 × 20 cm2) MultiWire Chamber (MWC) telescope to study cosmic ray variations and investigate their influence on various atmospheric and environmental processes. Preliminary results obtained from the developed detector are given. The influence of both atmospheric pressure and temperature was studied. Both the temperature and pressure coefficients were calculated and were consistent with those previously obtained. Short-term cosmic ray periodicities, such as the 27-day period, and its two harmonics, have been identified. Sporadic variations caused by some solar activity processes have been inspected. The obtained results from this detector have been compared to the existing 1 m2 scintillator detector, as well as to some of the neutron monitors, showing comparable results.

  16. Observation and Characterization of a Cosmic Muon Neutrino Flux from the Northern Hemisphere Using Six Years of IceCube Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; Icecube Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has previously discovered a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux using neutrino events with interaction vertices contained within the instrumented volume of the IceCube detector. We present a complementary measurement using charged current muon neutrino events where the interaction vertex can be outside this volume. As a consequence of the large muon range the effective area is significantly larger but the field of view is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. IceCube data from 2009 through 2015 have been analyzed using a likelihood approach based on the reconstructed muon energy and zenith angle. At the highest neutrino energies between 194 {TeV} and 7.8 {PeV} a significant astrophysical contribution is observed, excluding a purely atmospheric origin of these events at 5.6σ significance. The data are well described by an isotropic, unbroken power-law flux with a normalization at 100 {TeV} neutrino energy of ({0.90}-0.27+0.30)× {10}-18 {{GeV}}-1 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{sr}}-1 and a hard spectral index of γ =2.13+/- 0.13. The observed spectrum is harder in comparison to previous IceCube analyses with lower energy thresholds which may indicate a break in the astrophysical neutrino spectrum of unknown origin. The highest-energy event observed has a reconstructed muon energy of (4.5+/- 1.2) {PeV} which implies a probability of less than 0.005 % for this event to be of atmospheric origin. Analyzing the arrival directions of all events with reconstructed muon energies above 200 {TeV} no correlation with known γ-ray sources was found. Using the high statistics of atmospheric neutrinos we report the current best constraints on a prompt atmospheric muon neutrino flux originating from charmed meson decays which is below 1.06 in units of the flux normalization of the model in Enberg et al.

  17. COSMIC. [Coherent Optical System of Modular Image Collectors (COSMIC); spaceborne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    1987-01-01

    The design goals of the COSMIC spaceborne telescope array concept are outlined. These include a high degree of structural stiffness, a wide field of view, and a broad wavelength band. These properties directly enhance the scientific productivity and technical reliability of the array. If a sufficiently stiff structure can be designed, COSMIC can operate as a phased array; if the structure relaxes before it can be rephased on a reference star, it degrades to a coherent array. The COSMIC engineering study suggests that passively-stabilized, phased arrays are feasible.

  18. Muon flux Measurements at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility with the Majorana Demonstrator Veto System

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2017-02-16

    Here, we report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MajoranaDemonstratormuon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31±0.17)×10–9μ/s/cm2.

  19. Charm hadroproduction cross-section up to 100 TeV from measurements of the cosmic-ray muon angular distribution Results of the Mount Blanc experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellina, A.; Dettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Vernetto, S.; Bilokon, H.

    1985-02-01

    Accurate calculations of the angular distributions of underground conventional and prompt muons have been performed. The dependence of the angular enhancement functions on the primary spectrum, cross-sections, inclusive distributions, K/pi ratio and survival probability have been studied and found to be negligible. The results have been used to interpret the data from the Mont Blanc experiment in the depth range 4200-5800 hg/sq cm. Since the measurements extend over a limited angular range (lesser than 60 deg) the ratio between the flux of prompt to conventional muons of higher energy (greater than 1 TeV) is obtained with large associated statistical errors. In order to obtain the charm production cross-section in the energy region 50-100 TeV, accurate measurements over a very large angular range (greater than 70 deg) at depths higher than 5000 hg/sq cm are required.

  20. Development and evaluation of a time-dependent radiographic technology by using a muon read out module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagaya, T.; Uchida, T.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Tanaka, M.

    2012-04-01

    We will present a real-time monitoring system for cosmic-ray muon radiography as an application of a readout module developed by T. Uchida et al [1,2]. The readout module was developed originally for probing the internal structure of volcanoes in 2008 [3]. Its features are small in size, low power consumption, and the capability to access remotely via Ethernet. The current statistics data of cosmic-ray muons can be read from a PC placed far from the module at anytime. By using this feature, we constructed a real-time monitoring system. As a test experiment, we observed fluid movement in a cylinder with a diameter of 112 meters water equivalent. In this work, we succeeded to resolve the fluid movement in the cylinder. We varied the fluid level inside the cylinder and measured the muon intensity. We found that the muon intensity correlates inversely with the fluid level: the muon intensity increases for the lower fluid level and decreases for the higher fluid level. Although the time resolution of muon radiography was sufficient to resolve changes in the fluid level, an adequate time window has to be chosen for different operating conditions. We anticipate that this system will be applicable to exploring high-speed phenomena in a gigantic object.

  1. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  2. Superconducting solenoids for the Muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R.; Prestemon, S.; Weggel, R.J.

    1999-09-23

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Mouns, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muon is their short lifetime (2.1 microseconds at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As we see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon coUider muon production and cooling systems. This report will describe the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration.

  3. The DØ forward angle muon system front-end electronics design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, G. D.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Khokhlov, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Odnokloubov, I. A.; Shishkin, A. A.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Zhirikov, S. F.

    2001-11-01

    The 32-channel Amplifier/Discriminator Board (ADB) has been designed for Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) used for upgrading the DØ Forward Angle Muon System (FAMUS) (Fermilab, Batavia, USA). The ADB signal channels are formed by eight ASICs: four transresistance amplifiers, Ampl-8.3, and four comparators, Disc-8.3. The ADB provides operation with adjustable threshold currents 0.5-5.0 μA. Low noise (60 nA at maximal MDT capacitance 60 pF) and small firing current dispersion provide the ability for detector robust performance at low levels of anode high voltage (below 3.4 kV). Over 50,000 channels have been produced and installed in the DØ experiment.

  4. First trial of the muon acceleration for J-PARC muon g-2/EDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, R.; Otani, M.; Fukao, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Bae, S.; Kim, B.; Razuvaev, G.; Iinuma, H.; Ishida, K.; Saito, N.

    2017-07-01

    Muon acceleration is an important technique in exploring the new frontier of physics. A new measurement of the muon dipole moments is planned in J-PARC using the muon linear accelerator. The low-energy (LE) muon source using the thin metal foil target and beam diagnostic system were developed for the world’s first muon acceleration. Negative muonium ions from the thin metal foil target as the LE muon source was successfully observed. Also the beam profile of the LE positive muon was measured by the LE-dedicated beam profile monitor. The muon acceleration test using a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole linac (RFQ) is being prepared as the first step of the muon accelerator development. In this paper, the latest status of the first muon acceleration test is described.

  5. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  6. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  7. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  8. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  9. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  10. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-10-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  11. Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography for SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, John; Oakham, Gerald; Bryman, Douglas; Cousins, Thomas; Noeel, Scott; Gallant, Grant; Jason, Andrew; Jonkmans, Guy; Stocki, Trevor J.; Waller, David

    2009-12-02

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) project has recently started investigating the detection of illicit Special Nuclear Material in cargo using cosmic ray muon tomography and complementary neutron detectors. We are currently performing simulation studies to help with the design of small scale prototypes. Based on the prototype tests and refined simulations, we will determine whether the muon tracking system for the full scale prototype will be based on drift chambers or extruded scintillator trackers. An analysis of the operations of the Port of Montreal has determined how long muon scan times should take if all or a subset of the cargo is to be screened. As long as the throughput of the muon system(s) is equal to the rate at which containers are unloaded from ships, the impact on port operations would not be great if a muon scanning stage were required for all cargo. We also show preliminary simulation results indicating that excellent separation between Al, Fe and Pb is possible under ideal conditions. The discrimination power is reduced but still significant when realistic momentum resolution measurements are considered.

  12. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collica, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  13. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Neuffer, David; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  14. Simulation of Underground Muon Flux with Application to Muon Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Lintereur, A.; Kouzes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Muon tomography uses highly energetic muons, produced by cosmic rays interacting within the upper atmosphere, to image dense materials. Like x-rays, an image can be constructed from the negative of the absorbed (or scattered) muons. Unlike x-rays, these muons can penetrate thousands of meters of earth. Muon tomography has been shown to be useful across a wide range of applications (such as imaging of the interior of volcanoes and cargo containers). This work estimates the sensitivity of muon tomography for various underground applications. We use simulations to estimate the change in flux as well as the spatial resolution when imaging static objects, such as mine shafts, and dynamic objects, such as a CO2 reservoir filling over time. We present a framework where we import ground density data from other sources, such as wells, gravity and seismic data, to generate an expected muon flux distribution at specified underground locations. This information can further be fed into a detector simulation to estimate a final experimental sensitivity. There are many applications of this method. We explore its use to image underground nuclear test sites, both the deformation from the explosion as well as the supporting infrastructure (access tunnels and shafts). We also made estimates for imaging a CO2 sequestration site similar to Futuregen 2.0 in Illinois and for imaging magma chambers beneath the Cascade Range volcanoes. This work may also be useful to basic science, such as underground dark matter experiments, where increasing experimental sensitivity requires, amongst other factors, a precise knowledge of the muon background.

  15. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Data Quality Monitoring System for New GEM Muon Detectors for the CMS Experiment Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Robert; CMS Muon group Team

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are novel detectors designed to improve the muon trigger and tracking performance in CMS experiment for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC. Partial installation of GEM detectors is planned during the 2016-2017 technical stop. Before the GEM system is installed underground, its data acquisition (DAQ) electronics must be thoroughly tested. The DAQ system includes several commercial and custom-built electronic boards running custom firmware. The front-end electronics are radiation-hard and communicate via optical fibers. The data quality monitoring (DQM) software framework has been designed to provide online verification of the integrity of the data produced by the detector electronics, and to promptly identify potential hardware or firmware malfunctions in the system. Local hits reconstruction and clustering algorithms allow quality control of the data produced by each GEM chamber. Once the new detectors are installed, the DQM will monitor the stability and performance of the system during normal data-taking operations. We discuss the design of the DQM system, the software being developed to read out and process the detector data, and the methods used to identify and report hardware and firmware malfunctions of the system.

  17. Monte Carlo aided design of the inner muon veto detectors for the Double Chooz experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, D.; Greiner, D.; Jochum, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Röhling, M.; Stokes, L. F. F.

    2012-08-01

    The Double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to measure the last unknown neutrino mixing angle θ13 using two identical detectors positioned at sites both near and far from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant. To suppress correlated background induced by cosmic muons in the detectors, they are protected by veto detector systems. One of these systems is the inner muon veto. It is an active liquid scintillator based detector and instrumented with encapsulated photomultiplier tubes. In this paper we describe the Monte Carlo aided design process of the inner muon veto, that resulted in a detector configuration with 78 PMTs yielding an efficiency of 99.978±0.004 % for rejecting muon events and an efficiency of > 98.98% for rejecting correlated events induced by muons. A veto detector of this design is currently used at the far detector site and will be built and incorporated as the muon identification system at the near site of the Double Chooz experiment.

  18. Low energy particle composition. [cosmic rays produced in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of current knowledge of low-energy cosmic ray particles produced in the solar system. It is argued that the notion that the sun alone can accelerate particles in the solar system must be abandoned in light of evidence that Jupiter and earth may be sources of observed low-energy particles. Measurements of the composition and energy spectra of low-energy particles during quiet times are examined, emphasizing the abundance of protons and helium and of anomalous N, O, and Ne. The abundance of heavy particles (B, C, N, O, Ne, Ca and Fe) of unknown origin in the earth magnetosphere is examined. Reported observations of Jovian electrons are discussed and solar particle events with anomalous compositions (He-3 rich events and Fe rich events) are treated in detail. Nuclear abundances of solar particles, emphasizing their temporal and spatial variations are considered together with the nature of nuclear reaction products in solar flares.

  19. Underground multi-muon experiment EMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.; Fynbo, H.; Inzhechik, L.; Jones, P.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kalliokoski, T.; Karjalainen, J.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Monto, T.; Petkov, V.; Räihä, T.; Sarkamo, J.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Virkajärvi, A.

