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Sample records for cosmic ray detection

  1. Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Maxwell; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Spinka, Hal; Underwood, Dave; Hammergren, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler Planetarium we used a helium balloon carrying a Geiger counter and other equipment to record the cosmic ray flux at various points in the atmosphere. The results clearly show the flux depends on the atmospheric density. At Stony Brook University I studied their advanced system for detecting cosmic rays in similar manner to radio meteor scattering principles. Research there focused on detection algorithms and also on the possibility of utilizing Digital Tv (DTv) signals for further research. Through the research a solid understanding of cosmic rays was formed including topics such as origins and energy scales of cosmic rays, both of which pose unanswered questions. )

  2. Acoustic detection of cosmic-ray air showers.

    PubMed

    Barrett, W L

    1978-11-17

    The signal strength, bandwidth, and detection range of acoustic pulses generated by cosmic-ray air showers striking a water surface are calculated. These signals are strong enough to be audible to a submerged swimmer. The phenomena may be useful for studying very-high-energy cosmic rays and may help answer the important question of whether the origin of cosmic rays is extragalactic or galactic.

  3. Radar detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Isaac J.

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment co-located with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, UT. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW transmitter and high gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and in the FD field of view to a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. Data collection began in August, 2013. TARA stands apart from other cosmic ray radar experiments in that radar data is directly compared with conventional cosmic ray detector events. The transmitter is also directly controlled by TARA researchers. Waveforms from the FD-triggered data stream are time-matched with TA events and searched for signal using a novel signal search technique in which the expected (simulated) radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to radio waveforms. This technique is used to calculate the radar cross-section (RCS) upper-limit on all triggers that correspond to well-reconstructed TA FD monocular events. Our lowest cosmic ray RCS upper-limit is 42 cm2 for an 11 EeV event. An introduction to cosmic rays is presented with the evolution of detection and the necessity of new detection techniques, of which radar detection is a candidate. The software simulation of radar scattering from cosmic rays follows. The TARA detector, including transmitter and receiver systems, are discussed in detail. Our search algorithm and methodology for calculating RCS is presented for the purpose of being repeatable. Search results are explained in context of the usefulness and future of cosmic ray radar detection.

  4. Microwave detection of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, P.

    2011-09-01

    A novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays based on microwave emission from the extensive air showers may provide large area coverage with 100% duty cycle at low cost. The status and prospects of several complementary R&D projects for GHz detectors is reviewed.

  5. Lightning Detection at the Telescope Array Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Helio; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon; Hanlon, William; Rison, Bill; Thomas, Ron; Krehbiel, Paul; Okuda, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    It is known that the electric fields measured in lightning clouds are an order of magnitude too small than the critical electric field required for dielectric breakdown of air, there are therefore unknown mechanisms at work which initiate lightning. One theory is that cosmic ray air showers can initiate lightning via a runaway breakdown process. To study this problem, 10 VHF lightning monitoring stations built by New Mexico Tech were deployed at the Telescope Array site on September 2013. If cosmic rays act as lightning initiators, then the TA surface detectors may be able to detect high energy particles from the associated air shower while the NMT lightning detectors simultaneously measure VHF radio pulses of the lightning discharges themselves. The Telescope Array is the largest cosmic ray observatory in the Northern hemisphere. Located in Millard County, Utah, it covers an area of 750 km2. The VHF monitoring stations can be used to produce 3D images of the lightning strikes. Using both setups we hope to be able to investigate in detail the role of cosmic rays in lightning, or if there is any gamma ray production from lightning activity. We will discuss how a collaboration between TA, NMT and BNL can help in understanding of a long standing mysteries about lightning formation. Results of data analysis for events that were observed in coincidence between our detectors will be presented.

  6. Method for registration of solar cosmic rays by detecting neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Mordovskoy, M. V.; Skorkin, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a method of detecting the ionizing component of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with energy from tens of MeV to tens of GeV by measuring the energy loss of SCR protons and light nuclei in scintillators and the multiplicity of the local neutron generation in a converter. Scintillation detectors based on stilbene, lithium glass, and solid-state photomultiplier tubes are capable of detecting fast neutrons with a temporal resolution of 10 ns and rejecting the gamma-ray background in the measuring system. The method will allow investigating the nucleon components of primary SCRs in circumterrestrial space.

  7. Student Projects in Cosmic Ray Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.; Pinfold, J.; Soluk, R.; McDonough, B.; Pasek, V.; Bao-shan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Alberta Large-area Time-coincidence Array (ALTA) study has been in existence for about 10 years under the direction of Jim Pinfold of the Centre for Particle Physics at the University of Alberta. The purpose of the ALTA project is to involve Alberta high schools, and primarily their physics classes, to assist in the detection of the presence…

  8. Detecting light long-lived particle produced by cosmic ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Shou-Hua

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting light long-lived particle (LLP) produced by high energy cosmic ray colliding with atmosphere. The LLP may penetrate the atmosphere and decay into a pair of muons near/in the neutrino telescope. Such muons can be treated as the detectable signal for neutrino telescope. This study is motivated by recent cosmic electron/positron observations which suggest the existence of O(TeV) dark matter and new light O(GeV) particle. It indicates that dark sector may be complicated, and there may exist more than one light particles, for example, the dark gauge boson A‧ and associated dark Higgs boson h‧. In this work, we discuss the scenario with A‧ heavier than h‧ and h‧ is treated as LLP. Based on our numerical estimation, we find that the large volume neutrino telescope IceCube has the capacity to observe several tens of di-muon events per year for favorable parameters if the decay length of LLP can be comparable with the depth of atmosphere. The challenge here is how to suppress the muon backgrounds induced by cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos.

  9. Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography for SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, John; Oakham, Gerald; Bryman, Douglas; Cousins, Thomas; Noeel, Scott; Gallant, Grant; Jason, Andrew; Jonkmans, Guy; Stocki, Trevor J.; Waller, David

    2009-12-02

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) project has recently started investigating the detection of illicit Special Nuclear Material in cargo using cosmic ray muon tomography and complementary neutron detectors. We are currently performing simulation studies to help with the design of small scale prototypes. Based on the prototype tests and refined simulations, we will determine whether the muon tracking system for the full scale prototype will be based on drift chambers or extruded scintillator trackers. An analysis of the operations of the Port of Montreal has determined how long muon scan times should take if all or a subset of the cargo is to be screened. As long as the throughput of the muon system(s) is equal to the rate at which containers are unloaded from ships, the impact on port operations would not be great if a muon scanning stage were required for all cargo. We also show preliminary simulation results indicating that excellent separation between Al, Fe and Pb is possible under ideal conditions. The discrimination power is reduced but still significant when realistic momentum resolution measurements are considered.

  10. Feasibility of Cosmic-Ray Muon Intensity Measurements for Tunnel Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    BUR-’TR-3110 TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3110 mBRL I• FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC - RAY MUON INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR TUNNEL DETECTION AIVARS CELIN. , JUNE...Feasibility of Cosmic - Ray Muon Intensity Measurements f or Tunnel Detection 612786H20001 4.AUTNOR(S) Aivars Celmins 7. PERORMING ORGANIZATION NAMe(S) AND... cosmic - ray muon intensity depends on the amount, of material above the point of reference and is therefore influenced by anomalies in rock density

  11. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  12. Hoping to indirectly detect Dark Matter with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirelli, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Dark Matter constitutes more that 80% of the total amount of matter in the Universe, yet almost nothing is known about its nature. A powerful investigation technique is that of searching for the products of annihilations of Dark Matter particles in the galactic halo, on top of the ordinary cosmic rays. Recent data from the PAMELA and FERMI satellites and a number of balloon experiment have reported unexpected excesses in the measured fluxes of cosmic rays. Are these the first direct evidences for Dark Matter? If yes, which DM models and candidates can explain these anomalies (in terms of annihilations) and what do they imply for future searches? What are the constraints from gamma rays measurements and cosmology? [Report number: Saclay T-10/098, CERN-PH-TH/2010-183].

  13. Cosmic Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic ray division participation in the cooperative agreement was activated in the second year. The scientific goals will be analysis of cosmic ray data from the Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiments (JACEE). Measurements of primary cosmic rays in the JACEE emulsion chambers will be made to derive for each detected particle the deposited energy in the chamber and the primary charge (atomic number). The data will be corrected to the primary flux above the atmosphere, and the composition and energy spectra will be derived. The spectra of the individual elements will be interpreted in context with the supernova shock and other models of cosmic ray acceleration. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Szadkowska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Experiments which show coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio detectors can operate with 100 % up time as, e.g., surface detectors based on water-Cherenkov tanks. They are being developed for ground-based experiments (e.g., the Pierre Auger Observatory) as another type of air-shower detector in addition to fluorescence detectors, which operate with only ˜10 % of duty on dark nights. The radio signals from air showers are caused by coherent emission from geomagnetic radiation and charge-excess processes. The self-triggers in radio detectors currently in use often generate a dense stream of data, which is analyzed afterwards. Huge amounts of registered data require significant manpower for off-line analysis. Improvement of trigger efficiency is a relevant factor. The wavelet trigger, which investigates on-line the power of radio signals (˜ V2/ R), is promising; however, it requires some improvements with respect to current designs. In this work, Morlet wavelets with various scaling factors were used for an analysis of real data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array and for optimization of the utilization of the resources in an FPGA. The wavelet analysis showed that the power of events is concentrated mostly in a limited range of the frequency spectrum (consistent with a range imposed by the input analog band-pass filter). However, we found several events with suspicious spectral characteristics, where the signal power is spread over the full band-width sampled by a 200 MHz digitizer with significant contribution of very high and very low frequencies. These events may not originate from cosmic ray showers but could be the result of human contamination. The engine of the wavelet analysis can be implemented in the modern powerful FPGAs and can remove suspicious events on-line to reduce the trigger rate.

  15. Cosmic ray antiprotons from nearby cosmic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jagdish C.; Gupta, Nayantara

    2015-05-01

    The antiproton flux measured by PAMELA experiment might have originated from Galactic sources of cosmic rays. These antiprotons are expected to be produced in the interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei with cold protons. Gamma rays are also produced in similar interactions inside some of the cosmic accelerators. We consider a few nearby supernova remnants observed by Fermi LAT. Many of them are associated with molecular clouds. Gamma rays have been detected from these sources which most likely originate in decay of neutral pions produced in hadronic interactions. The observed gamma ray fluxes from these SNRs are used to find out their contributions to the observed diffuse cosmic ray antiproton flux near the earth.

  16. Exploring results of the possibility on detecting cosmic ray particles by acoustic way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Li, Y.; Chen, D.; Zheng, R.; Song, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that high energy particles produce detectable sounds in water. However, no one has been able to detect an acoustic signal generated by a high energy cosmic ray particle in water. Results show that transient ultrasonic signals in a large lake or reservoir are fairly complex and that the transient signals under water may arise mainly from sound radiation from microbubbles. This field is not explored in detail. Perhaps, the sounds created by cosmic ray particles hide in these ultrasonic signals. In order to develop the technique of acoustic detection, it is most important to make a thorough investigation of these ultrasonic signals in water.

  17. Detection of cosmic gamma-rays using a heliostat field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arqueros, F.; Ballestrin, J.; Borque, D. M.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Enriquez, R.; Gebauer, H.-J.; Plaga, R.

    2001-08-01

    Gamma-Ray telescopes based on a solar plant are able to accurately measure the spatial distribution and time structure of the Cherenkov shower front. Although this information should be sufficient for the reconstruction of several primary parameters, it will be shown that the restricted field of view of the optical detection system and the limited sampling of a realistic heliostat array impose severe limitations.

  18. Towards the installation and use of an extended array for cosmic ray detection: The EEE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Alici, A.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Coccetti, F.; de Caro, A.; de Gruttola, D.; de Pasquale, S.; D'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Guarnaccia, C.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M. M.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Noferini, F.; Pagano, P.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Petta, C.; Piragino, G.; Preghenella, R.; Riggi, F.; Romano, F.; Russo, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Scioli, G.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Wenninger, H.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zampolli, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2009-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project started to use an array of cosmic ray telescopes for muon detection, distributed over the italian territory. The use of such telescopes, based on Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) allows the study of the local muon flux, the detection of cosmic ray showers and the search for correlations between distant showers. The project is also intended to involve high school teams in an advanced research work. The present status of the installation and the first physics results are discussed here.

  19. Cosmic Rays and Experiment CZELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Smolek, Karel; Nyklicek, Michal

    2007-11-26

    This paper gives a review of the physics of cosmic rays with emphasis on the methods of detection and study. A summary is given of the Czech project CZELTA which is part of a multinational program to study cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 14} eV.

  20. Application of thermoluminescence for detection of cascade shower 2: Detection of cosmic ray cascade shower at Mount Fuji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akashi, M.; Kawaguchi, S.; Watanabe, Z.; Misaki, A.; Niwa, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Fujinaga, T.; Ichimura, M.; Shibata, T.; Dake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a thermoluminescence (TL) chamber exposed at Mt. Fuji during Aug. '83 - Aug. '84 are reported. The TL signal induced by cosmic ray shower is detected and compared with the spot darkness of X-ray film exposed at the same time.

  1. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  2. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  3. The possibilities of simultaneous detection of gamma rays, cosmic-ray electrons and positrons on the GAMMA-400 space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galper, A. M.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaya, I. V.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Farber, M. O.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gecha, V. Ya.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Mazets, E. P.; Menshenin, A. L.; Picozza, P.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2011-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 space observatory will provide precise measurements of gamma rays, electrons, and positrons in the energy range 0.1-3000 GeV. The good angular and energy resolutions, as well as identification capabilities (angular resolution ~0.01°, energy resolution ~1%, and proton rejection factor ~106) will allow us to study the main galactic and extragalactic sources, diffuse gamma-ray background, gamma-ray bursts, and to measure electron and positron fluxes. The peculiar characteristics of the experiment is simultaneous detection of gamma rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons, which can be connected with annihilation or decay of dark matter particles.

  4. Cosmic Ray Physics at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandéz, A.; Gámez, E.; López, R.; Román, S.; Zepeda, A.

    2003-06-01

    In recent decades, cosmic ray air showers initiated by high-energy proton or nucleus collisions in the atmosphere have been studied with large area experiments on the surface of the Earth or with muon measurements deep underground. In principle, these cosmic ray experiments explore two completely different realms of physics, particle astrophysics and particle interaction physics, which are, however, intimately related by the interpretation of the data. In this paper we briefly review the cosmic ray physics activities developed at CERN in the last years. In particular we present some results from a small underground cosmic ray experiment and we discuss the capabilities of ALICE to detect high multiplicity muon events arising from cosmic ray air showers and some other astroparticle phenomena.

  5. Detection of cosmic ray electrons above 10 to 14th eV using gamma ray observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of high energy gamma ray observatories for the study of cosmic ray electrons is made. This is based on the principle that the synchrotron photons emitted by the electrons in the earth's magnetic field is collinear in the detector. It is shown that the size and the gamma ray detection efficiency of the SAS II instrument is so small, that no useful information can be derived from it. On the other hand, one may be able to set useful upper limits to the flux of electrons by making use of the high energy gamma ray detector in the GRO.

  6. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  7. Coherent Cherenkov radio emission and problems of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray and neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarev, V. A.

    2006-08-01

    This review is concerned with prospects for employment of coherent Cherenkov radio emission for detecting ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Reasons for interest in and problems of studying the ultrahigh-energy particles are summarized. A history of the development of a radio-wave method and its main merits are recalled. Current experiments and proposals based on this method are briefly discussed with emphasize on the most recent Lunar Orbital Radio Detector (LORD) proposal.

  8. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Frank G.

    2016-07-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about 17km2, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of different detection techniques. For the direction and energy of air showers, the precision achieved by AERA is already competitive; for the type of primary particle, several methods are tested and optimized. By combining AERA with the particle detectors we aim for a better understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range from approximately 0.3 to 10 EeV, i.e., significantly higher energies than preceding radio arrays.

  9. Detection and imaging of atmospheric radio flashes from cosmic ray air showers.

    PubMed

    Falcke, H; Apel, W D; Badea, A F; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buitink, S; Brüggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Butcher, H; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Bruyn, A G; de Vos, C M; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K-H; Kant, G W; Klein, U; Kolotaev, Y; Koopman, Y; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Lafebre, S; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Nigl, A; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Pepping, H J; Petcu, M; Petrovic, J; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoonderbeek, G; Sima, O; Stümpert, M; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Valchierotti, S; van Buren, J; van Cappellen, W; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wijnholds, S; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; Zimmermann, D

    2005-05-19

    The nature of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) at energies >10(20) eV remains a mystery. They are likely to be of extragalactic origin, but should be absorbed within approximately 50 Mpc through interactions with the cosmic microwave background. As there are no sufficiently powerful accelerators within this distance from the Galaxy, explanations for UHECRs range from unusual astrophysical sources to exotic string physics. Also unclear is whether UHECRs consist of protons, heavy nuclei, neutrinos or gamma-rays. To resolve these questions, larger detectors with higher duty cycles and which combine multiple detection techniques are needed. Radio emission from UHECRs, on the other hand, is unaffected by attenuation, has a high duty cycle, gives calorimetric measurements and provides high directional accuracy. Here we report the detection of radio flashes from cosmic-ray air showers using low-cost digital radio receivers. We show that the radiation can be understood in terms of the geosynchrotron effect. Our results show that it should be possible to determine the nature and composition of UHECRs with combined radio and particle detectors, and to detect the ultrahigh-energy neutrinos expected from flavour mixing.

  10. Cosmic ray isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The isotopic composition of cosmic rays is studied in order to develop the relationship between cosmic rays and stellar processes. Cross section and model calculations are reported on isotopes of H, He, Be, Al and Fe. Satellite instrument measuring techniques separate only the isotopes of the lighter elements.

  11. LAT Perspectives in Detection of High Energy Cosmic Ray Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Ormes, J. F.; Funk, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) science objectives and capabilities in the detection of high energy electrons in the energy range from 20 GeV to approx. 1 TeV are presented. LAT simulations are used to establish the event selections. It is found that maintaining the efficiency of electron detection at the level of 30% the residual hadron contamination does not exceed 2-3% of the electron flux. LAT should collect approx. ten million of electrons with the energy above 20 GeV for each year of observation. Precise spectral reconstruction with high statistics presents us with a unique opportunity to investigate several important problems such as studying galactic models of IC radiation, revealing the signatures of nearby sources such as high energy cutoff in the electron spectrum, testing the propagation model, and searching for KKDM particles decay through their contribution to the electron spectrum.

  12. Cosmic Ray Experiments and the Implications for Indirect Detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of cosmic-ray antiprotons was first reported by Golden et al. in 1979 and their existence was firmly established by the BESS and IMAX collaborations in the early 1990s. Increasingly precise measurements of the antiproton spectrum, most recently from BESS-Polar and PAMELA, have made it an important tool for investigating cosmic-ray transport in the galaxy and heliosphere and for constraining dark-matter models. The history of antiproton measurements will be briefly reviewed. The current status will be discussed, focusing on the results of BESS-Polar II and their implications for the possibility of antiprotons from primordial black hole evaporation. The current results of the BESS-Polar II antihelium search are also presented.

  13. Ultimate precision in cosmic-ray radio detection — the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huege, Tim; Bray, Justin D.; Buitink, Stijn; Butler, David; Dallier, Richard; Ekers, Ron D.; Enßlin, Torsten; Falcke, Heino; Haungs, Andreas; James, Clancy W.; Martin, Lilian; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katharine; Nelles, Anna; Revenu, Benoît; Scholten, Olaf; Schröder, Frank G.; Tingay, Steven; Winchen, Tobias; Zilles, Anne

    2017-03-01

    As of 2023, the low-frequency part of the Square Kilometre Array will go online in Australia. It will constitute the largest and most powerful low-frequency radio-astronomical observatory to date, and will facilitate a rich science programme in astronomy and astrophysics. With modest engineering changes, it will also be able to measure cosmic rays via the radio emission from extensive air showers. The extreme antenna density and the homogeneous coverage provided by more than 60,000 antennas within an area of one km2 will push radio detection of cosmic rays in the energy range around 1017 eV to ultimate precision, with superior capabilities in the reconstruction of arrival direction, energy, and an expected depth-of-shower-maximum resolution of < 10 g/cm2.

  14. Cosmic-ray astrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Indriolo, Nick; McCall, Benjamin J

    2013-10-07

    Gas-phase chemistry in the interstellar medium is driven by fast ion-molecule reactions. This, of course, demands a mechanism for ionization, and cosmic rays are the ideal candidate as they can operate throughout the majority of both diffuse and dense interstellar clouds. Aside from driving interstellar chemistry via ionization, cosmic rays also interact with the interstellar medium in ways that heat the ambient gas, produce gamma rays, and produce light element isotopes. In this paper we review the observables generated by cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium, focusing primarily on the relevance to astrochemistry.

  15. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  16. Aerial Neutron Detection of Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Maurer

    2008-09-18

    We have demonstrated the ability to measure the neutron flux produced by the cosmic-ray interaction with nuclei in the ground surface using aerial neutron detection. High energy cosmic-rays (primarily muons with GeV energies) interact with the nuclei in the ground surface and produce energetic neutrons via spallation. At the air-surface interface, the neutrons produced by spallation will either scatter within the surface material, become thermalized and reabsorbed, or be emitted into the air. The mean free path of energetic neutrons in air can be hundreds of feet as opposed to a few feet in dense materials. As such, the flux of neutrons escaping into the air provides a measure of the surface nuclei composition. It has been demonstrated that this effect can be measured at long range using neutron detectors on low flying helicopters. Radiological survey measurements conducted at Government Wash in Las Vegas, Nevada, have shown that the neutron background from the cosmic-soil interactions is repeatable and directly correlated to the geological data. Government Wash has a very unique geology, spanning a wide variety of nuclide mixtures and formations. The results of the preliminary measurements are presented.

  17. Detection of solar cosmic rays by Cerenkov detectors at the Meteor satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdiushin, S. I.; Kulagin, Iu. M.; Nazarova, M. N.; Pereiaslova, N. K.; Petrenko, I. E.

    The general design and performance characteristics of the proton detector based on a Cerenkov counter included in the radiometric equipment of the Meteor satellites for the study of galactic and solar cosmic rays are briefly reviewed. To achieve reliable detection of weak light signals (100-120 photons per 1 cm of the proton path), the detector uses a photomultiplier with a high quantum output and high gain for a minimum dark current. Observations of solar proton events with energies in excess of 600 MeV are summarized.

  18. Underground measurements on secondary cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C. W.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements made at the Poatina cosmic ray station (41.8 S 149.9 E, 347 m.w.e.) from August 1983 to July 1984 are summarized. The cosmic ray primary particles responsible for events detected at the station have a median primary energy of 1.2 TeV. The motivation for part of this work came from the reported detection of narrow angle anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic rays.

  19. Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers and high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Frank G.

    2017-03-01

    In the last fifteen years radio detection made it back to the list of promising techniques for extensive air showers, firstly, due to the installation and successful operation of digital radio experiments and, secondly, due to the quantitative understanding of the radio emission from atmospheric particle cascades. The radio technique has an energy threshold of about 100 PeV, which coincides with the energy at which a transition from the highest-energy galactic sources to the even more energetic extragalactic cosmic rays is assumed. Thus, radio detectors are particularly useful to study the highest-energy galactic particles and ultra-high-energy extragalactic particles of all types. Recent measurements by various antenna arrays like LOPES, CODALEMA, AERA, LOFAR, Tunka-Rex, and others have shown that radio measurements can compete in precision with other established techniques, in particular for the arrival direction, the energy, and the position of the shower maximum, which is one of the best estimators for the composition of the primary cosmic rays. The scientific potential of the radio technique seems to be maximum in combination with particle detectors, because this combination of complementary detectors can significantly increase the total accuracy for air-shower measurements. This increase in accuracy is crucial for a better separation of different primary particles, like gamma-ray photons, neutrinos, or different types of nuclei, because showers initiated by these particles differ in average depth of the shower maximum and in the ratio between the amplitude of the radio signal and the number of muons. In addition to air-shower measurements, the radio technique can be used to measure particle cascades in dense media, which is a promising technique for detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos. Several pioneering experiments like ARA, ARIANNA, and ANITA are currently searching for the radio emission by neutrino-induced particle cascades in ice. In the next years

  20. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. Supernova and cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A general overview of supernova astronomy is presented, followed by a discussion of the relationship between SN and galactic cosmic rays. Pre-supernova evolution is traced to core collapse, explosion, and mass ejection. The two types of SN light curves are discussed in terms of their causes, and the different nucleosynthetic processes inside SNs are reviewed. Physical events in SN remnants are discussed. The three main connections between cosmic rays and SNs, the energy requirement, the acceleration mechanism, and the detailed composition of CR, are detailed.

  2. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, M.; Dawson, B.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandat, D.; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J. N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, M.; Pech, M.; Privitera, P.; Schovanek, P.; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S. B.; Travnicek, P.; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-02-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. The FAST prototype took data for 19 nights, demonstrating remarkable operational stability. We detected laser shots at distances of several kilometers as well as 16 highly significant UHECR shower candidates.

  3. Operation and performance of the EEE network array for the detection of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferraro, A.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Licciulli, F.; Maggiora, A.; Maragoto Rodriguez, O.; Maron, G.; Martelli, B.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Park, W.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stori, L.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Visnyei, O. B.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2017-02-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project is an experiment for the detection of cosmic ray muons by means of a sparse array of telescopes, each made of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), distributed over all the Italian territory and at CERN. The main scientific goals of the Project are the investigation of the properties of the local muon flux, the detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and the search for long-distance correlations between far telescopes. The Project is also characterized by a strong educational and outreach aspect since the telescopes are managed by teams of students and teachers who had previously constructed them at CERN. In this paper an overall description of the experiment is given, including the design, construction and performance of the telescopes. The operation of the whole array, which currently consists of more than 50 telescopes, is also presented by showing the most recent physics results.

  4. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

    2011-11-25

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

  5. Detection of the isotopes of heavy cosmic ray nuclei. [by particle counter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, C. M.; Waddington, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    A counter telescope designed to detect and resolve the isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei heavier than neon is being prepared. The telescope consists of a rather conventional charge measuring array using two scintillator elements and two solid Cerenkov radiators of differing refractive index. The mass measurement is obtained by combining the velocity information from one or both of the Cerenkov radiators operating near their threshold with residual range measured in a block of nuclear emulsion. Path length corrections and particle location in the emulsions is provided by a spark chamber fired in coincidence with potentially suitable particles. The telescope has a geometry factor of 530 sq cm sr roughly. It should be able to resolve the isotopes of iron over the energy range of 300 to 720 Mev/n and those of neon over 300 to 400 MeV/n. The expected response and characteristics of the telescope are described in detail and the sensitivity to rare isotopes discussed.

  6. Prospects for strangelet detection with large-scale cosmic ray observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.

    Quark matter which contains s-quarks in addition to u- and d- could be stable or metastable. In this case, lumps made of this strange matter, called strangelets, could occasionally hit the Earth. When travelling through the atmosphere they would behave not dissimilar to usual high-velocity meteors with only exception that, eventually, strangelets reach the surface. As these encounters are expected to be extremely rare events, very large exposure is needed for their observation. Fluorescence detectors utilized in large ultra-high energy cosmic ray observatories, such as the Pierre Auger observatory and the Telescope Array are well suited for a task of the detection of these events. The flux limits that can be obtained with the Telescope Array fluorescence detectors could be as low as 2.5 × 10‑22 cm‑2s‑1sr‑1 which would improve by two orders of magnitude of the strongest present limits obtained from ancient mica crystals.

  7. Galactic cosmic rays and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiener, Juergen

    2010-03-01

    The nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be and B by galactic cosmic rays is presented. Observations of cosmic rays and the nuclear reactions responsible for Li, Be and B nucleosynthesis are described, followed by some words on propagation. At the end, some open questions concerning galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

  8. Cosmic Ray Removal in Fiber Spectroscopic Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhongrui; Zhang, Haotong; Yuan, Hailong; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Li, Guangwei; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao; Yang, Huiqin; Zhao, Yongheng; Cao, Zihuang

    2017-02-01

    Single-exposure spectra in large spectral surveys are valuable for time domain studies such as stellar variability, but there is no available method to eliminate cosmic rays for single-exposure, multi-fiber spectral images. In this paper, we describe a new method to detect and remove cosmic rays in multi-fiber spectroscopic single exposures. Through the use of two-dimensional profile fitting and a noise model that considers the position-dependent errors, we successfully detect as many as 80% of the cosmic rays and correct the cosmic ray polluted pixels to an average accuracy of 97.8%. Multiple tests and comparisons with both simulated data and real LAMOST data show that the method works properly in detection rate, false detection rate, and validity of cosmic ray correction.

  9. Detecting atmospheric cosmic ray induced muon showers with the NO νA Far Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Mehreen

    2015-04-01

    The research goals of Fermilab's NuMi Off-Axis Electron Neutrino Appearance (NO νA) are to observe muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations, determine the ordering of neutrino masses, and explain violation of matter/anti-matter symmetry. However, NO νA can also be used to study cosmic ray induced high energy extensive air showers. This poster describes the initial characterization of NO νA as a cosmic ray detector. The detector has a combination of large size and high spatial resolution that will allow future studies of the hadronic cores of cosmic ray air showers. A large component of these showers are muons. Multiple parallel muon tracks seen in a single event with the NO νA detectors result from the same primary cosmic ray collision in the upper atmosphere. In order to use these muon bundles to probe the cosmic ray physics involved, we determine event characteristics such as the multiplicity of observed multiple muons, the effective area of the detector, the angular resolution of the detector, the scattering of individual muons, and the effectiveness of identifying and isolating these parallel muon shower events from background and noise. NuMi Off-Axis Electron Neutrino Appearance Experiment.

  10. K-alpha X-rays from cosmic ray oxygen. [Detection and calculation of equilibrium charge fractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Boldt, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Equilibrium charge fractions are calculated for subrelativistic cosmic ray oxygen ions in the interstellar medium. These are used to determine the expected flux of K-alpha rays arising from atomic processes for a number of different postulated interstellar oxygen spectra. Relating these results to the diffuse X-ray background measured at the appropriate energy level suggests an observable line feature. If the flux of low energy cosmic ray oxygen is sufficiently large, K-alpha X-ray line emission from these nuclei will comprise a significant fraction of the total diffuse flux at approximately 0.6 keV. A satellite borne detector with a resolution greater than 30 percent could observe this feature if the subrelativistic interstellar cosmic ray oxygen spectrum is as large as certain theoretical estimates expressed in the text.

  11. Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Raphael

    2017-02-01

    Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays interact with the Earth's atmosphere and produce great numbers of secondary particles forming an extensive air shower. These air showers emit radiation in the radio frequency range which delivers important information about the processes of radio emission in extensive air showers and properties of the primary cosmic rays, e.g. arrival direction, energy and mass with a duty cycle close to 100%. The radio extension of the world's largest cosmic-ray experiment, the Pierre Auger Observatory, is called the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). In addition to the particle and fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory, AERA investigates the electromagnetic component of extensive air showers using 153 autonomous radio stations on an area of 17km2 .

  12. On the Possibility of Radar Detection of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray- and Neutrino-induced Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P.

    1999-01-01

    We show that cosmic rays air showers resulting from primaries with energies above 10(sup 19) eV should be straightforward to detect with radar ranging techniques, where the radar echoes are produced by scattering from the column of ionized air produced by the shower.