    2011-04-01

    EMMA is a new experiment designed for cosmic-ray composition studies around the knee energy operating at the shallow depth underground in the Pyhäsalmi mine, Finland. The array has sufficient coverage and resolution to determine the multiplicity, the lateral density distribution and the arrival direction of high-energy muons on an event by event basis. Preliminary results on the muon multiplicity extracted using one detector station of the array are presented.

  20. A cosmic-ray-mediated shock in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the flare-induced blast wave of Aug. 4, 1972, the most violent disturbance in the solar wind on record, produced cosmic rays with an efficiency of about 50%. Such a high efficiency is predicted by the self-regulating production model of cosmic-ray origin in shocks. Most interplanetary shocks, according to simple theoretical analysis, are not strong enough to produce cosmic rays efficiently. However, if shock strength is the key parameter governing efficiency, as present interplanetary data suggest, then shocks from supernova blasts, quasar outbursts, and other violent astrophysical phenomena should be extremely efficient sources of cosmic rays.

  1. The cosmic ray proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the 100 TeV energy region from TeV muons and EAS atmospheric Cherenkov light observations of MACRO and EAS-TOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Cini, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Stamerra, A.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B. C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolò, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Rainò, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.; EAS-TOP Collaboration

    2004-06-01

    The primary cosmic ray (CR) proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the energy range 80-300 TeV are studied at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories by means of EAS-TOP (Campo Imperatore, 2005 m a.s.l.) and MACRO (deep underground, 3100 m w.e., the surface energy threshold for a muon reaching the detector being Eμth≈1.3 TeV). The measurement is based on: (a) the selection of primaries based on their energy/nucleon (i.e., with energy/nucleon sufficient to produce a muon with energy larger than 1.3 TeV) and the reconstruction of the shower geometry by means of the muons recorded by MACRO in the deep underground laboratories; (b) the detection of the associated atmospheric Cherenkov light (C.l.) signals by means of the C.l. detector of EAS-TOP. The C.l. density at core distance r>100 m is directly related to the total primary energy E0. Proton and helium ("p + He") and proton, helium and CNO ("p + He + CNO") primaries are thus selected at E0≃80 TeV, and at E0≃250 TeV, respectively. Their flux is measured: J p+ He(80 TeV)=(1.8±0.4)×10 -6 m -2 s -1 sr -1 TeV -1, and J p+ He+ CNO(250 TeV)=(1.1±0.3)×10 -7 m -2 s -1 sr -1 TeV -1, their relative weights being: J p+ He/J p+ He+ CNO(250 TeV)=0.78±0.17 . By using the measurements of the proton spectrum obtained from the direct experiments and hadron flux data in the atmosphere, we obtain for the relative weights of the three components at 250 TeV: Jp: JHe: JCNO=(0.20±0.08):(0.58±0.19):(0.22±0.17). This corresponds to the dominance of helium over proton primaries at 100-1000 TeV, and a possible non-negligible contribution from CNO. The lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in Extensive Air Showers (EASs), which is related to the rate of energy deposit of the primary in the atmosphere, is measured for a selected proton and helium primary beam, and good agreement is found when compared with the one calculated with the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation model.

  2. Comparative study of the muon-catalyzed fusion in D-T and D-/sup 3/He systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1985-09-01

    The objective of this proposal is to carry out a comparative study of the muon-catalyzed reactions, D-T and D-/sup 3/He by measuring the number of neutrons/..mu.. and protons/..mu.. under equivalent experimental conditions. The comparison will be made as function of the T or /sup 3/He concentration in the systems, their densities and temperatures. Since some measurements of the D-T system are already available, the present study will concentrate on the D-/sup 3/He system and in that region of the parameter space (concentration-density-temperature) not covered by the existent neutron work, mainly, mixtures at very high pressures and temperatures. The experimental results will be compared with calculations of the neutron, and proton yields resulting from the mesomolecular processes taking place between the muon and the deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium mixtures. 23 refs.

  3. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  4. Designing and constructing of a two scintillator crystal rotatable telescope for muon flux variation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, Abdullrahman; Maghrabi, Abdullrahman H.; Almutari, Mohammed M.

    2014-07-01

    A rotatable muon detection telescope with two layers of scintillators was designed and constructed at the physics detector laboratory at KACST, Saudi Arabia. The objective of this system is to study the zenith angle dependence of high energy cosmic ray muons. The system has the flexibility to rotate in all directions to cover the zenith angle from 0- 900 for muon distribution studies, as well as the azimuth angle from 0-3590 to observe the geomagnetic field effects on it. In this paper, the designing and the construction works as well as the calibration procedures for the detection system will be given. Some of the preliminarily results and some of the future experiments and possible modifications will be outlined.

  5. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta inmore » the range 100–280 MeV/c.« less

  6. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c.

  7. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bene, P.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Debieux, S.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Greis, J.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Husi, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Masciocchi, F.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nicola, L.; Noah Messomo, E.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rothenfusser, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Sandström, R.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/c.

  8. Underground Muon Energy Spectra with the MACRO Trd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotta, M. N.; Brigida, M.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Rainò, S.; Spinelli, P.

    The MACRO detector was located in the Hall B of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories under an average rock overburden of 3700 hg/cm2. A TRD composed by three identical modules, covering an horizontal area of 36 m2, was added to the MACRO detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons entering MACRO. This kind of measurement provides a useful tool to study the primary cosmic ray energy spectra and composition, their interactions with the Earth's atmosphere and the propagation of muons inside the rock. The results of the measurement of the energy of single and double muons crossing MACRO will be presented. Our data show that double muons are more energetic than single ones in the rock depth range from 3000 to 6500 hg/cm2. Single muon data confirm the reliability of the models adopted to describe the cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere and the muon propagation inside the rock.

  9. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  10. The University of Texas Maya Muon Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwitters, Roy

    2007-05-09

    Plans to explore the ruin of a Maya Pyramid in Belize using cosmic ray muon tomography will be described. Muon tomography was pioneered by Luis Alvarez in the 1960's to explore the Second Pyramid of Chephren in Egypt. Improvements in detector technology since the Alvarez experiment suggest that muon tomography may be a practical method for exploring and monitoring relatively large underground volumes when exposure times of order months are acceptable. A prototype detector based on Fermilab/MINOS scintillator strip/WLS fiber technology has been built and is being tested at UT Austin. Initial results using the detector will be discussed.

  11. Calibration Software for the Muon Detectors at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannon, Kevin

    2001-04-01

    The muon detector system at CDF consists of the following subsystems: Central Muon Detector (CMU), the Central Muon Upgrade (CMP), the Central Muon Extension (CMX), and the Intermediate Muon Detector (IMU). Each subsystem is a collection of drift chambers and all but the CMU also incorporate scintillation counters for trigger and timing purposes. The muon calibration system performs diagnostics and calibrations on the above systems. We will describe the software that controls the muon calibration system. This software takes advantage of the existing CDF DAQ infrastructure to handle communication between a Java client containing the user interface and the VME crates where the calibration hardware resides.

  12. Measurement of cosmic muon angular distribution and vertical integrated flux by 2 m × 2 m RPC stack at IICHEP-Madurai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethuraj, S.; Datar, V. M.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Ravindran, K. C.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2017-09-01

    The 50 kton INO-ICAL is a proposed underground high energy physics experiment at Theni, India (9o57'N, 77o16'E) to study the neutrino oscillation parameters using atmospheric neutrinos. The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has been chosen as the active detector element for the ICAL detector. An experimental setup consisting of 12 layers of glass RPCs of size 2 m × 2 m has been built at IICHEP, Madurai to study the long term stability and performance of RPCs which are produced on a large scale in Indian industry. In this paper, the studies on the performance of RPCs are presented along with the angular distribution of muons at Madurai (9o56'N,78o00'E and Altitude ≈ 160 m from sea level).

  13. Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR veto system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR muon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31 ± 0.17) ×10-9 μ /s/cm2. Demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y)in the 4-keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value for 76Ge ββ(0ν) decay. This is required for tonne-scale germanium-based searches that will probe the inverted-ordering neutrino-mass parameter space for the effective Majorana neutrino mass in ββ(0ν) decay. Show technical and engineering scalability toward a tonne-scale instrument. Perform searches for additional physics beyond the Standard Model, such as dark matter and axions. The MAJORANA Collaboration has designed a modular instrument composed of two cryostats built from ultra-pure electroformed copper, with each cryostat capable of housing over 20 kg of HPGe detectors. The MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR contains 30 kg of detectors fabricated from Ge material enriched to 88% in 76Ge and another 15 kg fabricated from natural Ge (7.8% 76Ge). The modular approach allows us to assemble and optimize each cryostat independently, providing a fast deployment with minimal effect on already-operational detectors.Starting from the innermost cavity, the cryostats are surrounded by a compact graded shield composed of an inner layer of electroformed copper, a layer of commercially sourced C10100 copper, high-purity lead, an active muon veto, borated polyethylene, and pure polyethylene shielding. The cryostats, copper, and lead shielding are enclosed in a radon exclusion box and rest on an over-floor table that has openings for the active muon veto and polyethylene shielding panels situated below the detector. The entire experiment is located in a clean

  14. Nuclear Effects of Supernova-Accelerated Cosmic Rays on Early Solar System Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Johnson, J.

    2008-03-01

    The solar system apparently formed in the neighborhood of massive stars. Supernova explosions of these stars accelerate cosmic rays to 100s of TeVs. These cosmic rays could accelerate the beta decay of certain radioactive species in meteorite parent bodies.

  15. Muon correlated background at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Qazi Rushdy

    2002-10-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a real time solar neutrino experiment. The detector utilizes 1,000 metric tons of heavy water to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos. The SNO detector has been designed to measure the flux and energy spectrum of electron-type solar neutrinos in addition to measuring the total flux of all active flavors of solar neutrinos. The primary objective of SNO is to resolve the Solar Neutrino Problem. The measurement of the neutron signal is critical to the success of SNO. Therefore, it is imperative that one thoroughly understands the various backgrounds to the neutron signal. Even though the rock overburden of 6,150 meter water equivalent provides a very good shield to cosmic muons, enough of them penetrate the detector to produce secondary particles, in particular neutrons. In this dissertation results from the study of through-going muons and neutron production due to muon spallation in the SNO detector has been presented. The following daily muon rate was found: RSNOm=68.9± 1.8(stat) day-1 The following muon-induced neutron rate was obtained, where Nmult is the neutron mutliplicity: Rmspn [1≤Nmult≤14] [SNO,AV] measured=(11.49±0.74) day-1kt-1 A primary component of the SNO detector is the data acquisition (DAQ) system. The author has been intricately involved in the design and implementation of the DAQ system and a detailed discussion of this system has been presented in this dissertation. The system was successfully deployed in late 1997 and acquisition of production data commenced in November of 1999. Although there have been minor changes to the DAQ system over the course of time, the system has been operating successfully since production data taking began in 1999.

  16. Calibration Hardware for the Muon Detectors at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickey, Trevor

    2001-04-01

    The muon detector system at CDF consists of the following subsystems: Central Muon Detector (CMU), the Central Muon Upgrade (CMP), the Central Muon Extension (CMX), and the Intermediate Muon Detector (IMU). Each subsystem is a collection of drift chambers and all but the CMU also incorporate scintillation counters for trigger and timing purposes. We will describe the muon calibration system hardware, which performs diagnostics and calibrations on the above detectors. The muon calibration system injects charge into each channel of the CDF muon detectors to generate a signal similar to that of a muon traversing the chamber. Reading this pulse out with the data acquisition system allows us to spot problems with the muon system electronics as well as to calibrate detector timing and response to different amounts of charge.

  17. Electron and muon parameters of EAS and the composition of primary cosmic rays in 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, T.; Mackeown, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation of the relative intensities of protons and heavy nuclei in primary cosmic rays in the energy region 10 to the 15th power approx. 10 to the 17th power eV, was done by a systematic comparison between all available observed data on various parameters of extensive air showers (EAS) and the results of simulation. The interaction model used is an extrapolation of scaling violation indicated by recent pp collider results. A composition consisting of various percentages of Fe in an otherwise pure proton beam was assumed. Greatest overall consistency between the data and the simulation is found when the Fe fraction is in the region of 25%.

  18. Neutron/muon correlation functions to improve neutron detection capabilities outside nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordinario, Donald Thomas

    The natural neutron background rate is largely due to cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and the subsequent neutron emission from the interaction products. The neutron background is part of a larger cosmic radiation shower that also includes electrons, gamma rays, and muons. Since neutrons interact much differently than muons in building materials, the muon and neutron fluence rates in the natural background can be compared to the measured muon and neutron fluence rate when shielded by common building materials. The simultaneous measurement of muon and neutron fluence rates might allow for an earlier identification of man-made neutron sources, such as hidden nuclear materials. This study compares natural background neutron rates to computer simulated neutron rates shielded by common structural and building materials. The characteristic differences between neutrons and muons resulted in different attenuation properties under the same shielded conditions. Correlation functions between cosmic ray generated neutrons and muons are then used to predict neutron fluence rates in different urban environments.

  19. Physics Studies for the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, C.

    2014-12-01

    The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers, which are able to handle the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. This allows to combine tracking and triggering capabilities, resulting in a lower trigger threshold along with improved muon identification and track reconstruction. In the last year the GEM project took a major leap forward by integrating triple-GEM chambers in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. Several benchmark analyses have been studied for the impact of such detector upgrade on the physics performance. In this contribution the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector will be reviewed, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance, and the impact on the physics analyses.

  20. Radiometer system to map the cosmic background radiation.

    PubMed

    Gorenstein, M V; Muller, R A; Smoot, G F; Tyson, J A

    1978-04-01

    We have developed a 33-GHz airborne radiometer system to map large angular scale variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic background radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60 degrees apart in the sky. In 40 min of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background with an accuracy of +/-1 mK rms, or about 1 part in 3000 of 3 K. The apparatus is flown in a U-2 jet to 20 km altitude where 33-GHz thermal microwave emission from the atmosphere is at a low level. A second radiometer, tuned to 54 GHz near oxygen emission lines, monitors spurious signals from residual atmospheric radiation. The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60 degrees , reject anisotropic radiation from the earth's surface. Periodic interchange of the antenna positions and reversal of the aircraft's flight direction cancel equipment-based imbalances. The system has been operated successfully in U-2 aircraft flown from NASA-Ames at Moffett Field, CA.

  1. Radiometer system to map the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, M. V.; Muller, R. A.; Smoot, G. F.; Tyson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A 33-GHz airborne radiometer system has been developed to map large angular scale variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic background radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60 deg apart in the sky. In 40 min of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background with an accuracy of plus or minus 1 mK rms, or about 1 part in 3000 of 3 K. The apparatus is flown in a U-2 jet to 20 km altitude where 33-GHz thermal microwave emission from the atmosphere is at a low level. A second radiometer, tuned to 54 GHz near oxygen emission lines, monitors spurious signals from residual atmospheric radiation. The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60 deg, reject anisotropic radiation from the earth's surface. Periodic interchange of the antenna positions and reversal of the aircraft's flight direction cancel equipment-based imbalances. The system has been operated successfully in U-2 aircraft flown from NASA-Ames at Moffett Field, Calif.

  2. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  3. Muon reconstruction and selection at the last trigger level of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, R.

    2010-04-01

    The three-level Trigger and DAQ system of ATLAS is designed to be very selective while preserving the full physics potential of the experiment; out of the ~1 GHz of p-p interactions provided by the LHC at nominal operating conditions, ~200 events/sec are retained. This paper focuses on the muon reconstruction and selection algorithms employed at the last trigger level. One implements an "outside-in" approach; it starts from a reconstruction in the Muon Spectrometer (MS) and performs a backward extrapolation to the interaction point and track combination in the Inner Detector (ID). The other implements an "inside-out" strategy; it starts muon reconstruction from the ID and extrapolates tracks to MS. Algorithm implementations and results on data from real cosmic rays and simulated collisions are described.

  4. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. -B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  5. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  6. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis for MuLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangialardi, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The goal of the MuLAN experiment is to make a measurement of the muon lifetime to a precision of 1 ppm so that a 5 ppm value of the Fermi coupling constant can be calculated. To do this, a beam of positive muons is stopped in a target surrounded by 340 scintillating detectors arranged in a geodesic around the target. Once the muons stop in the target, they decay, and the product positrons are emitted outward, where they are detected by the scintillators. By examining the spectrum of decay times, the lifetime of positive muons can be calculated. One of the myriad factors affecting this measurement is the background of cosmic ray muons constantly showering upon the detector. To study this background, an angular distribution of the cosmic rays was found, and the rate at which cosmic rays muons ``rain'' upon the detector was calculated. In addition, the cosmic rays were used to examine the timing differences between the individual scintillators.

  7. The muon content of gamma-ray showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a calculation of the expected number of muons in gamma ray initiated and cosmic ray initiated air showers using a realistic model of hadronic collisions in an effort to understand the available experimental results and to assess the feasibility of using the muon content of showers as a veto to reject cosmic ray initiated showers in ultra-high energy gamma ray astronomy are reported. The possibility of observing very-high energy gamma-ray sources by detecting narrow angle anisotropies in the high energy muon background radiation are considered.

  8. MUON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  9. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  10. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave blackbody photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic gamma rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made, and the reasons for significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Small predicted event rates for a DUMAND (deep underwater muon and neutrino detector) type detection system, combined with a possible significant flux of prompt neutrinos from the atmosphere above 50 TeV, may make the study of diffuse extraterrestrial neutrinos more difficult than previously thought.

  11. Cosmogenic Chlorine-36 Production in Calcite by Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. O. H.; Evans, J. M.; Fifield, L. K.; Allan, G. L.; Cresswell, R. G.

    1998-02-01

    At depths below a few metres, 36Cl production in calcite is initiated almost entirely by cosmic ray muons. The principal reactions are (1) direct negative muon capture by Ca; 40Ca(μ -,α) 36Cl, and (2) capture by 35Cl of secondary neutrons produced in muon capture and muon-induced photodisintegration reactions. We have determined rates for 36Cl and neutron production due to muon capture in calcite from a 20 m (5360 g cm -2) depth profile in limestone. The 36Cl yield from muon capture by Ca in pure calcite is 0.012 ± 0.002 atom per stopped negative muon. The surface production rate of 36Cl by muon capture on Ca in calcite is, therefore, 2.1 ± 0.4 atom g -1a -1 at sea level and high latitude, approximately 11% of the production rate by Ca spallation. If it is assumed that 34% of the negative muons are captured by the Ca atom in calcite, the α-yield from 40Ca following muon capture is 0.043 ± 0.008, somewhat lower than the result of a recent muon irradiation experiment (0.062 ± 0.020), but well within the extremes of existing theoretical predictions (0.0033-0.15). The average neutron yield following muon capture in pure calcite is 0.44 ± 0.15 secondary neutrons per stopped negative muon, in good agreement with existing theoretical predictions. Cosmogenic isotope production by muons must be taken into account when dating young geomorphic surfaces, especially those created by excavation of only a few metres of overlying rock. Attention to isotope production by muons is also crucial to determining surface erosion rates accurately. Due to the deep penetration of muons compared to cosmic ray hadrons, the accumulation of muon-produced 36Cl is less sensitive to erosion than that of spallogenic 36Cl. Although production by muons at the surface is only a small fraction of production by spallation, the fraction of muon-produced 36Cl in rapidly eroding limestone surfaces can approach 50%. In such cases, erosion rates estimated using conventional models which attribute

  12. Cosmic Ray Physics at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandéz, A.; Gámez, E.; López, R.; Román, S.; Zepeda, A.

    2003-06-01

    In recent decades, cosmic ray air showers initiated by high-energy proton or nucleus collisions in the atmosphere have been studied with large area experiments on the surface of the Earth or with muon measurements deep underground. In principle, these cosmic ray experiments explore two completely different realms of physics, particle astrophysics and particle interaction physics, which are, however, intimately related by the interpretation of the data. In this paper we briefly review the cosmic ray physics activities developed at CERN in the last years. In particular we present some results from a small underground cosmic ray experiment and we discuss the capabilities of ALICE to detect high multiplicity muon events arising from cosmic ray air showers and some other astroparticle phenomena.

  13. Atmospheric Muon Lifetime, Standard Model of Particles and the Lead Stopping Power for Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Barazandeh, Cioli; Majewski, Walerian

    2017-01-01

    The muon is a fundamental particles of matter. It decays into three other leptons through an exchange of the weak vector bosons W +/W-. Muons are present in the atmosphere from cosmic ray showers. By detecting the time delay between arrival of the muon and an appearance of the decay electron in our detector, we'll measure muon's lifetime at rest. From the lifetime we should be able to find the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (a weak analog of the electric charge) to the mass of the W-boson MW. Vacuum expectation value v of the Higg's field, which determines the masses of all particles of the Standard Model (SM), could be then calculated from our muon experiment as v =2MWc2/gw =(τ m μc2/6 π3ĥ)1/4m μc2 in terms of muon mass mµand muon lifetime τ only. Using known experimental value for MWc2 = 80.4 GeV we'll find the weak coupling constant gw. Using the SM relation e =gwsin θ√ hc ɛ0 with the experimental value of the Z0-photon weak mixing angle θ = 29o we could find from our muon lifetime the value of the elementary electric charge e. We'll determine the sea-level fluxes of low-energy and high-energy cosmic muons, then we'll shield the detector with varying thicknesses of lead plates and find the energy-dependent muon stopping power in lead.

  14. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  15. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  16. Phenomenology of muon-induced neutron yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgin, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    The cosmogenic neutron yield Yn characterizes the ability of matter to produce neutrons under the effect of cosmic ray muons with spectrum and average energy corresponding to an observation depth. The yield is the basic characteristic of cosmogenic neutrons. The neutron production rate and neutron flux both are derivatives of the yield. The constancy of the exponents α and β in the known dependencies of the yield on energy Yn∝Eμα and the atomic weight Yn∝Aβ allows one to combine these dependencies in a single formula and to connect the yield with muon energy loss in matter. As a result, the phenomenological formulas for the yields of muon-induced charged pions and neutrons can be obtained. These expressions both are associated with nuclear loss of the ultrarelativistic muons, which provides the main contribution to the total neutron yield. The total yield can be described by a universal formula, which is the best fit of the experimental data.

  17. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China JinPing underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Hao, Xi-Qing; Yue, Qian; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Chen, Yun-Hua; Li, Jin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ren, Jin-Bao; Shen, Man-Bin; Wang, Ji-Min; Wu, Shi-Yong; Xue, Tao; Yi, Nan; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory running in the world at present. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL, which has an effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4)×10-10/(cm2·s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL.

  18. Muon spin relaxation in the heavy fermion system UPt sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, G.M.; Le, L.P.; Sternlieb, B.J.; Wu, W.D.; Uemura, Y.J. ); Dalichaouch, Y.; Lee, B.W.; Maple, M.B.; Seaman, C.L. . Dept. of Physics Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California ); Armstrong, P.E.; Ellis, R.W.; Fisk, Z. )

    1991-11-15

    We report muon spin rotation/relaxation ({mu}SR) measurements of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt{sub 3} in external fields {ital H}{sub ext}{parallel}{ital {cflx c}}. We find that the muon Knight shift is unchanged in the superconducting state, consistent with odd-parity pairing (such as {ital p} wave). The transverse field relaxation is observed to be strongly field dependent, decreasing with increasing field. Below {ital T}{sub {ital c}} the increase is barely detectable in an applied field of 4 kG{parallel}{ital {cflx c}}. On the basis of the high field measurements, we estimate the low temperature penetration depth to be {lambda}({ital T}{r arrow}0){ge} (R18)11 000 A.

  19. Global Muon Detector Network Used for Space Weather Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Oliveira, A. G.; Echer, E.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S.; Kato, C.; Kozai, M.; Tokumaru, M.; Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Al Jassar, H. K.; Sharma, M. M.; Sabbah, I.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we summarize the development and current status of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN). The GMDN started in 1992 with only two muon detectors. It has consisted of four detectors since the Kuwait-city muon hodoscope detector was installed in March 2006. The present network has a total of 60 directional channels with an improved coverage of the sunward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) orientation, making it possible to continuously monitor cosmic ray precursors of geomagnetic storms. The data analysis methods developed also permit precise calculation of the three dimensional cosmic ray anisotropy on an hourly basis free from the atmospheric temperature effect and analysis of the cosmic ray precursors free from the diurnal anisotropy of the cosmic ray intensity.