  13. Temporal signatures of the Cherenkov light induced by extensive air showers of cosmic rays detected with the Yakutsk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Timofeev, L. V.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze temporal characteristics of signals from the wide field-of-view (WFOV) Cherenkov telescope (CT) detecting extensive air showers (EAS) of cosmic rays (CRs) in coincidence with surface detectors of the Yakutsk array. Our aim is to reveal causal relationships between measured characteristics and physical properties of EAS.

  14. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  15. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, A.M.van den; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-08-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimize detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterize the shower from radio signals and to optimize the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of a large detection array requires autonomous detector stations. The current design is aiming at stations with antennas for two polarizations, solar power, wireless communication, and local trigger logic. The results of this initial phase will provide an important stepping stone for the design of a few tens kilometers square engineering array.

  16. Galactic cosmic ray composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment is given of the galactic cosmic ray source (GCRS) elemental composition and its correlation with first ionization potential. The isotopic composition of heavy nuclei; spallation cross sections; energy spectra of primary nuclei; electrons; positrons; local galactic reference abundances; comparison of solar energetic particles and solar coronal compositions; the hydrogen; lead; nitrogen; helium; and germanium deficiency problems; and the excess of elements are among the topics covered.

  17. Special Relativity in the School Laboratory: A Simple Apparatus for Cosmic-Ray Muon Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity…

  18. A Bayesian analysis of the 69 highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanin, Alexander; Mortlock, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    The origins of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain an open question. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate the arrival directions of the UHECRs with catalogues of potential sources, but no definite conclusion has been reached. We report a Bayesian analysis of the 69 events, from the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), that aims to determine the fraction of the UHECRs that originate from known AGNs in the Veron-Cety & Verson (VCV) catalogue, as well as AGNs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT), galaxies from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), and an additional volume-limited sample of 17 nearby AGNs. The study makes use of a multilevel Bayesian model of UHECR injection, propagation and detection. We find that for reasonable ranges of prior parameters the Bayes factors disfavour a purely isotropic model. For fiducial values of the model parameters, we report 68 per cent credible intervals for the fraction of source originating UHECRs of 0.09^{+0.05}_{-0.04}, 0.25^{+0.09}_{-0.08}, 0.24^{+0.12}_{-0.10}, and 0.08^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the VCV, Swift-BAT and 2MRS catalogues, and the sample of 17 AGNs, respectively.

  19. Cosmic Rays: "A Thin Rain of Charged Particles."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are balloons and electroscopes, understanding cosmic rays, cosmic ray paths, isotopes and cosmic-ray travel, sources of cosmic rays, and accelerating cosmic rays. Some of the history of the discovery and study of cosmic rays is presented. (CW)

  20. Detection of High Energy Cosmic Ray with the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazely, Ali R.

    2003-01-01

    ATIC is a balloon-borne investigation of cosmic ray spectra, from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Gemmate (BGO) calorimeter. It is equipped with the first large area mosaic of small fully depleted silicon detector pixels capable of charge identification in cosmic rays from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a coarse particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the center and below a Carbon interaction 'target'. Very high energy gamma-rays and their energy spectrum may provide insight to the flux of extremely high energy neutrinos which will be investigated in detail with several proposed cubic kilometer scale neutrino observatories in the next decade.

  1. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  2. Cosmic Ray research in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Zazyan, M.

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic Ray research on Mt. Aragats began in 1934 with the measurements of East-West anisotropy by the group from Leningrad Physics-Technical Institute and Norair Kocharian from Yerevan State University. Stimulated by the results of their experiments in 1942 Artem and Abraham Alikhanyan brothers organized a scientific expedition to Aragats. Since that time physicists were studying Cosmic Ray fluxes on Mt. Aragats with various particle detectors: mass spectrometers, calorimeters, transition radiation detectors, and huge particle detector arrays detecting protons and nuclei accelerated in most violent explosions in Galaxy. Latest activities at Mt. Aragats include Space Weather research with networks of particle detectors located in Armenia and abroad, and detectors of Space Education center in Yerevan.

  3. Antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental observations and results are discussed. It was found that the approximately 50 antiprotons collected in balloon experiments to date have generated considerable theoretical interest. Clearly, confirmatory experiments and measurements over an extended energy range are required before definite conclusions are drawn. Antiproton measurements have a bearing on astrophysical problems ranging from cosmic ray propagation to issues of cosmological import. The next generation of balloon experiments and the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility being discussed for operation on NASA's space station should provide data and insights of highest interest.

  4. Detection of High Energy Cosmic Rays with Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter, ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahn, E. J.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Ellison, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.

    2002-01-01

    The author presents preliminary results of the first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC). ATIC is a multiple, long duration balloon flight, investigation for the study of cosmic ray spectra from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter. It is equipped with the first large area mosaic of small fully depleted silicon detector pads capable of charge identification of cosmic rays from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a coarse particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the center and below a Carbon interaction 'target'.

  5. Detecting Low-Contrast Features in the Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Map of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.; Golightly, M. J.; Case, A. W.; Smith, S.; Blake, J. B.; Kasper, J.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing (via nuclear evaporation) secondary 'albedo' or 'splash' particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith, and by ice deposits in permanently shadowed polar craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy ((is) approximately 100 MeV) lunar albedo protons.

  6. Special relativity in the school laboratory: a simple apparatus for cosmic-ray muon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-05-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity and to extended investigations for more inquisitive students.

  7. The Origin of Cosmic Rays

    ScienceCinema

    Blasi, Pasquale [INAF/Arcetri-Italy and Fermilab, Italy

    2016-07-12

    Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the “end” of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At ~1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform “cosmic ray astronomy”, as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

  8. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2014-08-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for ~161 days in six flights over Antarctica. High energy cosmic-ray data were collected over a wide energy range from ~ 10^10 to > 10^14 eV at an average altitude of ~38.5 km with ~3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. Cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Building on success of the balloon flights, the payload is being reconfigured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with the CREAM calorimeter for energy measurements, and four finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector layers for precise charge measurements. In addition, the Top and Bottom Counting Detectors (TCD and BCD) and Boronated Scintillator Detector (BSD) have been newly developed. The TCD and BCD are scintillator based segmented detectors to separate electrons from nuclei using the shower profile differences, while BSD distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The project status including results from on-going analysis of existing data and future plans will be discussed.

  9. Design And Development Of An Autonomous Radar Receiver For The Detection Of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Samridha

    The detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is constrained by their flux, requiring detectors with apertures of hundreds or even thousands of square kilometers and close to one hundred percent duty cycle. The sheer scale that would be required of conventional detectors, to acquire sufficient statistics for energy, composition or anisotropy studies, means that new techniques that reduce manpower and financial resources are continually being sought. In this dissertation, the development of a remote sensing technique based observatory known as bistatic radar, which aims to achieve extensive coverage of the Earth's surface, cf. Telescope Array's 700 km2 surface detector, is discussed. Construction of the radar projects transmitter station was completed in the summer of 2013, and remote receiver stations were deployed in June and November of 2014. These stations accomplish radar echo detection using an analog signal chain. Subject to less radio interference, the remote stations add stereoscopic measurement capabilities that theoretically allow unique determination of cosmic ray geometry and core location. An FPGA is used as a distributed data processing node within the project. The FPGA provides triggering logic for data sampled at 200 MSa/s, detecting Cosmic Ray shower echoes chirping at -1 to -10 Megahertz/microsecond (depending on the geometry) for several microseconds. The data acquisition system with low power consumption at a cost that is also comparatively inexpensive is described herein.

  10. Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

  11. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The existing models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  12. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The exising models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  13. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  14. Cosmic ray hazards in the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milford, S. N.

    1965-01-01

    Cosmic ray hazards in solar system considered from measurements of cosmic ray energy and charge spectra near Earth and in interplanetary space near Earth, together with interaction of cosmic rays with Moon surface

  15. JUPITER AS A GIANT COSMIC RAY DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, P. B.; Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.

    2014-06-01

    We explore the feasibility of using the atmosphere of Jupiter to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The large surface area of Jupiter allows us to probe cosmic rays of higher energies than previously accessible. Cosmic ray extensive air showers in Jupiter's atmosphere could in principle be detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi observatory. In order to be observed, these air showers would need to be oriented toward the Earth, and would need to occur sufficiently high in the atmosphere that the gamma rays can penetrate. We demonstrate that, under these assumptions, Jupiter provides an effective cosmic ray ''detector'' area of 3.3 × 10{sup 7} km{sup 2}. We predict that Fermi-LAT should be able to detect events of energy >10{sup 21} eV with fluence 10{sup –7} erg cm{sup –2} at a rate of about one per month. The observed number of air showers may provide an indirect measure of the flux of cosmic rays ≳ 10{sup 20} eV. Extensive air showers also produce a synchrotron signature that may be measurable by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Simultaneous observations of Jupiter with ALMA and Fermi-LAT could be used to provide broad constraints on the energies of the initiating cosmic rays.

  16. A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HIGHEST ENERGY COSMIC RAYS AND NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY FERMI

    SciTech Connect

    Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Bonatto, Charles; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2010-10-10

    We analyze the correlation of the positions of {gamma}-ray sources in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) and the First LAT Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) Catalog (1LAC) with the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, in order to investigate the origin of UHECRs. We find that Galactic sources and blazars identified in the 1FGL are not significantly correlated with UHECRs, while the 1LAC sources display a mild correlation (2.6{sigma} level) on an {approx}2.{sup 0}4 angular scale. When selecting only the 1LAC AGNs closer than 200 Mpc, we find a strong association (5.4{sigma}) between their positions and the directions of UHECRs on an {approx}17{sup 0} angular scale; the probability of the observed configuration being due to an isotropic flux of cosmic rays is 5 x 10{sup -8}. There is also a 5{sigma} correlation with nearby 1LAC sources on a 6.{sup 0}5 scale. We identify seven '{gamma}-ray loud' AGNs which are associated with UHECRs within {approx}17{sup 0} and are likely candidates for the production sites of UHECRs: Centaurus A, NGC 4945, ESO 323-G77, 4C+04.77, NGC 1218, RX J0008.0+1450, and NGC 253. We interpret these results as providing additional support to the hypothesis of the origin of UHECRs in nearby extragalactic objects. As the angular scales of the correlations are large, we discuss the possibility that intervening magnetic fields might be considerably deflecting the trajectories of the particles on their way to Earth.

  17. Cosmic rays in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The different types of cosmic ray particles and their role in the heliosphere are briefly described. The rates of various energetic particles were examined as a function of time and used to derive various differential energy gradients. The Pioneer and Voyager cosmic ray observations throughout the heliosphere are indeed giving a perspective on the three-dimensional character and size of the heliosphere. Most clearly the observations are emphasizing the role that transient variations in the outer heliosphere, and most likely the heliospheric boundary shock, play in the 11 year solar cycle modulation of cosmic rays.

  18. Detecting Low-Contrast Features in the Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Map of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H.; Smith, S. S.; Golightly, M. J.; Case, A. W.; Stubbs, T. J.; Blake, J. B.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing (via nuclear evaporation[1]) secondary 'albedo' or 'splash' particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith[2-5], and by ice deposits[6] in permanently shadowed polar craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy lunar albedo protons. Using the CRaTER instrument (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) on LRO, we measure albedo protons (60 to 150 MeV) to construct a cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon. Our current map is a significant improvement over the proof-of-concept map of Wilson et al.[7]. In addition to using more numerous minimum ionizing GCR protons for normalization, we filter out all solar particle enhancement periods and make use of all six of CRaTER's detectors to reduce contamination from spurious non-proton events in the data stream. The average yield of albedo protons from the maria is 0.8% × 0.4% higher than the yield from the highlands. In addition there appear to be localized peaks in the albedo proton yield that are co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer. More data may reveal subtler proton yield variations correlated with latitude, time of day, or the locations of permanently shadowed craters, due to the presence of water frost. Given that the most obvious features in the map have a proton yield only 2σ above average, the search for more subtle regions of enhancement or reduction in proton yield will require precise corrections for small but systematic effects of time and spacecraft altitude on the apparent proton yield. We will show the effects of these trends as well as the latest version of the albedo proton map. References: [1] Bethe (1937) Rev. Mod

  19. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.; Engel, Ralph; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; 1. Cosmic rays; 2. Cosmic ray data; 3. Particle physics; 4. Hadronic interactions and accelerator data; 5. Cascade equations; 6. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos; 7. Neutrino masses and oscillations; 8. Muons and neutrinos underground; 9. Cosmic rays in the Galaxy; 10. Extragalactic propagation of cosmic rays; 11. Astrophysical - rays and neutrinos; 12. Acceleration; 13. Supernovae in the Milky Way; 14. Astrophysical accelerators and beam dumps; 15. Electromagnetic cascades; 16. Extensive air showers; 17. Very high energy cosmic rays; 18. Neutrino astronomy; A.1. Units, constants and definitions; A.2. References to flux measurements; A.3. Particle flux, density, and interaction cross section; A.4. Fundamentals of scattering theory; A.5. Regge amplitude; A.6. Glauber model of nuclear cross sections; A.7. Earth's atmosphere; A.8. Longitudinal development of air showers; A.9. Secondary positrons and electrons; A.10. Liouville's theorem and cosmic ray propagation; A.11. Cosmology and distances measures; A.12. The Hillas splitting algorithm; References; Index.

  20. High energy cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, E. S.

    Cosmic rays are understood to result from energetic processes in the galaxy, probably from supernova explosions. However, cosmic ray energies extend several orders of magnitude beyond the limit thought possible for supernova blast waves. Over the past decade several ground-based and space-based investigations were initiated to look for evidence of a limit to supernova acceleration in the cosmic-ray chemical composition at high energies. These high-energy measurements are difficult because of the very low particle fluxes in the most interesting regions. The space-based detectors must be large enough to collect adequate statistics, yet stay within the weight limit for space flight. Innovative approaches now promise high quality measurements over an energy range that was not previously possible. The current status of high energy cosmic-ray composition measurements and planned future missions are discussed in this paper.

  1. Detection of primary and secondary cosmic ray particles aboard the ISS using SSNTD stacks.

    PubMed

    Pálfalvi, J K; Akatov, Yu; Szabó, J; Sajó-Bohus, L; Eördögh, I

    2006-01-01

    To study the radiation environment inside the International Space Station, solid state nuclear track detector stacks were used. Within the BRADOS experiments, Phase 1, seven stacks were exposed at different locations of the Russian segment 'Zvezda' for 248 days in 2001. It was supposed that the radiation field inside the ISS was composed from primary cosmic ray particles penetrating the wall of the ISS and secondaries, mainly neutrons induced by primaries in the wall and other structural materials surrounding the detectors. Based on the calibration made by utilising the high energy neutron reference field CERF at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland), the tracks induced by neutrons were separated from those induced by primary particles. Thus, the stacks, on one hand, provided the secondary neutron ambient dose equivalent. On the other hand, from the analysis of the rest of the tracks, the linear energy transfer spectra were computed and the flux and the dose of the primary particles were determined as shown in this paper.

  2. Galactic Cosmic Rays: From Earth to Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Theresa J.

    2012-01-01

    For nearly 100 years we have known that cosmic rays come from outer space, yet proof of their origin, as well as a comprehensive understanding of their acceleration, remains elusive. Direct detection of high energy (up to 10(exp 15)eV), charged nuclei with experiments such as the balloon-born, antarctic Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) have provided insight into these mysteries through measurements of cosmic ray abundances. The abundance of these rare elements with respect to certain intrinsic properties suggests that cosmic rays include a component of massive star ejecta. Supernovae and their remnants (SNe & SNRs), often occurring at the end of a massive star's life or in an environment including massive star material, are one of the most likely candidates for sources accelerating galactic comic ray nuclei up to the requisite high energies. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Detector (Fermi LAT) has improved our understanding of such sources by widening the window of observable energies and thus into potential sources' energetic processes. In combination with multiwavelength observations, we are now better able to constrain particle populations (often hadron-dominated at GeV energies) and environmental conditions, such as the magnetic field strength. The SNR CTB 37A is one such source which could contribute to the observed galactic cosmic rays. By assembling populations of SNRs, we will be able to more definitively define their contribution to the observed galactic cosmic rays, as well as better understand SNRs themselves. Such multimessenger studies will thus illuminate the long-standing cosmic ray mysteries, shedding light on potential sources, acceleration mechanisms, and cosmic ray propagation.

  3. Cosmic Ray Mass Measurements with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, Stijn; Bonardi, Antonio; Corstanje, Arthur; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katie; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Jörg Paul; Rossetto, Laura; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; Thoudam, Satyendra; Trinh, Gia; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique that combines a two-dimensional fit of the radio profile to CoREAS simulations and a one-dimensional fit of the particle density distribution. For high-quality detections, the statistical uncertainty on Xmax is smaller than 20 g/cm2. We present results of cosmic-ray mass analysis in the energy regime of 1017 - 1017.5 eV. This range is of particular interest as it may harbor the transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  4. Cosmic-Ray Observations with HAWC30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorino, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 meters on the slope of Volc'an Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an extensive air-shower array comprising 300 optically-isolated water Cherenkov detectors. Each detector contains 200,000 liters of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. Since September 2012, 30 water Cherenkov detectors have been instrumented and operated in data acquisition. With 10 percent of the detector complete and six months of operation, the event statistics are already sufficient to perform detailed studies of cosmic rays observed at the site. We will report on cosmic-ray observations with HAWC30, in particular the detection and study of the shadow of the moon. From these observations, we infer the pointing accuracy of the detector and our angular resolution of the detector reconstruction.

  5. Searches for Anisotropies in the Arrival Directions of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villase ñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80°, thus covering from -90{}^\\circ to +45{}^\\circ in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30°, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. The strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability ˜ 1.4%) are obtained for cosmic rays with E\\gt 58 EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg s-1 (18° radius), and around the direction of Cen A (15° radius).

  6. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80°, thus covering from -90° to +45° in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30°, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. As a result, the strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probabilitymore » $$\\sim 1.4$$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $$E\\gt 58$$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg s-1 (18° radius), and around the direction of Cen A (15° radius).« less

  7. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to 80°, thus covering from -90° to +45° in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes, self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to 30°, and different threshold energies between 40 and 80 EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2MRS catalog, AGNs detected by Swift-BAT, radio galaxies with jets, and the Centaurus A (Cen A) galaxy. None of the tests show statistically significant evidence of anisotropy. As a result, the strongest departures from isotropy (post-trial probability $\\sim 1.4$%) are obtained for cosmic rays with $E\\gt 58$ EeV in rather large windows around Swift AGNs closer than 130 Mpc and brighter than 1044 erg s-1 (18° radius), and around the direction of Cen A (15° radius).

  8. Cosmic rays: Space Weather Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    The concept of Space Weather was launched before a decade to describe the short-term variations in the different form of solar ac-tivity and their effect in the near Earth environ-ment. Space weather affects the Earth's atmos-phere in many ways and through various phe-nomena. Among them, geomagnetic storms and the variability of the galactic cosmic ray flux be-long to the most important ones as for the lower atmosphere. We have performed superposed ep-och analysis using hourly neutron monitor data for three different neutron-monitoring stations of different cut off rigidity as a measure of cosmic ray intensity. In the present study for superposed epoch analysis the time of occurrence of CMEs are defined as key time (zero or epoch hour/day). It is noteworthy that the use of cosmic ray data in space weather research plays a key role for its prediction. We have studied the cosmic ray, geo-magnetic and interplanetary plasma/field data to understand the physical mechanism responsible for Forbush decrease and geomagnetic storm that can be used as a signature to forecast space weather. Keywords: Space weather, cosmic ray, geomag-netic storm, forbush decrease

  9. Search for Anisotropies in Cosmic-ray Positrons Detected By the PAMELA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Giaccari, U.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-09-01

    The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) detector was launched on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite on 2006 June 15. The data collected during the first four years have been used to search for large-scale anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic ray positrons. The PAMELA experiment allows for a full sky investigation, with sensitivity to global anisotropies in any angular window of the celestial sphere. Data samples of positrons in the rigidity range of 10 GV ≤slant R ≤slant 200 GV were analyzed. This article discusses the method and the results of the search for possible local sources through the analysis of anisotropy in positron data compared to the proton background. The resulting distributions of arrival directions are found to be isotropic. Starting from the angular power spectrum, a dipole anisotropy upper limit of δ = 0.076 at the 95% confidence level is determined. An additional search is carried out around the Sun. No evidence of an excess correlated with that direction was found.

  10. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  11. Efficacy of Cosmic Ray Shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    This research involved testing various types of shielding with a self-constructed Berkeley style cosmic ray detector, in order to evaluate the materials of each type of shielding's effectiveness at blocking cosmic rays and the cost- and size-efficiency of the shields as well. The detector was constructed, then tested for functionality and reliability. Following confirmation, the detector was then used at three different locations to observe it altitude or atmospheric conditions had any effect on the effectiveness of certain shields. Multiple types of shielding were tested with the detector, including combinations of several shields, primarily aluminum, high-iron steel, polyethylene plastic, water, lead, and a lead-alternative radiation shield utilized in radiology. These tests regarding both the base effectiveness and the overall efficiency of shields is designed to support future space exploratory missions where the risk of exposure to possibly lethal amounts of cosmic rays for crew and the damage caused to unshielded electronics are of serious concern.

  12. Monopole annihilation and highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, P. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 ); Sigl, G. NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 )

    1995-04-15

    Cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10[sup 20] eV have been detected. The origin of these highest energy cosmic rays remains unknown. Established astrophysical acceleration mechanisms encounter severe difficulties in accelerating particles to these energies. Alternative scenarios where these particles are created by the decay of cosmic topological defects have been suggested in the literature. In this paper we study the possibility of producing the highest energy cosmic rays through a process that involves the formation of metastable magnetic monopole-antimonopole bound states and their subsequent collapse. The annihilation of the heavy monopole-antimonopole pairs constituting the monopolonia can produce energetic nucleons, [gamma] rays, and neutrinos whose expected flux we estimate and discuss in relation to experimental data so far available. The monopoles we consider are the ones that could be produced in the early Universe during a phase transition at the grand unification energy scale. We find that observable cosmic ray fluxes can be produced with monopole abundances compatible with present bounds.

  13. Fun Times with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Who would have thought cosmic rays could be so hip? Although discovered 90 years ago on death-defying manned balloon flights hip even by twenty-first-century extremesport standards cosmic rays quickly lost popularity as way-cool telescopes were finding way-too-cool phenomena across the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet cosmic rays are back in vogue, boasting their own set of superlatives. Scientists are tracking them down with new resolve from the Arctic to Antarctica and even on the high western plains of Argentina. Theorists, too, now see cosmic rays as harbingers of funky physics. Cosmic rays are atomic and subatomic particles - the fastest moving bits of matter in the universe and the only sample of matter we have from outside the solar system (with the exception of interstellar dust grains). Lower-energy cosmic rays come from the Sun. Mid-energy particles come from stellar explosions - either spewed directly from the star like shrapnel, or perhaps accelerated to nearly the speed of light by shock waves. The highest-energy cosmic rays, whose unequivocal existence remains one of astronomy's greatest mysteries, clock in at a staggering 10(exp 19) to 10(exp 22) electron volts. This is the energy carried in a baseball pitch; seeing as how there are as many atomic particles in a baseball as there are baseballs in the Moon, that s one powerful toss. No simple stellar explosion could produce them. At a recent conference in Albuquerque, scientists presented the first observational evidence of a possible origin for the highest-energy variety. A team led by Elihu Boldt at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center found that five of these very rare cosmic rays (there are only a few dozen confirmed events) come from the direction of four 'retired' quasar host galaxies just above the arm of the Big Dipper, all visible with backyard telescopes: NGC 3610, NGC 3613, NGC 4589, and NGC 5322. These galaxies are billions of years past their glory days as the brightest beacons in the universe

  14. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  15. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  16. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  17. Compact cosmic ray detector for unattended atmospheric ionization monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aplin, K L; Harrison, R G

    2010-12-01

    Two vertical cosmic ray telescopes for atmospheric cosmic ray ionization event detection are compared. Counter A, designed for low power remote use, was deployed in the Welsh mountains; its event rate increased with altitude as expected from atmospheric cosmic ray absorption. Independently, Counter B's event rate was found to vary with incoming particle acceptance angle. Simultaneous co-located comparison of both telescopes exposed to atmospheric ionization showed a linear relationship between their event rates.

  18. Compact cosmic ray detector for unattended atmospheric ionization monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2010-12-15

    Two vertical cosmic ray telescopes for atmospheric cosmic ray ionization event detection are compared. Counter A, designed for low power remote use, was deployed in the Welsh mountains; its event rate increased with altitude as expected from atmospheric cosmic ray absorption. Independently, Counter B's event rate was found to vary with incoming particle acceptance angle. Simultaneous co-located comparison of both telescopes exposed to atmospheric ionization showed a linear relationship between their event rates.

  19. The microphysics and macrophysics of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2013-05-15

    This review paper commemorates a century of cosmic ray research, with emphasis on the plasma physics aspects. Cosmic rays comprise only ∼10{sup −9} of interstellar particles by number, but collectively their energy density is about equal to that of the thermal particles. They are confined by the Galactic magnetic field and well scattered by small scale magnetic fluctuations, which couple them to the local rest frame of the thermal fluid. Scattering isotropizes the cosmic rays and allows them to exchange momentum and energy with the background medium. I will review a theory for how the fluctuations which scatter the cosmic rays can be generated by the cosmic rays themselves through a microinstability excited by their streaming. A quasilinear treatment of the cosmic ray–wave interaction then leads to a fluid model of cosmic rays with both advection and diffusion by the background medium and momentum and energy deposition by the cosmic rays. This fluid model admits cosmic ray modified shocks, large scale cosmic ray driven instabilities, cosmic ray heating of the thermal gas, and cosmic ray driven galactic winds. If the fluctuations were extrinsic turbulence driven by some other mechanism, the cosmic ray background coupling would be entirely different. Which picture holds depends largely on the nature of turbulence in the background medium.

  20. People Interview: Cosmic rays uncover universe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    INTERVIEW Cosmic rays uncover universe theories David Smith talks to Paula Chadwick about why she is fascinated by cosmic and gamma rays, and how this is the year that their profile is going to be raised

  1. The Heliosphere and Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heliosphere deflects galactic cosmic rays from entering the system. Galactic cosmic rays are a very high energy form of particle radiation that are extremely difficult to shield against and are...

  2. Evaluation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Heiblim, Samuel; Malott, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Models of the galactic cosmic ray spectra have been tested by comparing their predictions to an evaluated database containing more than 380 measured cosmic ray spectra extending from 1960 to the present.

  3. Resolving photons from cosmic ray in DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zunlei; Chang, Jin; Li, Xiang; Dong, TieKuang; Zang, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer(DAMPE), which took to the skies on 17 December, is designed for high energy cosmic ray ion detection. The proportion of photons in the cosmic ray is very small, so it's difficult to distinguish between photons and 'background', but necessary for any DAMPE gamma-ray science goals.The paper present a algorithm to identify photons from 'background' mainly by the tracker/converter, which promote pair conversion and measure the directions of incident particles, and an anticoincidence detector,featuring an array of plastic scintillator to detect the charged particles.The method has been studied by simulating using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code and adjusted by the BeamTest at CERN in December,2014.In addition,DAMPE photon detection capabilities can be checked using the flight data.

  4. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  5. Cosmology, Relativity and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rebeca; Martínez, Humberto; Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2009-04-01

    This is a short review of the evolution of ideas and concepts about the Universe. It is based on the introductory talk given on the 25 of July 2008 within the Third School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics held in Arequipa, Peru.

  6. THE MINIMUM WIDTH OF THE ARRIVAL DIRECTION DISTRIBUTION OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS DETECTED WITH THE YAKUTSK ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-05-10

    This paper presents the results of searches for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) detected with the Yakutsk Array during the 1974–2008 observational period as well as searches in available data from other giant extensive air shower arrays working at present. A method of analysis based on a comparison of the minimum width of distributions in equatorial coordinates is used. As a result, a hypothesis of isotropy in arrival directions is rejected at the 99.5% significance level. The observed decrease in the minimum width of the distribution can be explained by the presence of CR sources in energy intervals and sky regions according to recent indications inferred from data of the Yakutsk Array and Telescope Array experiments.

  7. Cosmic-Ray Detectors With Interdigitated Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Mazed, Mohammed; Holtzman, Melinda J.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1995-01-01

    Detectors measure both positions of incidence and energies of incident charged particles. Stack of detector wafers intercept cosmic ray. Measure positions of incidence to determine cosmic-ray trajectory and charge generated within them (proportional to cosmic-ray energy dissipated within them). Interdigital electrode pattern repeated over many rows and columns on tops of detector wafers in stack. Electrode pattern defines pixels within which points of incidence of incident cosmic rays located.

  8. X-ray Observations of Cosmic Ray Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays, detection of their sources has remained elusive. A major breakthrough has come through the identification of synchrotron X-rays from the shocks of supernova remnants through imaging and spectroscopic observations by the most recent generation of X-ray observatories. This radiation is most likely produced by electrons accelerated to relativistic energy, and thus has offered the first, albeit indirect, observational evidence that diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants produces cosmic rays to TeV energies, possibly as high as the "knee" in the cosmic ray spectrum. X-ray observations have provided information about the maximum energy to which these shOCks accelerate electrons, as well as indirect evidence of proton acceleration. Shock morphologies measured in X-rays have indicated that a substantial fraction of the shock energy can be diverted into particle acceleration. This presentation will summarize what we have learned about cosmic ray acceleration from X-ray observations of supernova remnants over the past two decades.

  9. Cosmic ray interactions in the ground: Temporal variations in cosmic ray intensities and geophysical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal variations in cosmic ray intensity have been deduced from observations of products of interactions of cosmic ray particles in the Moon, meteorites, and the Earth. Of particular interest is a comparison between the information based on Earth and that based on other samples. Differences are expected at least due to: (1) differences in the extent of cosmic ray modulation, and (2) changes in the geomagnetic dipole field. Any information on the global changes in the terrestrial cosmic ray intensity is therefore of importance. In this paper a possible technique for detecting changes in cosmic ray intensity is presented. The method involves human intervention and is applicable for the past 10,000 yrs. Studies of changes over longer periods of time are possible if supplementary data on age and history of the sample are available using other methods. Also discussed are the possibilities of studying certain geophysical processes, e.g., erosion, weathering, tectonic events based on studies of certain cosmic ray-produced isotopes for the past several million years.

  10. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, Ron E.; Chapline, George F.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Nakae, Les F.; Pawelczak, Iwona A.; Sheets, Steven A.

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  11. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

  12. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  13. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

  14. Large-scale Distribution of Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected Above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-12-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 1018 eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 1018 eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  15. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 10{sup 18} eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  16. The potential of detecting intermediate-scale biomass and canopy interception in a coniferous forest using cosmic-ray neutron intensity measurements and neutron transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, M.; Looms, M. C.; Bogena, H. R.; Desilets, D.; Zreda, M. G.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jensen, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The water stored in the various compartments of the terrestrial ecosystem (in snow, canopy interception, soil and litter) controls the exchange of the water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, measurements of the water stored within these pools are critical for the prediction of e.g. evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge. The detection of cosmic-ray neutron intensity is a novel non-invasive method for the quantification of continuous intermediate-scale soil moisture. The footprint of the cosmic-ray neutron probe is a hemisphere of a few hectometers and subsurface depths of 10-70 cm depending on wetness. The cosmic-ray neutron method offers measurements at a scale between the point-scale measurements and large-scale satellite retrievals. The cosmic-ray neutron intensity is inversely correlated to the hydrogen stored within the footprint. Overall soil moisture represents the largest pool of hydrogen and changes in the soil moisture clearly affect the cosmic-ray neutron signal. However, the neutron intensity is also sensitive to variations of hydrogen in snow, canopy interception and biomass offering the potential to determine water content in such pools from the signal. In this study we tested the potential of determining canopy interception and biomass using cosmic-ray neutron intensity measurements within the framework of the Danish Hydrologic Observatory (HOBE) and the Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO). Continuous measurements at the ground and the canopy level, along with profile measurements were conducted at towers at forest field sites. Field experiments, including shielding the cosmic-ray neutron probes with cadmium foil (to remove lower-energy neutrons) and measuring reference intensity rates at complete water saturated conditions (on the sea close to the HOBE site), were further conducted to obtain an increased understanding of the physics controlling the cosmic-ray neutron transport and the equipment used

  17. Design and development of a simple instrumentation system for detection of secondary cosmic rays at ground level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamal, Shakeel; Das, Nipan; Boruah, Kalyanee; Boruah, Pradip Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes a simple and low cost instrumentation system for ground based cosmic ray air shower experiments. It is designed and fabricated at Gauhati University as part of a larger and more sophisticated instrumentation for a proposed 10 m × 10 m array to carry out a series of studies on cosmic rays. The system is tested on a 4-detector small prototype array with LED coincidence pulses. It is then used to determine the rate of omnidirectional air showers incident on the array. The dependence of 4-fold coincidence rate on array size is also investigated. The results of the tests are presented in the paper.

  18. Gamma rays from grazing incidence cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Interactions of grazing incidence, ultra high-energy cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere may provide a new method of studying energetic cosmic rays with gamma-ray satellites. It is found that these cosmic ray interactions may produce gamma-rays on millisecond timescales which may be detectable by satellites. An extremely low gamma-ray background for transient gamma-ray events and a large area of interaction, the earth's surface, make the scheme plausible. The effective cross section of detection of interactions for cosmic rays above 10(exp 20) eV is found to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than Earth-based detection techniques. This method may eventually offer an efficient way of probing this region of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum where events are scarce. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented for the production of short bursts of gamma-rays based on these grazing incidence encounters with the Earth's atmosphere.

  19. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers addressing cosmic ray gradients in the heliosphere; siderial, diurnal, and long term modulations; geomagnetic and atmospheric effects; cosmogenic nuclides; solar neutrinos; and detection techniques.

  20. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.

  1. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurementmore » technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.« less

  2. Distributed reacceleration of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Eichler, David; Letaw, John R.; Silberberg, Rein; Tsao, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed in which cosmic rays, in addition to their initial acceleration by a strong shock, are continuously reaccelerated while propagating through the Galaxy. The equations describing this acceleration scheme are solved analytically and numerically. Solutions for the spectra of primary and secondary cosmic rays are given in a closed analytic form, allowing a rapid search in parameter space for viable propagation models with distributed reeacceleration included. The observed boron-to-carbon ratio can be reproduced by the reacceleration theory over a range of escape parameters, some of them quite different from the standard leaky-box model. It is also shown that even a very modest amount of reacceleration by strong shocks causes the boron-to-carbon ratio to level off at sufficiently high energies.

  3. Feasibility of Sea-level Cosmic-Ray Muon-Capture SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L; Bernstein, A

    2005-03-11

    The first part of this report argues the average time between signal events for X-rays from negative muon capture on SNM is from a few to a few 10's of minutes, depending on how sophisticated one care's to make the detector. The second part of this report argues that the recoil proton background in the energy resolution window can be orders of magnitude larger than the expected signal. How could one evade this result? Firstly, one could conceive of a very highly segmented muon counter (or electromagnetic calorimeter) system to actually detect a stopping muon. This would be extraordinarily expensive for a large area and volume of a cargo container. There are also quite a few assumptions we applied to make the calculations tractable. For instance, we assumed the detector was fully efficient for a neutron recoil. probably something like 25% or 50% is more appropriate. However, probably the biggest uncertainty is the neutron energy spectrum. The Boehm et al. paper discusses the range of spectrum parameterizations, some of which are considerably softer and will lower the high-energy proton yield. This outcome is certainly possible. However, given the difference between signal and background rates, it would take a considerable change in detector parameters and particle yields to change the basic conclusion that this technique does not appear promising.

  4. A focussing iron line crystal spectrometer for Spacelab. [cosmic X-ray detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Culhane, J. L.; Rapley, C. G.; Gabriel, A. H.; Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    A crystal spectrometer system is described which employs conical focusing of 12 curved LiF crystal panels to minimize the detector size and reduce the background counting rate. The wavelength range from 1.70 to 1.98 A is covered, including the resonance lines of Fe XXV and Fe XXVI as well as the Fe I K-alpha line and absorption edge. Operation of the spectrometer is discussed, noting that diffracted X-rays are registered in one-dimensional position-sensitive detectors and that the arrival position of a photon in a detector is related to its wavelength due to the fixed curvature of the crystal panels in the dispersion plane. Some characteristics of the multianode position-sensitive detectors are reviewed along with the crystal arrangement and mounting. The instrument sensitivity is evaluated in relation to the strengths of 6.7-keV emission features detected by the Ariel 5 and OSO 8 proportional-counter spectrometers.

  5. A cosmic rays experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Munguía, Gustavo; Pineda de Carías, María Cristina

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an experiment performed to detect the total flux of muons incident over Tegucigalpa (Honduras) the day of the total solar eclipse of the 11 July, 1991; and also a comparison with data obtained before the eclipse and registered in the past years.

  6. DETECTION OF OH{sup +} IN TRANSLUCENT INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS: NEW ELECTRONIC TRANSITIONS AND PROBING THE PRIMARY COSMIC RAY IONIZATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Krełowski, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present the detection of rotationally resolved electronic transitions in the OH{sup +} A{sup 3}Π–X{sup 3}Σ{sup −} (0, 0) and (1, 0) bands toward CD-32 4348, HD 63804, HD 78344, and HD 80077. These four translucent clouds have been studied in a recent Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph observational run. In total, seven absorption features of OH{sup +} are detected, and six of them are identified here for the first time, providing a precise tool to trace OH{sup +} in translucent interstellar clouds. An improved set of line positions and oscillator strengths is compiled to support our data interpretation. A dedicated analysis of the observed features in individual targets yields an accurate determination of OH{sup +} column densities. The results are applied to estimate the primary cosmic ray ionization rate in the investigated translucent clouds, which yields a typical value of ∼1.0 × 10{sup −16} s{sup −1}. In addition, following this work, two of the new interstellar features recently reported by Bhatt and Cami, at ∼3572.65 and 3346.96 Å, can be identified as OH{sup +} absorption lines now.

  7. The detection of high charge cosmic ray nuclei. [by balloon-borne electronic particle telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarlett, W. R.; Freier, P. S.; Waddington, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    A large-area, light-weight electronic particle telescope was flown on a high altitude balloon in the summer of 1974 to study the heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation. This telescope consisted of a double Cerenkov-double scintillator array composed of four 1.22 m diameter disk radiators mounted in light diffusion boxes, each looked at by multiple photomultipliers. The impact point of each particle on the scintillation radiators was determined by studying the relative signals observed by three equally spaced peripheral photomultipliers and one mounted at the center of the diffusion boxes. This telescope was flown in a configuration having a geometric factor of 0.45 sq m sr and observed some 5 x 10 to the 4 nuclei with Z exceeding 14 in a 11 hr exposure. The response and sensitivity of this telescope are discussed in detail.

  8. High-energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-03-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ~50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is FX = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity LX = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 1034 erg s-1 assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ~100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ~30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  9. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  10. The mass composition of cosmic rays measured with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörandel, Jörg R.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Winchen, T.

    2017-03-01

    High-energy cosmic rays, impinging on the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles, the extensive air showers. The electrons and positrons in the air shower emit electromagnetic radiation. This emission is detected with the LOFAR radio telescope in the frequency range from 30 to 240 MHz. The data are used to determine the properties of the incoming cosmic rays. The radio technique is now routinely used to measure the arrival direction, the energy, and the particle type (atomic mass) of cosmic rays in the energy range from 1017 to 1018 eV. This energy region is of particular astrophysical interest, since in this regime a transition from a Galactic to an extra-galactic origin of cosmic rays is expected. For illustration, the LOFAR results are used to set constraints on models to describe the origin of high-energy cosmic rays.

  11. Galactic cosmic ray composition and energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Galactic cosmic ray nuclei represent a significant risk to long-duration spaceflight outside the magnetosphere. We review briefly existing measurements of the composition and energy spectra of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, pointing out which species and energy ranges are most critical to assessing cosmic ray risks for spaceflight. Key data sets are identified and a table of cosmic ray abundances is presented for elements from H to Ni (Z = 1 to 28). Because of the 22-year nature of the solar modulation cycle, data from the approaching 1998 solar minimum is especially important to reducing uncertainties in the cosmic ray radiation hazard. It is recommended that efforts to model this hazard take advantage of approaches that have been developed to model the astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays.

  12. Antennas for the detection of radio emission pulses from cosmic-ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Charrier, D.; Denis, L.; Hilgers, G.; Mohrmann, L.; Philipps, B.; Seeger, O.

    2012-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is exploring the potential of the radio detection technique to study extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) addresses both technological and scientific aspects of the radio technique. A first phase of AERA has been operating since September 2010 with detector stations observing radio signals at frequencies between 30 and 80 MHz. In this paper we present comparative studies to identify and optimize the antenna design for the final configuration of AERA consisting of 160 individual radio detector stations. The transient nature of the air shower signal requires a detailed description of the antenna sensor. As the ultra-wideband reception of pulses is not widely discussed in antenna literature, we review the relevant antenna characteristics and enhance theoretical considerations towards the impulse response of antennas including polarization effects and multiple signal reflections. On the basis of the vector effective length we study the transient response characteristics of three candidate antennas in the time domain. Observing the variation of the continuous galactic background intensity we rank the antennas with respect to the noise level added to the galactic signal.

  13. CaloCube: A new-concept calorimeter for the detection of high-energy cosmic rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannuccini, E.; Adriani, O.; Agnesi, A.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Brogi, P.; Carotenuto, G.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; D'Alessandro, R.; Detti, S.; Fasoli, M.; Finetti, N.; Lenzi, P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Miritello, M.; Mori, N.; Orzan, G.; Olmi, M.; Pacini, L.; Papini, P.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pirzio, F.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Spillantini, P.; Starodubtsev, O.; Stolzi, F.; Suh, J. E.; Sulaj, A.; Tiberio, A.; Tricomi, A.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Vedda, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zerbo, B.

    2017-02-01

    The direct observation of high-energy cosmic rays, up to the PeV region, will increasingly rely on highly performing calorimeters, and the physics performance will be primarily determined by their geometrical acceptance and energy resolution. Thus, it is extremely important to optimize their geometrical design, granularity, and absorption depth, with respect to the total mass of the apparatus, which is among the most important constraints for a space mission. Calocube is a homogeneous calorimeter whose basic geometry is cubic and isotropic, so as to detect particles arriving from every direction in space, thus maximizing the acceptance; granularity is obtained by filling the cubic volume with small cubic scintillating crystals. This design forms the basis of a three-year R &D activity which has been approved and financed by INFN. A comparative study of different scintillating materials has been performed. Optimal values for the size of the crystals and spacing among them have been studied. Different geometries, besides the cubic one, and the possibility to implement dual-readout techniques have been investigated. A prototype, instrumented with CsI(Tl) cubic crystals, has been constructed and tested with particle beams. An overview of the obtained results will be presented and the perspectives for future space experiments will be discussed.

  14. Cloud chamber visualization of primary cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, James A.

    2013-02-07

    From 1948 until 1963, cloud chambers were carried to the top of the atmosphere by balloons. From these flights, which were begun by Edward P. Ney at the University of Minnesota, came the following results: discovery of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, development of scintillation and cherenkov detectors, discovery of cosmic ray electrons, and studies of solar proton events. The history of that era is illustrated here by cloud chamber photographs of primary cosmic rays.

  15. Stopping Cooling Flows with Cosmic-Ray Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, William G.

    2009-04-01

    Multi-Gyr two-dimensional calculations describe the gas dynamical evolution of hot gas in the Virgo cluster resulting from intermittent cavities formed with cosmic rays. Without cosmic rays, the gas evolves into a cooling flow, depositing about 85 solar masses per year of cold gas in the cluster core—such uninhibited cooling conflicts with X-ray spectra and many other observations. When cosmic rays are produced or deposited 10 kpc from the cluster center in bursts of about 1059 erg lasting 20 Myr and spaced at intervals of 200 Myr, the central cooling rate is greatly reduced to {\\dot{M}} ≈ 0.1-1 solar masses per year, consistent with observations. After cosmic rays diffuse through the cavity walls, the ambient gas density is reduced and is buoyantly transported 30-70 kpc out into the cluster. Cosmic rays do not directly heat the gas and the modest shock heating around young cavities is offset by global cooling as the cluster gas expands. After several Gyr the hot gas density and temperature profiles remain similar to those observed, provided the time-averaged cosmic-ray luminosity is about L cr = 2.7 × 1043 erg s-1, approximately equal to the bolometric cooling rate LX within only ~56kpc. If an appreciable fraction of the relativistic cosmic rays is protons, gamma rays produced by pion decay following inelastic p-p collisions may be detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope.

  16. Plans for Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been detected at energies beyond 10(exp 20) eV, where Universe is predicted to become opaque to protons. The acceleration of cosmic rays to such extreme energies in known astrophysical objects has also proven difficult to understand, leading to many suggestions that new physics may be required to explain their existence. This has prompted the construction of new experiments designed to detect cosmic rays with fluxes below 1 particle/km/century and follow their spectrum to even higher energies. To detect large numbers of these particles, the next generation of these experiments must be performed on space-based platforms that look on very large detection volumes in the Earth's atmosphere. The talk will review the experimental and theoretical investigations of extreme energy cosmic rays and discuss the present and planned experiments to extend measurements beyond 10(exp 21) eV.

  17. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  18. The Cosmic Ray Leptons Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, P.; Bertone, G.; Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.

    2009-11-01

    Recent measurements of cosmic ray electrons and positrons by PAMELA, ATIC, Fermi and HESS have revealed interesting excesses and features in the GeV-TeV range. Many possible explanations have been suggested, invoking one or more nearby primary sources such as pulsars and supernova remnants, or dark matter. Based on the output of the TANGO in PARIS --Testing Astroparticle with the New GeV/TeV Observations in Positrons And electRons : Identifying the Sources-- workshop held in Paris in May 2009, we review here the latest experimental results and we discuss some virtues and drawbacks of the many theoretical interpretations proposed so far.

  19. High-energy cosmic ray interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Ralph; Orellana, Mariana; Reynoso, Matias M.; Vila, Gabriela S.

    2009-04-30

    Research into hadronic interactions and high-energy cosmic rays are closely related. On one hand--due to the indirect observation of cosmic rays through air showers--the understanding of hadronic multiparticle production is needed for deriving the flux and composition of cosmic rays at high energy. On the other hand the highest energy particles from the universe allow us to study the characteristics of hadronic interactions at energies far beyond the reach of terrestrial accelerators. This is the summary of three introductory lectures on our current understanding of hadronic interactions of cosmic rays.

  20. A Journey Through Researches on Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Roy, M.; Barman, P.; Mukherjee, C. D.

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic ray causes hazards to microelectronic circuits. Presence of charged particles in the atmosphere was first noticed by Coloumb in 1785. But cosmic ray was discovered by Victor Hess in 1912. However new era of particle physics was started with the invention of neutron monitor in 1948 by John A. Simpson. New information regarding the energy spectrum, anisotropy, latitudinal, longitudinal and daily variation of cosmic ray has added the scientific yield one by one from the analysis of the data of different monitors over the globe. This paper is a brief account of the striking events of cosmic ray which may be the background of future researchers.

  1. Cosmic ray modulation and the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarhos, G.; Moussas, X.

    2001-08-01

    We reproduce the long term temporal variations of galactic cosmic ray intensity applying a semi-empirical 1-D diffusion-convection model. We use a shell-like model in which each magnetized shell modulates the cosmic ray intensity during its travel from the Sun to the heliospheric boundary. The cosmic ray intensity at the Earth's orbit is the result of the successive dynamic influence of all shells between the Earth and the heliospheric boundary. Our results are in very good agreement with ground-based observations from Climax and Huancayo cosmic ray stations.

  2. Propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R. R.; Stephens, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a model for analyzing the propagation of cosmic rays are discussed. The requirements for analyzing the relevant observational data on cosmic rays are defines as: (1) the chemical and isotopic composition of cosmic rays as a function of energy, (2) the flux and energy spectrum of the individual nucleonic components, (3) the flux and energy spectrum of the electronic component, (4) the cosmic ray prehistory, and (5) the degree of isotropy in their arrival directions as a function of energy. It is stated that the model which has been able to bring to pass the greatest measure of success is the galactic confinement model.

  3. Note on the detection of high energy primary cosmic gamma rays by air shower observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, K.; Torii, S.; Yuda, T.

    1985-01-01

    A mountain altitude experiment is planned at Mt. Norikura in Japan to search for point sources of astrophysical high-energy gamma rays in the 10 to the 15th power eV range. The advantages of mountain level observation of IR showers is stressed, especially in the case of high-energy gamma primaries from Cygnus X3 and other similar point sources.

  4. Possible application of scintillation detectors with semiconductor PMT for cosmic-neutron and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrousov, M. I.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Karpushkina, N. E.; Malakhov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Solar system planets exploration and cosmic neutrons and gamma-ray flux research have been dynamically evolving for several decades. Different scintillation crystals are used for this purpose along with photo signal receivers, such as vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Many studies are being performed in order to provide alternative devices for photon signal capture: PIN-diodes,avalanche photodiodes, semiconductor silicon photomultipliers. We study the applicability of a silicon PMT in employing highresolution crystals in space applications.

  5. Cosmic ray diffusion: Report of the Workshop in Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory.

  6. First results from the microwave air yield beam experiment (MAYBE): Measurement of GHz radiation for ultra-high energy cosmic ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Cataldi, G.; Chemerisov, S.; De Mello Neto, J. R.T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fox, B.; Gorham, P. W.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Meyhandan, R.; Monasor, M.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Santos, E. M.; Pochez, J.; Privitera, P.; Spinka, H.; Verzi, V.; Zhou, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of microwave emission from an electron-beam induced air plasma performed at the 3 MeV electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results include the emission spectrum between 1 and 15 GHz, the polarization of the microwave radiation and the scaling of the emitted power with respect to beam intensity. MAYBE measurements provide further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  7. Geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on geomagnetically trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutu, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    The CREAM instrument was flown on a Long Duration Balloon in Antarctica in December 2004 and January 2005, achieving a flight duration record of nearly 42 days. It detected and recorded cosmic ray primary particles ranging in type from hydrogen to iron nuclei and in energy from 1 TeV to several hundred TeV. With the data collected we will have the world's best measurement of the energy spectra and mass composition of nuclei in the primary cosmic ray flux at these energies, close to the astrophysical knee . The instrument utilized a thin calorimeter, a transition radiation detector and a timing charge detector, which also provided time-of-flight information. The responsibilities of our group have been with the timing charge detector (TCD), and with the data acquisition electronics and ground station support equipment. The TCD utilized fast scintillators to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray before any interactions could take place within the calorimeter. The data acquisition electronics handled the output of the various detectors, in a fashion fully integrated with the payload bus. A space-qualified flight computer controlled the acquisition, and was used for preliminary trigger information processing and decision making. Ground support equipment was used to monitor the health of the payload, acquire and archive the data transmitted to the ground, and to provide real-time control of the instrument in flight.

  9. Cosmic rays and space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    2003-04-01

    It is well known that in periods of great FEP (Flare Energetic Particle), fluxes can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be destroyed, satellites and spacecrafts became dead (each year insurance companies paid more than 500,000,000 dollars for these failures). In these periods is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for short time to protect computer memories. These periods are also dangerous for astronauts on space-ships, and passengers and crew in commercial jets (especially during S5 radiation storms according to classification of NOAA). The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecast can be made by using high-energy particles (about 5-10 GeV/nucleon and higher) which transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coefficient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore high energy particles came from the Sun much more early (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into solar wind) than main part of smaller energy particles caused dangerous situation for electronics and people health (about 30-60 minutes later). We describe here principles and experience of automatically working programs "FEP-Search-1 min", "FEP-Search-2 min","FEP-Search-5 min", developed and checked in the Emilio Segre' Observatory of Israel Cosmic Ray Center (2025 m above sea level, cut-off rigidity 10.8 GV). The second step is automatically determination of flare energetic particle spectrum, and then automatically determination of diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, time of ejection and energy spectrum of FEP in source; forecasting of expected FEP flux and radiation hazard for space-probes in space, satellites in the magnetosphere, jets and various objects in the atmosphere and on the ground. We will describe also the theory and experience of high energy cosmic ray using for forecasting of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-effects (what

  10. Cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Troy

    2013-02-01

    Cosmic rays fill up the entire volume of galaxies, providing an important source of heating and ionization of the interstellar medium, and may play a significant role in the regulation of star formation and evolution of galaxies. Diffuse emissions from radio to highenergy gamma rays (< 100 MeV) arising from various interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar medium, interstellar radiation field, and magnetic field, are currently the best way to trace the intensities and spectra of cosmic rays in the Milky Way and other galaxies. In this talk, I will give an overview of the observations of the cosmic-ray induced emissions from our own and other galaxies, in particular, results from the Fermi-LAT and Imaging Air Cerenkov telescopes. I will also talk about what can be deduced about the cosmic-ray origin and propagation from these observations.

  11. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  12. Study of multi-muon bundles in cosmic ray showers detected with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delphi Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R. C.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2007-11-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP has been used to measure multi-muon bundles originating from cosmic ray interactions with air. The cosmic events were recorded in “parasitic mode” between individual e+e- interactions and the total live time of this data taking is equivalent to 1.6 × 106 s. The DELPHI apparatus is located about 100 m underground and the 84 metres rock overburden imposes a cutoff of about 52 GeV/c on muon momenta. The data from the large volume Hadron Calorimeter allowed the muon multiplicity of 54,201 events to be reconstructed. The resulting muon multiplicity distribution is compared with the prediction of the Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJET01. The model fails to describe the abundance of high multiplicity events. The impact of QGSJET internal parameters on the results is also studied.

  13. Progress in Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2017-01-01

    I will review recent progress in Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays and new challenges. I will discuss measurements that have to be done to address these challenges and to further advance our understanding of the phenomenon of cosmic rays, mechanisms of their acceleration and interactions with interstellar medium. Partial support from NASA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  14. Cosmic-ray detectors on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, John

    1988-01-01

    The state of cosmic ray physics is reviewed. It is concluded that the nonexistent lunar magnetic field, the low lunar radiation background, and the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon provide an excellent environment for the study of high energy primary cosmic rays.

  15. Nonresonant Alfven waves driven by cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, Don

    2005-08-01

    Nonresonant growth of Alfven waves due to streaming cosmic rays is considered, emphasizing the relation between resonant and nonresonant growth and the polarization of the growing waves. The suggested application of this mechanism to the scattering of higher energy cosmic rays in diffusive shock acceleration is discussed critically.

  16. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  17. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Choi, C. K.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 106 muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  18. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  19. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; BenZvi, S.; Bravo, S.; Jensen, K.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Peacock, J.; Plewa, M.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Schultz, D.; Simons, A. L.; Tosi, D.

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available.

  20. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lawrence W.

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  1. Investigation of Reacceleration on Cosmic Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuxi; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    Cosmic rays are high energy charged particles, originating from outer space, that travel at nearly the speed of light and strike the Earth from all directions. One century after the discovery of cosmic rays, their origin and propagation processes remain obscure. GALPROP is a numerical code for calculating the propagation of relativistic charged particles and the diffuse emissions produced during their propagation in the Galaxy. I performed a preliminary study using two different propagation models with the GALPROP code in order to reproduce latest cosmic-ray nuclei measurements. I analyzed multiple propagation parameters for each model, studied their effect on cosmic-ray spectra, optimized and tried a preliminary modification of the code to fit cosmic-ray data such as BESS-Polar, AMS, CREAM, etc.

  2. Cosmic rays: a review for astrobiologists.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Franco; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Cosmic rays represent one of the most fascinating research themes in modern astronomy and physics. Significant progress is being made toward an understanding of the astrophysics of the sources of cosmic rays and the physics of interactions in the ultrahigh-energy range. This is possible because several new experiments in these areas have been initiated. Cosmic rays may hold answers to a great number of fundamental questions, but they also shape our natural habitat and influence the radiation environment of our planet Earth. The importance of the study of cosmic rays has been acknowledged in many fields, including space weather science and astrobiology. Here, we concentrate on the astrobiological aspects of cosmic rays with regard to the enormous amount of new data available, some of which may, in fact, improve our knowledge about the radiation of cosmic origin on Earth. We focus on fluxes arriving at Earth and doses received, and will guide the reader through the wealth of scientific literature on cosmic rays. We have prepared a concise and self-contained source of data and recipes useful for performing interdisciplinary research in cosmic rays and their effects on life on Earth.

  3. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  4. Shielding against galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Nealy, J. E.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kim, M.; Kiefer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of galactic origin are modified but not attenuated by the presence of shielding materials. Indeed, the number of particles and the absorbed energy behind most shield materials increases as a function of shield thickness. The modification of the galactic cosmic ray composition upon interaction with shielding is the only effective means of providing astronaut protection. This modification is intimately conntected with the shield transport porperties and is a strong function of shield composition. The systematic behavior of the shield properites in terms of microscopic energy absorption events will be discussed. The shield effectiveness is examined with respect to convectional protection practice and in terms of a biological endpoint: the efficiency for reduction of the probability of transformation of shielded C3H1OT1/2 mouse cells. The relative advantage of developing new shielding technologies is discussed in terms of a shield performance as related to biological effect and the resulting uncertainty in estimating astronaut risk.

  5. A balloon-borne ionization spectrometer with very large aperture for the detection of high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atallah, K.; Modlinger, A.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    A balloon experiment which was used to determine the chemical composition of very high-energy cosmic rays up to and beyond 100 GeV/nucleon is described. The detector had a geometric factor of 1 sq m sr and a total weight on the balloon of 2100 kg. The apparatus consisted of an ionization spectrometer, spark chambers, and plastic scintillation and Cherenkov counters. It was calibrated at CERN up to 24 GeV/c protons and at DESY up to 7 GeV/c electrons. In October 1972 it was flown successfully on a stratospheric balloon.

  6. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis for MuLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangialardi, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The goal of the MuLAN experiment is to make a measurement of the muon lifetime to a precision of 1 ppm so that a 5 ppm value of the Fermi coupling constant can be calculated. To do this, a beam of positive muons is stopped in a target surrounded by 340 scintillating detectors arranged in a geodesic around the target. Once the muons stop in the target, they decay, and the product positrons are emitted outward, where they are detected by the scintillators. By examining the spectrum of decay times, the lifetime of positive muons can be calculated. One of the myriad factors affecting this measurement is the background of cosmic ray muons constantly showering upon the detector. To study this background, an angular distribution of the cosmic rays was found, and the rate at which cosmic rays muons ``rain'' upon the detector was calculated. In addition, the cosmic rays were used to examine the timing differences between the individual scintillators.

  7. Superdiffusion of cosmic rays: Implications for cosmic ray acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarian, A.; Yan, Huirong

    2014-03-20

    Diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) is the key process for understanding their propagation and acceleration. We employ the description of spatial separation of magnetic field lines in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in Lazarian and Vishniac to quantify the divergence of the magnetic field on scales less than the injection scale of turbulence and show that this divergence induces superdiffusion of CR in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. The perpendicular displacement squared increases, not as the distance x along the magnetic field, which is the case for a regular diffusion, but as the x {sup 3} for freely streaming CRs. The dependence changes to x {sup 3/2} for the CRs propagating diffusively along the magnetic field. In the latter case, we show that it is important to distinguish the perpendicular displacement with respect to the mean field and to the local magnetic field. We consider how superdiffusion changes the acceleration of CRs in shocks and show how it decreases efficiency of the CRs acceleration in perpendicular shocks. We also demonstrate that in the case when the small-scale magnetic field is generated in the pre-shock region, an efficient acceleration can take place for the CRs streaming without collisions along the magnetic loops.

  8. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

    2009-06-01

    The topic of high-energy cosmic rays has recently attracted significant attention. While the AGASA and HiRes Observatories have closed after many years of successful operation, the Pierre Auger Observatory began taking data in January 2004 and the first results have been reported. Plans for the next generation of instruments are in hand: funding is now being sought for the northern phase of the Auger Observatory and plans for a space detector, JEM-EUSO, to be launched in 2013-14 are well advanced with the long-term target of a dedicated satellite for the 2020s. It therefore seemed an appropriate time to make a collection of outstanding and original research articles from the leading experimental groups and from some of the theorists who seek to interpret the hard-won data and to speculate on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. This focus issue in New Journal of Physics on the topic of high energy cosmic rays, contains a comprehensive account of the work of the Yakutsk group (A A Ivanov, S P Knurenko and I Ye Sleptsov) who have used Cerenkov radiation produced by shower particles in the air to provide the basis for energy calibration. This technique contrasts with that of detecting fluorescence radiation from space that is proposed for the JEM-EUSO instrument to be placed on the International Space Station in 2013, described by Y Takahashi. Supplementing this is an article by A Santangelo and A Petrolini describing the scientific goals, requirements and main instrument features of the Super Extreme Universe Space Observatory mission (S-EUSO). The use of fluorescence light to measure energies was the key component of the HiRes instrument and is also used extensively by the Pierre Auger Collaboration so an article, by F Arqueros, F Blanco and J Rosado, summarizing the properties of fluorescence emission, still not fully understood, is timely. M Nagano, one of the architects of the AGASA Observatory, has provided an overview of the experimental situation with

  9. Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

  10. Cosmic ray propagation in the local superbubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steitmatter, R. E.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Protheroe, R. J.; Ormes, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that a ring of HI gas lying in the galactic plane is part of a supershell which formed some 3 x to the 7th power years ago. The consequences of a closed magnetic supershell for cosmic ray propagation are examined and it is concluded that there is no evidence which precludes the production and trapping of cosmic rays in such a region. A consequence of superbubble confinement is that the mean age of cosmic rays would be independent of energy. This can be tested by high energy observations of the isotopic composition of Be.

  11. Cosmic ray transport in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.

    2015-09-15

    Since the development of satellite space technology about 50 years ago the solar heliosphere is explored almost routinely by several spacecrafts carrying detectors for measuring the properties of the interplanetary medium including energetic charged particles (cosmic rays), solar wind particle densities, and electromagnetic fields. In 2012, the Voyager 1 spacecraft has even left what could be described as the heliospheric modulation region, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of low energy heliospheric cosmic ray particles. With the available in-situ measurements of interplanetary turbulent electromagnetic fields and of the momentum spectra of different cosmic ray species in different interplanetary environments, the heliosphere is the best cosmic laboratory to test our understanding of the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays in space plasmas. I review both the historical development and the current state of various cosmic ray transport equations. Similarities and differences to transport theories for terrestrial fusion plasmas are highlighted. Any progress in cosmic ray transport requires a detailed understanding of the electromagnetic turbulence that is responsible for the scattering and acceleration of these particles.