  20. A Muon Tomography Station with GEM Detectors for Nuclear Threat Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staib, Michael; Gnanvo, Kondo; Grasso, Leonard; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson; Costa, Filippo; Martoiu, Sorin; Muller, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Muon tomography for homeland security aims at detecting well-shielded nuclear contraband in cargo and imaging it in 3D. The technique exploits multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons, which is stronger in dense, high-Z nuclear materials, e.g. enriched uranium, than in low-Z and medium-Z shielding materials. We have constructed and operated a compact Muon Tomography Station (MTS) that tracks muons with six to ten 30 cm x 30 cm Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors placed on the sides of a 27-liter cubic imaging volume. The 2D strip readouts of the GEMs achieve a spatial resolution of ˜130 μm in both dimensions and the station is operated at a muon trigger rate of ˜20 Hz. The 1,536 strips per GEM detector are read out with the first medium-size implementation of the Scalable Readout System (SRS) developed specifically for Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors by the RD51 collaboration at CERN. We discuss the performance of this MTS prototype and present experimental results on tomographic imaging of high-Z objects with and without shielding.

  1. Muons in gamma showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C. P.; Halzen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Muon production in gamma-induced air showers, accounting for all major processes. For muon energies in the GeV region the photoproduction is by far the most important process, while the contribution of micron + micron pair creation is not negligible for TeV muons. The total rate of muons in gamma showers is, however, very low.

  2. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, H; Kurennoy, S; Jason, A J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  3. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  4. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  5. Two views of cosmic ray propagation in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barouch, E.

    1974-01-01

    Diffusion and scatter free cosmic ray propagation theories are discussed in terms of the quality of their alternate viewpoints. A hypothetical model of conditions in interplantary space is described which aids in the comparison. A plot of the intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field over a long period is presented, and the association of these regions with high velocity streams is shown to support the scatter free viewpoint.

  6. Analysis of Near Horizontal Muons at HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Ahron; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) gamma ray observatory observes muons with nearly horizontal trajectories. HAWC is located at an altitude of 4100 meters a.s.l. on Sierra Negra in Mexico. The Gamma and Cosmic Ray detector is composed of 300 water tanks, 7.3 m in diameter and 4.5 m tall, spread over a physical area of 22,000 m2. Due to its thickness of 4.5 m, HAWC acts as a hodoscope capable of observing muons with trajectories at zenith angles greater than 75 degrees to just over 90 degrees. These muon trajectories have a unique signal in that they are linear and travel at nearly the speed of light. CORSIKA simulations indicate that these muons originate from high zenith angle cosmic ray events, where the air shower core is located at great distance from HAWC. I will present the angular distribution and rate at which HAWC observes these muon events. High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory.

  7. Reconstruction of muon tracks in a buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Insolia, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Trovato, E.

    2012-10-01

    The BATATA muon counter was designed as one of the foreseen detector upgrades of the Pierre Auger Observatory with the main goal of quantifying the electromagnetic contamination of the muon signal as a function of the depth for cosmic ray shower energies above 10 PeV. Nevertheless BATATA offers also the possibility of measuring the incoming direction of secondary muons from both GeV and PeV primary cosmic rays. Large efforts have been already done to quantify from simulations the amount of the electromagnetic contamination and the expected muon identification performances. The present work is focused on the evaluation of the detector performances for muon track reconstruction. To this aim and in view of the detector installation in the field, expected to be completed by the first half of current year, we performed a GEANT4 end-to-end simulation of such device and set up a track reconstruction procedure. Typical results concerning achieved acceptance and angular resolution for muons are presented.

  8. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  9. Electron beam test of key elements of the laser-based calibration system for the muon g - 2 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasi, A.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Bartolini, M.; Cantatore, G.; Cauz, D.; Corradi, G.; Dabagov, S.; Di Sciascio, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Driutti, A.; Escalante, O.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gioiosa, A.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Liedl, A.; Lusiani, A.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Piacentino, G. M.; Raha, N.; Rossi, E.; Santi, L.; Venanzoni, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report the test of many of the key elements of the laser-based calibration system for muon g - 2 experiment E989 at Fermilab. The test was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati's Beam Test Facility using a 450 MeV electron beam impinging on a small subset of the final g - 2 lead-fluoride crystal calorimeter system. The calibration system was configured as planned for the E989 experiment and uses the same type of laser and most of the final optical elements. We show results regarding the calorimeter's response calibration, the maximum equivalent electron energy which can be provided by the laser and the stability of the calibration system components.

  10. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Our Next Two Steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2012-04-11

    After the vast disasters caused by the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan, we proposed applying our Muon Tomography (MT) technique to help and improve the emergency situation at Fukushima Daiichi using cosmic-ray muons. A reactor-tomography team was formed at LANL which was supported by the Laboratory as a response to a request by the former Japanese Prime Minister, Naoto Kan. Our goal is to help the Japanese people and support remediation of the reactors. At LANL, we have carried out a proof-of-principle technical demonstration and simulation studies that established the feasibility of MT to image a reactor core. This proposal covers the next two critical steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging: (1) undertake case study mock-up experiments of Fukushima Daiichi, and (2) system optimization. We requested funding to the US and Japanese government to assess damage of reactors at Fukushima Daiichi. The two steps will bring our project to the 'ready-to-go' level.

  12. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  13. Muon production in extended air shower simulations.

    PubMed

    Pierog, T; Werner, K

    2008-10-24

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long-standing problem: it is difficult to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured on the ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces much more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of (anti) baryon production in hadronic interactions. This is an aspect of air shower physics which has been neglected so far.

  14. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  15. Possible complementary cosmic-ray systems: Nuclei and antinuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Warren W.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Norbury, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Arguments are presented for the possible existence of antinuclei of charge Absolute Value of Z greater than 2 and particularly galactic cosmic antinuclei. Theoretical antinucleus-nucleus optical model cross sections are calculated and presented for the first time. A brief review of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction is also presented and its connection with the antinucleus-nucleus interaction is made. The predicted cross sections are smooth and show no structure. Finally, the findings are tied together with the formation of microlesions in living tissue.

  16. Cosmic ray intensity gradients in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckibben, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Recent progress in the determination of cosmic-ray intensity gradients is reviewed. Direct satellite measurements of the integral gradient are described together with various types of indirect measurements, including measurements of the Ar-37/Ar-39 ratio in samples from the Lost City meteorite, studies of anisotropies in neutron-monitor counting rates, and analysis of the sidereal diurnal anisotropy observed at a single point on earth. Nucleonic radial gradients and electron gradients measured by satellites in differential energy windows are discussed, and theoretical studies of the physical processes involved in these gradients are summarized. Observations of intensity gradients in heliographic latitude are reported.

  17. Interplanetary flow systems associated with cosmic ray modulation in 1977 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Ness, N. F.; Schwenn, R.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mariani, F.

    1983-01-01

    The hydromagnetic flow configurations associated with cosmic ray modulation in 1977 to 1980 were determined using solar wind plasma and magnetic field data from Voyagers 1 and 2 and Helios 1. The modulation was related to two types of large scale systems of flows: one containing a number of transients such as shocks, post shock flows and magnetic clouds; the other consisting primarily of a series of quasi-stationary flows following interaction regions containing a stream interface and often bounded by a forward reverse shock pair. Each of the three major episodes of cosmic ray modulation was characterized by the passage of the system of transient flows. Plateaus in the cosmic ray intensity time profile were associated with the passage of systems of corotating streams.

  18. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  19. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body.

    PubMed

    Băcioiu, I

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the relative sensitivity from different human tissues of the human body, at a ground level, from muon cosmic radiation has been studied. The aim of this paper was to provide information on the equivalent dose rates received from atmospheric muons to human body, at the ground level. The calculated value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0.001 mSv/y, which is insignificant in comparison with the values of the doses from the top of the atmosphere.

  20. Detecting special nuclear material using muon-induced neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Matthew Durham, J.; Fabritius, Joseph, II; Hecht, Adam; Milner, Edward C.; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John; Poulson, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The penetrating ability of cosmic ray muons makes them an attractive probe for imaging dense materials. Here, we describe experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by cosmic-ray muons to identify the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Neutrons emitted from SNM are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of SNM-bearing objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects, and may have potential applications in warhead verification scenarios. During the experiment described here we did not attempt to distinguish the type or grade of the SNM.

  1. Implanted muon spin spectroscopy on 2-O-adamantane: a model system that mimics the liquid\\longrightarrow glasslike transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanini, M.; Tamarit, J. L.; Pardo, L. C.; Bermejo, F. J.; Fernandez-Perea, R.; Pratt, F. L.

    2017-03-01

    The transition taking place between two metastable phases in 2-O-adamantane, namely the Fm\\bar{3}m cubic, rotator phase and the lower temperature P21/c, Z  =  4 substitutionally disordered crystal is studied by means of muon spin rotation and relaxation techniques. Measurements carried out under zero, weak transverse and longitudinal fields reveal a temperature dependence of the relaxation parameters strikingly similar to those exhibited by structural glass\\longrightarrow liquid transitions (Bermejo et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 70 214202; Cabrillo et al 2003 Phys. Rev. B 67 184201). The observed behaviour manifests itself as a square root singularity in the relaxation rates pointing towards some critical temperature which for amorphous systems is located some tens of degrees above that shown as the characteristic transition temperature if studied by thermodynamic means. The implications of such findings in the context of current theoretical approaches concerning the canonical liquid-glass transition are discussed.

  2. Cosmic Rays in Extragalactic Systems: Clusters and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Thomas

    The existence of cosmic rays (CRs) accelerated outside our galaxy is by now established fact. For instance, the angular and spectral distributions of ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) above roughly an EeV point clearly to their extragalactic origins. Diffuse nonthermal radio emis-sions in clusters and along their perimeters reveal GeV electrons filling volumes sometimes approaching Mpc scales. The radiative lifetimes of those leptonic CRs are so short that they must be accelerated or produced as secondaries in situ. The dominant energy sources for such extragalactic CRs are not clearly established, although they are likely to be consequences of strucure formation. Large-scale shocks (including cluster accretion shocks) and turbulence in-duced by structure formation are strong candidates. There is also the possibility that CRs may be produced through structure formation process on still larger scales associated with cos-mic filaments, although current evidence for that is sketchy. The effectiveness of processes in these environments that might accelerate CRs depends sensitively on poorly understood "mi-crophysics" in very dilute and weakly magnetized plasmas. All of these CR populations have the potential to produce diagnostic gamma rays in the GeV to TeV range. Consequently, detec-tion or improved detection limits by current and coming gamma ray observatories can provide unique and crucial information about physical processes and conditions in these environments. My talk will outline the current status of these issues. This work is supported by the US NSF, NASA and by the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  3. Use of COSMIC Radio Occultation Observations in the NOAA/NCEP Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucurull, L.; Derber, J.; Treadon, R.; Purser, J.

    2006-12-01

    The COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) mission launched six small satellites in April 2006, each carrying a GPS radio occultation (RO) receiver. At final orbit, COSMIC will provide 2,500~3,000 RO soundings per day uniformly distributed around the globe in near real time. The US National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) is planning to assimilate GPS RO observations from the COSMIC mission (and other future GPS RO satellites) into its next-generation NCEP Global Data Assimilation System. The assimilation of the GPS RO data requires the development of an appropriate forward model, the adjoint of the forward model, appropriate observational and representativeness error estimates, quality control procedures, data handling routines and data monitoring software. In preparation for the use of COSMIC data in operations, the NCEP Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) has successfully developed the capability to assimilate soundings of (ionospheric-compensated) bending angle and derived refractivity profiles. A priori, derived profiles of bending angle are preferred for assimilation because they are less processed data and they are not weighted with climatology. In this presentation, the infrastructure developed at NCEP/EMC to assimilate GPS RO observations, including forward models, observational and representativeness errors and quality control procedures will be described. The advantages of using a forward operator for bending angle vs. refractivity will be discussed and some preliminary results on the benefits of the COSMIC GPS RO in weather analysis and forecasts will be presented. The different strategies adopted at NCEP/EMC to assimilate GPS RO data are aimed to select the most appropriate forward operator in our operational data assimilation system when COSMIC products are stable and routinely used in operations in Numerical Weather Centers.

  4. Use of COSMIC Radio Occultation Observations in the NOAA/NCEP Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucurull, L.; Derber, J.; Treadon, R.; Purser, J.