  12. Cosmic-ray composition measurements and cosmic ray background-free γ -ray observations with Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neronov, Andrii; Semikoz, Dmitri V.; Vovk, Ievgen; Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2016-12-01

    The muon component of extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by cosmic-ray particles carries information on the primary particle identity. We show that the muon content of EAS could be measured in a broad energy range from 10-100 TeV up to ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray range using wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes observing strongly inclined or nearly horizontal EAS from the ground of from high altitude. Cherenkov emission from muons in such EAS forms a distinct component (halo or tail) of the EAS image in the telescope camera. We show that detection of the muon signal could be used to measure composition of the cosmic-ray spectrum in the energy ranges of the knee, the ankle and of the Galactic-to-extragalactic transition. It could also be used to veto the cosmic-ray background in gamma-ray observations. This technique provides a possibility for up to 2 orders of magnitude improvement of sensitivity for γ -ray flux in the energy band above 10 PeV, compared to KASCADE-Grande, and an order-of-magnitude improvement of sensitivity in the multi-EeV energy band, compared to Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. Lunar monitoring outpost of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail; Kalmykov, Nikolai; Turundaevskiy, Andrey; Chubenko, Alexander; Podorozhny, Dmitry; Mukhamedshin, Rauf; Sveshnikova, Lubov; Tkachev, Leonid; Konstantinov, Andrey

    The basic purpose of the planned NEUTRONIUM-100 experiment considers expansion of the direct measurements of cosmic rays spectra and anisotropy to the energy range of ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. These measurements will make it possible to solve the problem of the “knee” of the spectrum and to make choice between the existing models of the cosmic rays origin and propagation. The proposed innovative method of energy measurements is based on the simultaneous detection of different components of back scattered radiation generated by showers produced by the primary particle in the regolyth (neutrons, gamma rays and radio waves). A multi-module system disposed on the Moon's surface is proposed for particles registration. Each module consists of a radio antenna, contiguous to the regolyth, scintillation detectors with gadolinium admixture and silicon charge detectors. Scintillation detectors record electrons and gamma-rays of back scattered radiation and delayed neutrons. The area of the experimental facility will be at least ~100 m2, suitable for upgrading. Average density of the detecting equipment is evaluated as 10-20 g/m2. Taking into account the weight of the equipment delivered from the Earth will be about 10 tons it is possible to compose an eqperimental facility with geometric factor of 150-300 m2sr. The Moon provides unique conditions for this experiment due to presence of the absorbing material and absence of atmosphere. The experiment will allow expansion of the measurements up to ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. Currently direct measurements reach energy range of up to ~1015 eV, and Auger shower method does not provide information about the primary particle's charge. It is expected that ~15 particles with energy >1017 eV will be detected by the proposed experimental equipment per year. It will provide an opportunity to solve the problems of the current high-energy astrophysics.

  14. Analysis of North Sky Cosmic Ray Anisotropy with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Elizabeth; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cosmic Ray anisotropy, no experiment has definitively discovered the source of this unexpected phenomenon. Studying the cosmic rays' neutral daughter particles with pointing capabilities, like neutrinos, could shed new light. This can be done at two levels; a source which produces cosmic rays must also produce high energy astrophysical neutrinos, and low energy atmospheric neutrinos are made when the cosmic rays interact with the atmosphere. This analysis focuses on atmospheric neutrinos detected by IceCube, a Cherenkov detector instrumenting a kilometer cubed of glacial ice at the South Pole. The anisotropy and its energy dependence have been studied in the Southern sky using atmospheric muons by IceCube. In the North, gamma ray detectors, such as HAWC, and Argo-YBJ, have observed this anisotropy in cosmic ray showers. Thus far, no single- detector full-sky map exists of the anisotropy. Using IceCube's neutrino data, we can complement these studies with an exploration of the northern sky anisotropy at higher energies of cosmic rays. This could bring us much closer to understanding the complete picture of this anisotropy across energy levels and the whole sky.

  15. Unveiling the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of cosmic rays, relativistic particles that range from below GeVs to hundreds of EeVs, is a century old mystery. Extremely energetic phenomena occurring over a wide range of scales, from the Solar System to distant galaxies, are needed to explain the non-thermal particle spectrum that covers over 12 orders of magnitude. Space Missions are the most effective platforms to study the origin and history of these cosmic particles. Current missions probe particle acceleration and propagation in the Solar System and in our Galaxy. This year ISS-CREAM and CALET join AMS in establishing the International Space Station as the most active site for studying the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. These missions will study astrophysical cosmic ray accelerators as well as other possible sources of energetic particles such as dark matter annihilation or decay. In the future, the ISS may also be the site for studying extremely high-energy extragalactic cosmic rays with JEM-EUSO. We review recent results in the quest for unveiling the sources of energetic particles with balloons and space payloads and report on activities of the Cosmic ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG).

  16. COSMIC-RAY HELIUM HARDENING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-03-01

    Recent observations by the CREAM and ATIC-2 experiments suggest that (1) the spectrum of cosmic-ray (CR) helium is harder than that of CR protons below the knee energy, 10{sup 15}eV, and (2) all CR spectra become hard at {approx}>10{sup 11}eV nucleon{sup -1}. We propose a new idea, that higher energy CRs are generated in a more helium-rich region, to explain the hardening without introducing different sources for CR helium. The helium-to-proton ratio at {approx}100 TeV exceeds the Big Bang abundance Y = 0.25 by several times, and the different spectrum is not reproduced within the diffusive shock acceleration theory. We argue that CRs are produced in a chemically enriched region, such as a superbubble, and the outward-decreasing abundance naturally leads to the hard spectrum of CR helium if CRs escape from the supernova remnant shock in an energy-dependent way. We provide a simple analytical spectrum that also fits well the hardening due to the decreasing Mach number in the hot superbubble with {approx}10{sup 6} K. Our model predicts hard and concave spectra for heavier CR elements.

  17. Heliosphere Changes Affect Cosmic Ray Penetration

    NASA Video Gallery

    The changes in the size of our solar system’s boundaries also cause changes to the galactic cosmic rays that enter the solar system. Although these boundaries do a good job of deflecting the majo...

  18. Elemental advances of ultraheavy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The elemental composition of the cosmic-ray source is different from that which has been generally taken as the composition of the solar system. No general enrichment of products of either r-process or s-process nucleosynthesis accounts for the differences over the entire range of ultraheavy (Z 30) elements; specific determination of nucleosynthetic contributions to the differences depends upon an understanding of the nature of any acceleration fractionation. Comparison between the cosmic-ray source abundances and the abundances of C1 and C2 chondritic meteorites suggests that differences between the cosmic-ray source and the standard (C1) solar system may not be due to acceleration fractionation of the cosmic rays, but rather to a fractionation of the C1 abundances with respect to the interstellar abundances.

  19. A Simplified Model for the Acceleration of Cosmic Ray Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, Oyvind

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not…

  20. The anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingus, Brenda

    2013-02-01

    The arrival directions of cosmic rays will be isotropized by the deflection of these charged particles in the Galactic magnetic fields. For example, a 10 TeV proton in a typical Galactic field of 2 micro Gauss has a gyroradius of only 0.005 parsec (=1000 AU) which is much smaller than the distance to any postulated sources. However, observations of TeV cosmic rays by Milagro, Tibet III, ARGO, and IceCube, show anisotropies on both large and small angular scales. These observations require the detection of large numbers of cosmic rays because the anisotropies are less than a few parts in 1000. The large angular scale anisotropies, such as a dipole, could point to diffusion from a nearby source, but the smaller scale anisotropies of extent ~10 degrees are much more difficult to explain. Possibilities that have been explored in the literature include magnetic funneling of cosmic rays from nearby sources and acceleration by magnetic reconnection in the heliosphere's magnetotail. No matter what the mechanism, these observations provide new information about cosmic ray production, nearby magnetic fields, and how the cosmic rays observed at Earth are affected by their propagation.

  1. Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

  2. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  3. Reminiscences of cosmic ray research in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Peraza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic ray research in Mexico dates from the early 1930s with the work of the pioneering physicist, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta and his students from Mexico. Several experiments of international significance were carried out during that period in Mexico: they dealt with the geomagnetic latitude effect, the north-south and west-east asymmetry of cosmic ray intensity, and the sign of the charge of cosmic rays. The international cosmic ray community has met twice in Mexico for the International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC): the fourth was held in Guanajuato in 1955, and the 30th took place in Mérida, in 2007. In addition, an international meeting on the Pierre Auger Collaboration was held in Morelia in 1999, and the International Workshop on Observing UHE Cosmic Rays took place in Metepec in 2000. A wide range of research topics has been developed, from low-energy Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) to the UHE. Instrumentation has evolved since the early 1950s, from a Simpson type neutron monitor installed in Mexico City (2300 m asl) to a solar neutron telescope and an EAS Cherenkov array, (within the framework of the Auger International Collaboration), both at present operating on Mt. Sierra La Negra in the state of Puebla (4580 m asl). Research collaboration has been undertaken with many countries; in particular, the long-term collaboration with Russian scientists has been very fruitful.

  4. Testing Cosmic-Ray Acceleration in Young, Embedded Stellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukri, Komin; Marcowith, Alexandre; Lamanna, Giovanni; Maurin, Gilles; Krayzel, Fabien

    2016-07-01

    Most of the massive stars appear grouped in clusters located in giant molecular clouds. Their strong wind activity generates large structures known as stellar wind bubbles and induces collective effects which could accelerate particles up to high energy and produce gamma-rays. The best objects to observe these effects are young massive star clusters in which no supernova explosion has occurred yet. We model these star clusters as a spherical leaky box (the molecular cloud) surrounding a central cosmic ray source (the stellar cluster). We developed a phenomenological model to estimate the cosmic and gamma-ray production for a set of 8 selected clusters. We compare the predicted gamma-ray emission with data obtained with the Fermi-LAT telescope. No significant emission has been detected from any of the selected cluster. Comparing the upper limit on the gamma-ray flux with the prediction from our phenomenological model indicates that not more than 10% of the stellar wind luminosity of the stellar clusters is converted into cosmic rays. If all O-type stars do not contribute more than 10% of their stellar wind luminosity to cosmic-ray acceleration they do not contribute to more than on percent of the total cosmic-ray luminosity.

  5. Hunting for Cosmic-Ray Origins with SuperTIGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Illustration of cosmic-ray nuclei impacting Earths atmosphere and decaying into lighter particles. [ESA]The SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) experiment flew over Antarctica for 55 days, collecting millions of galactic cosmic rays. What can it tell us about the origins of these high-energy particles?High-Energy ImpactsGalactic cosmic rays are immensely high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that impact our atmosphere, originating from outside of our solar system. Where do they come from, and how are they accelerated? These are both open topics of research.One of the leading theories is that cosmic-ray source material is primarily a mixture of material that has been ejected from massive stars either from supernovae or in stellar wind outflows and normal interstellar medium (ISM). This material is then accelerated to cosmic-ray energies by supernova shocks.Number of nuclei of each element detected by SuperTIGER. Note the change of scale between the two plots (click for a closer look)! [Murphy et al. 2016]How can we test this model? An important step is understanding the composition of galactic cosmic rays: what elemental nuclei are they made up of? If abundances are similar to solar-system abundances, then the material is likely mostly ISM. If the abundances of rarer heavy elements are high, however, then the material is more likely to have come from massive stars in star-forming regions.Balloon-Borne DetectionsEnter SuperTIGER, an experiment designed to collect cosmic rays and measure the abundances of the rare heavy elements those with atomic number between iron (Z=26) and zirconium (Z=40).The path that SuperTIGER took over Antarctica during its flight, with a different color denoting each circuit around the pole. Note where it got stuck in an eddy over the Transarctic Mountains at the end of its second circuit! [Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility]To gather galactic cosmic rays, the detector must be above the Earths atmosphere; interactions with

  6. Cosmic ray studies with the MINOS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habig, Alec; Minos Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The MINOS experiment uses two layered scintillator and steel detectors along with a muon neutrino beam to search for νμ disappearance, and thus neutrino oscillations. The Far Detector ('FD') is situated in a former iron mine in the Soudan Underground Mine State Park in Northeastern MN, 700 m (2070 mwe) below the surface. This 5.4 kt steel/scintillator calorimeter measures the neutrino flux after they have traveled the 735 km baseline. It also detects atmospheric neutrinos at a rate of several per week, and is the first magnetized atmospheric neutrino detector, able to discriminate between νμ and νμ on an event-by-event basis. The similar 1 kt Near Detector ('ND') is 100 m (220 mwe) underground at Fermilab. This poster discusses the science being done with the high energy cosmic ray muons which penetrate the rock overburden and are seen by the detectors. The typical surface energy of those seen at the FD are ~1 TeV (coming from ~8 TeV primary cosmic rays) and ~110 GeV at the ND (~900 GeV primaries).

  7. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray 'telescope'. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers.

  8. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-12-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray 'telescope'. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers.

  9. Dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Doetinchem, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches with positrons, antiprotons, or gamma-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This report is a condensed summary of the article “Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuteron” [1].

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon processing by cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micelotta, E. R.; Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Cosmic rays are present in almost all phases of the ISM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cosmic rays represent an abundant and ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. However, the interaction between them has never before been fully investigated. Aims: To study the effects of cosmic ray ion (H, He, CNO and Fe-Co-Ni) and electron bombardment of PAHs in galactic and extragalactic environments. Methods: We calculate the nuclear and electronic interactions for collisions between PAHs and cosmic ray ions and electrons with energies between 5 MeV/nucleon and 10 GeV, above the threshold for carbon atom loss, in normal galaxies, starburst galaxies and cooling flow galaxy clusters. Results: The timescale for PAH destruction by cosmic ray ions depends on the electronic excitation energy E0 and on the amount of energy available for dissociation. Small PAHs are destroyed faster, with He and the CNO group being the more effective projectiles. For electron collisions, the lifetime is independent of the PAH size and varies with the threshold energy T0. Conclusions: Cosmic rays process the PAHs in diffuse clouds, where the destruction due to interstellar shocks is less efficient. In the hot gas filling galactic halos, outflows of starburst galaxies and intra-cluster medium, PAH destruction is dominated by collisions with thermal ions and electrons, but this mechanism is ineffective if the molecules are in denser cloudlets and isolated from the hot gas. Cosmic rays can access the denser clouds and together with X-rays will set the lifetime of those protected PAHs. This limits the use of PAHs as a "dye" for tracing the presence of cold entrained material.

  11. Diffuse Galactic gamma rays from shock-accelerated cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Dermer, Charles D

    2012-08-31

    A shock-accelerated particle flux is proportional to p(-s), where p is the particle momentum, follows from simple theoretical considerations of cosmic-ray acceleration at nonrelativistic shocks followed by rigidity-dependent escape into the Galactic halo. A flux of shock-accelerated cosmic-ray protons with s≈2.8 provides an adequate fit to the Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-ray emission spectra of high-latitude and molecular cloud gas when uncertainties in nuclear production models are considered. A break in the spectrum of cosmic-ray protons claimed by Neronov, Semikoz, and Taylor [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 051105 (2012)] when fitting the γ-ray spectra of high-latitude molecular clouds is a consequence of using a cosmic-ray proton flux described by a power law in kinetic energy.

  12. Measurement of the cosmic ray flux with the ANITA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Fernández, Daniel; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Carvalho, Washington R.; Schoorlemmer, Harm; Zas, Enrique

    2017-03-01

    The ANITA experiment consists on an aerostatic balloon flying over Antarctica and carrying a payload with antennas. Although ANITA was designed to detect the electric field of netrino-induced showers in the ice cap, it has also detected 16 radio pulses coming from extensive air showers, and the ANITA collaboration has used these data to produce the first cosmic ray flux measurement obtained by employing radio as a stand-alone technique. We review the experimental results and its interpretation. We also focus on the simulations and the method used for obtaining the cosmic ray flux.

  13. Contributions to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of cosmic radiation, its measurements and their patterns are presented. Measurement techniques and variations in solar cosmic ray patterns and calculations of elemental abundances are reviewed.

  14. Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jan; Reimer, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  15. Positron fraction in cosmic rays and models of cosmic-ray propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Cowsik, R.; Burch, B.

    2010-07-15

    The positron fraction observed by PAMELA and other experiments up to {approx}100 GeV is analyzed in terms of models of cosmic-ray propagation. It is shown that generically we expect the positron fraction to reach {approx}0.6 at energies of several TeV, and its energy dependence bears an intimate but subtle connection with that of the boron to carbon ratio in cosmic rays. The observed positron fraction can be fit in a model that assumes a significant fraction of the boron below {approx}10 GeV is generated through spallation of cosmic-ray nuclei in a cocoonlike region surrounding the sources, and the positrons of energy higher than a few GeV are almost exclusively generated through cosmic-ray interactions in the general interstellar medium. Such a model is consistent with the bounds on cosmic-ray anisotropies and other observations.

  16. The galactic cosmic ray ionization rate

    PubMed Central

    Dalgarno, A.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry that occurs in the interstellar medium in response to cosmic ray ionization is summarized, and a review of the ionization rates that have been derived from measurements of molecular abundances is presented. The successful detection of large abundances of H3+ in diffuse clouds and the recognition that dissociative recombination of H3+ is fast has led to an upward revision of the derived ionization rates. In dense clouds the molecular abundances are sensitive to the depletion of carbon monoxide, atomic oxygen, nitrogen, water, and metals and the presence of large molecules and grains. Measurements of the relative abundances of deuterated species provide information about the ion removal mechanisms, but uncertainties remain. The models, both of dense and diffuse clouds, that are used to interpret the observations may be seriously inadequate. Nevertheless, it appears that the ionization rates differ in dense and diffuse clouds and in the intercloud medium. PMID:16894166

  17. The galactic cosmic ray ionization rate.

    PubMed

    Dalgarno, A

    2006-08-15

    The chemistry that occurs in the interstellar medium in response to cosmic ray ionization is summarized, and a review of the ionization rates that have been derived from measurements of molecular abundances is presented. The successful detection of large abundances of H(3)(+) in diffuse clouds and the recognition that dissociative recombination of H(3)(+) is fast has led to an upward revision of the derived ionization rates. In dense clouds the molecular abundances are sensitive to the depletion of carbon monoxide, atomic oxygen, nitrogen, water, and metals and the presence of large molecules and grains. Measurements of the relative abundances of deuterated species provide information about the ion removal mechanisms, but uncertainties remain. The models, both of dense and diffuse clouds, that are used to interpret the observations may be seriously inadequate. Nevertheless, it appears that the ionization rates differ in dense and diffuse clouds and in the intercloud medium.

  18. Autocorrelation Analysis Combined with a Wavelet Transform Method to Detect and Remove Cosmic Rays in a Single Raman Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Maury, Augusto; Revilla, Reynier I

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) occasionally affect charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors, introducing large spikes with very narrow bandwidth in the spectrum. These CR features can distort the chemical information expressed by the spectra. Consequently, we propose here an algorithm to identify and remove significant spikes in a single Raman spectrum. An autocorrelation analysis is first carried out to accentuate the CRs feature as outliers. Subsequently, with an adequate selection of the threshold, a discrete wavelet transform filter is used to identify CR spikes. Identified data points are then replaced by interpolated values using the weighted-average interpolation technique. This approach only modifies the data in a close vicinity of the CRs. Additionally, robust wavelet transform parameters are proposed (a desirable property for automation) after optimizing them with the application of the method in a great number of spectra. However, this algorithm, as well as all the single-spectrum analysis procedures, is limited to the cases in which CRs have much narrower bandwidth than the Raman bands. This might not be the case when low-resolution Raman instruments are used.

  19. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65°. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

  20. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  1. Space weather prediction by cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Souvatzoglou, G.; Sarlanis, C.; Mariatos, G.; Plainaki, C.; Gerontidou, M.; Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.

    Relativistic (galactic and solar) cosmic rays (CR) registered by neutron monitors can play a useful key-role in space weather storms forecasting and in the specification of magnetic properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), shocks and ground level enhancements (GLEs). In order to produce a real-time prediction of space weather phenomena, only real-time data from a neutron monitor network should be employed. Recently in Athens cosmic-ray station a real-time data collection and acquisition system has been created in collaboration with the cosmic ray group of IZMIRAN. This system collects data in real-time mode from about 15 real-time cosmic ray stations by using the internet. The main server in Athens station collects 5-min and hourly cosmic ray data. The measurements of all stations are being processed automatically while converted into a suitable form, so as to be serviceably for forecasting purposes. All programs have been written in an expandable form, in order to upgrade the network of real-time neutron monitors with the biggest possible number of stations, easily. Programs which make use of these data for forecasting studies are already running in experimental mode. The increased number of NM stations operating in real time provides a good basis for using Neutron Monitor network as a tool of forecasting the arrival of the interplanetary disturbances at the Earth.

  2. THE INTERACTION OF COSMIC RAYS WITH DIFFUSE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2011-10-01

    We study the change in cosmic-ray pressure, the change in cosmic-ray density, and the level of cosmic-ray-induced heating via Alfven-wave damping when cosmic rays move from a hot ionized plasma to a cool cloud embedded in that plasma. The general analysis method outlined here can apply to diffuse clouds in either the ionized interstellar medium or in galactic winds. We introduce a general-purpose model of cosmic-ray diffusion building upon the hydrodynamic approximation for cosmic rays (from McKenzie and Voelk and Breitschwerdt and collaborators). Our improved method self-consistently derives the cosmic-ray flux and diffusivity under the assumption that the streaming instability is the dominant mechanism for setting the cosmic-ray flux and diffusion. We find that, as expected, cosmic rays do not couple to gas within cool clouds (cosmic rays exert no forces inside of cool clouds), that the cosmic-ray density does not increase within clouds (it may decrease slightly in general, and decrease by an order of magnitude in some cases), and that cosmic-ray heating (via Alfven-wave damping and not collisional effects as for {approx}10 MeV cosmic rays) is only important under the conditions of relatively strong (10 {mu}G) magnetic fields or high cosmic-ray pressure ({approx}10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -3}).

  3. Supernova Remnants, Cosmic Rays, and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Steve

    2006-02-13

    The shock waves of supernova remnants (SNRs) are the traditional sources of Galactic cosmic rays, at least up to about 3000 TeV (the "knee" energy in the cosmic-ray spectrum). In the last decade or so, X-ray observations have confirmed in a few SNRs the presence of synchrotron-X-ray-emitting electrons with energies of order 100 TeV. TeV photons from SNRs have been observed with ground-based air Cerenkov telescopes as well, but it is still unclear whether they are due to hadronic processes (inelastic p-p scattering of cosmic-ray protons from thermal gas, with secondary neutral pions decaying to gamma rays), or to leptonic processes (inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or bremsstrahlung). The spatial structure of synchrotron X-rays as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggests the remarkable possibility that magnetic fields are amplified by orders of magnitude in strong shock waves. The electron spectra inferred from X-rays reach 100 TeV, but at that energy are cutting off steeply, well below the "knee" energy. Are the cutoff processes due only to radiative losses so that ion spectra might continue unsteepened? Can we confirm the presence of energetic ions in SNRs at all? Are typical SNRs capable of supplying the pool of Galactic cosmic rays? Is strong magnetic-field amplification a property of strong astrophysical shocks in general? These major questions require the next generation of observational tools. I shall outline the theoretical and observational framework of particle acceleration to high energies in SNRs, and shall describe how GLAST will advance this field.

  4. Supernova Remnants, Cosmic Rays, and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Steve

    2006-02-13

    The shock waves of supernova remnants (SNRs) are the traditional sources of Galactic cosmic rays, at least up to about 3000 TeV (the 'knee' energy in the cosmic-ray spectrum). In the last decade or so, X-ray observations have confirmed in a few SNRs the presence of synchrotron-X-ray-emitting electrons with energies of order 100 TeV. TeV photons from SNRs have been observed with ground-based air Cerenkov telescopes as well, but it is still unclear whether they are due to hadronic processes (inelastic p-p scattering of cosmic-ray protons from thermal gas, with secondary neutral pions decaying to gamma rays), or to leptonic processes (inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or bremsstrahlung). The spatial structure of synchrotron X-rays as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggests the remarkable possibility that magnetic fields are amplified by orders of magnitude in strong shock waves. The electron spectra inferred from X-rays reach 100 TeV, but at that energy are cutting off steeply, well below the 'knee' energy. Are the cutoff processes due only to radiative losses so that ion spectra might continue unsteepened? Can we confirm the presence of energetic ions in SNRs at all? Are typical SNRs capable of supplying the pool of Galactic cosmic rays? Is strong magnetic-field amplification a property of strong astrophysical shocks in general? These major questions require the next generation of observational tools. I shall outline the theoretical and observational framework of particle acceleration to high energies in SNRs, and shall describe how GLAST will advance this field.

  5. Gamma ray bursts and extreme energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Scarsi, Livio

    1998-06-15

    Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray particles (EECR) with E>10{sup 20} eV arriving on Earth with very low flux ({approx}1 particle/Km{sup 2}-1000yr) require for their investigation very large detecting areas, exceeding values of 1000 km{sup 2} sr. Projects with these dimensions are now being proposed: Ground Arrays ('Auger' with 2x3500 km{sup 2} sr) or exploiting the Earth Atmosphere as seen from space ('AIR WATCH' and OWL,'' with effective area reaching 1 million km{sup 2} sr). In this last case, by using as a target the 10{sup 13} tons of air viewed, also the high energy neutrino flux can be investigated conveniently. Gamma Rays Bursts are suggested as a possible source for EECR and the associated High Energy neutrino flux.

  6. Detectors of Cosmic Rays, Gamma Rays, and Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, A.; Navarra, G.

    2009-04-30

    We summarize the main features, properties and performances of the typical detectors in use in Cosmic Ray Physics. A brief historical and general introduction will focus on the main classes and requirements of such detectors.

  7. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  8. Anomalous isotopic composition of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-06-20

    Recent measurements of nonsolar isotopic patterns for the elements neon and (perhaps) magnesium in cosmic rays are interpreted within current models of stellar nucleosynthesis. One possible explanation is that the stars currently responsible for cosmic-ray synthesis in the Galaxy are typically super-metal-rich by a factor of two to three. Other possibilities include the selective acceleration of certain zones or masses of supernovas or the enhancement of /sup 22/Ne in the interstellar medium by mass loss from red giant stars and planetary nebulas. Measurements of critical isotopic ratios are suggested to aid in distinguishing among the various possibilities. Some of these explanations place significant constraints on the fraction of cosmic ray nuclei that must be fresh supernova debris and the masses of the supernovas involved. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. Ion acceleration to cosmic ray energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The acceleration and transport environment of the outer heliosphere is described schematically. Acceleration occurs where the divergence of the solar-wind flow is negative, that is at shocks, and where second-order Fermi acceleration is possible in the solar-wind turbulence. Acceleration at the solar-wind termination shock is presented by reviewing the spherically-symmetric calculation of Webb et al. (1985). Reacceleration of galactic cosmic rays at the termination shock is not expected to be important in modifying the cosmic ray spectrum, but acceleration of ions injected at the shock up to energies not greater than 300 MeV/charge is expected to occur and to create the anomalous cosmic ray component. Acceleration of energetic particles by solar wind turbulence is expected to play almost no role in the outer heliosphere. The one exception is the energization of interstellar pickup ions beyond the threshold for acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular termination shock.

  10. Cosmic-ray streaming and anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.; Gleeson, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the differential current densities and anisotropies that exist in the interplanetary cosmic-ray gas, and in particular with a correct formulation and simple interpretation of the momentum equation that describes these on a local basis. Two examples of the use of this equation in the interpretation of previous data are given. It is demonstrated that in interplanetary space, the electric-field drifts and convective flow parallel to the magnetic field of cosmic-ray particles combine as a simple convective flow with the solar wind, and that there exist diffusive currents and transverse gradient drift currents. Thus direct reference to the interplanetary electric-field drifts is eliminated, and the study of steady-state and transient cosmic-ray anisotropies is both more systematic and simpler.

  11. Cosmic ray antiprotons at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray antiprotons provide a powerful tool to probe dark matter annihilations in our galaxy. The sensitivity of this important channel is, however, diluted by sizable uncertainties in the secondary antiproton background. In this work, we improve the calculation of secondary antiproton production with a particular focus on the high energy regime. We employ the most recent collider data and identify a substantial increase of antiproton cross sections with energy. This increase is driven by the violation of Feynman scaling as well as by an enhanced strange hyperon production. The updated antiproton production cross sections are made publicly available for independent use in cosmic ray studies. In addition, we provide the correlation matrix of cross section uncertainties for the AMS-02 experiment. At high energies, the new cross sections improve the compatibility of the AMS-02 data with a pure secondary origin of antiprotons in cosmic rays.

  12. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  13. The HEAO-3 Cosmic Ray Isotope spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouffard, M.; Engelmann, J. J.; Koch, L.; Soutoul, A.; Lund, N.; Peters, B.; Rasmussen, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the Cosmic Ray Isotope instrument launched aboard the HEAO-3 satellite on September 20, 1979. The primary purpose of the experiment is to measure the isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei from Be-7 to Fe-58 over the energy range 0.5 to 7 GeV/nucleon. In addition charge spectra will be measured between beryllium and tin over the energy range 0.5 to 25 GeV/nucleon. The charge and isotope abundances measured by the experiment provide essential information needed to further our understanding of the origin and propagation of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument consists of 5 Cerenkov counters, a 4 element neon flash tube hodoscope and a time-of-flight system. The determination of charge and energy for each particle is based on the multiple Cerenkov technique and the mass determination will be based upon a statistical analysis of particle trajectories in the geomagnetic field.

  14. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 1800 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Post flight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed.

  15. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of 4 pressure vessels (3 experiment tray). The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 2000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Postflight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed. Provisional results from analysis of preflight and postflight calibrations are presented.

  16. Positrons and Antiprotons in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowsik, R.

    2016-10-01

    I consider the impact of recent measurements of positron and antiproton spectra in cosmic rays on our understanding of the origins and propagation of cosmic rays, as well as on the annihilation and decay characteristics of particles of Galactic dark matter, from the perspective of current models postulating energy-dependent leakage of cosmic rays from the Galaxy and of the nested leaky-box model, in which the leakage from the Galaxy is independent of energy. The nested leaky-box model provides a straightforward and consistent explanation of the observed spectral intensities, and finds no compelling need for a contribution from the annihilation or decay of Galactic dark matter. Improved observations and modeling efforts are needed to probe the properties of dark matter deeply enough to be significant to particle physics and cosmology.

  17. Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the cross-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, S.; Fornasa, M.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2015-06-01

    We recently proposed to cross-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the cross-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced emission is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by cross-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the cross-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5-2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates.

  18. Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the cross-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Camera, S.; Fornasa, M.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M. E-mail: fornasam@gmail.com E-mail: regis@to.infn.it

    2015-06-01

    We recently proposed to cross-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the cross-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced emission is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by cross-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the cross-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5–2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates.

  19. Searching for ultra-high energy cosmic rays with smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteson, Daniel; Mulhearn, Michael; Shimmin, Chase; Cranmer, Kyle; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy (>1018 eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

  20. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  1. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  2. Research in particles and fields. [cosmic rays, gamma rays, and cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Buffington, A.; Davis, L., Jr.; Prince, T. A.; Vogt, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are reviewed. Energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons were used to carry out the investigations. Specific instruments mentioned are: the high energy isotope spectrometer telescope, the electron/isotope spectrometer, the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope, and magnetometers. Solar flares, planetary magnetospheres, element abundance, the isotopic composition of low energy cosmic rays, and heavy nuclei are among the topics receiving research attention.

  3. Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1992-01-01

    We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

  4. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    SciTech Connect

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S.; Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F.; Salamida, F. E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  5. Review of the Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Humberto

    2009-04-01

    The Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held in Puebla, Mexico, on August 30 to September 8, 2006. It included subjects like experimental techniques, primary spectrum and composition of cosmic rays, high-energy interactions, gamma ray astronomy, neutrino astrophysics, cosmic ray detectors, etc. I present a very short review of some of the lectures given there.

  6. Time variation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Time variations in the flux of galactic cosmic rays are the result of changing conditions in the solar wind. Maximum cosmic ray fluxes, which occur when solar activity is at a minimum, are well defined. Reductions from this maximum level are typically systematic and predictable but on occasion are rapid and unexpected. Models relating the flux level at lower energy to that at neutron monitor energy are typically accurate to 20 percent of the total excursion at that energy. Other models, relating flux to observables such as sunspot number, flare frequency, and current sheet tilt are phenomenological but nevertheless can be quite accurate.

  7. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  8. Heliosphere Dimension and Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Consolandi, C.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Kudela, K.; Noventa, F.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.

    2012-08-01

    The differential intensities of Cosmic Rays at Earth were calculated using a 2D stochastic Montecarlo diffusion code and compared with observation data. We evaluated the effect of stretched and compressed heliospheres on the Cosmic Ray intensities at the Earth. This was studied introducing a dependence of the diffusion parameter on the heliospherical size. Then, we found that the optimum value of the heliospherical radius better accounting for experimental data. We also found that the obtained values depends on solar activity. Our results are compatible with Voyager observations and with models of heliospherical size modulation.

  9. Search for microwave emission from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R., Jr.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, L. C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present a search for microwave emission from air showers induced by ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with the microwave detection of air showers experiment. No events were found, ruling out a wide range of power flux and coherence of the putative emission, including those suggested by recent laboratory measurements.

  10. Neutrinos: the key to ultrahigh energy cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Seckel, David; Stanev, Todor

    2005-09-30

    Observations of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) do not uniquely determine both the injection spectrum and the evolution model for UHECR sources--primarily because interactions during propagation obscure the early Universe from direct observation. Detection of neutrinos produced in those same interactions, coupled with UHECR results, would provide a full description of UHECR source properties.

  11. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. The present volume contains papers addressing high energy interactions and related phenomena. Specific topic areas include muons, neutrinos, magnetic monopoles, nucleon decay, searches for new particles, and acoustic and thermoluminescence detection techniques.

  12. Cosmic strings and ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani

    1989-01-01

    The flux is calculated of ultrahigh energy protons due to the process of cusp evaporation from cosmic string loops. For the standard value of the dimensionless cosmic string parameter epsilon is identical to G(sub mu) approx. = 10(exp -6), the flux is several orders of magnitude below the observed cosmic ray flux of ultrahigh energy protons. However, the flux at any energy initially increases as the value of epsilon is decreased. This at first suggests that there may be a lower limit on the value of epsilon, which would imply a lower limit on the temperature of a cosmic string forming phase transition in the early universe. However, the calculation shows that this is not the case -- the particle flux at any energy reaches its highest value at epsilon approx. = 10(exp -15) and it then decreases for further decrease of the value of epsilon. This is due to the fact that for too small values of epsilon (less than 10(exp -15)), the energy loss of the loops through the cusp evaporation process itself (rather than gravitational energy loss of the loops) becomes the dominant factor that controls the behavior of the number density of the loops at the relevant times of emission of the particles. The highest flux at any energy remains at least four orders of magnitude below the observed flux. There is thus no lower limit on epsilon.

  13. Explaining TeV cosmic-ray anisotropies with non-diffusive cosmic-ray propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, James Patrick; Fryer, Chris Lee; Mendel, Susan Marie

    2016-05-11

    Constraining the behavior of cosmic ray data observed at Earth requires a precise understanding of how the cosmic rays propagate in the interstellar medium. The interstellar medium is not homogeneous; although turbulent magnetic fields dominate over large scales, small coherent regions of magnetic field exist on scales relevant to particle propagation in the nearby Galaxy. Guided propagation through a coherent field is significantly different from random particle diffusion and could be the explanation of spatial anisotropies in the observed cosmic rays. We present a Monte Carlo code to propagate cosmic particle through realistic magnetic field structures. We discuss the detailsmore » of the model as well as some preliminary studies which indicate that coherent magnetic structures are important effects in local cosmic-ray propagation, increasing the flux of cosmic rays by over two orders of magnitude at anisotropic locations on the sky. Furthermore, the features induced by coherent magnetic structure could be the cause of the observed TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy.« less

  14. Explaining TeV cosmic-ray anisotropies with non-diffusive cosmic-ray propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Patrick; Fryer, Chris Lee; Mendel, Susan Marie

    2016-05-11

    Constraining the behavior of cosmic ray data observed at Earth requires a precise understanding of how the cosmic rays propagate in the interstellar medium. The interstellar medium is not homogeneous; although turbulent magnetic fields dominate over large scales, small coherent regions of magnetic field exist on scales relevant to particle propagation in the nearby Galaxy. Guided propagation through a coherent field is significantly different from random particle diffusion and could be the explanation of spatial anisotropies in the observed cosmic rays. We present a Monte Carlo code to propagate cosmic particle through realistic magnetic field structures. We discuss the details of the model as well as some preliminary studies which indicate that coherent magnetic structures are important effects in local cosmic-ray propagation, increasing the flux of cosmic rays by over two orders of magnitude at anisotropic locations on the sky. Furthermore, the features induced by coherent magnetic structure could be the cause of the observed TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy.

  15. Propagation of Cosmic Rays and Diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of cosmic rays and diffuse gamma-rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models: the excesses in Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, secondary antiprotons and positrons, and the flatter than expected gradient of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. These also involve the dark matter, a challenge to modern physics, through its indirect searches in cosmic rays. Though the final solutions are yet to be found, I discuss some ideas and results obtained mostly with the numerical propagation model GALPROP. A fleet of spacecraft and balloon experiments targeting these specific issues is set to lift off in a few years, imparting a feeling of optimism that a new era of exciting discoveries is just around the corner. A complete and comprehensive discussion of all the recent results is not attempted here due to the space limitations.

  16. Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Brandenburg, A.; Malkov, M. A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  17. Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Brandenburg, A.; Malkov, M. A.; Osipov, S. M.

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  18. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in the $E\\gt 8$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$, that has a chance probability $P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.

  19. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in themore » $$E\\gt 8$$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $$r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$$, that has a chance probability $$P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.« less

  20. Large Scale Distribution of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with Zenith Angles up to 80°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in the E\\gt 8 EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension r1α =(4.4+/- 1.0)× {{10}-2}, that has a chance probability P(≥slant r1α )=6.4× {{10}-5}, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.

  1. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value inmore » the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.« less

  2. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics: Cosmic physics portion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Schindler, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Research in particle astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology is supported under NASA Grant NAGW-1919. A three-year proposal for continuation of support was submitted a year ago and put into effect 1 October 1992. This report is the combined progress report and continuation application called for under the Federal Demonstration Project. Gamma-ray Astrophysics at SRL is separately supported under NAGW-1919 and will be separately summarized and proposed. This report will document progress and plans for our particle spectroscopy activities and for related data analysis, calibration, and community service activities. A bibliography and a budget will be attached as appendices. The Caltech SRL research program includes a heavy emphasis on elemental and isotopic spectroscopy of energetic particles in the cosmic radiation; in solar, interplanetary, and anomalous 'cosmic' radiation; and in planetary magnetospheres as discussed.

  3. Solar cosmic ray bursts and solar neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevakaya, G. A.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Charakhchyan, T. N.

    1985-01-01

    The neutrino flux detected in the C1-Ar experiment seems to respond to the powerful solar cosmic ray bursts. The ground-based detectors, the balloons and the satellites detect about 50% of the bursts of soalr cosmic ray generated on the Sun's visible side. As a rule, such bursts originate from the Western side of the visible solar disk. Since the solar cosmic ray bursts are in opposite phase withthe 11-year galactic cosmic ray cycle which also seems to be reflected by neutrino experiment. The neutrino generation in the bursts will flatten the possible 11-year behavior of the AR-37 production rate, Q, in the Cl-Ar experiment. The detection of solar-flare-generated gamma-quanta with energies above tens of Mev is indicative of the generation of high-energy particles which in turn may produce neutrinos. Thus, the increased Q during the runs, when the flare-generated high energy gamma-quanta have been registered, may be regarded as additional evidence for neutrino geneation in the solar flare processes.

  4. Cosmic rays from primordial black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The quark and gluon emission from primordial black holes (PBHs) which may have formed from initial density perturbations or phase transitions in the early universe are investigated. If the PBHs formed from scale-invariant initial density perturbations in the radiation dominated era, it is found that the emission can explain or contribute significantly to the extragalactic photon and interstellar cosmic-ray electron, positron, and antiproton spectra around 0.1-1 GeV. In particular, the PBH emission strongly resembles the cosmic-ray gamma-ray spectrum between 50 and 170 MeV. The upper limits on the PBH density today from the gamma-ray, e(+), e(-), and antiproton data are comparable, provided that the PBHs cluster to the same degree as the other matter in the Galactic halo.

  5. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  6. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  7. Primary cosmic rays on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernov, S. N.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for determination of the galactic cosmic ray flux during various time intervals in the 1965-1972 period, on the basis of data from the instruments of a spacecraft that made a soft landing on the lunar surface, and from the radioactivity of samples returned by the spacecraft. During minimum solar activity (the second half of 1965 and the beginning of 1966) I sub 0 (E greater than or equal to 30 percent MeV/nucleon) was determined to be 0.43 (plus or minus 10 percent). These values, within the error limits of the determinations, agree with the corresponding values of galactic cosmic ray intensities determined by stratospheric measurements. The mean flux of galactic cosmic rays over the past million years is equal to I (E greater or equal to 100 MeV/nucleon) + 0.28 (plus or minus 20 percent). This value agrees with the mean flux of modulated cosmic rays during the period of the nineteenth solar cycle. The mean flux of solar protons between 1965 and 1972 was 2.46.

  8. Searching for Dark Matter with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2015-04-01

    One of the most exciting possibilities in cosmic ray research is the potential to discover new phenomena. A number of elementary particles were discovered in cosmic rays before modern-day accelerators became available to study their detailed properties. Since the discovery of cosmic ray antiprotons in 1979 using a balloon-borne magnet spectrometer, a series of magnet spectrometers have been flown to search for the signature of dark matter annihilation in antiprotons and positrons. Being the same as particles except for their opposite charge sign, antiparticles are readily distinguished as they bend in opposite directions in the magnetic field. As long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica became available, not only antiproton to proton ratios but also measurements of antiproton energy spectra became possible. More recently, space missions are also providing precision measurements of electron and position energy spectra. With other measurements to constrain cosmic ray propagation models, these new measurements play key roles in constraining dark-matter models for understanding the nature of dark matter. Recent results, their implications, and outlook for the field will be presented.

  9. A database of charged cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, D.; Melot, F.; Taillet, R.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: This paper gives a description of a new online database and associated online tools (data selection, data export, plots, etc.) for charged cosmic-ray measurements. The experimental setups (type, flight dates, techniques) from which the data originate are included in the database, along with the references to all relevant publications. Methods: The database relies on the MySQL5 engine. The web pages and queries are based on PHP, AJAX and the jquery, jquery.cluetip, jquery-ui, and table-sorter third-party libraries. Results: In this first release, we restrict ourselves to Galactic cosmic rays with Z ≤ 30 and a kinetic energy per nucleon up to a few tens of TeV/n. This corresponds to more than 200 different sub-experiments (i.e., different experiments, or data from the same experiment flying at different times) in as many publications. Conclusions: We set up a cosmic-ray database (CRDB) and provide tools to sort and visualise the data. New data can be submitted, providing the community with a collaborative tool to archive past and future cosmic-ray measurements. http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb; Contact: crdatabase@lpsc.in2p3.fr

  10. Cosmic Ray Transport in the Distant Heliosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florinski, V.; Adams, James H.; Washimi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The character of energetic particle transport in the distant heliosheath and especially in the vicinity of the heliopause could be quite distinct from the other regions of the heliosphere. The magnetic field structure is dominated by a tightly wrapped oscillating heliospheric current sheet which is transported to higher latitudes by the nonradial heliosheath flows. Both Voyagers have, or are expected to enter a region dominated by the sectored field formed during the preceding solar maximum. As the plasma flow slows down on approach to the heliopause, the distance between the folds of the current sheet decreases to the point where it becomes comparable to the cyclotron radius of an energetic ion, such as a galactic cosmic ray. Then, a charged particle can effectively drift across a stack of magnetic sectors with a speed comparable with the particle s velocity. Cosmic rays should also be able to efficiently diffuse across the mean magnetic field if the distance between sector boundaries varies. The region of the heliopause could thus be much more permeable to cosmic rays than was previously thought. This new transport proposed mechanism could explain the very high intensities (approaching the model interstellar values) of galactic cosmic rays measured by Voyager 1 during 2010-2011.

  11. Numerical likelihood analysis of cosmic ray anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hojvat et al.

    2003-07-02

    A numerical likelihood approach to the determination of cosmic ray anisotropies is presented which offers many advantages over other approaches. It allows a wide range of statistically meaningful hypotheses to be compared even when full sky coverage is unavailable, can be readily extended in order to include measurement errors, and makes maximum unbiased use of all available information.

  12. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  13. Cosmic gamma-rays and cosmic nuclei above 1 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Work on cosmic gamma rays and cosmic nuclei above I TeV is described and evaluated. The prospect that gamma ray astronomy above I TeV will give new insights into high energy cosmic ray origin within our galaxy is particularly bright.

  14. Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic Rays Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic RaysModulation B. K. Tiwari Department of Physics, A. P. S. University, Rewa (M.P.), btiwari70@yahoo.com Cosmic rays (CRs) flux at earth is modulated by the heliosphereric magnetic field and the structure of the heliosphere, controls by solar outputs and their variability. Sunspots numbers (SSN) is often treated as a primary indicator of solar activity (SA). GCRs entering the helioshphere are affected by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind speed, their modulation varies with the varying solar activity. The observation based on data recoded from Omniweb data Centre for solar- interplanetary activity indices and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) data from neutron monitors of different cut-off rigidities(Rc) (Moscow Rc=2.42Gv and Oulu Rc=0.80Gv). During minimum solar activity periodof solar cycle 23/24, the sun is remarkably quiet, weakest strength of the IMF and least dense and slowest, solar wind speed, whereas, in 2003, highest value of yearly averaged solar wind speed (~568 Km/sec) associated with several coronal holes, which generate high speed wind stream has been recorded. It is observed that GCRs fluxes reduces and is high anti-correlated with SSN (0.80) and IMF (0.86). CRI modulation produces by a strong solar flare, however, CME associated solar flare produce more disturbance in the interplanetary medium as well as in geomagnetic field. It is found that count rate of cosmic ray intensity and solar- interplanetary parameters were inverse correlated and solar indices were positive correlated. Keywords- Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Sunspot number (SSN), Solar activity (SA), Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

  15. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  16. Re-evaluation of cosmic ray cutoff terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. J.; Humble, J. E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Lund, N.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Byrnak, B.; Goret, P.; Petrou, N.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray access to locations inside the geomagnetic field has evolved in a manner that has led to some misunderstanding and misapplication of the terminology originally developed to describe particle access. This paper presents what is believed to be a useful set of definitions for cosmic ray cutoff terminology for use in theoretical and experimental cosmic ray studies.

  17. Gamma-ray astronomy and the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    New surveys of galactic gamma ray emission together with millimeter wave radio surveys indicated that cosmic rays were produced as the result of supernova explosions in our galaxy with the most intense production occurring in a Great Galactic Ring about 35,000 light years in diameter where supernova remnants and pulsars were concentrated.

  18. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strength of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.

  19. The Galactic Center: A Petaelectronvolt Cosmic-ray Acceleration Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi-Qing; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Li, Hai-Jin; Chen, Tian-Lu

    2017-02-01

    The multiteraelectronvolt γ-rays from the galactic center (GC) have a cutoff at tens of teraelectronvolts, whereas the diffuse emission has no such cutoff, which is regarded as an indication of petaelectronvolt proton acceleration by the HESS experiment. It is important to understand the inconsistency and study the possibility that petaelectronvolt cosmic-ray acceleration could account for the apparently contradictory point and diffuse γ-ray spectra. In this work, we propose that the cosmic rays are accelerated up to greater than petaelectronvolts in the GC. The interaction between cosmic rays and molecular clouds is responsible for the multiteraelectronvolt γ-ray emissions from both the point and diffuse sources today. Enhanced by the small volume filling factor (VFF) of the clumpy structure, the absorption of the γ-rays leads to a sharp cutoff spectrum at tens of teraelectronvolts produced in the GC. Away from the GC, the VFF grows, and the absorption enhancement becomes negligible. As a result, the spectra of γ-ray emissions for both point and diffuse sources can be successfully reproduced under such a self-consistent picture. In addition, a “surviving tail” at ∼100 TeV is expected from the point source, which can be observed by future projects CTA and LHAASO. Neutrinos are simultaneously produced during proton-proton (PP) collision. With 5–10 years of observations, the KM3Net experiment will be able to detect the petaelectronvolt source according to our calculation.

  20. Primary cosmic ray particles with z 35 (VVH particles). [very heavy particle detection by high altitude balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E., Jr.; Friedlander, M. W.; Hoppe, M.; Klarmann, J.; Walker, R. M.; Wefel, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Large areas of nuclear emulsions and plastic detectors were exposed to the primary cosmic radiation during high altitude balloon flights. From the analysis of 141 particle tracks recorded during a total exposure of 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power sq m ster.sec., a charge spectrum of the VVH particles has been derived.

  1. Cosmic ray propagation with CRPropa 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves Batista, R.; Erdmann, M.; Evoli, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kuempel, D.; Mueller, G.; Sigl, G.; Van Vliet, A.; Walz, D.; Winchen, T.

    2015-05-01

    Solving the question of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) requires the development of detailed simulation tools in order to interpret the experimental data and draw conclusions on the UHECR universe. CRPropa is a public Monte Carlo code for the galactic and extragalactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei above ∼ 1017 eV, as well as their photon and neutrino secondaries. In this contribution the new algorithms and features of CRPropa 3, the next major release, are presented. CRPropa 3 introduces time-dependent scenarios to include cosmic evolution in the presence of cosmic ray deflections in magnetic fields. The usage of high resolution magnetic fields is facilitated by shared memory parallelism, modulated fields and fields with heterogeneous resolution. Galactic propagation is enabled through the implementation of galactic magnetic field models, as well as an efficient forward propagation technique through transformation matrices. To make use of the large Python ecosystem in astrophysics CRPropa 3 can be steered and extended in Python.

  2. In Search of Cosmic Rays: A Student Physics Project Aimed at Finding the Origin of Cosmic Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonelli, Jamie; Mahoney, Sean; Streich, Derek; Liebl, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes an ongoing project, the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), being conducted by the University of Nebraska in partnership with several high schools. Each school group has installed cosmic ray detectors, and initial activities have included calibrating equipment, gathering preliminary data, and learning about cosmic ray showers. Aims to…

  3. Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    experimental methods have lowered detection limits for cosmogenic nuclides and the modeling calculations needed to interpret the measurements have improved.With greater analytical power has come the ability to recognize and, increasingly, to characterize more complex irradiation histories. As it turns out, many meteorites retain the effects not only of recent irradiation but also of irradiations that took place at earlier times, in different settings.(i) Collisions in space reduced the sizes and changed the shapes of some meteoroids. The cosmogenic nuclide inventories in such meteorites may record the two distinct periods of exposure.(ii) Certain components of polymict meteoritic breccias (rocks that consist of unlike grains cemented together) spent time at the surfaces of their parent bodies before they were buried in parent bodies or perhaps in meteoroids. While at the parent-body surface these components must have been exposed directly not only to galactic cosmic rays (the high-energy particles from outside the solar system that are responsible for most of the production of cosmogenic nuclides), but also to lower-energy cosmic rays from the Sun.(iii) Selected petrologic phases - the chondrules and the calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions found in some meteorites - may have been irradiated just after forming in the very early solar system. One proposed mechanism is irradiation by the so-called X-wind, an intense outflow of nuclear-active particles hypothesized for the primitive Sun (Shu et al., 1996).(iv) Interstellar grains isolated from certain meteorites retain cosmogenic nuclides made by irradiation in interstellar space or, perhaps, close to other stars, at a time predating the formation of the solar system. We will interweave a few examples of multistage exposures into the discussion, but our main emphasis will be on the most recent one.Honda and Arnold (1967), Wasson (1974), Reedy et al. (1983), Caffee et al. (1988), Vogt et al. (1990), Tuniz et al. (1998), Wieler

  4. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the beryllium-filtered data from Flight 17.020 was completed. The data base provided by the Wisconsin diffuse X-ray sky survey is being analyzed by correlating the B and C band emission with individual velocity components of neutral hydrogen. Work on a solid state detector to be used in high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse or extend X-ray sources is continuing. A series of 21 cm observations was completed. A paper on the effects of process parameter variation on the reflectivity of sputter-deposited tungsten-carvon multilayers was published.

  5. Terrestrial effects of high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra

    On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to higher than the usual flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere, initiating an extensive air shower. As the air shower propagates deeper, it ionizes the atmosphere by producing charged secondary particles and photons. Increased ionization leads to changes in atmospheric chemistry, resulting in ozone depletion. This increases the flux of solar UVB radiation at the surface, which is potentially harmful to living organisms. Increased ionization affects the global electrical circuit, which could enhance the low-altitude cloud formation rate. Secondary particles such as muons and thermal neutrons produced as a result of hadronic interactions of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere are able to reach the ground, enhancing the biological radiation dose. The muon flux dominates the radiation dose from cosmic rays causing damage to DNA and an increase in mutation rates and cancer, which can have serious biological implications for surface and sub-surface life. Using CORSIKA, we perform massive computer simulations and construct lookup tables for 10 GeV - 1 PeV primaries, which can be used to quantify these effects from enhanced cosmic ray exposure to any astrophysical source. These tables are freely available to the community and can be used for other studies. We use these tables to study the terrestrial implications of galactic shock generated by the infall of our galaxy toward the Virgo cluster. Increased radiation dose from muons could be a possible mechanism explaining the observed periodicity in biodiversity in paleobiology databases.

  6. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  7. Cosmic rays intensity and atmosphere humidity at near earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskomov, V. V.; Sedov, A. N.; Saduyev, N. O.; Kalikulov, O. A.; Naurzbayeva, A. Zh; Alimgazinova, N. Sh; Kenzhina, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of estimation the mutual influence of humidity and flux of cosmic rays in first approximation were carried out. Normalized cross-correlation function of time series of neutron monitors count rate and level of relative atmosphere humidity near cosmic rays registration point is studied. Corrected and uncorrected on pressure minute and hour data of 6NM64 neutron monitor count rate were used for the study. Neutron monitor is located in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, at an altitude of 850 m above sea level. Also, data from NM64 neutron monitor of Tien Shan mountain research station of Institute of Ionosphere, located at an altitude of 3340 m above sea level were used. Uncorrected on pressure cosmic rays intensity better reflects the changes in relative atmosphere humidity. Average and sometimes strong relationship is often observed by time changes of atmosphere humidity near the point of cosmic rays detection and their intensity: the value of normalized cross-correlation function of respective signals, even in case of their long duration and a large number of data (eg, for minute changes at intervals of up to several months) covers 0.5 - 0.75 range, sometimes falling to ∼⃒ 0.4.

  8. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  9. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  10. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century.

  11. Radiative Energy Loss by Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahern, Sean C.; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between galactic cosmic rays and matter are a primary focus of the NASA radiation problem. The electromagnetic forces involved are for the most part well documented. Building on previous research, this study investigated the relative importance of the weak forces that occur when a cosmic ray impinges on different types of materials. For the familiar electromagnetic case, it is known that energy lost in the form of radiation is more significant than that lost via contact collisions the rate at which the energy is lost is also well understood. Similar results were derived for the weak force case. It was found that radiation is also the dominant mode of energy loss in weak force interactions and that weak force effects are indeed relatively weak compared to electromagnetic effects.

  12. Diffusion-convection function of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, G.; Yang, G.

    1985-01-01

    The fundamental properties and some numerical results of the solution of the diffusion equation of an impulsive cosmic-ray point source in an uniform, unbounded and spherically symmetrical moving medium is presented. The diffusion-convection(D-C) function is an elementary composite function of the solution of the D-C equation for the particles injected impulsively from a diffusive point source into the medium. It is the analytic solution derived by the dimensional method for the propagation equation of solar cosmic rays in the heliosphere, i.e. the interplanetary space. Because of the introduction of convection effect of solar wind, a nonhomogeneous term appears in the propagation equation, it is difficult to express its solution in terms of the ordinary special functions. The research made so far has led to a solution containing only the first order approximation of the convection effect.

  13. Rigidity Dependence of Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The various observed harmonics of the cosmic ray variation may be understood on a unified basis if the free space cosmic ray anisotropy is non-sinusoidal in form. The major objective of this paper is to study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-1990 for Deep River, Goose Bay and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for Deep River having low cutoff rigidity as compared to Tokyo neutron monitor having high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases in 1987 at Deep River and in 1986 at Tokyo during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction at both the stations having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station i.e. Deep River as compared to the high cut off rigidity station i.e. Tokyo on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The solar wind velocity significantly remains in the range 350 to 425 km/s i.e. being nearly average on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days are weakly dependent on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of low and high cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics.

  14. Sources of the ultraheavy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, S. H.; Blake, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The suggestions that the source abundances of cosmic ray nuclei heavier then Fe differ significantly from Solar System abundances are not well supported by the data without assuming preferential acceleration. The Solar System abundances of Pb and Bi are split into r-, standard s-, and cyclic 8-process components; the apprarent deficiency of Pb seen in the HEAO-3 Heavy Nuclei Experiment data might indicate an absence of Pb from the recycling 8-process.

  15. TRACING THE SOURCES OF COSMIC RAYS WITH MOLECULAR IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Julia K.; Schuppan, Florian; Black, John H.; Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh

    2011-10-01

    The rate of ionization by cosmic rays (CRs) in interstellar gas directly associated with {gamma}-ray-emitting supernova remnants (SNRs) is for the first time calculated to be several orders of magnitude larger than the Galactic average. Analysis of ionization-induced chemistry yields the first quantitative prediction of the astrophysical H{sup +} {sub 2} emission line spectrum, which should be detectable together with H{sup +} {sub 3} lines. The predicted coincident observation of those emission lines and {gamma}-rays will help prove that SNRs are sources of CRs.

  16. Erich Regener - a forgotten cosmic ray pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; Watson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955), did important work on the measurement of the rate production of ionisation in the atmosphere and deep under-water. He discovered, along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often and misleadingly called the Pfotzer maximum. He was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate used by Baade and Zwicky to postulate that supernovae might be the source of cosmic rays. Yet Regener's name is little known largely because he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists in 1937 as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we review his work on cosmic rays and the subsequent influence that he had on the subject through his son, his son-in-law, his grandson and his students. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics by Schroedinger in 1938. He died in 1955 at the age of 73.

  17. Elemental technetium and promethium as cosmic-ray clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Drach, J.; Salamon, M.H.

    1987-08-01

    The possibility of using elemental Tc (Z = 43) and Pm (Z = 61) as clocks to measure the mean cosmic-ray confinement time in the Galaxy, tau(epsilon) is considered. For this purpose it is necessary to estimate the unknown beta(+) decay half-lives of several Tc and Pm isotopes; these estimates are obtained using beta-decay systematics. In the case of Tc it is possible to estimate the half-lives sufficiently well and show that this element can indeed be used as a cosmic-ray clock; in the case of Pm the half-lives are too uncertain to permit any conclusion. In order to make meaningful measurement of tau(epsilon) using elemental Tc, a comsic-ray detector must have a charge resolution less than about 0.25e in the region around Tc, and enough collecting power to detect a few hundred Tc nuclei. 32 references.

  18. Elemental technetium and promethium as cosmic-ray clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drach, J.; Salamon, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of using elemental Tc (Z = 43) and Pm (Z = 61) as clocks to measure the mean cosmic-ray confinement time in the Galaxy, tau(epsilon) is considered. For this purpose it is necessary to estimate the unknown beta(+) decay half-lives of several Tc and Pm isotopes; these estimates are obtained using beta-decay systematics. In the case of Tc it is possible to estimate the half-lives sufficiently well and show that this element can indeed be used as a cosmic-ray clock; in the case of Pm the half-lives are too uncertain to permit any conclusion. In order to make meaningful measurement of tau(epsilon) using elemental Tc, a comsic-ray detector must have a charge resolution less than about 0.25e in the region around Tc, and enough collecting power to detect a few hundred Tc nuclei.

  19. Cosmic X-ray background and solitars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    In this paper the authors has examined the observational consequences of a class of new astronomical objects proposed by Friedberg, Lee and Pang, called solitars which are degenerate vacuum states embedded with particles. A study is made to include finite temperature effect and pair creation. Quark is believed to be the only species that can exist in the interior of solitars. Massive quark solitars are primarily X-ray emitters and may account for the large unexplained thermal component of the cosmic X-ray background.

  20. Stable laws and cosmic ray physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolini, Y.; Salati, P.; Serpico, P. D.; Taillet, R.

    2017-03-01

    Context. In the new "precision era" for cosmic ray astrophysics, scientists making theoretical predictions cannot content themselves with average trends, but need to correctly take into account intrinsic uncertainties. The space-time discreteness of the cosmic ray sources, together with a substantial ignorance of their precise epochs and locations (with the possible exception of the most recent and close ones) play an important role in this sense. Aims: We elaborate a statistical theory to deal with this problem, relating the composite probability P(Ψ) to obtain a flux Ψ at the Earth and the single-source probability p(ψ) to contribute with a flux ψ. The main difficulty arises from the fact that p(ψ) is a "heavy tail" distribution, characterized by power-law or broken power-law behavior up to very large fluxes, for which the central limit theorem does not hold, and leading to distributions different from Gaussian. The functional form of the distribution for the aggregated flux is nonetheless unchanged by its own convolution, that is, it belongs to the so-called stable laws class. Methods: We analytically discuss the regime of validity of the stable laws associated with the distributions arising in cosmic ray astrophysics, as well as the limitations to the treatment imposed by causal considerations and partial source catalog knowledge. We validate our results with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, for different regimes of propagation parameters and energies. Results: We find that relatively simple recipes provide a satisfactory description of the probability P(Ψ). We also find that a naive Gaussian fit to simulation results would underestimate the probability of very large fluxes, that is, several times above the average, while overestimating the probability of relatively milder excursions. At large energies, large flux fluctuations are prevented by causal considerations, while at low energies, a partial knowledge of the recent and nearby population of

  1. Elemental technetium as a cosmic-ray clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drach, J.; Salamon, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Several radioactive isotopes have been proposed as clocks for the study of the mean cosmic ray confinement time, T sub e. Measurements of Be-10 and Al-26 give a value for T sub e of about 10 Myr when one uses a leaky box cosmic ray propagation model. It is important to obtain additional measurements of T sub e from other radioactive isotopes in order to check whether the confinement is the same throughout the periodic table. The possible use of Tc (Z = 43) as a cosmic clock is investigated. Since all isotopes of Tc are radioactive, one might be able to group these isotopes and use the elemental abundance as a whole. The results of the calculations are somewhat inconclusive for two reasons. First, the beta + decay half lives of two of the Tc isotopes relevant to our calculation are not known. Second, the dependence of the Tc abundance on the mean confinement time is rather weak when one considers the number of events expected in 4 trays of plastic track detectors. However, a future, finite measurement of the Beta + half lives and the possible use of the entire collecting area of the HNC to detect Tc nuclei could make the use of Tc as a cosmic ray clock more attractive.