    2005-05-01

    The COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) mission launched six small satellites in April 2006, each carrying a GPS radio occultation (RO) receiver. At final orbit, COSMIC will provide 2,500~3,000 RO soundings per day uniformly distributed around the globe in near real time. The US National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) is planning to assimilate GPS RO observations from the COSMIC mission (and other future GPS RO satellites) into its next-generation NCEP Global Data Assimilation System. The assimilation of the GPS RO data requires the development of an appropriate forward model, the adjoint of the forward model, appropriate observational and representativeness error estimates, quality control procedures, data handling routines and data monitoring software. In preparation for the use of COSMIC data in operations, the NCEP Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) has successfully developed the capability to assimilate soundings of (ionospheric-compensated) bending angle and derived refractivity profiles. A priori, derived profiles of bending angle are preferred for assimilation because they are less processed data and they are not weighted with climatology. In this presentation, the infrastructure developed at NCEP/EMC to assimilate GPS RO observations, including forward models, observational and representativeness errors and quality control procedures will be described. The advantages of using a forward operator for bending angle vs. refractivity will be discussed and some preliminary results on the benefits of the COSMIC GPS RO in weather analysis and forecasts will be presented. The different strategies adopted at NCEP/EMC to assimilate GPS RO data are aimed to select the most appropriate forward operator in our operational data assimilation system when COSMIC products are stable and routinely used in operations in Numerical Weather Centers.

  5. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  6. Utilisation de dispositifs a transfert de charge pour la detection de muons cosmiques dans un contexte de tomographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion-Ouellet, Laurence Olivier

    Faced with the threat of nuclear terrorism, many countries have purchased radioactive material detectors to protect their borders. These systems usually detect gamma, beta or alpha ray emissions coming from uranium, radium, cesium or other radioactive material. However, the radioactive source can be concealed by thick lead shielding and radiation absorbing material. With enough shielding, an individual wishing to smuggle illicit nuclear material could cross borders without alerting the authorities. To address this risk, several laboratories worldwide are working on muon tomography technology. This technique aims to detect shielded nuclear material by measuring the deflection of a cosmic muon after crossing the cargo of interest. Since this deviation is a function of the Z number of atoms (the number of protons inside the nucleus), it is possible to determine the contents of the cargo. To calculate the angular deviation, we must first measure the position of the muon on four succeding horizontal planes (two pre-cargo, two after). This task is traditionally assigned to wire chambers or scintillators detectors but could also be fulfilled by CCD detectors (Charge-Coupled Devices). This work specifically addresses the use of CCDs for muon tomography. This thesis' objective is to determine the feasibility of using a commercial CCD based muon detector. To answer this question, numerical simulations have been performed using the software Geant4. This work allows us to obtain the theoretical energy deposition of muons of various kinetic energies into a silicon wafer representing a CCD chip. These results are then compared to numerical values derived from the theory presented in the literature to verify their validity. The muons' energy is varied from 50 MeV to 1 TeV and silicium thicknesses of 300 and 775 mum are studied. The results obtained indicate that a muon of 4 GeV (most probable cosmic muon energy) should deposit 106 and 281 keV for an average thickness of 300 and

  7. Simulation studies of muon-produced background events deep underground and consequences for double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic radiation creates a significant background for low count rate experiments. The Majorana demonstrator experiment is located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at a depth of 4850ft below the surface but it can still be penetrated by cosmic muons with initial energies above the TeV range. The interaction of muons with the rock, the shielding material in the lab and the detector itself can produce showers of secondary particles, like fast neutrons, which are able to travel through shielding material and can produce high-energy γ-rays via capture or inelastic scattering. The energy deposition of these γ rays in the detector can overlap with energy region of interest for the neutrino-less double beta decay. Recent studies for cosmic muons penetrating the Majorana demonstrator are made with the Geant4 code. The results of these simulations will be presented in this talk and an overview of the interaction of the shower particles with the detector, shielding and veto system will be given. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  8. Measuring and Modeling Cosmic Ray Showers with an MBL System: An Undergraduate Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David P.; Welker, Matthew T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a novel method for inducing and measuring cosmic ray showers using a low-cost, microcomputer-based laboratory system. Uses low counting-rate radiation monitors in the reproduction of Bruno Rossi's classic experiment. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. Measuring and Modeling Cosmic Ray Showers with an MBL System: An Undergraduate Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David P.; Welker, Matthew T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a novel method for inducing and measuring cosmic ray showers using a low-cost, microcomputer-based laboratory system. Uses low counting-rate radiation monitors in the reproduction of Bruno Rossi's classic experiment. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. The muon induced background in the GALLEX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribier, M.; Pichard, B.; Rich, J.; Soirat, J. P.; Spiro, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Anselmann, P.; Lenzing, A.; Schlosser, C.; Wink, R.; Rowley, J. K.

    1997-02-01

    The production of germanium radioisotopes by high energy muons in GaCl 3 has been measured in a tank containing 851 of a GaCl 3HCl solution, irradiated in the CERN muon beam. From the measured cross-section, the background induced by cosmic muons in the GALLEX experiment in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory has been determined to be equivalent to (2.8 ± 0.6) SNU . This represents about 4% of the solar neutrino signal measured by the GALLEX experiment. 1 SUN = 1 neutrino capture per 10 36 target atoms per second.

  11. Performance of the new small-strip Thin Gap Chamber for the ATLAS Muon System at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, Alain; Atlas Nsw Stgc Group Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program. The largest phase-1 upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward region with the so-called New Small Wheel (NSW). The NSW consists of layers of Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), both providing trigger and tracking capabilities. The precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 microns, and the trigger track segments have to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of approximately 1 mrad. The sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes. The precision cathode plane has strips with a 3.2mm pitch for precision readout and the cathode plane on the other side has pads for triggering. The pads are used to produce a 3-out-of-4 coincidence to identify muon tracks in an sTGC quadruplet. A full size sTGC quadruplet has been constructed and equipped with the first prototype of dedicated front-end electronics. The design of the sTGC will be described. The performance of the sTGC quadruplet has been characterized with data collected at the Fermilab and CERN test beam facilities. Spatial resolution and trigger efficiency results will be presented. An overview of the simulation and digitization model of the sTGC will also be summarized.

  12. Status of the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso. [Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The design of the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment is described, and the results achieved by the running of its first supermodule are summarized. Searches for magnetic monopoles and point sources of downward muons resulted in no detections. One upward moving muon was seen along with abundant data on muon bundles.

  13. Status of the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso. [Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The design of the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment is described, and the results achieved by the running of its first supermodule are summarized. Searches for magnetic monopoles and point sources of downward muons resulted in no detections. One upward moving muon was seen along with abundant data on muon bundles.

  14. Experimental results on the atmospheric muon charge ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, N.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric muon charge ratio, defined as the number of positive over negative charged muons, is a highly informative observable both for cosmic rays and particle physics. It allows studying the features of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward region and the composition of primary cosmic rays. In this review results from underground experiments measuring the charge ratio around 1 TeV are discussed. The measurements in the TeV energy region constrain the associated kaon production, which is particularly important e.g. for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux.

  15. Energy spectrum of cascades generated by muons in Baksan underground scintillation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Achkasov, V. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrum of cascades generated by cosmic ray muons underground is presented. The mean zenith angle of the muon arrival is theta=35 deg the depth approx. 1000 hg/sq cm. In cascades energy range 700 GeV the measured spectrum is in agreement with the sea-level integral muon spectrum index gamma=3.0. Some decrease of this exponent has been found in the range 4000 Gev.

  16. Flux modulations seen by the muon veto of the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicsk'o Cs'athy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Strecker, H.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    The GERDA experiment at LNGS of INFN is equipped with an active muon veto. The main part of the system is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. The muon flux recorded by this veto shows a seasonal modulation. Two causes have been identified: (i) secondary muons from the CNGS neutrino beam (2.2%) and (ii) a temperature modulation of the atmosphere (1.4%). A mean cosmic muon rate of Iμ0 =(3.477 ± 0 .002stat ± 0 .067sys) ×10-4 /(s · m2) was found in good agreement with other experiments at LNGS. Combining the present result with those from previous experiments at LNGS the effective temperature coefficient αT , Lngs is determined to 0.93 ± 0.03. A fit of the temperature coefficients measured at various underground sites yields a kaon to pion ratio rK/π of 0.10 ± 0.03.

  17. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  18. The Results of a Resistive Plate Chamber Study for the PHENIX Forward Muon Trigger Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Nathan

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the PHENIX Forward Muon Trigger Upgrade is to allow the use of W boson physics, specifically the non-invariance of W decay under parity reversal, to elucidate a better understanding of the spin structure of the proton. A fast muon trigger system will be assembled by adding three Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) stations to the existing PHENIX infrastructure at RHIC. There are a number of RPC prototypes being carefully studied to ensure that the upgrade succeeds. One such study is being conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and involves the tracking of cosmic rays passing through an RPC test stand. The main objective of the study is to determine the cluster size, position resolution, efficiency, and rate capability of the RPCs. The analysis of the data collected during the study will be presented.

  19. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, Ron E.; Chapline, George F.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Nakae, Les F.; Pawelczak, Iwona A.; Sheets, Steven A.

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  20. Investigation of cosmic-ray variations using the Elbrus spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisultanova, L. M.; Daova, S. P.; Dorman, L. I.; Stremoukhov, V. M.; Khamirzov, Kh. M.

    The soft-muon detector and the muon-neutron detector at the Elbrus cosmic-ray-measuring facility are described. The expected contribution of geomagnetic effects to various classes of cosmic-ray variations is estimated. Amplitudes and phases of the first harmonic of the solar-diurnal variation of cosmic rays are determined. Data on cosmic-ray modulation in interplanetary space are interpreted on the basis of a theory of fast-particle propagation in a moving magnetoplasma in the presence of additional scatterers, moving with a velocity that differs significantly from that of the background plasma.

  1. Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yáñez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2016-05-01

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

  2. Possible acceleration of cosmic rays in a rotating system: Uehling-Uhlenbeck model

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-11-15

    We illustrate the possible acceleration of cosmic rays passing through a kind of amplification channel (via diffusion modes of propagating plane-wave fronts) induced by a rotating system. Our analysis is mainly based on the quantum discrete kinetic model (considering a discrete Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term), which has been used to study the propagation of plane (e.g., acoustic) waves in a system of rotating gases.

  3. Investigation of the energy characteristics of EAS muon component with the NEVOD-DECOR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dushkin, L. I.; Kindin, V. V.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Romanenkova, E. V.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Khomyakov, V. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yurina, E. A.; Yashin, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    Investigations of the energy characteristics of muon component with the increase of the primary cosmic rays energy can be a key to solving ‘muon puzzle’ - the problem of excess of EAS muons (observed in several experiments at high - ALEPH, DELPHI - and ultrahigh energies - DECOR, Pierre Auger Observatory) in comparison with the expected flux. The measurements results of the energy deposit of inclined muon bundles in water depending on the zenith angle and the local density of muons are presented. As a measure of the energy deposit, the total number of photoelectrons registered by PMTs of the Cherenkov water calorimeter NEVOD was used. The local density of muons, which gives an estimate of the energy of primary particles was obtained from the data of coordinate-tracking detector DECOR. The experimental data are compared with the results of calculations based on simulations of the muon component of EAS by means of the CORSIKA code.

  4. Absolute spectrum and charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in the energy region from 0.2 GeV to 100 GeV at 600 m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pascale, M. P.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of muons in the region from 250 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c using a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The absolute differential spectrum of muons obtained in this experiment at 600 m above sea level is in good agreement with the previous measurements at sea level. The differential spectrum can be represented by a power law with a varying index, which is consistent with zero below 450 MeV/c and steepens to a value of -2.7 +/- 0.1 between 20 and 100 GeV/c. The integral f1ux of muons measured in this experiment span a very large range of momentum and is in excellent agreement with the earlier results. The positive to negative muon ratio appears to be constant in the entire momentum range covered in this experiment within the errors and the mean value is 1.220 +/- 0.044. The absolute momentum spectrum and the charge ratio measured in this experiment are also consistent with the theoretical expectations. This is the only experiment which covers a wide range of nearly three decades in momentum from a very low momentum.

  5. Feasibility of using backscattered muons for archeological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Use of nondestructive methods to accurately locate and characterize underground objects such as rooms and tools found at archeological sites is ideal to preserve these historic sites. High-energy cosmic ray muons are very sensitive to density variation and have been used to image volcanoes and archeological sites such as the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids. Muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere that penetrate the earth's crust up to few kilometers. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale making it useful for this type of work. However, the muon detector must be placed below the target of interest. For imaging volcanoes, the upper portion is imaged when the detector is placed on the earth's surface at the volcano's base. For sites of interest beneath the ground surface, the muon detector would need to be placed below the site in a tunnel or borehole. Placing the detector underground can be costly and may disturb the historical site. We will assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upward traveling muons, to eliminate the current constraint of positioning the detector below the target. This work consists of three parts 1) determine the backscattered flux rate from theory, 2) distinguish backscattered from forward scattered muons at the detector, and 3) validate the theoretical results with field experimentation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. S.; McKenzie, I.; Baker, P. J.; Cottrell, S. P.; Giblin, S. R.; Hillier, A. D.; Holsman, B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Nightingale, J. B.; Pratt, F. L.; Rhodes, N. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Good, J.; Mitchell, R.; Owczarkowski, M.; Poli, S.; Scheuermann, R.; Salman, Z.

    2011-07-15

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  7. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  8. Control and acquisition system of a space instrument for cosmic ray measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M.; Martín, C.; Quesada, M.; Meziat, D.; Medina, J.; Sánchez, S.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.

    2000-04-01

    The PESCA Instrument Control and Acquisition System (PICAS) design, building and tests are presented. The purpose of the PESCA instrument is the study of the Solar Energetic Particles and the Anomalous Cosmic Rays. It is, therefore, a satellite on-board instrument. The PICAS is basically a computer, composed of a microprocessor with a memory block and a set of interfaces for the communication with the rest of the instrument and the satellite. The PICAS manages all the comunication processes with the satellite, that comprises the order reception from the ground station, and the telemetry sending, that includes scientific data and housekeeping data. By means of telecommands, the PICAS is completely controllable from the ground. The PICAS is also a reliable data acquisition system that guarantees the correct reception of the Cosmic Rays data collected in the ground.

  9. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.; Engel, Ralph; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; 1. Cosmic rays; 2. Cosmic ray data; 3. Particle physics; 4. Hadronic interactions and accelerator data; 5. Cascade equations; 6. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos; 7. Neutrino masses and oscillations; 8. Muons and neutrinos underground; 9. Cosmic rays in the Galaxy; 10. Extragalactic propagation of cosmic rays; 11. Astrophysical - rays and neutrinos; 12. Acceleration; 13. Supernovae in the Milky Way; 14. Astrophysical accelerators and beam dumps; 15. Electromagnetic cascades; 16. Extensive air showers; 17. Very high energy cosmic rays; 18. Neutrino astronomy; A.1. Units, constants and definitions; A.2. References to flux measurements; A.3. Particle flux, density, and interaction cross section; A.4. Fundamentals of scattering theory; A.5. Regge amplitude; A.6. Glauber model of nuclear cross sections; A.7. Earth's atmosphere; A.8. Longitudinal development of air showers; A.9. Secondary positrons and electrons; A.10. Liouville's theorem and cosmic ray propagation; A.11. Cosmology and distances measures; A.12. The Hillas splitting algorithm; References; Index.

  10. The Atmospheric Muon Lifetime, with the Lead Absorption Potential for Muons and References to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazandeh, Cioli; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Majewski, Walerian

    2017-01-01

    Muon is one of twelve fundamental particles and has the longest free-particle lifetime. It decays into three leptons through an exchange of weak vector bosons W +/W-. Muons are present in atmospheric secondary cosmic rays and reach the sea level. By detecting the time delay between arrival of muons and appearance of decay electrons in a scintillation detector, we will measure muon's lifetime at rest. From the lifetime we can find the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (a weak analog of the electric charge) to mass of the W-boson MW. Vacuum expectation value v of the Higgs field, which determines masses Standard Model (SM) particles, can be calculated as v =2MWc2/gw =(τmμc2/6π3\\hcirc)1/4mμc2 regarding muon mass mμ and muon lifetime τ only. Using the experimental value for MWc2 = 80.4 GeV, we will find weak coupling constant gw. With the SM relation e =gwsin θ√ hcε0 and experimental value of the Z0-photon weak mixing angle θ = 29o we use our muon lifetime to find the elementary electric charge e value. In this experiment we will also determine the sea level fluxes of low-energy (<160 MeV) and high-energy cosmic muons, then will shield the detector with varying thicknesses of lead plates and from the new values of fluxes find the energy-dependent muon stopping power in lead.

  11. Muon radiography in Russia with emulsion technique. First experiments future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Konovalova, N. S.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Managadze, A. K.; Roganova, T. M.; Orurk, O. I.; Zemskova, S. G.

    2015-12-31

    Cosmic ray muon radiography is a novel technique for imaging the internal structures of massive objects. It exploits the capability of high energy muons from cosmic-rays in order to obtain a density map of investigated object and trying to guess information on the variation in the density distribution. Nuclear emulsions are tracking detectors well suited to be employed in this context since they have an excellent angular resolution (few mrad), they are cheap, compact and robust, easily transportable, able to work in harsh environments, and do not require power supply. This work presents the first successful results in the field of muon radiography in Russia with nuclear emulsions.

  12. The new high field photoexcitation muon spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Lord, J S; Murahari, P; Wang, K; Dunstan, D J; Waller, S P; McPhail, D J; Hillier, A D; Henson, J; Harper, M R; Heathcote, P; Drew, A J

    2016-12-01

    A high power pulsed laser system has been installed on the high magnetic field muon spectrometer (HiFi) at the International Science Information Service pulsed neutron and muon source, situated at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The upgrade enables one to perform light-pump muon-probe experiments under a high magnetic field, which opens new applications of muon spin spectroscopy. In this report we give an overview of the principle of the HiFi laser system and describe the newly developed techniques and devices that enable precisely controlled photoexcitation of samples in the muon instrument. A demonstration experiment illustrates the potential of this unique combination of the photoexcited system and avoided level crossing technique.

  13. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-06

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  14. A micro-TCA based data acquisition system for the Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS forward muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. The architecture of the readout system is based on the use of the microTCA standard hosting FPGA-based Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) and of the Versatile Link with the GBT chipset to link the on-detector electronics to the micro-TCA boards. For the front-end electronics a new ASIC, called VFAT3, is being developed. On the detector, a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA mezzanine board, called the OptoHybrid, has to collect the data from 24 VFAT3s and to transmit the data optically to the off-detector micro-TCA electronics, as well as to transmit the trigger data at 40 MHz to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) trigger. The microTCA electronics provides the interfaces from the detector (and front-end electronics) to the CMS DAQ, TTC (Timing, Trigger and Control) and Trigger systems. In this paper, we will describe the DAQ system of the Triple-GEM project and provide results from the latest test beam campaigns done at CERN.

  15. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; ...

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less thanmore » $$\\sim$$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $$f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.« less

  16. SNM detection by active muon interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Muons are charged particles with mass between the electron and proton and can be produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged-particle beam with a target. There are several distinct features of the muon interaction with matter attractive as a probe for detection of SNM at moderate ranges. These include muon penetration of virtually any amount of material without significant nuclear interaction until stopped by ionization loss in a short distance. When stopped, high-energy penetrating x-rays (in the range of 6 MeV for uranium,) unique to isotopic composition are emitted in the capture process. The subsequent interaction with the nucleus produces additional radiation useful in assessing SNM presence. A focused muon beam can be transported through the atmosphere, at a range limited mainly by beam-size growth through scattering. A muonbeam intensity of > 10{sup 9} /second is required for efficient interrogation and, as in any other technique, dose limits are to be respected. To produce sufficient muons a high-energy (threshold {approx}140 MeV) high-intensity (<1 mA) proton or electron beam is needed implying the use of a linear accelerator to bombard a refractory target. The muon yield is fractionally small, with large angle and energy dispersion, so that efficient collection is necessary in all dimensions of phase space. To accomplish this Los Alamos has proposed a magnetic collection system followed by a unique linear accelerator that provides the requisite phase-space bunching and allows an energy sweep to successively stop muons throughout a large structure such as a sea-going vessel. A possible maritime application would entail fitting the high-gradient accelerators on a large ship with a helicopter-borne detection system. We will describe our experimental results for muon effects and particle collection along with our current design and program for a muon detection system.

  17. The Chicagoland Observatory Underground for Particle Physics cosmic ray veto system

    SciTech Connect

    Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Ramberg, E.; Kiper, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    A photomultiplier (PMT) readout system has been designed for use by the cosmic ray veto systems of two warm liquid bubble chambers built at Fermilab by the Chicagoland Observatory Underground for Particle Physics (COUPP) collaboration. The systems are designed to minimize the infrastructure necessary for installation. Up to five PMTs can be daisy-chained on a single data link using standard Category 5 network cable. The cables is also serve distribute to low voltage power. High voltage is generated locally on each PMT base. Analog and digital signal processing is also performed locally. The PMT base and system controller design and performance measurements are presented.

  18. Muon Tomography of Deep Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, Alain H.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2016-12-31

    Imaging subsurface geological formations, oil and gas reservoirs, mineral deposits, cavities or magma chambers under active volcanoes has been for many years a major quest of geophysicists and geologists. Since these objects cannot be observed directly, different indirect geophysical methods have been developed. They are all based on variations of certain physical properties of the subsurface that can be detected from the ground surface or from boreholes. Electrical resistivity, seismic wave’s velocities and density are certainly the most used properties. If we look at density, indirect estimates of density distributions are performed currently by seismic reflection methods - since the velocity of seismic waves depend also on density - but they are expensive and discontinuous in time. Direct estimates of density are performed using gravimetric data looking at variations of the gravity field induced by the density variations at depth but this is not sufficiently accurate. A new imaging technique using cosmic-ray muon detectors has emerged during the last decade and muon tomography - or muography - promises to provide, for the first time, a complete and precise image of the density distribution in the subsurface. Further, this novel approach has the potential to become a direct, real-time, and low-cost method for monitoring fluid displacement in subsurface reservoirs.

  19. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  20. Study of High pT Muons in IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Gerhardt, Lisa; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-01

    Muons with a high transverse momentum (p{sub T}) are produced in cosmic ray air showers via semileptonic decay of heavy quarks and the decay of high p{sub T} kaons and pions. These high p{sub T} muons have a large lateral separation from the shower core muon bundle. IceCube is well suited for the detection of high p{sub T} muons. The surface shower array can determine the energy, core location and direction of the cosmic ray air shower while the in-ice array can reconstruct the energy and direction of the high p{sub T} muon. This makes it possible to measure the decoherence function (lateral separation spectrum) at distances greater than 150 meters. The muon p{sub T} can be determined from the muon energy (measured by dE/dx) and the lateral separation. The high p{sub T} muon spectrum may also be calculated in a perturbative QCD framework; this spectrum is sensitive to the cosmic-ray composition.

  1. Muon-to-Electron Conversion with COMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The Coherent Muon-to-Electron Transition (COMET) experiment is presented, focusing on the particle detection systems. COMET is currently under construction as the first of two phases at the J-PARC proton accelerator laboratory in Tokai, Japan. COMET will search for muon-to-electron conversion with a single-event sensitivity of 2.6 × 10-17, with Phase-I achieving a sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-15 and due to enter commissioning in 2016. Phase-I will also allow us to study the novel pion and muon beamline and the rates of background processes.

  2. A Novel Cosmic Ray Tagger System for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Auger, Martin; Del Tutto, Marco; Ereditato, Antonio; ...

    2017-02-22

    The Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program aims to observe and reconstruct thousands of neutrino-argon interactions with its three detectors (SBND, MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600), using their hundred of tonnes Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers to perform a rich physics analysis program, in particular focused in the search for sterile neutrinos. Given the relatively shallow depth of the detectors, the continuos flux of cosmic ray particles which crossing their volumes introduces a constant background which can be falsely identified as part of the event of interest. Here in this paper we present the Cosmic Ray Tagger (CRT) system, a novel techniquemore » to tag and identify these crossing particles using scintillation modules which measure their time and coordinates relative to events internal to the neutrino detector, mitigating therefore their effect in the event tracking reconstruction.« less

  3. A Novel Cosmic Ray Tagger System for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M.; Del Tutto, M.; Ereditato, A.; Fleming, B.; Goeldi, D.; Gramellini, E.; Guenette, R.; Ketchum, W.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Sinclair, J. R.; Soleti, S. R.; Weber, M.