  2. Cosmic Ray Positrons from Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are potential Galactic sources of positrons through pair cascades in their magnetospheres. There are, however, many uncertainties in establishing their contribution to the local primary positron flux. Among these are the local density of pulsars, the cascade pair multiplicities that determine the injection rate of positrons from the pulsar, the acceleration of the injected particles by the pulsar wind termination shock, their rate of escape from the pulsar wind nebula, and their propagation through the interstellar medium. I will discuss these issues in the context of what we are learning from the new Fermi pulsar detections and discoveries.

  3. Measurements of the cosmic-ray Be/B ratio and the age of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The ratio Be/B depends on whether the confinement time of cosmic rays in the Galaxy is long or short compared to the radioactive half-life of Be-10. We report observations of this ratio which were obtained with a dE/dx-Cerenkov detector launched into a polar orbit on OGO-6 as part of the Caltech Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray Experiment. Be/B ratios were determined for various rigidity thresholds up to 15 GV. We find no statistically significant rigidity dependence of the ratio, which is 0.41 plus or minus 0.02 when averaged over all observed cutoffs. Additional calculations suggest that if the present fragmentation parameters are correct, then the lifetime of cosmic rays in the Galaxy is less then 10 m.y.

  4. PyCosmic: Detecting cosmics in CALIFA and other fiber-fed integral-field spectroscopy datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Kamann, S.; Sandin, C.; Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.

    2012-10-01

    The detection of cosmic ray hits (cosmics) in fiber-fed integral-field spectroscopy (IFS) data of single exposures is a challenging task because of the complex signal recorded by IFS instruments. Existing detection algorithms are commonly found to be unreliable in the case of IFS data, and the optimal parameter settings are usually unknown a priori for a given dataset. The Calar Alto legacy integral field area (CALIFA) survey generates hundreds of IFS datasets for which a reliable and robust detection algorithm for cosmics is required as an important part of the fully automatic CALIFA data reduction pipeline. PyCosmic combines the edge-detection algorithm of L.A.Cosmic with a point-spread function convolution scheme. PyCosmic is the only algorithm that achieves an acceptable detection performance for CALIFA data. Only for strongly undersampled IFS data does L.A.Cosmic exceed the performance of PyCosmic by a few percent. Thus, PyCosmic appears to be the most versatile cosmics detection algorithm for IFS data.

  5. Long term variability of the cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Houston, B. P.; Mayer, C. J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Bhat, et al., assess the evidence for the continuing acceleration of cosmic rays in the Loop I supernova remnant. The enhanced gamma-ray emission is found consistent with the Blandford and Cowie model for particle acceleration at the remnant shock wave. The contributions of other supernovae remnants to the galactic cosmic ray energy density are now considered, paying anisotropy of cosmic rays accelerated by local supernovae ( 100 pc). The results are compared with geophysical data on the fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity over the previous one billion years.

  6. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  7. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Recently was published the monograph "Cosmic Ray History" by Lev Dorman and Irina Dorman (Nova Publishers, New York). What learn us and what key scientific problems formulated the Cosmic Ray History? 1. As many great discoveries, the phenomenon of cosmic rays was discovered accidentally, during investigations that sought to answer another question: what are sources of air ionization? This problem became interesting for science about 230 years ago in the end of the 18th century, when physics met with a problem of leakage of electrical charge from very good isolated bodies. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, in connection with the discovery of natural radioactivity, it became apparent that this problem is mainly solved: it was widely accepted that the main source of the air ionization were α, b, and γ - radiations from radioactive substances in the ground (γ-radiation was considered as the most important cause because α- and b-radiations are rapidly absorbed in the air). 3. The general accepted wrong opinion on the ground radioactivity as main source of air ionization, stopped German meteorologist Franz Linke to made correct conclusion on the basis of correct measurements. In fact, he made 12 balloon flights in 1900-1903 during his PhD studies at Berlin University, carrying an electroscope to a height of 5500 m. The PhD Thesis was not published, but in Thesis he concludes: "Were one to compare the presented values with those on ground, one must say that at 1000 m altitude the ionization is smaller than on the ground, between 1 and 3 km the same amount, and above it is larger with values increasing up to a factor of 4 (at 5500 m). The uncertainties in the observations only allow the conclusion that the reason for the ionization has to be found first in the Earth." Nobody later quoted Franz Linke and although he had made the right measurements, he had reached the wrong conclusions, and the discovery of CR became only later on about 10 years. 4. Victor Hess, a

  8. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 × 10{sup 18} eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: Pierre Augur Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×10{sup 18} eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×10{sup 18} eV, the ''ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E{sup −γ} with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (E{sub s}) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find E{sub s}=(5.12±0.25 (stat){sup +1.0}{sub −1.2} (sys))×10{sup 19} eV.

  9. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.

  10. Study of Cosmic Ray Muon Lateral Distribution with Geant4 Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajlic, Olesya; He, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    Cosmic ray radiation has galactic origin and consists primarily of protons and a small percentage of heavier nuclei. The primary cosmic ray particles interact with the molecules in the atmosphere and produce showers of secondary particles at about 15 km altitude. In recent years, with the advancement in particle detection technology, there is a growing interest of exploring the applications of cosmic ray muons ranging from Homeland Security, correlation study with the atmospheric weather, etc. A Geant4-based cosmic ray shower simulation is developed to study secondary cosmic ray particle showers in the full range of the Earth's atmosphere. In this talk, the diurnal and latitudinal variations of muon lateral distributions will be presented.

  11. Cosmic Ray Helium Intensities over the Solar Cycle from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeNolfo, G. A.; Yanasak, N. E.; Binns, W. R.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; George, J. S.; Hink. P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Ogliore, R.; Stone, E. C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenback, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray origin and propagation. However, helium intensities measured at Earth are affected by solar modulation, especially below several GeV/nucleon. Observations of helium intensities over a solar cycle are important for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the contributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays. The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on ACE has been measuring cosmic ray isotopes, including helium, since 1997 with high statistical precision. We present helium elemental intensities between approx. 10 to approx. 100 MeV/nucleon from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) and CRIS observations over a solar cycle and compare these results with the observations from other satellite and balloon-borne instruments, and with GCR transport and solar modulation models.

  12. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  13. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19°N, 90°W, 800 g/cm2) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  14. Constraint on electromagnetic acceleration of highest energy cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Mikhail V

    2003-04-01

    The energetics of electromagnetic acceleration of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is constrained both by confinement of a particle within an acceleration site and by radiative energy losses of the particle in the confining magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the detection of approximately 3 x 10(20) eV events is inconsistent with the hypothesis that compact cosmic accelerators with high magnetic fields can be the sources of UHECRs. This rules out the most popular candidates, namely spinning neutron stars, active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Galaxy clusters and, perhaps, AGN radio lobes and gamma-ray burst blast waves remain the only possible (although not very strong) candidates for UHECR acceleration sites. Our analysis places no limit on linear accelerators. With the data from the future Auger experiment one should be able to answer whether a conventional theory works or some new physics is required to explain the origin of UHECRs.

  15. New approach to cosmic ray investigations above the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is assumed that at energies around the knee the nucleus-nucleus interaction is drastically changed due to production of blobs of quark-gluon matter with very large orbital momentum. This approach allows explain all so-called unusual events observed in cosmic rays and gives a new connection between results of EAS investigations and energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays. To check this approach, the experiments in cosmic rays and at LHC are proposed.

  16. Constraining the production of cosmic rays by pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Pshirkov, Maxim S.; Rubtsov, Grigory I.

    2016-09-01

    One of the possible sources of hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) are newborn pulsars. If this is indeed the case, they should feature diffusive gamma-ray halos produced by interactions of CRs with interstellar gas. In this paper we try to identify extended gamma-ray emission around young pulsars, making use of the 7-year Fermi-LAT data. For this purpose we select and analyze a set of eight pulsars that are most likely to possess detectable gamma-ray halos. We find extended emission that might be interpreted as a gamma-ray halo only in the case of PSR J 0007 +7303 . Its luminosity accords with the total energy of injected cosmic rays ˜1 050 erg , although other interpretations of this source are possible. Irrespectively of the nature of this source, we put bounds on the luminosity of gamma-ray halos which suggest that pulsars' contribution to the overall energy budget of galactic CRs is subdominant in the GeV-TeV range.

  17. Origin and propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesarsky, Catherine J.; Ormes, Jonathan F.

    1987-01-01

    The study of systematic trends in elemental abundances is important for unfolding the nuclear and/or atomic effects that should govern the shaping of source abundances and in constraining the parameters of cosmic ray acceleration models. In principle, much can be learned about the large-scale distributions of cosmic rays in the galaxy from all-sky gamma ray surveys such as COS-B and SAS-2. Because of the uncertainties in the matter distribution which come from the inability to measure the abundance of molecular hydrogen, the results are somewhat controversial. The leaky-box model accounts for a surprising amount of the data on heavy nuclei. However, a growing body of data indicates that the simple picture may have to be abandoned in favor of more complex models which contain additional parameters. Future experiments on the Spacelab and space station will hopefully be made of the spectra of individual nuclei at high energy. Antiprotons must be studied in the background free environment above the atmosphere with much higher reliability and presion to obtain spectral information.

  18. Radiation Hazard from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf

    2006-03-01

    Space radiation is a major hazard to astronauts in long-duration human space explosion. Astronauts are exposed to an enormous amount of radiation during their missions away from the Earth in outer space. Deep space is a rich environment of protons, gamma rays and cosmic rays. A healthy 40 years old man staying on Earth away from large doses of radiation stands a 20% chance of dying from cancer. If the same person travels into a 3- year Mars mission, the added risk should increase by 19%. This indicates that there is 39% chance of having cancer after he comes back to Earth. Female astronaut chances to get cancer is even almost double the above percentage. The greatest threat to astronauts en route to the red planet is galactic cosmic rays (GCR). GCRs penetrate through the skin of spaceships and people like tiny firearm bullets, breaking the strands of DNA molecules, damaging genes, and killing cells. Understanding the nature of the GCRs, their effect on biological cells, and their interactions with different shielding materials is the key point to shield against them in long space missions. In this paper we will present a model to evaluate the biological effects of GCRs and suggestion different ways to shield against them.

  19. The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Elemental spectra were measured for Z = 1- 26 nuclei over a wide energy range from 1010 to >1014 eV. Building on the success of those balloon flights, one of the two balloon payloads was transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide precise charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. In addition, scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors and the Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguish electrons from nuclei. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is expected to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. Following completion of its qualification tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. While waiting for ISS-CREAM to launch, the other balloon payload including a Transition Radiation Detector, which is too large for the JEM-EF envelope, has been prepared for another Antarctic balloon flight in 2016. This so-called Boron And Carbon Cosmic rays in the Upper Stratosphere (BACCUS) payload will investigate cosmic ray propagation history. The overall project status and future plans will be presented.

  20. SUPERNOVA REMNANT KES 17: AN EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATOR INSIDE A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, Joseph D.; Castro, Daniel; Slane, Patrick O.; Temim, Tea; Hughes, John P.; Rakowski, Cara E-mail: cara.rakowski@gmail.com

    2013-11-10

    The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and γ-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

  1. Cosmic rays, gamma rays and synchrotron radiation from the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Elena

    2012-07-30

    Galactic cosmic rays (CR), interstellar gamma-ray emission and synchrotron radiation are related topics. CR electrons propagate in the Galaxy and interact with the interstellar medium, producing inverse-Compton emission measured in gamma rays and synchrotron emission measured in radio. I present an overview of the latest results with Fermi/LAT on the gamma-ray diffuse emission induced by CR nuclei and electrons. Then I focus on the recent complementary studies of the synchrotron emission in the light of the latest gamma-ray results. Relevant observables include spectral indices and their variations, using surveys over a wide range of radio frequencies. As a result, this paper emphasizes the importance of using the parallel study of gamma rays and synchrotron radiation in order to constrain the low-energy interstellar CR electron spectrum, models of propagation of CRs, and magnetic fields.

  2. Cosmic rays, gamma rays and synchrotron radiation from the Galaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Orlando, Elena

    2012-07-30

    Galactic cosmic rays (CR), interstellar gamma-ray emission and synchrotron radiation are related topics. CR electrons propagate in the Galaxy and interact with the interstellar medium, producing inverse-Compton emission measured in gamma rays and synchrotron emission measured in radio. I present an overview of the latest results with Fermi/LAT on the gamma-ray diffuse emission induced by CR nuclei and electrons. Then I focus on the recent complementary studies of the synchrotron emission in the light of the latest gamma-ray results. Relevant observables include spectral indices and their variations, using surveys over a wide range of radio frequencies. As a result, thismore » paper emphasizes the importance of using the parallel study of gamma rays and synchrotron radiation in order to constrain the low-energy interstellar CR electron spectrum, models of propagation of CRs, and magnetic fields.« less

  3. Correlation between cosmic rays and ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Q-B

    2009-03-20

    This Letter reports reliable satellite data in the period of 1980-2007 covering two full 11-yr cosmic ray (CR) cycles, clearly showing the correlation between CRs and ozone depletion, especially the polar ozone loss (hole) over Antarctica. The results provide strong evidence of the physical mechanism that the CR-driven electron-induced reaction of halogenated molecules plays the dominant role in causing the ozone hole. Moreover, this mechanism predicts one of the severest ozone losses in 2008-2009 and probably another large hole around 2019-2020, according to the 11-yr CR cycle.

  4. A cosmic-ray-mediated shock in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the flare-induced blast wave of Aug. 4, 1972, the most violent disturbance in the solar wind on record, produced cosmic rays with an efficiency of about 50%. Such a high efficiency is predicted by the self-regulating production model of cosmic-ray origin in shocks. Most interplanetary shocks, according to simple theoretical analysis, are not strong enough to produce cosmic rays efficiently. However, if shock strength is the key parameter governing efficiency, as present interplanetary data suggest, then shocks from supernova blasts, quasar outbursts, and other violent astrophysical phenomena should be extremely efficient sources of cosmic rays.

  5. Acoustic instability driven by cosmic-ray streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1994-08-01

    We study the linear stability of compressional waves in a medium through which cosmic rays stream at the Alfven speed due to strong coupling with Alfven waves. Acoustic waves can be driven unstable by the cosmic-ray drift, provided that the streaming speed is sufficiently large compared to the thermal sound speed. Two effects can cause instability: (1) the heating of the thermal gas due to the damping of Alfven waves driven unstable by cosmic-ray streaming; and (2) phase shifts in the cosmic-ray pressure perturbation caused by the combination of cosmic-ray streaming and diffusion. The instability does not depend on the magnitude of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, and occurs whether or not cosmic-ray diffusion is important relative to streaming. When the cosmic-ray pressure is small compared to the gas pressure, or cosmic-ray diffusion is strong, the instability manifests itself as a weak overstability of slow magnetosonic waves. Larger cosmic-ray pressure gives rise to new hybrid modes, which can be strongly unstable in the limits of both weak and strong cosmic-ray diffusion and in the presence of thermal conduction. Parts of our analysis parallel earlier work by McKenzie & Webb (which were brought to our attention after this paper was accepted for publication), but our treatment of diffusive effects, thermal conduction, and nonlinearities represent significant extensions. Although the linear growth rate of instability is independent of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, the onset of nonlinear eff ects does depend on absolute value of DEL (vector differential operator) Pc. At the onset of nonlinearity the fractional amplitude of cosmic-ray pressure perturbations is delta PC/PC approximately (kL) -1 much less than 1, where k is the wavenumber and L is the pressure scale height of the unperturbed cosmic rays. We speculate that the instability may lead to a mode of cosmic-ray transport in which plateaus of uniform cosmic-ray pressure are

  6. Acoustic instability driven by cosmic-ray streaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1994-01-01

    We study the linear stability of compressional waves in a medium through which cosmic rays stream at the Alfven speed due to strong coupling with Alfven waves. Acoustic waves can be driven unstable by the cosmic-ray drift, provided that the streaming speed is sufficiently large compared to the thermal sound speed. Two effects can cause instability: (1) the heating of the thermal gas due to the damping of Alfven waves driven unstable by cosmic-ray streaming; and (2) phase shifts in the cosmic-ray pressure perturbation caused by the combination of cosmic-ray streaming and diffusion. The instability does not depend on the magnitude of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, and occurs whether or not cosmic-ray diffusion is important relative to streaming. When the cosmic-ray pressure is small compared to the gas pressure, or cosmic-ray diffusion is strong, the instability manifests itself as a weak overstability of slow magnetosonic waves. Larger cosmic-ray pressure gives rise to new hybrid modes, which can be strongly unstable in the limits of both weak and strong cosmic-ray diffusion and in the presence of thermal conduction. Parts of our analysis parallel earlier work by McKenzie & Webb (which were brought to our attention after this paper was accepted for publication), but our treatment of diffusive effects, thermal conduction, and nonlinearities represent significant extensions. Although the linear growth rate of instability is independent of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, the onset of nonlinear eff ects does depend on absolute value of DEL (vector differential operator) P(sub c). At the onset of nonlinearity the fractional amplitude of cosmic-ray pressure perturbations is delta P(sub C)/P(sub C) approximately (kL) (exp -1) much less than 1, where k is the wavenumber and L is the pressure scale height of the unperturbed cosmic rays. We speculate that the instability may lead to a mode of cosmic-ray transport in which plateaus of uniform cosmic-ray

  7. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger Collaboration agreed to make 1% of its data available to the public. The Public Event Explorer is a search tool that allows users to browse or search for and display figures and data plots of events collected since 2004. The repository is updated daily, and, as of June, 2014, makes more than 35,000 events publicly available. The energy of a cosmic ray is measured in Exa electron volts or EeV. These event displays can be browsed in order of their energy level from 0.1 to 41.1 EeV. Each event has an individual identification number.

    The event displays provide station data, cosmic ray incoming direction, various energy measurements, plots, vector-based images, and an ASCII data file.

  8. Pierre Auger Enhancements: Transition from Galactic to Extragalactic Cosmic Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Etchegoyen, A.; Melo, D.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina, M. C.

    2007-06-19

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has decided to include detector enhancements in order to have unitary detection efficiencies down to 1017 eV in cosmic rays detection. These enhancements consist in high elevation telescopes and an infill area with both surface detectors and underground muon counters thus allowing a detailed study of the spectrum region where the cosmic rays sources are assumed to change from galactic to extragalactic origins.

  9. Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts in the Galaxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    supernova when its core collapses to a black hole. Most core-collapse supernovae , by contrast, form neutron stars. In either case, the supernova ...ions. Th e supernovae that form neutron stars are thought to accelerate cosmic rays to energies reaching 1014 eV. Th e much more energetic GRB shock...universe in this model. Over the age of the Galaxy, there is a good chance that a nearby powerful GRB, with a jet oriented toward Earth , could have

  10. Cosmic rays in a galactic breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Giacinti, Gwenael

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the nonthermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to γ -ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of ≈200 GV .

  11. REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I.; Kozlov, Valery; Ksenofontov, Leonid, Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Yanke, Victor

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present a first distributed REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD). The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains not only original cosmic ray data but also auxiliary data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomn.Stit, Moscow, Oulu; Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The database and all its mirrors are up dated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scripts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication to ols developed at Bio engineering division of the IRCCS E.Medea, Italy.

  12. CREAM: High Energy Frontier of Cosmic Ray Elemental Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica. High energy cosmic-ray data were collected over a wide energy range from 10 (10) to 10 (15) eV at an average altitude of 38.5 km with 3.9 g/cm (2) atmospheric overburden. Cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Building on success of the balloon flights, the payload is being reconfigured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with the CREAM calorimeter for energy measurements, and four finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector layers for precise charge measurements. In addition, the Top and Bottom Counting Detectors (TCD and BCD) and Boronated Scintillator Detector (BSD) have been newly developed. The TCD and BCD are scintillator based segmented detectors to separate electrons from nuclei using the shower profile differences, while BSD distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The project status including results from on-going analysis of existing data and future plans will be discussed.

  13. Lunar surface cosmic ray experiment S-152, Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.; Carter, M.; Comostock, G. M.; Renshaw, A.; Woods, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was directed at determining the energy spectra and abundances of low energy heavy cosmic rays (0.03 E or = 150 MeV/nucleon). The cosmic rays were detected using plastic and glass particle track detectors. Particles emitted during the 17 April 1972 solar flare dominated the spectra for energies below about 70 MeV/nucleon. Two conclusions emerge from the low energy data: (1) The differential energy spectra for solar particles vary rapidly for energies as low as 0.05 MeV/nucleon for iron-group nuclei. (2) The abundance ratio of heavy elements changes with energy at low energies; heavy elements are enhanced relative to higher elements increasingly as the energy decreases. Galactic particle fluxes recorded within the spacecraft are in agreement with those predicted taking into account solar modulation and spacecraft shielding. The composition of the nuclei at energies above 70 MeV/nucleon imply that these particles originate outside the solar system and hence are galactic cosmic rays.

  14. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies.

  15. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: Old Physics or New Physics?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the advantages of and the problems associated with hypotheses to explain the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR: E greater than 10 EeV) and the "trans-GZK" cosmic rays (TGZK: E greater than 100 EeV) both through "old physics" (acceleration in cosmic sources) and "new physics" (new particles, topological defects, fat neutrino cross sections, Lorentz invariance violation).

  16. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers which address various aspects of extensive air showers (EAS) produced by energetic particles and gamma rays.

  17. Statistical properties of the time histories of cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected by the BATSE experiment of the Compton gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagdeev, Roald

    1995-01-01

    The main scientific objectives of the project were: (1) Calculation of average time history for different subsets of BATSE gamma-ray bursts; (2) Comparison of averaged parameters and averaged time history for different Burst And Transient Source Experiments (BASTE) Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) sets; (3) Comparison of results obtained with BATSE data with those obtained with APEX experiment at PHOBOS mission; and (4) Use the results of (1)-(3) to compare current models of gamma-ray bursts sources.

  18. Cosmic ray modulation by high-speed solar wind fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Kaminer, N. S.; Kuzmicheva, A. E.; Mymrina, N. V.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray intensity variations connected with recurrent high-speed fluxes (HSF) of solar wind are investigated. The increase of intensity before the Earth gets into a HSF, north-south anisotropy and diurnal variation of cosmic rays inside a HSF as well as the characteristics of Forbush decreases are considered.

  19. Cosmic ray sampling of a clumpy interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Boettcher, Erin; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Yoast-Hull, Tova M.

    2013-12-10

    How cosmic rays sample the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) in starburst galaxies has important implications for many science goals, including evaluating the cosmic ray calorimeter model for these systems, predicting their neutrino fluxes, and modeling their winds. Here, we use Monte Carlo simulations to study cosmic ray sampling of a simple, two-phase ISM under conditions similar to those of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The assumption that cosmic rays sample the mean density of the ISM in the starburst region is assessed over a multi-dimensional parameter space where we vary the number of molecular clouds, the galactic wind speed, the extent to which the magnetic field is tangled, and the cosmic ray injection mechanism. We evaluate the ratio of the emissivity from pion production in molecular clouds to the emissivity that would be observed if the cosmic rays sampled the mean density, and seek areas of parameter space where this ratio differs significantly from unity. The assumption that cosmic rays sample the mean density holds over much of parameter space; however, this assumption begins to break down for high cloud density, injection close to the clouds, and a very tangled magnetic field. We conclude by evaluating the extent to which our simulated starburst region behaves as a proton calorimeter and constructing the time-dependent spectrum of a burst of cosmic rays.

  20. Using the information of cosmic rays to predict influence epidemic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Z. D.

    1985-01-01

    A correlation between the incidence of influenza pandemics and increased cosmic ray activity is made. A correlation is also made between the occurrence of these pandemics and the appearance of bright novae, e.g., Nova Eta Car. Four indices based on increased cosmic ray activity and novae are proposed to predict future influenza pandemics and viral antigenic shifts.

  1. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  2. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  3. Using the information of cosmic rays to predict influence epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. D.

    1985-08-01

    A correlation between the incidence of influenza pandemics and increased cosmic ray activity is made. A correlation is also made between the occurrence of these pandemics and the appearance of bright novae, e.g., Nova Eta Car. Four indices based on increased cosmic ray activity and novae are proposed to predict future influenza pandemics and viral antigenic shifts.

  4. Charge 4/3 leptons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Imaeda, K.; Yamamoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    A cosmic ray counter telescope has been operated at zenith angles of 0, 40, 44, and 60 degs in order to look for charge 4/3 particles. A few million clean single cosmic rays of each zenith angle are analyzed.

  5. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume covers solar and heliospheric phenomena, specifically, particle acceleration; cosmic ray compsotion, spectra, and anisotropy; propagation of solar and interplanetary energetic particles; solar-cycle modulation; and propagation of galactic particles in the heliosphere.

  6. Modulation of Cosmic Ray Precipitation Related to Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    1998-01-01

    High energy cosmic rays may influence the formation of clouds, and thus can have an impact on weather and climate. Cosmic rays in the solar wind are incident on the magnetosphere boundary and are then transmitted through the magnetosphere and atmosphere to reach the upper troposphere.

  7. Energetic-Particle Populations and Cosmic-Ray Entry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-17

    H., E. Fl~ickiger. H. von Mandach , and M. Arens, Determina- tion of the ring current radii from cosmic ray neutron monitor data for the 17 December... Mandach , and M. Arens, Determination of the ring current radii from cosmic ray neutron monitor data for the 17 December 1971 magnetic storm, Planet. Space

  8. THE COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY NEAR THE ARCHEAN EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Kota, J.

    2012-11-20

    We employ three-dimensional state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic models of the early solar wind and heliosphere and a two-dimensional model for cosmic-ray transport to investigate the cosmic-ray spectrum and flux near the Archean Earth. We assess how sensitive the cosmic-ray spectrum is to changes in the sunspot placement and magnetic field strength, the large-scale dipole magnetic field strength, the wind ram pressure, and the Sun's rotation period. Overall, our results confirm earlier work that suggested the Archean Earth would have experienced a greatly reduced cosmic-ray flux than is the case today. The cosmic-ray reduction for the early Sun is mainly due to the shorter solar rotation period and tighter winding of the Parker spiral, and to the different surface distribution of the more active solar magnetic field. These effects lead to a global reduction of the cosmic-ray flux at 1 AU by up to two orders of magnitude or more. Variations in the sunspot magnetic field have more effect on the flux than variations in the dipole field component. The wind ram pressure affects the cosmic-ray flux through its influence on the size of the heliosphere via the pressure balance with the ambient interstellar medium. Variations in the interstellar medium pressure experienced by the solar system in orbit through the Galaxy could lead to order of magnitude changes in the cosmic-ray flux at Earth on timescales of a few million years.

  9. Cosmic Ray Abundance at Aircraft Altitudes in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.

    1999-08-01

    Recent investigations of cosmic ray primaries and secondaries at aviation altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere include the study of Z≥2 particles along the London-New York flight routes on supersonic aircraft. Preliminary charge spectra will be presented for these nuclei and comparisons will be made with the predictions of cosmic ray transport models in the Earth's atmosphere.

  10. Atmospheric effects of stellar cosmic rays on Earth-like exoplanets orbiting M-dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Grenfell, J. L.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Rauer, H.

    2016-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are generally considered favourable for rocky planet detection. However, such planets may be subject to extreme conditions due to possible high stellar activity. The goal of this work is to determine the potential effect of stellar cosmic rays on key atmospheric species of Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars and show corresponding changes in the planetary spectra. We build upon the cosmic rays model scheme of previous works, who considered cosmic ray induced NOx production, by adding further cosmic ray induced production mechanisms (e.g. for HOx) and introducing primary protons of a wider energy range (16 MeV-0.5 TeV). Previous studies suggested that planets in the habitable zone that are subject to strong flaring conditions have high atmospheric methane concentrations, while their ozone biosignature is completely destroyed. Our current study shows, however, that adding cosmic ray induced HOx production can cause a decrease in atmospheric methane abundance of up to 80%. Furthermore, the cosmic ray induced HOx molecules react with NOx to produce HNO3, which produces strong HNO3 signals in the theoretical spectra and reduces NOx-induced catalytic destruction of ozone so that more than 25% of the ozone column remains. Hence, an ozone signal remains visible in the theoretical spectrum (albeit with a weaker intensity) when incorporating the new cosmic ray induced NOx and HOx schemes, even for a constantly flaring M-star case. We also find that HNO3 levels may be high enough to be potentially detectable. Since ozone concentrations, which act as the key shield against harmful UV radiation, are affected by cosmic rays via NOx-induced catalytic destruction of ozone, the impact of stellar cosmic rays on surface UV fluxes is also studied.

  11. The isotopic composition of cosmic-ray beryllium and its implication for the cosmic ray's age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukasiak, A.; Ferrando, P.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the cosmic-ray isotopic composition of beryllium in the low-energy range from 35 to 113 MeV per nucleon. This measurement was made using the High Energy Telescope of the CRS experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft during the time period from 1977 to 1991. In this overall time period of 14 years the average solar modulation level was about 500 MV. The cosmic-ray beryllium isotopes were completely separated with an average mass resolution sigma of 0.185 amu. The isotope fractions of Be-7, Be-9, and Be-10 obtained are 52.4 +/- 2.9%, 43.3 +/- 3.7%, and 4.3 +/- 1.5%, respectively. The measured cosmic-ray abundances of Be-7 and Be-9 are found to be in agreement with calculations based on standard Leaky-Box model for the interstellar propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei using the recent cross sections of the New Mexico-Saclay collaboration. From our observed ratio Be-10/Be = 4.3 +/- 1.5% we deduce an average interstellar density of about 0.28 (+0.14, -0.11) atoms/cu cm, and acosmic-ray lifetime for escape of 27 (+19, -9) x 10(exp 6) years. The surviving fraction of Be-10 is found to be 0.19 +/- 0.07. Modifications to the conclusions of the Leaky-Box model when a diffusion + convection halo model for propagation is used are also considered.

  12. PREFACE: 24th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-08-01

    The 24th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS) took place in Kiel, Germany, at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel from September 1 - 5, 2014, The first symposium was held in 1968 in Lodz, Poland (high energy, extensive air showers and astrophysical aspects) and in Bern (solar and heliospheric phenomena) and the two "strands" joined together in 1976 with the meeting in Leeds. The 24th ECRS covered a wide range of scientific issues divided into the following topics: HECR-I Primary cosmic rays I (experiments) HECR-II Primary cosmic rays II (theory) MN Cosmic ray muons and neutrinos GR GeV and TeV gamma astronomy SH Energetic particles in the heliosphere (solar and anomalous CRs and GCR modulation) GEO Cosmic rays and geophysics (energetic particles in the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth) INS Future Instrumentation DM Dark Matter The organizers are very grateful to the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft for supporting the symposium.

  13. Transient cosmic ray increase associated with a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudo, S.; Wada, M.; Tanskanen, P.; Kodama, M.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide network data of cosmic ray nucleonic components, the transient cosmic ray increase due to the depression of cosmic ray cutoff rigidity during a severe geomagnetic storm was investigated in terms of the longitudinal dependence. Multiple correlation analysis among isotropic and diurnal terms of cosmic ray intensity variations and Dst term of the geomagnetic field is applied to each of various station's data. It is shown that the amplitude of the transient cosmic ray increase associated with Dst depends on the local time of the station, and that its maximum phase is found in the evening sector. This fact is consistent with the theoretical estimation based on the azimuthally asymmetric ring current model for the magnetic DS field.