    2016-12-14

    The Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program aims to observe and reconstruct thousands of neutrino-argon interactions with its three detectors (SBND, MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600), using their hundred of tonnes Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers to perform a rich physics analysis program, in particular focused in the search for sterile neutrinos. Given the relatively shallow depth of the detectors, the continuos flux of cosmic ray particles which crossing their volumes introduces a constant background which can be falsely identified as part of the event of interest. Here we present the Cosmic Ray Tagger (CRT) system, a novel technique to tag and identify these crossing particles using scintillation modules which measure their time and coordinates relative to events internal to the neutrino detector, mitigating therefore their effect in the event tracking reconstruction.

  4. Observation of high energy atmospheric neutrinos with antarctic muon and neutrino detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.; Andres, E.; Bai, X.; Barouch, G.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boyce, M.M.; Carius, S.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.F.; Dalberg, E.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Frere, J.-M.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Heukenkamp, H.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Koci, B.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.M.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Reed, C.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Starinsky, N.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Streicher, O.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedeman, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2002-05-07

    The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) began collecting data with ten strings in 1997. Results from the first year of operation are presented. Neutrinos coming through the Earth from the Northern Hemisphere are identified by secondary muons moving upward through the array. Cosmic rays in the atmosphere generate a background of downward moving muons, which are about 10{sup 6} times more abundant than the upward moving muons. Over 130 days of exposure, we observed a total of about 300 neutrino events. In the same period, a background of 1.05 x 10{sup 9} cosmic ray muon events was recorded. The observed neutrino flux is consistent with atmospheric neutrino predictions. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that 90 percent of these events lie in the energy range 66 GeV to 3.4 TeV. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos consistent with expectations establishes AMANDA-B10 as a working neutrino telescope.

  5. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; de Lellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; de Serio, M.; di Capua, F.; di Ferdinando, D.; di Giovanni, A.; di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Oldorf, C.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Policastro, G.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-05-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio R_{μ}=N_{μ+}/N_{μ-} in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the R μ dependence on the primary composition. The measured R μ values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the “vertical surface energy” ℰ μ cos θ. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  6. Practical applications of cosmic ray science: Spacecraft, aircraft, ground based computation and control systems, and human health and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we review cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems and human health as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground based test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combination with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport codes are an important tool for evaluating possible human health effects of cosmic ray. Finally, the limitations on human space operations beyond low-Earth orbit imposed by long term exposure to galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

  7. SSC muon detector group report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

  8. Cosmic Ray Monitoring and Space Dangerous Phenomena, 2. Methods of Cosmic Ray Using For Forecasting of Major Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, A. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Iucci, N.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Yanke, V. G.; Zukerman, I. G.

    We present developing of methods (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999) for forecasting on the basis of neutron monitor hourly on-line data (as well as on-line muon tele- scopes hourly data from different directions) geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales). These geomagnetic storms are dangerous for peo- ple technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). We show that for especially dangerous geo- magnetic storms can be used global-spectrographic method if on-line will be avail- able 35-40 NM and muon telescopes. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of ge- omagnetic storms G5, G4 or G3 (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales) can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor what can be used for SC forecast is specifically behavior of CR density (CR intensity) for about 30-15 hours before SC (caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). The third factor is effect of cosmic ray pre- decreasing, caused by magnetic connection of the Earth with the region behind the shock wave. We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of major ge- omagnetic storms. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting fea- tures for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136-144. (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p. 476-479, (1999).

  9. Telecommunication using muon beams

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  10. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  11. Muon capture in deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  12. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurementmore » technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.« less

  13. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.

  14. Dark cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping-Kai; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-02-22

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Here, most of our results are fairly general andmore » apply to a broad class of dark matter models.« less

  15. Scintillator Cosmic Ray Super Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, L. X.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; López, D.; Mitsuka, G.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Kosai, M.; Tsurusashi, M.; Nakamo, Y.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Watanabe, K.; Koi, T.; Fragoso, E.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Scintillator Cosmic Ray Super Telescope (SciCRST) is a new experiment to detect solar neutrons, and also it is expected to work as a muon and cosmic ray detector. The SciCRST consist of 14,848 plastic scintillator bars, and it will be installed at the top of Sierra Negra volcano, Mexico, 4580 m.a.s.l. We use a prototype, called as miniSciBar, to test the hardware and software of the final experiment. In this paper, we present the status and details of the experiment, and results of the prototype.

  16. First Results from the DUNE 35-ton Prototype using Cosmics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insler, Jonathan; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Far Detector is a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) integrated detector that will take cosmics data for a two month run beginning in February 2016. The 35-ton prototype will characterize DUNE's Far Detector technology performance and provide a sample of real data for DUNE reconstruction algorithms. The 35-ton prototype has two drift volumes of lengths 2.23 m and 0.23 m on either side of its anode plane assembly (APA) and makes use of wire planes with wrapped wires and a photon detection system (PDS) utilizing photon detection panels read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Data from the 35-ton LAr detector are expected to provide rich information on scintillation light and charged particle tracks. We present a preliminary analysis of cosmics data taken with the 35-ton detector with a focus on stopping muons.

  17. Studying Stratospheric Temperature Variation with Cosmic Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; He, Xiaochun

    2015-04-01

    The long term stratospheric cooling in recent decades is believed to be equally important as surface warming as evidence of influences of human activities on the climate system. Un- fortunatly, there are some discrepancies among different measurements of stratospheric tem- peratures, which could be partially caused by the limitations of the measurement techniques. It has been known for decades that cosmic ray muon flux is sensitive to stratospheric temperature change. Dorman proposed that this effect could be used to probe the tempera- ture variations in the stratophere. In this talk, a method for reconstructing stratospheric temperature will be discussed. We verify this method by comparing the stratospheric tem- perature measured by radiosonde with the ones derived from cosmic ray measurement at multiple locations around the globe.

  18. Seasonal variations of the rate of multiple-muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronga, F.

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that the rate of cosmic ray muons depends on the atmospheric temperature, and that for events with a single muon the peak of the rate is in summer, in underground laboratories in the northern hemisphere. In 2015 the MINOS experiment, in USA, found that, for small distances between the multiple-muons, the rate of multiple-muons peaks in the winter and that the amplitude of the modulation is smaller than in the case of a single muon. I have done a re-analysis of data of the past MACRO experiment. The result is that under Gran Sasso the rate of multiple-muons at small distances peaks in the summer. This difference with MINOS could be explained by differences in the atmospheric temperature due to latitude. This results could be of interest for dark matter experiments looking to dark matter seasonal modulation due to the Earth's motion.

  19. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; ...

    2017-03-03

    Here, AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed.more » The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98% efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (~2%), show a promising performance for this new system.« less

  20. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollant, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valbuena-Delgado, A.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2017-03-01

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98% efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (~2%), show a promising performance for this new system.

  1. Design and implementation of the detector control system for the BESIII drift chamber cosmic ray test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi-Hui; Xie, Xiao-Xi; Li, Xiao-Nan; Gao, Cui-Shan; Zhang, Yin-Hong; Nie, Zhen-Dong; Min, Jian; Xie, Yi-GANG

    2008-08-01

    After the construction of the BESIII drift chamber, a long period of cosmic rays test is necessary to verify its performance. This also provides a good opportunity to integrate the detector readout electronics and Detector Control System (DCS) into a unified working system. The goal of the DCS is to guarantee reliable physics data quality and the safe operation of the detector. It monitors and controls the HV, gas, VME crates and the environmental variables. The upper-level system is mainly developed from LabVIEW and the lower-level system mainly uses MCU and PLC technology. The system is designed to be highly flexible and scalable so that it can be applied to other detectors with little or no change. In the immediate future, it will be integrated into the entire BESIII Slow Control System.

  2. Gigabit optical link test system for RPC muon trigger in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Ptak, Mariusz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Kudla, Ignacy M.; Pietrusinski, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Banzuzi, Kukka; Ungaro, Donatella

    2003-10-01

    High-energy experiments like Atlas, Alice, CMS or LHCb at the LHC accelerator at CERN will be performed in very harsh conditions for electronic equipment. High radiation level in the experimental halls causes that commonly available electronic devices do not work properly. A specialized optical transmitter--GOL (Gigabit Optical Link) has been designed at CERN to meet the radiation environment requirements. The design goal was to supply device resistant to high radiation, fast, and being able to transmit data through optical links. Transmitter was designed considering two important characteristics of its work environment: high radiation level and gigabit transmission speed. Proper internal structure of GOL chip allows to minimize single event upsets (SEU) caused by ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, the design does not elimiate SEU completely. This paper presents testing system for the GOL. Its main purpose is testing new prototypes of optical fiber gigabit transmission systems using GOL transmitter and commercial receiver components. The system will be implemented in the CMS experiment for control purposes. It will monitor optical link and transmission quality in the RPC detector. System consits of hardware layer and software layer. Hardware layer, based on Latera FPGA programmable devices. Software has been developed using C++ environment integrated with VME controller hardware.

  3. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS).

  4. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A new model called “PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 4.0” was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth’s atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model’s applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS). PMID:27490175

  5. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  6. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  7. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2010-05-17

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  8. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  9. New cosmic rays experiments in the underground laboratory of IFIN-HH from Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Stanca, Denis; Brancus, Iliana; Margineanu, Romul; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Toma, Gabriel; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai; Rebel, Heinigerd; Haungs, Andreas; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    Since 2006 a modern laboratory has been developed by IFIN-HH in the underground of Slanic Prahova salt ore. This work presents a short review of previous scientific activities performed in the underground laboratory, in parallel with some plans for the future. A mobile detector for cosmic muon flux measurements has been set up at IFIN-HH, Romania. The device is used to measure the muon flux on different locations at the surface and underground and it consists of two detection layers, each one including four large scintillator plates. A new rotatable detector for measurements of the directional variation of the muon flux has been designed and it is presently under preliminary tests. Built from four layers of sensitive material and using for collecting the signals and directing them to the micro PMTs a new technique, through optical fibers instead wave length shifters, it allows an easy discrimination of the moun flux on the arrival directions of muons. Combining the possibility to rotate and the directionality properties, the underground muon detector is acting like a muon tomography device, being able to scan, using cosmic muons, the rock material above the detector. In parallel new detection system based on SiPM will be also installed in the following weeks. It should be composed by four layers, each layer consisting in 4 scintillator plates what we consider in the following as a module of detection. For this purpose, first two scintillator layers, with the optical fibers positioned on perpendicular directions are put in coincidence with other two layers, 1 m distance from the first two, with similar optical fiber arrangement, thus allowing reconstructing muon trajectory. It is intended also to design and construct an experimental device for the investigation of such radio antennas and the behavior of the signal in rock salt at the Slanic salt mine in Romania. Another method to detect high energy neutrinos is based on the detection of secondary particles resulting

  10. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  11. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  12. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Castromonte, C. M.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Osprey, S.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5-8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  13. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Adamson, P.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M. V.; ...

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. Conversely, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation thatmore » peaks in the winter.« less

  14. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS near and far detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. Thus, at the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  15. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Isvan, Z.; Ling, J.; Viren, B.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. Conversely, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  16. Target and collection optimization for muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.; Van Ginneken, A.

    1996-01-10

    To achieve adequate luminosity in a muon collider it is necessary to produce and collect large numbers of muons. The basic method used in this paper follows closely a proposed scheme which starts with a proton beam impinging on a thick target ({approximately} one interaction length) followed by a long solenoid which collects muons resulting mainly from pion decay. Production and collection of pions and their decay muons must be optimized while keeping in mind limitations of target integrity and of the technology of magnets and cavities. Results of extensive simulations for 8 GeV protons on various targets and with various collection schemes are reported. Besides muon yields results include-energy deposition in target and solenoid to address cooling requirements for these systems. Target composition, diameter, and length are varied in this study as well as the configuration and field strengths of the solenoid channel. A curved solenoid field is introduced to separate positive and negative pions within a few meters of the target. This permits each to be placed in separate RF buckets for acceleration which effectively doubles the number of muons per bunch available for collisions and increases the luminosity fourfold.

  17. COSMIC Payload in NCAR-NASPO GPS Satellite System for Severe Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai-Chen, C.

    Severe weather, such as cyclones, heavy rainfall, outburst of cold air, etc., results in great disaster all the world. It is the mission for the scientists to design a warning system, to predict the severe weather systems and to reduce the damage of the society. In Taiwan, National Satellite Project Office (NSPO) initiated ROCSAT-3 program at 1997. She scheduled the Phase I conceptual design to determine the mission for observation weather system. Cooperating with National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NSPO involved an international cooperation research and operation program to build a 32 GPS satellites system. NCAR will offer 24 GPS satellites. The total expanse will be US 100 millions. NSPO also provide US 80 millions for launching and system engineering operation. And NCAR will be responsible for Payload Control Center and Fiducial Network. The cooperative program contract has been signed by Taiwan National Science Council, Taipei Economic Cultural Office of United States and American Institute in Taiwan. One of the payload is COSMIC, Constellation Observation System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate. It is a GPS meteorology instrument system. The system will observe the weather information, e. g. electron density profiles, horizontal and vertical TEC and CFT scintillation and communication outage maps. The mission is to obtain the weather data such as vertical temperature profiles, water vapor distribution and pressure distribution over the world for global weather forecasting, especially during the severe weather period. The COSMIC Conference held on November, 1998. The export license was also issued by Department of Commerce of Unites States at November, 1998. Recently, NSPO begun to train their scientists to investigate the system. Scientists simulate the observation data to combine the existing routine satellite infrared cloud maps, radar echo and synoptic weather analysis for severe weather forecasting. It is hopeful to provide more accurate

  18. Muon Mean Lifetime Measurement in a High School Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Rylander, Jeffrey W.

    1996-06-01

    This thesis describes a cosmic ray muon lifetime experiment that has been developed for use in a high school classroom. The detector consists of a scintillator that is coupled to a photomultiplier tube. A timing circuit discriminates against signals below a specified threshold voltage and measures the time from when a stopped muon entered the scintillator until it decays. Data acquisition is done using a Macintosh computer and Macintosh compatible software. This software is then used to generate the necessary plots and perform the mean lifetime calculation.

  19. A study of film and foil materials for the GEM detector proposed for the CMS muon system upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbrescia, M.; Abi Akl, M.; Armaingaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Cai, J.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Celik, A.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Ferrini, M.; Ferry, S.; Flanagan, W.; Franchi, A. V.; Gilmore, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, S.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Passamonti, L.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierluigi, D.; Postema, H.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Russo, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Teng, H.; Turini, N.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; van Stenis, M.; Verhagen, E.; Valente, M.; Yang, Y.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.

    2014-04-01

    During the next shutdown of the LHC at CERN, the CMS experiment plans to start installing GEM detectors in the endcap (high pseudorapidity) region. These muon detectors have excellent spatial and temporal resolution as well as a high chemical stability and radiation hardness. A report is given on preliminary results of materials studies that aimed to fully characterize the GEM detector components before and after the exposure to a high-radiation environment.

  20. Cosmic ray research in India: 1912-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonwar, Suresh C.

    2013-02-01

    The progress of research in cosmic rays in India over the last 100 years is reviewed, starting with the pioneering work of Debendra Mohan Bose and Homi Bhabha. Experimental research in cosmic rays in India received a big push with the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research by Homi Bhabha in Bombay in 1945, the Physical Research Laboratory by Vikram Sarabhai in Ahemedabad in 1947 and the setting up of a cosmic ray research group by Piara Singh Gill at the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh in 1949. Studies on high energy interactions by B.V. Sreekantan and colleagues and on muons and neutrinos deep underground in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon and coworkers were the highlights of the research work in India in 1950's and 60's. In 1970's and 80's, important advances were made in India in several areas, for example, search for proton decay in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon et al, search for TeV cosmic gamma-ray sources at Ooty and Pachmari by P.V. Ramanamurthy and colleagues, search for PeV cosmic gamma ray sources by S.C. Tonwar et al at Ooty and by M.V.S. Rao and coworkers at KGF. In 1990's, Sreekantan and Tonwar initiated the GRAPES-3 project at Ooty to determine the composition of cosmic ray flux around the 'knee' in the primary energy spectrum at PeV energies using a large muon detector and a compact air shower array. Another major effort to search for TeV gamma-ray sources was initiated by H. Razdan and C.L. Bhat, initially at Gulmarg in Kashmir in the 1980's, leading to successful observations with a stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope at Mount Abu in early 2000. In recent years the Pachmari group and the Mount Abu group have joined together to install a sophisticated system of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors at Hanle in the Ladakh region at an altitude of 4200 m to continue studies on VHE sources of cosmic gammarays.

  1. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  2. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  3. Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlusty, David; Ruan, Lijuan

    2008-04-01

    A large area of muon telescope detector is proposed to measure muons of momentum at a few GeV/c at mid-rapidity, allowing for the detection of di-muon pairs from QGP thermal radiation, quarkonia, light vector mesons, possible correlations of quarks and gluons as resonances in QGP, and Drell-Yan production as well as the measurement of heavy flavor hadrons through their semi-leptonic decays into single muons. The R&D research has been carried out for this large area Muon Telescope Detector (MTD). The multi-gap resistive plate chamber technology with large module, long strips and two-end readout (Long-MRPC) was used for this research. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for Long-MRPC. Besides, a single prototype of MTD was installed in STAR during the 200 GeV Au+Au run in spring 2007. The detector consists of a long-MRPC layer between two layers of scintillator planes. They are placed outside of the magnet yoke that serves as hadron absorber. We will present results from this prototype run. Muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution will be reported. We also discuss the implication of these tests on the physics performance and capabilities of full scale detector.

  4. The muon-induced neutron indirect detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Carissimo, C.; Gooch, C.; Kneißl, R.; Langford, J.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.

    2017-04-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with a GEANT4-based package for two different sets of physics models of relevance for neutron production by muons is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. In addition, the time evolution of the muon-induced signal is not well described by the simulations.

  5. Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Vazquez, M. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Atwell, W.; Kim, M.; Capala, J.

    One outstanding question to be addressed in assessing the risk of exposure to space travelers from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) outside the geomagnetosphere is to ascertain the effects of single heavy-ion hits on cells in critical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step toward this end, it is important to determine how many ``hits'' might be received by a neural cell in several critical CNS areas during an extended mission outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Critical sites in the CNS: the macula, and an interior brain point (typical of the genu, thalamus, hippocampus and nucleus basalis of Meynert) were chosen for the calculation of hit frequencies from galactic cosmic rays for a mission to Mars during solar minimum (i.e., at maximum cosmic-ray intensity). The shielding at a given position inside the body was obtained using the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, and a radiation transport code which includes nuclear fragmentation was used to calculate yearly fluences at the point of interest. Since the final Mars spacecraft shielding configuration has not yet been determined, we considered the minimum amount of aluminum required for pressure vessel-wall requirements in the living quarters of a spacecraft, and a typical duty area as a pressure vessel plus necessary equipment. The conclusions are: (1) variation of the position of the ``target site'' within the head plays only a small role in varying hit frequencies; (2) the average number of hits depends linearly on the cross section of the critical portion of the cell assumed in the calculation; (3) for a three-year mission to Mars at solar minimum (i.e., assuming the 1977 spectrum of galactic cosmic rays), 2% or 13% of the ``critical sites'' of cells in the CNS would be directly hit at least once by iron ions, depending on whether 60 mum^2 or 471 mum^2 is assumed as the critical cross sectional area; and (4) roughly 6 million out of some 43 million hippocampal cells and 55

  6. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  7. The detector on the basis of drift chambers for inclined muon bundle investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadeba, E. A.; Ampilogov, N. V.; Barbashina, N. S.; Borisov, A. A.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Ovechkin, A. S.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Volkov, N. S.; Vorobyev, V. S.; Yashin, I. I.

    2017-07-01

    The results of experiments of the last decades have shown that with the increase of energy of primary cosmic rays a clear excess of muon groups in comparison with the existing models of extensive air shower development (even assuming pure iron composition of PCR) appears. The problem is called 'muon puzzle' and it can be explained either by cosmo- or nuclear-physical reasons. One of the experiments in which the excess of muon groups was registered is a NEVOD-DECOR. The new large-scale coordinate-tracking detector of 254 m2 area based on drift chambers will increase the coverage of the side aperture of the Cherenkov water detector (CWD) NEVOD and significantly improve the resolution of close tracks. Multi-wire drift chambers TREK developed in IHEP for experiments at the neutrino channel of U-70 accelerator have large effective area (1.85 m2), a good coordinate and angular resolution with a small number of measuring channels. The first part of the detector named Coordinate-Tracking Unit based on the Drift Chambers (CTUDC) representing two coordinate planes of 8 drift chambers in each has been developed and mounted on the opposite sides of the CWD. It has the same principle of joint operation with NEVOD-DECOR triggering system so the main features of the TREK detector will be examined. Results of an examination of drift chambers at muon hodoscope URAGAN, a calibration of the CTUDC with DECOR and the first results of its joint operation with NEVOD triggering system are presented.

  8. Resistive Plate Chambers performance with Cosmic Rays in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, D.; Darmenov, N.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Trayanov, R.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Marinov, A.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Akimenko, S.; Ball, A.; Crotty, I.; Guida, R.; Sharma, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Marangelli, B.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Romano, F.; Roselli, G.; Trentadue, R.; Tupputi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Loddo, F.; Ranieri, A.; Cimmino, A.; Sciacca, C.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Fabozzi, F.; Lomidtze, D.; Paolucci, P.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Baesso, P.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.; Avila, C.; Carrillo, C.; Gomez, B.; Ocampo, A.; Osorio, A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Polese, G.; Tuuva, T.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Kierzkowski, K.; Kudla, I. M.; Oklins, W.; Pietrusinski, M.; Bluj, M.; Fruboes, T.; Gorski, M.; Kazana, M.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Poznik, K. T.; Zabolotny, W.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Ye, Y. L.; Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J. B.; Hoorani, H. R.; Hussain, I.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Malik, I. A.; Muhammad, S.; Qazi, S. F.; Shahzad, H.; Cho, S. W.; Jo, M.; Hong, B.; Kim, C.; kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S.; Rhee, H. B.; Seo, E. S.; Shin, S. S.; Sim, K. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. E.

    2010-05-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers [M. Abbrescia, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 550 (2005) 116] are used in the CMS experiment [CMS Collaboration, The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC 2008, J. Inst. 3 (2008) S08004] as a dedicated muon trigger both in barrel and endcap system. About 4000 m2 of double gap RPCs have been produced and have been installed in the experiment since more than one and half Years. The full barrel system and a fraction of the endcaps have been monitored to study dark current behaviour and system stability, and have been extensively commissioned with Cosmic Rays collected by the full CMS experiment.

  9. Design and development of a simple instrumentation system for detection of secondary cosmic rays at ground level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamal, Shakeel; Das, Nipan; Boruah, Kalyanee; Boruah, Pradip Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes a simple and low cost instrumentation system for ground based cosmic ray air shower experiments. It is designed and fabricated at Gauhati University as part of a larger and more sophisticated instrumentation for a proposed 10 m × 10 m array to carry out a series of studies on cosmic rays. The system is tested on a 4-detector small prototype array with LED coincidence pulses. It is then used to determine the rate of omnidirectional air showers incident on the array. The dependence of 4-fold coincidence rate on array size is also investigated. The results of the tests are presented in the paper.

  10. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  11. Lateral distribution of high energy muons in EAS of sizes Ne approximately equals 10(5) and Ne approximately equals 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhutov, Y. N.; Ermakov, G. G.; Fomin, G. G.; Isaev, V. I.; Jarochkina, Z. V.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Khrenov, B. A.; Khristiansen, G. B.; Kulikov, G. V.; Motova, M. V.

    1985-01-01

    Muon energy spectra and muon lateral distribution in EAS were investigated with the underground magnetic spectrometer working as a part of the extensive air showers (EAS) array. For every registered muon the data on EAS are analyzed and the following EAS parameters are obtained, size N sub e, distance r from the shower axis to muon, age parameter s. The number of muons with energy over some threshold E associated to EAS of fixed parameters are measured, I sub reg. To obtain traditional characteristics, muon flux densities as a function of the distance r and muon energy E, muon lateral distribution and energy spectra are discussed for hadron-nucleus interaction model and composition of primary cosmic rays.

  12. The design of the JUNO veto system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Baussan, E.; experiment, JUNO

    2017-09-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose 20 kton liquid scintillator detector. The detector will be built in a 700 m deep underground laboratory, and its primary physics goal will be to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to the low background requirement of the experiment, a multi-veto system for cosmic<