  14. Tevatron QCD for Cosmic-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Lars; /RWTH Aachen U.

    2010-12-01

    The two multi-purpose experiments D0 and CDF are operated at the Tevatron collider, where proton anti-proton collisions take place at a centre of mass energy of 1.96 TeV in Run II. In the kinematic plane of Q{sup 2}-scale and (anti-)proton momentum fraction x, Tevatron jet measurements cover a wide range, with phase space regions in common and beyond the HERA ep-collider reach. The kinematic limit of the Auger experiment is given by a centre of mass energy of 100 TeV. Cosmic rays cover a large region of the kinematic phase space at low momenta x, corresponding to forward proton/diffractive physics and also at low scales, corresponding to the hadronization scale and the underlying event. Therefore of particular interest are exclusive and diffractive measurements as well as underlying event, double parton scattering and minimum bias measurements. The kinematic limit of the Tevatron corresponds to the PeV energy region below the knee of the differential cosmic particle flux energy distribution. The data discussed here are in general corrected for detector effects, such as efficiency and acceptance. Therefore they can be used directly for testing and improving existing event generators and any future calculations/models. Comparisons take place at the hadronic final state (particle level).

  15. PREFACE: 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (and 32nd Russian Cosmic Ray Conference)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Meroshnichenko, L. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-02-01

    The 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS) took place in Moscow at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (3-7 July 2012), and was excellently organized by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, with the help of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Council on the Complex Problem of Cosmic Rays of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The first symposia were held in 1968 in Lodz, Poland (high energy, extensive air showers and astrophysical aspects) and in Bern (solar and heliospheric phenomena) and the two 'strands' joined together in 1976 with the meeting in Leeds. Since then the symposia, which have been very successful, have covered all the major topics with some emphasis on European collaborations and on meeting the demands of young scientists. Initially, a driving force was the need to overcome the divisions caused by the 'Cold War' but the symposia continued even when that threat ceased and they have shown no sign of having outlived their usefulness. 2012 has been an important year in the history of cosmic ray studies, in that it marked the centenary of the discovery of enigmatic particles in the perilous balloon ascents of Victor Hess. A number of conferences have taken place in Western Europe during the year, but this one took place in Moscow as a tribute to the successful efforts of many former USSR and other Eastern European scientists in discovering the secrets of the subject, often under very difficult conditions. The symposium covers a wide range of scientific issues divided into the following topics: PCR-IPrimary cosmic rays I (E < 1015 eV) PCR-IIPrimary cosmic rays II (E > 1015 eV) MNCosmic ray muons and neutrinos GAGeV and TeV gamma astronomy SHEnergetic particles in the heliosphere (solar and anomalous CRs and GCR modulation) GEOCosmic rays and geophysics (energetic particles in the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth) On a personal note, as I step down as co-founder and chairman of the

  16. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  17. Strong earthquakes, novae and cosmic ray environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Z. D.

    1985-01-01

    Observations about the relationship between seismic activity and astronomical phenomena are discussed. First, after investigating the seismic data (magnitude 7.0 and over) with the method of superposed epochs it is found that world seismicity evidently increased after the occurring of novae with apparent magnitude brighter than 2.2. Second, a great many earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 and over occurred in the 13th month after two of the largest ground level solar cosmic ray events (GLEs). The causes of three high level phenomena of global seismic activity in 1918-1965 can be related to these, and it is suggested that according to the information of large GLE or bright nova predictions of the times of global intense seismic activity can be made.

  18. Directional clustering in highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Haim; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2001-09-01

    An unexpected degree of small-scale clustering is observed in highest-energy cosmic ray events. Some directional clustering can be expected due to purely statistical fluctuations for sources distributed randomly in the sky. This creates a background for events originating in clustered sources. We derive analytic formulas to estimate the probability of random cluster configurations, and use these formulas to study the strong potential of the HiRes, Auger, Telescope Array and EUSO-OWL-AirWatch facilities for deciding whether any observed clustering is most likely due to nonrandom sources. For a detailed comparison to data, our analytical approach cannot compete with Monte Carlo simulations, including experimental systematics. However, our derived formulas do offer two advantages: (i) easy assessment of the significance of any observed clustering, and most importantly, (ii) an explicit dependence of cluster probabilities on the chosen angular bin size.

  19. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Cane, H.V. )

    1993-03-01

    A study has been made of energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3% in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the postshock region, although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower-energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Estimates of cellular mutagenesis from cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1994-01-01

    A parametric track structure model is used to estimate the cross section as a function of particle velocity and charge for mutations at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in human fibroblast cell cultures. Experiments that report the fraction of mutations per surviving cell for human lung and skin fibroblast cells indicate small differences in the mutation cross section for these two cell lines when differences in inactivation rates between these cell lines are considered. Using models of cosmic ray transport, the mutation rate at the HGPRT locus is estimated for cell cultures in space flight and rates of about 2 to 10 x 10(exp -6) per year are found for typical spacecraft shielding. A discussion of how model assumptions may alter the predictions is also presented.

  1. Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florinski, V.; Washimi, H.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Adams, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report a next generation model of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) transport in the three dimensional heliosphere. Our model is based on an accurate three-dimensional representation of the heliospheric interface. This representation is obtained by taking into account the interaction between partially ionized, magnetized plasma flows of the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. Our model reveals that after entering the heliosphere GCRs are stored in the heliosheath for several years. The preferred GCR entry locations are near the nose of the heliopause and at high latitudes. Low-energy (hundreds of MeV) galactic ions observed in the heliosheath have spent, on average, a longer time in the solar wind than those observed in the inner heliosphere, which would explain their cooled-off spectra at these energies. We also discuss radial gradients in the heliosheath and the implications for future Voyager observations

  2. Cosmic Ray Variability and Galactic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail

    2007-05-01

    The spectral analysis of fluctuations of biodiversity (Rohde & Muller, 2005) and the subsequent re-analysis of the diversity record, species origination and extinction rates, gene duplication, etc (Melott & Liebermann, 2007) indicate the presence of a 62$\\pm$3My cyclicity, for the last 500My. Medvedev & Melott (2006) proposed that the cyclicity may be related to the periodicity of the Solar motion with respect to the Galactic plane, which exhibits a 63My oscillation, and the inhomogeneous distribution of Cosmic Rays (CR) throughout the Milky Way, which may affect the biosphere by changing mutation rate, climate, food chain, etc. Here we present a model of CR propagation in the Galactic magnetic fields, in the presence of both the mean field gradient and the strong MHD turbulence in the interstellar medium. We explore the "magnetic shielding effect" as a function of CR energy and composition and estimate the resultant flux of mutagenic secondary muons at the Earth surface.

  3. Cosmic ray anisotropies at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinic, N. J.; Alarcon, A.; Teran, F.

    1986-01-01

    The directional anisotropies of the energetic cosmic ray gas due to the relative motion between the observers frame and the one where the relativistic gas can be assumed isotropic is analyzed. The radiation fluxes formula in the former frame must follow as the Lorentz invariance of dp/E, where p, E are the 4-vector momentum-energy components; dp is the 3-volume element in the momentum space. The anisotropic flux shows in such a case an amplitude, in a rotating earth, smaller than the experimental measurements from say, EAS-arrays for primary particle energies larger than 1.E(14) eV. Further, it is shown that two consecutive Lorentz transformations among three inertial frames exhibit the violation of dp/E invariance between the first and the third systems of reference, due to the Wigner rotation. A discussion of this result in the context of the experimental anisotropic fluxes and its current interpretation is given.

  4. Testing for uniformity of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) exhibit mainly an isotropic distribution with some small deviations in particular energy bins. In this paper, the Yakutsk array data are tested for circular uniformity of arrival directions in right ascension (RA) using two methods appropriate for the energy ranges below and above 1018 eV. No statistically significant deviation from uniformity is found in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) detected within the observation period 1974-2000.

  5. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  6. Gamma rays and the origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ona Wilhelmi, Emma

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) are highly energetic nuclei (plus a small fraction of electrons) which fill the Galaxy and carry on average as much energy per unit volume as the energy density of starlight, the interstellar magnetic fields, or the kinetic energy density of interstellar gas. The CR spectrum extends as a featureless power-law up to ~2 PeV (the 'knee') and it is believed to be the result of acceleration of those CRs in Galactic Sources and later diffusion and convection in galactic magnetic fields. Those energetic CRs can interact with the surrounding medium via proton-proton collision resulting in secondary gamma-ray photons, observed from 100 MeV to a few tens of TeV. The results obtained by the current Cherenkov telescopes and gamma-ray satellites with the support of X-ray observations have discovered and identified more than 50 Galactic gamma-ray sources. Among them, the number of Supernova remnants (SNRs) and very-high-energy hard-spectrum sources (natural candidates to originate CRs) are steadily increasing. We expect to increase by a factor 10 at least this population of source with the future CTA experiment. I will review our current knowledge of Galactic gamma-ray sources and their connection with energetic CRs and the scientific prospects for CTA in this field. Those observations, together with a strong multi-wavelenght support from radio to hard X-rays, will finally allow us to establish the origin of the Galactic CRs.

  7. Evidence for the Superbubble Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, W.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of the isotopic and elemental abundances of galactic cosmic rays from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the NASA-ACE spacecraft, and elemental abundances from the balloon-borne Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) provide strong evidence that a large fraction of galactic cosmic rays originate and are accelerated in associations of massive stars (OB associations) and their associated superbubbles. Neon and iron isotopic abundances point to a superbubble origin in which the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) come from material that is roughly a 20%-80% mix of OB association material and ordinary interstellar medium material (ISM). This assumption that GCRs come from such a mix instead of ordinary ISM results in greatly improved ordering of volatile and refractory GCR elemental abundances when plotted versus atomic mass. This strengthens the OB association-superbubble connection with cosmic ray origin. More recently, the LAT instrument aboard the Fermi spacecraft has identified distributed emission of gamma-rays from a "cocoon" identified with the Cygnus-X superbubble, indicating the acceleration of cosmic rays in the superbubble. These measurements and the implications for the OB-association/superbubble origin of galactic cosmic rays will be discussed. Principal funding for this research was from NASA under grants NNG05WC04G and NAG5-12929.

  8. Galactic cosmic-ray induced production of lithium in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiprijanović, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the first lithium detection outside of the Milky Way was made in low-metallicity gas of the Small Magellanic Cloud, which was at the level of the expected primordial value. Part of the observed lithium in any environment has primordial origin, but there is always some post-BBN (Big Bang Nucleosynthesis) contamination, since lithium can also be produced in cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium. Using the fact that processes involving cosmic rays produce lithium, but also gamma rays through neutral pion decay, we use the Small Magellanic Cloud gamma-ray observations by Fermi-LAT to make predictions on the amount of lithium in this galaxy that was produced by galactic cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants. By including both fusion processes, as well as spallation of heavier nuclei, we find that galactic cosmic rays could produce a very small amount of lithium. In the case of 6Li isotope (which should only be produced by cosmic rays) we can only explain 0.16% of the measured abundance. If these cosmic rays are indeed responsible for such small lithium production, observed abundances could be the result of some other sources, which are discussed in the paper.

  9. The AGN Population and the Cosmic X-ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Meg; Schawinski, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In order to fully understand galaxy formation we need to know when in the cosmic history are supermassive black holes (SMBHs) growing more intensively, in what type of galaxies this growth is happening and what fraction of these sources are invisible at most wavelengths due to obscuration. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) population synthesis models that can explain the spectral shape and intensity of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) indicate that most of the SMBH growth occurs in moderate-luminosity (Lx~1044 erg/s) sources (Seyfert-type AGN), at z~0.5-1 and in heavily obscured but Compton-thin, NH~1023 cm-2, systems.However, this is not the complete history, as a large fraction of black hole growth does not emit significantly in X-rays either due to obscuration, intrinsic low luminosities or large distances. Using a combination of X-ray stacking and multi wavelength selection techniques we constrain the amount of black hole accretion as a function of cosmic history, from z~0 to z~6. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, 22%, occurs in heavily-obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations.We finally investigate the AGN triggering mechanism as a function of bolometric luminosity, finding evidence for a strong connection between significant black hole growth events and major galaxy mergers from z~0 to z~3, while less spectacular but longer accretion episodes are most likely due to other (stochastic) processes. AGN activity triggered by major galaxies is responsible for ~60% of the total black hole growth.

  10. Anisotropy of TeV Galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Desiati, Paolo; DuVernois, Michael

    2016-07-01

    TeV cosmic rays are significantly deflected by the magnetic field of the heliosphere, and they gain or lose energies in heliospheric electric field that in the meantime drives the motion of plasma. These propagation mechanisms will cause the map of TeV cosmic rays seen at the Earth to look different from the map seen in the local interstellar medium without the presence of the heliosphere. We have developed a method of using Liouville's theorem to map out particle distribution function to Earth from the local interstellar medium, where we assume that the cosmic rays have small pitch-angle anisotropy harmonics up to the second order and a small uniform spatial density gradient. The amount of heliospheric distortion can be determined by tracing the trajectories of cosmic rays propagating through the heliosphere. In this paper, we apply this method to TeV cosmic ray propagation through a MHD-kinetic model of the heliosphere and try to fit observations from Tibet ASgamma and IceCube experiments. We are able to locate features in the TeV cosmic ray anisotropy that are associated with the interstellar magnetic field, hydrogen deflection plane, heliotail, and solar corona. Some of the features are also slightly affected by the solar cycle and interstellar magnetic turbulence. The results provide us powerful tools to explore large-scale heliospheric structures as well as to determine the cosmic ray distribution in the local interstellar medium.

  11. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    SciTech Connect

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2014-07-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (Γ {sub b} ≈ 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

  12. Probing the cosmic ray mass composition in the knee region through TeV secondary particle fluxes from solar surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Prabir; Bijay, Biplab; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of estimating the mass composition of primary cosmic rays above the knee of their energy spectrum through the study of high-energy gamma rays, muons, and neutrinos produced in the interactions of cosmic rays with solar ambient matter and radiation is explored. It is found that the theoretical fluxes of TeV gamma rays, muons, and neutrinos from a region around 15° of the Sun are sensitive to a mass composition of cosmic rays in the PeV energy range. The experimental prospects for the detection of such TeV gamma rays/neutrinos by future experiments are discussed.

  13. Design, construction, characterization, and operation of a hybrid cosmic rays detector based on an electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Torres, F. J.; Hernández-Morquecho, M. A.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J.; Félix, J.

    2017-01-01

    There are several sources that produce very energetic cosmic rays that interact with the Earth’s atmosphere and create new particles. To detect them there are different methods such as the ionization of a material and Cerenkov radiation, among others. In this work a hybrid cosmic ray detector of 6 channels was designed, built, tested and operated. Being hybrid is possible to validate the signal with the two detection methods. Three Copper bars were used as detection material, each with an ionization and a Cerenkov radiation detection channel. To detect the Cerenkov radiation, Hamamatsu silicon photodiodes were used, and for the ionization channels an RC circuit was developed to measure the signal. The number of signals was counted using discriminator boards, which digitize the signal. With the counts the cosmic rays flux can be measured. The six channels were tested simultaneously. Data collections and analysis were performed. Details of the design, characterization, testing, operation, data analysis and preliminary results are presented.

  14. Constraints on cosmic ray and PeV neutrino production in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Li, Zhuo

    2017-03-01

    IceCube has detected a cumulative flux of PeV neutrinos, which origin is unknown. Blazars, active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointing to us, are long and widely expected to be one of the strong candidates of high energy neutrino sources. The neutrino production depends strongly on the cosmic ray power of blazar jets, which is largely unknown. The recent null results in stacking searches of neutrinos for several blazar samples by IceCube put upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from these blazars. Here we compute the cosmic ray power and PeV neutrino flux of Fermi-LAT blazars, and find that the upper limits for known blazar sources give stringent constraint on the cosmic ray loading factor of blazar jets (i.e., the ratio of the cosmic ray to bolometric radiation luminosity of blazar jets), ξcr lesssim (2–10)ζ‑1 (with ζ lesssim 1 the remained fraction of cosmic ray energy when propagate into the blazar broad line region) for flat cosmic ray spectrum, and that the cumulative PeV neutrino flux contributed by all-sky blazars is a fraction lesssim (10–50)% of the IceCube detected flux.

  15. Effect of cosmic ray on global high cloud from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth's climate is affected by not only internal forcings but also external forcings related with solar activities. The energetic particles called "cosmic rays" from outer space have been considered as a potentially important external climate forcing since the first report by Svensemark and Friis-Christensen (1997) which showed a significant correlation between cloudiness and cosmic ray. This correlation is a basis of a couple of hypotheses in microphysical processes: ion-aerosol clear-air mechanism and ion-aerosol near-cloud mechanism. These mechanisms have been either supported or objected by many successive studies, most of which correlated long-term trends of cloud and cosmic ray. However, it is most likely that such methodology is not suitable to find actual connection, because long-term trends of clouds may invite affection by many factors other than cosmic ray. It is therefore necessary to find the relation at shorter time scale, since cosmic ray affect the process of cloud formation in a moment. Here we show spatial distributions of correlation between global high cloud fraction data from MODIS and cosmic ray of neutron monitor data from McMurdo, Antarctic. We removed 3-month running means from the original data in order to get high frequency fluctuations. As results, positive correlations are dominant in the spatial distribution, especially over lands on the northern hemisphere and oceans on the Southern hemisphere. On the other hand, negative correlations exist over limited area including the Indian Ocean. According to the cross-correlation (with time lags), the areas with positive correlation is widely distributed at zero lag. At ±1 month lags, the signs of correlations become the opposite of that at zero lag. Furthermore, the correlation between relative high cloud amount to total cloud and cosmic ray shows similar distribution to the correlation between absolute high cloud amount and cosmic ray, implying stronger high cloud response to cosmic ray

  16. Cosmic ray intensity and the tilt of the neutral sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, T.; Swinson, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Recent publications have related long-term variations in cosmic ray intensity at the Earth with long term variations in the tilt of the neutral sheet in the inner heliosphere. The tilt of the neutral sheet from 1971 to 1974 is compared with the cosmic ray intensity at Earth, recorded by the Mt. Washington neutron monitor. The remarkable large decreases in cosmic ray intensity which occurred in 1973 and 1974 correlate well with excursions in the tilt of the neutral sheet which occurred earlier during these same two years.

  17. SMALL-SCALE ANISOTROPIES OF COSMIC RAYS FROM RELATIVE DIFFUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Markus; Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-12-10

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

  18. Satellite measurements of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Spalding, J. D.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The individual isotopes of galactic cosmic ray Ne, Mg, and Si at 100 MeV/nucleon were clearly resolved with an rms mass resolution of 0.20 amu. The results suggest the cosmic ray source is enriched in Ne-22, Mg-25, and Mg-26 when compared to the solar system. The ratio of (Mg-25)+(Mg-26) to Mg-24, which is approximately 0.49 compared to the solar system value of 0.27, suggest that the cosmic ray source and solar system material were synthesized under different conditions.

  19. Relativistic rise measurement for heavy cosmic rays in xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Potential advantages of the use of the relativistic rise of energy loss in gas-filled counters for cosmic ray energy measurement have been noted by Tueller et al. (1979) and Gregory and Parnell (1979). Gregory and Parnell have reported measurements on the relativistic rise for cosmic ray iron nuclei in parallel plate ionization chambers 8.4 cm thick filled with a xenon and methane mixture. The present investigation is concerned with the observed rise and ionization signal fluctuations for a sample of elements from carbon through iron in the cosmic rays. The results are compared with a calculation of the energy deposit within the ion chamber.

  20. AMS results on positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the cosmic ray particles are presented with the emphasis on the measurements of positrons and antiprotons. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of AMS.

  1. Latest AMS Results on elementary particles in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of all elementary charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the elementary cosmic ray particles are presented. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  2. Global modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    It is possible, now for the first time, to describe the total, global modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere using Voyager observations from the Earth to the heliopause and from the PAMELA space mission at the Earth, in comparison with comprehensive numerical models. The very local interstellar spectra for several cosmic ray species have become much better known so that together with knowledge of where the heliopause is located, comprehensive modelling has taken a huge step forward. New and exciting observations, with ample challenges to theoretical and modelling approaches to the acceleration, transport and modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere will be reviewed in this presentation.

  3. Calculations of cosmic-ray helium transport in shielding materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1993-01-01

    The transport of galactic cosmic-ray helium nuclei and their secondaries through bulk shielding is considered using the straight-ahead approximation to the Boltzmann equation. A data base for nuclear interaction cross sections and secondary particle energy spectra for high-energy light-ion breakup is presented. The importance of the light ions H-2, H-3, and He-3 for cosmic-ray risk estimation is discussed, and the estimates of the fractional contribution to the neutron flux from helium interactions compared with other particle interactions are presented using a 1977 solar minimum cosmic-ray spectrum.

  4. Exploring Cosmic X-ray Source Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Jean Hebb; Jahodal, K.; Kallman, T. R.; Kaaret, P.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic X-ray sources are expected to be polarized, either because of their asymmetry and the role of scattering in their emission or the role of magnetic fields. Polarization at other wavelengths has been useful. X-ray polarization will provide a new handle on black hole parameters, in particular the spin, on accretion flows and outflows, on neutron star spin orientations and emission mechanisms, on the quantum mechanical effects of super-strong magnetic fields of magnetars, and on the structure of supernovae shocks. The proposed Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will use high efficiency polarimeters behind thin foil mirrors. The statistical sensitivity and control of systematics will allow measurement of polarization fractions as small as 1% from many galactic and extragalactic sources. Targets which should be polarized at the level that GEMS can easily measure include stellar black holes, Seyfert galaxies and quasars, blazars, rotation-powered and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. The polarimeters are Time Projection Chambers that allow reconstruction of images of photoelectron tracks for 2-10 keV Xrays. They can be deep without sacrificing modulation. These polarimeters do not image the sky, but the telescope point spread function and detector collimation allow structure to be resolved at the 10 arcmin level. Rotation of the spacecraft is not needed for the signal measurement in the Time Projection Chambers, but provides for measurement and correction of systematic errors. It also allows a small Bragg reflection soft X-ray experiment to be included that can be used for isolated neutron stars and blazars.

  5. Searching for New Physics with Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays that produce giant extensive showers of charged particles and photons when they interact in the Earth's atmosphere provide a unique tool to search for new physics. Of particular interest is the possibility of detecting a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10 (exp -35) m. We discuss here the possible signature of Lorentz invariance violation on the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as compared with present observations of giant air showers. We also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive detection techniques to improve searches for Lorentz invariance violation in the future. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we derive a best fit to the LIV parameter of 3 .0 + 1.5 - 3:0 x 10 (exp -23) ,corresponding to an upper limit of 4.5 x 10-23 at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11) . This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models.

  6. Searching for Cosmic Ray Radar Echos In TARA Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Isaac

    2013-04-01

    The TARA (Telescope Array Radar) cosmic ray detector has been in operation for about a year and half. This bi-static CW radar detector was designed with the goal of detecting cosmic rays in coincidence with Telescope Array (TA). For the majority of its operation it has been in the TARA1.5 phase in which a 1.5 kW transmitter broadcasts from a single Yagi antenna across the TA surface detector array to our receiver station 50 km away. Our initial DAQ system has obtained millions of triggers utilizing a USRP2 PC controlled radio. During recent months, we have commissioned a 250 MHz sample rate detector with an intelligent self-triggering algorithm that can detect radar echo chirp signals below the noise. I will describe the stages of analysis used for comparing TARA radar triggers with TA data and present a synopsis of the analysis of the USRP2 data and preliminary results from the more advanced DAQ system.

  7. Gamma-ray emitting supernova remnants as the origin of Galactic cosmic rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker Tjus, Julia; Eichmann, Björn; Kroll, Mike; Nierstenhöfer, Nils

    2016-08-01

    The origin of cosmic rays is one of the long-standing mysteries in physics and astrophysics. Simple arguments suggest that a scenario of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Milky Way as the dominant sources for the cosmic ray population below the knee could work: a generic calculation indicates that these objects can provide the energy budget necessary to explain the observed flux of cosmic rays. However, this argument is based on the assumption that all sources behave in the same way, i.e. they all have the same energy budget, spectral behavior and maximum energy. In this paper, we investigate if a realistic population of SNRs is capable of producing the cosmic ray flux as it is observed below the knee. We use 21 SNRs that are well-studied from radio wavelengths up to gamma-ray energies and derive cosmic ray spectra under the assumption of hadronic emission. The cosmic ray spectra show a large variety in their energy budget, spectral behavior and maximum energy. These sources are assumed to be representative for the total class of SNRs, where we assume that about 100-200 cosmic ray emitting SNRs should be present today. Finally, we use these source spectra to simulate the cosmic ray transport from individual SNRs in the Galaxy with the GALPROP code for cosmic ray propagation. We find that the cosmic ray budget can be matched well for these sources. We conclude that gamma-ray emitting SNRs can be a representative sample of cosmic ray emitting sources. In the future, experiments like CTA and HAWC will help to distinguish hadronic from leptonic sources and to further constrain the maximum energy of the sources and contribute to producing a fully representative sample in order to further investigate the possibility of SNRs being the dominant sources of cosmic rays up to the knee.

  8. Antarctic radio frequency albedo and implications for cosmic ray reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, D. Z.; Stockham, J.; Sullivan, M.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Belov, K.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Gorham, P. W.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Liewer, K. M.; Matsuno, S.; Miki, C.; Mottram, M.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Nichol, R. J.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Shang, R. Y.; Stockham, M.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe herein a measurement of the Antarctic surface "roughness" performed by the balloon-borne ANITA (Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna) experiment. Originally purposed for cosmic ray astrophysics, the radio frequency (RF) receiver ANITA gondola, from its 38 km altitude vantage point, can scan a disk of snow surface 600 km in radius. The primary purpose of ANITA is to detect RF emissions from cosmic rays incident on Antarctica, such as neutrinos which penetrate through the atmosphere and interact within the ice, resulting in signal directed upward which then refracts at the ice-air interface and up and out to ANITA, or high-energy nuclei (most likely irons or protons), which interact in the upper atmosphere (at altitudes below ANITA) and produce a spray of down-coming RF which reflects off the snow surface and back up to the gondola. The energy of such high-energy nuclei can be inferred from the observed reflected signal only if the surface reflectivity is known. We describe herein an attempt to quantify the Antarctic surface reflectivity, using the Sun as a constant, unpolarized RF source. We find that the reflectivity of the surface generally follows the expectations from the Fresnel equations, lending support to the use of those equations to give an overall correction factor to calculate cosmic ray energies for all locations in Antarctica. The analysis described below is based on ANITA-II data. After launching from McMurdo Station in December 2008, ANITA-II was aloft for a period of 31 days with a typical instantaneous duty cycle exceeding 95%.

  9. Constraints on particle dark matter from cosmic-ray antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Maccione, L. E-mail: luca.maccione@lmu.de

    2014-04-01

    Cosmic-ray antiprotons represent an important channel for dark matter indirect-detection studies. Current measurements of the antiproton flux at the top of the atmosphere and theoretical determinations of the secondary antiproton production in the Galaxy are in good agreement, with no manifest deviation which could point to an exotic contribution in this channel. Therefore, antiprotons can be used as a powerful tool for constraining particle dark matter properties. By using the spectrum of PAMELA data from 50 MV to 180 GV in rigidity, we derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section (or decay rate, for decaying dark matter) for the whole spectrum of dark matter annihilation (decay) channels and under different hypotheses of cosmic-rays transport in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. For typical models of galactic propagation, the constraints are strong, setting a lower bound on the dark matter mass of a ''thermal'' relic at about 40–80 GeV for hadronic annihilation channels. These bounds are enhanced to about 150 GeV on the dark matter mass, when large cosmic-rays confinement volumes in the Galaxy are considered, and are reduced to 3–4 GeV for annihilation to light quarks (no bound for heavy-quark production) when the confinement volume is small. Bounds for dark matter lighter than few tens of GeV are due to the low energy part of the PAMELA spectrum, an energy region where solar modulation is relevant: to this aim, we have implemented a detailed solution of the transport equation in the heliosphere, which allowed us not only to extend bounds to light dark matter, but also to determine the uncertainty on the constraints arising from solar modulation modelling. Finally, we estimate the impact of soon-to-come AMS-02 data on the antiproton constraints.

  10. The Origin of Cosmic Rays: What can GLAST Say?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, Jonathan F.; Digel, Seith; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Moiseev, Alexander; Williamson, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Gamma rays in the band from 30 MeV to 300 GeV, used in combination with direct measurements and with data from radio and X-ray bands, provide a powerful tool for studying the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) with its fine 10-20 arcmin angular resolution will be able to map the sites of acceleration of cosmic rays and their interactions with interstellar matter, It will provide information that is necessary to study the acceleration of energetic particles in supernova shocks, their transport in the interstellar medium and penetration into molecular clouds.

  11. Comments on cosmic ray research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, Enio F.

    2013-05-01

    Cosmic Rays (CR) have been studied since their discovery by Victor Hess in the years 1911-1913. Interestingly, research in Physics in Brazil started with experiments on CR. Bernhard Gross (INT/Rio), Gleb Wataghin and Giuseppe Occhialini (USP) carried out their investigations on CR in Brazil in the 30's. Franz X. Roser worked with V. Hess (Nobel Prize, 1936) and Cesar Lattes collaborated with Cecil Powell (Nobel Prize, 1950). Nowadays, most of CR research in Brazil is conducted by the Pierre Auger Project. Nevertheless, there is an enormous lack of information on the effects of CR in matter, particularly in organic and biological materials, which motivates measurements of relevant physicochemical data, such as parameters of crystalline structure modifications, sputtering yields and cross sections for inducing associative or dissociative processes of atoms, molecules and molecular fragments. A fascinating question about CR is whether they are/were one of the agents responsible for the transformation of inorganic into organic material, synthesizing pre-biotic molecules in the whole Universe. The physicochemical effects of CR analogues in condensed gases, analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy - subject of our own work on CR - are discussed at the end of this article.

  12. Cosmic ray measurements around the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Primary cosmic rays of energy greater than ˜ 1014 eV must be studied by indirect experiments measuring the particles generated in the EAS (Extensive Air Shower) development in atmosphere. These experiments are mainly limited by the systematic errors due to their energy calibration. I will discuss the main sources of these errors: the choice of the hadronic interaction model and of the mass of the primary particle (that cannot be measured on a event by event basis). I will then summarize some recent measurements of the all particle spectrum, and I will show that, keeping into account the differences due to the energy calibration, they all agree on the spectral shape. Then I will describe the measurements of the light and heavy primaries mass groups spectra, discussing the claimed features. Using a simple calculation of the elemental spectra (based on the hypothesis that the knee energies follow a Peter's cycle) I will try to discuss if all these results can be interpreted in a common picture.

  13. Cosmic Rays for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, Marjorie; Peterson, Robert; Jordan, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We discuss a suite of QuarkNet activities that provide data from the Fermilab cosmic ray DAQ for three learning modes: survey, exploration and investigation. Teachers and students assemble our classroom detectors. They study data locally and/or upload data to a server for others; students without detectors have access to the data. In survey mode, students may sum columns, draw plots comparing columns, calculate descriptive statistics. They can describe patterns and may indicate outliers. Exploration mode provides visual or tabular data for doing measurements that couple values in different columns for a newly derived measurement. Students still draw plots, calculate statistics and describe patterns. Students may attend a master class performing these tasks in a group setting. Students in investigation mode use data and provided analysis and investigation tools to perform research-type investigations. Students can investigate relationships between measurements extant in the data as well as relationships between the presented data and external data sets. They also may perform the same tasks that they do in other modes e.g., draw plots. Students use a project map associated with a browser-based e-Lab to guide their investigations.

  14. Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.

    2004-01-01

    We report first Xe data on the cross-calibration of I-129-Xe-129(sub n) ages with conventional CRE ages, a method which is expected to provide information on the long-term constancy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. We studied isotopic signatures of Xe released in stepwise heating, decomposition and melting of troilites in the Cape York iron meteorite to identify isotopic shifts in Xe-129 and Xe-131 due to neutron capture in Te-128 and Te-130. We also resolve components due to extinct 129I, spallation and fission Xe. There has recently been much speculation on the constancy of GCR over long time scales, as may be inferred from iron meteorites. If GCRs originate from supernova events, this provides the basis for postulating increased fluxes at locations with higher than average densities of supernovae, specifically in OB-associations. The solar system at present appears to be inside a local bubble between spiral arms and may experience an increased GCR flux.

  15. Cosmic ray spectrum from diffusive shock acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2011-11-01

    It is now well established that cosmic rays (CRs) are accelerated at collisionless shocks through diffusive shock acceleration. However, some key physical processes, such as thermal leakage injection, self-excitation and dissipation of waves, and resonant scatterings of particles by those waves are nonlinear and not fully understood yet. Hence it is not possible to make precise quantitative predictions for the particle spectrum accelerated at shocks from first principles. If the fraction of particles injected into the CR population is smaller than 10-4, the CR acceleration efficiency is low and so the test-particle solutions are justified. At moderately strong shocks ( M 0≳5) with higher injection fractions, the shock structure is significantly modified by nonlinear feedback of CRs. According to time-dependent kinetic simulations of CR modified shocks, the precursor and subshock transition approach a time-asymptotic state, and then evolve in an approximately self-similar fashion, depending only on the similarity variable, x/( u s t). During this self-similar stage, the CR spectrum at the subshock maintains a characteristic form as it evolves: the sum of two power-laws with the slopes determined by the subshock and total compression ratios, along with an exponential cutoff at the highest accelerated momentum.

  16. Cosmic Rays propagation in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Consolandi, C.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Kudela, K.; Noventa, F.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.

    2012-08-01

    The cosmic rays modulation inside the heliosphere is well described by a transport equation introduced by Parker in 1958. We used the HelMed Monte Carlo code to reproduce the modulation effect in the inner heliosphere depending from solar activity and solar polarity. In this 2-D MonteCarlo approach we include a general treatment of the diffusion tensor that compound an enhancement of perpendicular diffusion coefficient at high solar latitude and a polar increased magnetic field. In our simulation we considered a heliosphere that changes the modulation parameter with the distance from the Earth, including periods prior to the one we intend to simulate. In this work we furthermore exploited the energy distribution of injected particles to the observed flux. We compared HelMed results with data of BESS-97, AMS-98, BESS-98, BESS-99, BESS-2000, BESS-2002 and PAMELA; this covering a period of 11 years and two solar polarity, these simulations are well in agreement with experimental data.

  17. The Pamela Cosmic Ray Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Marco

    2013-09-01

    PAMELA is a satellite borne experiment designed to study with great accuracy cosmic rays of galactic, solar, and trapped nature in a wide energy range (protons: 80 MeV-700 GeV, electrons 50 MeV-400 GeV). Main objective is the study of the antimatter component: antiprotons (80 MeV-190 GeV), positrons (50 MeV-270 GeV) and search for antimatter with a precision of the order of 10-8). The experiment, housed on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite, was launched on June, 15 2006 in a 350 × 600 km orbit with an inclination of 70 degrees. The detector is composed of a series of scintillator counters arranged at the extremities of a permanent magnet spectrometer to provide charge, Time-of-Flight and rigidity information. Lepton/hadron identification is performed by a Silicon-Tungsten calorimeter and a Neutron detector placed at the bottom of the device. An Anticounter system is used offline to reject false triggers coming from the satellite. In self-trigger mode the Calorimeter, the neutron detector and a shower tail catcher are capable of an independent measure of the lepton component up to 2 TeV. In this work we present some of its scientific results in its first five years of operation.

  18. Cosmic ray sources, acceleration and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptuskin, V. S.

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of selected papers on the theory of cosmic ray (CR) propagation and acceleration. The high isotropy and a comparatively large age of galactic CR are explained by the effective interaction of relativistic particles with random and regular electromagnetic fields in interstellar medium. The kinetic theory of CR propagation in the Galaxy is formulated similarly to the elaborate theory of CR propagation in heliosphere. The substantial difference between these theories is explained by the necessity to take into account in some cases the collective effects due to a rather high density of relativisitc particles. In particular, the kinetic CR stream instability and the hydrodynamic Parker instability is studied. The interaction of relativistic particles with an ensemble of given weak random magnetic fields is calculated by perturbation theory. The theory of CR transfer is considered to be basically completed for this case. The main problem consists in poor information about the structure of the regular and the random galactic magnetic fields. An account is given of CR transfer in a turbulent medium.

  19. Solar Cosmic Ray Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, I. M.; Podgorny, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    The GOES data for emission of flare protons with the energies of 10 - 100 MeV are analyzed. Proton fluxes of ~1032 accelerated particles take place at the current sheet decay. Proton acceleration in a flare occurs along a singular line of the current sheet by the Lorentz electric field, as in the pinch gas discharge. The duration of proton flux measured on the Earth orbit is by 2 - 3 orders of magnitude longer than the duration of flares. The high energy proton flux from the flares that appear on the western part of the solar disk arrives to Earth with the time of flight. These particles propagate along magnetic lines of the Archimedes spiral connecting the flare with the Earth. Protons from the flare on the eastern part of the solar disk begin to register with a delay of several hours. Such particles cannot get on the magnetic field line connecting the flare with the Earth. These protons reach the Earth, moving across the interplanetary magnetic field. The particles captured by the magnetic field in the solar wind are transported with solar wind and due to diffusion across the magnetic field. The patterns of solar cosmic rays generation demonstrated in this paper are not always observed in the small ('1 cm-2 s-1 ster-1) proton events.

  20. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  1. Solution to the Cosmic Ray Anisotropy Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Funk, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the standard diffusive picture for transport of cosmic rays (CRs), a gradient in the CR density induces a typically small, dipolar anisotropy in their arrival directions. This is being widely advertised as a tool for finding nearby sources. However, the predicted dipole amplitude at TeV and PeV energies exceeds the measured one by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Here, we critically examine the validity of this prediction, which is based on averaging over an ensemble of turbulent magnetic fields. We focus on (1) the deviations of the dipole in a particular random realization from the ensemble average, and (2) the possibility of a misalignment between the regular magnetic field and the CR gradient. We find that if the field direction and the gradient direction are close to ˜90 ° , the dipole amplitude is considerably suppressed and can be reconciled with observations, which sheds light on a long-standing problem. Furthermore, we show that the dipole direction in general does not coincide with the gradient direction, thus hampering the search for nearby sources.

  2. Cosmic ray records in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S.; Herpers, U.; Sarafin, R.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Suter, M.; Woelfli, W.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Be(10), Al(26), and Mn(53) and noble gases were determined in more than 28 meteorites from Antarctica by nuclear analytical techniques and static mass spectrometry, respectively. The summarized results are listed. The concentrations of Al(26) and Mn(53) are normalized to the repective main target elements and given in dpm/kg Si sub eq and dpm/kg Fe. The errors stated include statistical as well as systematical errors. For noble gas concentrations estimated errors are 5% and for isotopic ratios 1.5%. Cosmic ray exposure ages T sub 21 were calculated by the noble gas concentrations and the terrestrial residence time (T) on the basis of the spallogenic nuclide Al(26). The suggested pairing of the LL6 chondrite RKPA 80238 and RKPA 80248 and the eucrites ALHA 76005 and ALHA 79017 is confirmed not only by the noble gas data but also by the concentrations of the spallation produced radionuclides. Futhermore, ALHA 80122, clasified as an H6 chondrite, has a noble gas pattern which suggest that this meteorite belongs to the ALHA 80111 shower.

  3. Cosmic ray propagation in interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voelk, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the test-particle picture, the approximation of static fields, and the spatial-diffusion approximation are discussed in a general way before specific technical assumptions are introduced. It is argued that the spatial-diffusion equation for the intensity per unit energy has a much wider range of applicability than the kinetic (Fokker-Planck) equation it is derived from. This gives strong weight to the phenomenological propagation theory. The general success (and possible failure at small energies) of the phenomenological theory for the modulation of galactic cosmic rays and solar events is described. Apparent effects such as the 'free boundary' are given disproportionate weight since they establish the connection with the detailed plasma physics of the solar wind. Greatest attention is paid to the pitch-angle diffusion theory. A general theory is presented which removes the well-known secularities of the quasi-linear approximation. The possible breakdown of any pitch-angle diffusion theory at very small energies is perhaps connected with the observed 'turn up' of the spectrum at low energies. A first attempt to derive the spatial dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the solar cavity, using such a divergence free scattering theory, is described and compared with recent observations out to 5 AU.

  4. Cosmic Rays in the Gamma-ray Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T. J.

    2016-03-01

    Instruments directly measuring properties of cosmic rays (CRs) have given us insight into their origins, acceleration mechanisms, and propagation. Indirect measurements provide complementary information which can help disentangle particle types and energetics at sources such as supernova remnants (SNRs), can suggest new sources, and can trace the propagation of CRs through, for instance, interactions with a galaxy's interstellar medium. Gamma rays are particularly good at indirectly illuminating CRs as they are sensitive to the pion decay channel (CR+p+ -->π0 --> γ + γ). Recent work, e.g., using the pion turn-on energy to show proton acceleration in 3 SNRs and mapping CR interactions with Galactic gas using Fermi-LAT, bears this out. The survey capability of instruments like Fermi and HAWC nicely complements the isotropized CRs measured near Earth while VERITAS, MAGIC, and HESS Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) provide greater insight into potential sources, including constraining maximum energy both within and beyond our Galaxy. Upcoming IACTs like CTA will greatly enhance this. This talk will explore recent results and potential future insights into CRs using gamma-ray emission and touch on direct measurements made with gamma-ray instruments. This work was supported in part by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration.

  5. Development of cosmic ray simulation program: Earth cosmic ray shower (ECRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakmana Witharana, Sampath

    ECRS is a program for the detailed simulation of extensive air shower initiated by high energy cosmic ray particles. In this dissertation work, a Geant4 based ECRS simulation was designed and developed to study secondary cosmic ray particle showers in the full range of Earth's atmosphere. A proper atmospheric air density and geomagnetic field are implemented in order to correctly simulate the charged particles interactions in the Earth's atmosphere. The initial simulation was done for the Atlanta (33.46° N , 84.25° W) region. Four different types of primary proton energies (10^9 , 10^10 , 10^11 and 10 12 eV) were considered to determine the secondary particle distribution at the Earth's surface. The geomagnetic field and atmospheric air density have considerable effects on the muon particle distribution at the Earth's surface. The muon charge ratio at the Earth's surface was studied with ECRS simulation for two different geomagnetic locations: Atlanta, Georgia, USA and Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada. The simulation results are shown in excellent agreement with the data from NMSU-WIZARD/CAPRICE and BESS experiments at Lynn Lake. At low momentum, ground level muon charge ratios show latitude dependent geomagnetic effects for both Atlanta and Lynn Lake from the simulation. The simulated charge ratio is 1.20 ± 0.05 (without geomagnetic field), 1.12 ± 0.05 (with geomagnetic field) for Atlanta and 1.22 ± 0.04 (with geomagnetic field) for Lynn Lake. These types of studies are very important for analyzing secondary cosmic ray muon flux distribution at the Earth's surface and can be used to study the atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

  6. Cosmic-ray Positrons from Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.; Büsching, I.

    2015-07-01

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  7. COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2015-07-10

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  8. Cosmic Ray Anomalies from the MSSM?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Conley, J.A.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-11

    The recent positron excess in cosmic rays (CR) observed by the PAMELA satellite may be a signal for dark matter (DM) annihilation. When these measurements are combined with those from FERMI on the total (e{sup +} + e{sup -}) ux and from PAMELA itself on the {anti p}p ratio, these and other results are difficult to reconcile with traditional models of DM, including the conventional minimal Supergravity (mSUGRA) version of Supersymmetry even if boosts as large as 10{sup 3-4} are allowed. In this paper, we combine the results of a previously obtained scan over a more general 19-parameter subspace of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with a corresponding scan over astrophysical parameters that describe the propagation of CR. We then ascertain whether or not a good fit to this CR data can be obtained with relatively small boost factors while simultaneously satisfying the additional constraints arising from gamma ray data. We find that a specific subclass of MSSM models where the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) is mostly pure bino and annihilates almost exclusively into {tau} pairs comes very close to satisfying these requirements. The lightest in this set of models is found to be relatively close in mass to the LSP and is in some cases the nLSP. These models lead to a significant improvement in the overall fit to the data by {approx}1 unit of {chi}{sup 2}/dof in comparison to the best fit without Supersymmetry while employing boosts in the range {approx}100-200. The implications of these models for future experiments are discussed.

  9. Cosmic ray synthesis of organic molecules in Titan's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Capone, L.A.; Dubach, J.; Whitten, R.C.; Prasad, S.S.; Santhanam, K.

    1980-01-01

    The possible synthesis of organic molecules by the absorption of galactic cosmic rays in an N2-CH4-H2 Titan model atmosphere has been studied. The cosmic-ray-induced ionization results in peak electron densities of 2000/cu cm, with NH(+), C3H9(+), and C4H9(+) being among the important positive ions. Details of the ion and neutral chemistry relevant to the production of organic molecules are discussed. The potential importance of N(2D) reactions with CH4 and H2 is also demonstrated. Although the integrated production rate of organic matter due to the absorption of the cosmic ray cascade is much less than that by solar ultraviolet radiation, the production of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules by cosmic rays may be greater.

  10. The Determination of the Muon Magnetic Moment from Cosmic Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, C.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment suited for use in an advanced laboratory course in particle physics. The magnetic moment of cosmic ray muons which have some polarization is determined with an error of about five percent. (Author/GS)

  11. Thunderstorms, cosmic rays, and solar-lunar influences

    SciTech Connect

    Lethbridge, M.D.

    1990-08-20

    A study of cosmic rays and thunderstorm frequency has shown a decrease in thunderstorms at the time of high cosmic rays and an increase in thunderstorms 2-4 days later. This was done by superposed epoch analysis of thunderstorms over the eastern two thirds of the United States for 1957-1976. When data for spring and fall months were used, the minimum deepened. When high cosmic rays near full and new moon for these months were key days, the minimum deepened again and was significant at less than the 0.01% level. It is believed that when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned, particulate matter in the lower stratosphere is modulated and acted upon by cosmic rays, bringing about an immediate decrease in thunderstorms.

  12. Cosmic-Ray Effects of Propagating Shocks Including the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for a long time (Jokipii, et al, 1993) that the e~@ects of tt he heliosphere on cosmic rays extends beyond the termination shock and into the heliosheath. The inclusion of the region beyond the termination shock into models of modulation is still relatively recent. The previously-published model resultshave all been for a stationary system. We have modi~Aed our two-dimensional heliosperic cosmic-ray simulation code to be time dependent and to include a propagating shock wave which propagates out from the Sun and into the Heliosheath. The code follows the time variation of the intensity of both galacticand anomalous cosmic rays as the shock propagates past the point of observation and beyond. The results from the model simulations will be compared with recent observational results suggesting e~@ects of the heliosheath on galacticc and anomalous cosmic rays.

  13. Galactic cosmic rays and N2 dissociation on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, L. A.; Dubach, J.; Prasad, S. S.; Whitten, R. C.

    1983-07-01

    The electromagnetic and particle cascade resulting from the absorption of galactic cosmic rays in the atmosphere of Titan is shown to be an important mechanism for driving the photochemistry at pressures of 1 to 50 mbar in the atmosphere. In particular, the cosmic ray cascade dissociates N2, a process necessary for the synthesis of nitrogen organics such as HCN. The important interactions of the cosmic ray cascade with the atmosphere are discussed. The N2 excitation and dissociation rates and the ionization rates of the principal atmospheric consituents are computed for a Titan model atmosphere that is consistent with Voyager 1 observations. It is suggested that HCN may be formed efficiently in the lower atmosphere through the photodissociation of methylamine. It is also argued that models of nitrogen and hydrocarbon photochemistry in the lower atmosphere of Titan should include the absorption of galactic cosmic rays as an important energy source.

  14. Cosmic Rays - A Word-Wide Student Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The QuarkNet program has distributed hundreds of cosmic ray detectors for use in high schools and research facilities throughout the world over the last decade. Data collected by those students has been uploaded to a central server where web-based analysis tools enable users to characterize and to analyze everyone's cosmic ray data. Since muons rain down on everyone in the world, all students can participate in this free, high energy particle environment. Through self-directed inquiry students have designed their own experiments: exploring cosmic ray rates and air shower structure; and using muons to measure their speed, time dilation, lifetime, and affects on biological systems. We also plan to expand our annual International Muon Week project to create a large student-led collaboration where similar cosmic ray measurements are performed simultaneously throughout the world.

  15. Cosmic Rays. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-04-01

    Measurement techniques, isotopic composition, distribution, intensity, anisotropy, and sources of cosmic rays are covered in the citations. This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  16. Cosmic Rays and Their Radiative Processes in Numerical Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Miniati, Francesco; Jones, Tom W.; Kang, Hyesung

    2000-01-01

    A cosmological hydrodynamic code is described, which includes a routine to compute cosmic ray acceleration and transport in a simplified way. The routine was designed to follow explicitly diffusive, acceleration at shocks, and second-order Fermi acceleration and adiabatic loss in smooth flows. Synchrotron cooling of the electron population can also be followed. The updated code is intended to be used to study the properties of nonthermal synchrotron emission and inverse Compton scattering from electron cosmic rays in clusters of galaxies, in addition to the properties of thermal bremsstrahlung emission from hot gas. The results of a test simulation using a grid of 128 (exp 3) cells are presented, where cosmic rays and magnetic field have been treated passively and synchrotron cooling of cosmic ray electrons has not been included.

  17. Cosmic Rays Variation Before Changes in Sun-Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2011-12-01

    Influence of cosmic rays variations on the Sun-Earth Environment has been observed before the changes in the atmospheric temperature, outbreak of influenza, cyclone, earthquake and tsunami. It has been recorded by Sun Observatory Heleospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Before the earthquake and tsunami the planetary indices (Kp) and Electron flux (E-flux) shows sudden changes followed by the atmospheric perturbations including very high temperature rise to sudden fall resulting snowfall in high altitude and rainfall in tropical areas. The active fault zones shows sudden faulting after the sudden drop in cosmic ray intensity and rise in Kp and E-flux. Besides the geo-environment the extraterrestrial influence on outbreak of H1N1 influenza has also been recorded based on the Mexico Cosmic ray data and its correlation with SOHO records. Distant stars have the potential to influence the heliophysical parameters by showering cosmic rays.

  18. Cosmic-ray exposure records and origins of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The cosmic-ray records of meteorites are used to infer much about their origins and recent histories. The methods used to interpret meteorites' cosmic-ray records, especially identifying simple or complex exposure histories, often are inadequate. Spallogenic radionuclides, stable nuclides, and measurements of products that have location-sensitive production rates, such as the tracks of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei or neutron-capture nuclides, are very useful in accurately determining a meteorite's history. Samples from different, known locations of a meteorite help in studying the cosmic-ray record. Such extensive sets of meteorite measuremetns, plus theoretical modeling of complex histories, improves the ability to predict the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites, to distinguish simple and complex exposure histories, and to better determine exposure ages.

  19. Solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays: Contemporary observations and theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The flux of galactic cosmic rays inside the solar system is modulated by the action of the complex magnetic fields carried from the Sun by the solar wind. This is apparent from the recurrent decrease of about 20% in the intensity of relativistic cosmic rays during sunspot maximum compared to sunspot minimum, from transient decreases due to solar flares and many other more subtle effects observed by ground stations for the last 50 years. Spacecraft observations of the spatial and temporal variations of cosmic ray flux during the last ten years have shown that the solar wind and cosmic-ray modulation extend to at least 30 astronomical units in the ecliptic plane. Present best guesses are that it goes out to 100 or 200 AU, perhaps less over the poles. Theories describing the mechanism of solar modulation are outlined and the importance of having a firm understanding of this mechanism to the study of other astrophysical phenomena is discussed.

  20. On wave stability in relativistic cosmic-ray hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Wave stability of a two-fluid hydrodynamical model describing the acceleration of cosmic rays by the first-order Fermi mechanism in relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shocks is investigated. For a uniform background state, the short- and long-wavelength wave speeds are shown to interlace, thus assuring wave stability in this case. A JWKB analysis is performed to investigate the stability of short-wavelength thermal gas sound waves in the smooth, decelerating supersonic flow upstream of a relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shock. The stability of the waves is assessed both in terms of the fluid velocity and density perturbations, as well as in terms of the wave action. The stability and interaction of the short-wavelength cosmic-ray coherent mode with the background flow is also studied.

  1. Peculiar high energy cosmic ray stratospheric event reveals a heavy primary origin particle above the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kopenkin, V.; Fujimoto, Y.

    2005-01-15

    We wish to put forward an explanation for a peculiar cosmic ray event with energy {sigma}E{sub {gamma}}{>=}2x10{sup 15} eV detected in 1975 by the balloon borne emulsion chamber experiment performed in the stratosphere, at the altitude {>=}30 km above sea level. For almost 30 years the event has been described as unusual, invoking new exotic mechanisms or models. In our opinion there is no need for an extraordinary explanation. Contrary to the widespread belief, the event gives us an example of 'unrecognized standard physics'. At the same time this event revealed a variety of features which are of considerable interest for cosmic rays, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. Here we show that the observed family is most likely to be a result of a heavy nucleus interaction with an air nucleus. In this case a primary particle would originally have been in the energy region above 'the knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  2. Exact solutions for sporadic acceleration of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsik, R.

    1985-01-01

    The steady state spectra of cosmic rays which are subject to a sporadic acceleration process, wherein the gain in energy in each encounter is a finite fraction of the particle energy are discussed. They are derived from a mathematical model which includes the possibility of energy dependent leakage of cosmic rays from the galaxy. Comparison with observations allows limits to be placed on the frequency and efficiency of such encounters.

  3. Low energy cosmic ray studies from a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of cosmic ray nuclei with energies less than about 7 GeV/nucleon in low earth orbit are hampered by the geomagnetic field. Even in high inclination orbits these effects can be significant. The lunar surface (or lunar orbit) provides an attractive site for carrying out low energy cosmic ray studies which require large detectors. The rationale and requirements for this type of experiment are described.

  4. The effect of cosmic rays on thunderstorm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragin, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    The inflow of charges of small ions, formed by cosmic rays, into thunderstorm cells is estimated on the basis of rocket measurements of ionic concentrations below 90 km. Out of the two processes that form the thunderstorm charge (generation and separation of charges), the former is supposed to be caused by cosmic rays, and the nature of separation is assumed to be the same as in other thunderstorm theories.

  5. Low energy cosmic ray studies from a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenbeck, M.E. Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL )

    1990-03-15

    Studies of cosmic ray nuclei with energies {approx lt}7 GeV/nucleon in low Earth orbit are hampered by the geomagnetic field. Even in high inclination orbits these effects can be significant. The lunar surface (or lunar orbit) provides an attractive site for carrying out low energy cosmic ray studies which require large detectors. The rationale and requirements for this type of experiment are described.

  6. A local recent supernova - Evidence from X-rays, Al-26 radioactivity and cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Cox, Donald P.; Michel, Curtis F.

    1986-01-01

    Possible ways in which cosmic rays could have been contaminated by a local recent supernova are discussed, and ways in which this contamination may be affecting interpretation of Al-26 gamma radiation and locally observed cosmic rays as samples of the average Galactic distribution are considered. Mass spectra of cosmic rays are examined to see whether there is enrichment by a population arising from supernova preacceleration. The reinterpretation of the anomalous component in terms of a local supernova model is addressed.

  7. Galactic cosmic-ray modulation near the heliopause

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Florinski, V.

    2014-09-20

    We investigate the modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the inner and outer heliosheaths using three-dimensional numerical simulations. The model is based on the Parker transport equation integrated using a stochastic phase-space trajectory method. Integration is performed on a plasma background obtained from a global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our results predict a negligible amount of modulation in the outer heliosheath because of weak scattering of cosmic ray ions owing to very low levels of magnetic fluctuation power at wavenumbers relevant to the transport of cosmic rays with MeV to GeV energies. This means that the heliopause may be treated as a Dirichlet-type boundary for the purpose of energetic particle modeling. We present models with and without drift velocity to facilitate comparison with papers published earlier. We also attempt to reproduce the sudden step-like increases of cosmic-ray intensity observed by Voyager 1 before its encounter with the heliopause. Our results indicate that very slow cross-field diffusion in the outer heliosheath could produce a large gradient of cosmic rays inside the heliospheric boundary. The resulting large gradient in cosmic-ray intensity near the heliopause qualitatively agrees with recent Voyager 1 observations.

  8. Ultra-heavy cosmic rays: Theoretical implications of recent observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Hainebach, K. L.; Schramm, D. N.; Anglin, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Extreme ultraheavy cosmic ray observations (Z greater or equal 70) are compared with r-process models. A detailed cosmic ray propagation calculation is used to transform the calculated source distributions to those observed at the earth. The r-process production abundances are calculated using different mass formulae and beta-rate formulae; an empirical estimate based on the observed solar system abundances is used also. There is the continued strong indication of an r-process dominance in the extreme ultra-heavy cosmic rays. However it is shown that the observed high actinide/Pt ratio in the cosmic rays cannot be fit with the same r-process calculation which also fits the solar system material. This result suggests that the cosmic rays probably undergo some preferential acceleration in addition to the apparent general enrichment in heavy (r-process) material. As estimate also is made of the expected relative abundance of superheavy elements in the cosmic rays if the anomalous heavy xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is due to a fissioning superheavy element.

  9. Ultraheavy cosmic rays - Theoretical implications of recent observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Hainebach, K. L.; Schramm, D. N.; Anglin, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The recent extreme ultraheavy cosmic-ray observations (Z greater than or equal to 70) are compared with r-process models. A detailed cosmic ray propagation calculation is used to transform the calculated source distributions to those observed at the earth. The r-process production abundances are calculated using different mass formulae and beta-rate formulae; an empirical estimate based on the observed solar-system abundances is also used. There is the continued strong indication of an r-process dominance in the extreme ultraheavy cosmic rays. It is shown that the observed high actinide/Pt ratio in the cosmic rays cannot be fitted with the same r-process calculation which also fits the solar-system material. This result suggests that the cosmic rays probably undergo some preferential acceleration in addition to the apparent general enrichment in heavy (r-process) material. An estimate is also made of the expected relative abundance of superheavy elements in the cosmic rays if the anomalous heavy xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is due to a fissioning superheavy element.

  10. SLOW DIFFUSION OF COSMIC RAYS AROUND A SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Takahara, Fumio

    2010-04-01

    We study the escape of cosmic-ray protons accelerated at a supernova remnant (SNR). We are interested in their propagation in the interstellar medium (ISM) after they leave the shock neighborhood where they are accelerated, but when they are still near the SNR with their energy density higher than that in the average ISM. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the cosmic rays with energies of {approx}< TeV excite Alfven waves around the SNR on a scale of the SNR itself if the ISM is highly ionized. Thus, even if the cosmic rays can leave the shock, scattering by the waves prevents them from moving further away from the SNR. The cosmic rays form a slowly expanding cosmic-ray bubble, and they spend a long time around the SNR. This means that the cosmic rays cannot actually escape from the SNR until a fairly late stage of the SNR evolution. This is consistent with some results of Fermi and H.E.S.S. observations.

  11. Detection of cosmic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Primack, J.R.; Seckel, D.; Sadoulet, B.

    1988-01-01

    This is a mid-1988 status report on attempts to detect particle dark matter. We have some prejudice in limiting ourselves to dark matter candidates that we feel are especially motivated: weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), axions, and light neutrinos. Much of our review centers on the possibility of detecting WIMPs. This is partly because there exist several methods by which WIMPs may be detected in the next decade, whereas for axions the prospects are more uncertain and for light neutrinos essentially nonexistent. In addition, we feel that WIMPs provide a natural way for a critical density of dark matter to occur within the context of plausible particle theories. (AIP)

  12. A New Measurement of the Cosmic X-ray Background

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, A.

    2009-05-11

    I present a new analytical description of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) spectrum in the 1.5-200 keV energy band, obtained by combining the new measurement performed by the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) with the recently published Swift burst alert telescope (BAT) measurement. A study of the cosmic variance in the XRT band (1.5-7 keV) is also presented. I find that the expected cosmic variance (expected from LogN-LogS) scales as {omega}{sup -0.3}(where {omega} is the surveyed area) in very good agreement with XRT data.

  13. A connection between star formation activity and cosmic rays in the starburst galaxy M82.

    PubMed

    2009-12-10

    Although Galactic cosmic rays (protons and nuclei) are widely believed to be mainly accelerated by the winds and supernovae of massive stars, definitive evidence of this origin remains elusive nearly a century after their discovery. The active regions of starburst galaxies have exceptionally high rates of star formation, and their large size-more than 50 times the diameter of similar Galactic regions-uniquely enables reliable calorimetric measurements of their potentially high cosmic-ray density. The cosmic rays produced in the formation, life and death of massive stars in these regions are expected to produce diffuse gamma-ray emission through interactions with interstellar gas and radiation. M82, the prototype small starburst galaxy, is predicted to be the brightest starburst galaxy in terms of gamma-ray emission. Here we report the detection of >700-GeV gamma-rays from M82. From these data we determine a cosmic-ray density of 250 eV cm(-3) in the starburst core, which is about 500 times the average Galactic density. This links cosmic-ray acceleration to star formation activity, and suggests that supernovae and massive-star winds are the dominant accelerators.

  14. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray hotspots from tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Daniel N.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-04-01

    We consider the possibility that tidal disruption events (TDEs) caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in nearby galaxies can account for the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) hotspot reported recently by the Telescope Array (TA) and the warm spot by Pierre Auger Observatory. We describe the expected cosmic ray signal from a TDE and derive the constraints set by the time-scale for dispersion due to Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields and the accretion time of the SMBH. We find that TDEs in M82 can explain the hotspot detected by the TA regardless of whether the UHECRs are composed of protons or heavier nuclei. We then check for consistency of the hot and warm spots from M82 and Cen A with the full-sky isotropic signal from all SMBHs within the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) radius. This analysis applies to any scenario in which the hot/warm spots are real and due to M82 and Cen A, regardless of whether TDEs are the source of UHECRs. We find that the isotropic flux implied by the luminosity density inferred from M82 and Cen A is bigger than that observed by roughly an order of magnitude, but we provide several possible explanations, including the possibility of a local overdensity and the possibility of intermediate-mass nuclei in UHECRs, to resolve the tension.

  15. Industrial radiography with cosmic-ray muons: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilboy, W. B.; Jenneson, P. M.; Simons, S. J. R.; Stanley, S. J.; Rhodes, D.

    2007-09-01

    Cosmic-ray produced muons arrive at the surface of the earth with enormous energies ranging up to 1012 GeV. There have been sporadic attempts to exploit their extreme penetration through matter to probe the internal structures of very large objects, including an Egyptian pyramid and a volcano but their very low intensity per unit area ( ≈1 cm-2 per min) generally restricts the practicably attainable spatial resolution to large dimensions. Nevertheless the more intense low energy region of the muon spectrum has recently been shown to be capable of detecting high-Z objects with dimensions of the order of 10 cm hidden inside large transport containers in measurement times of minutes. These various developments have encouraged further studies of potential industrial uses of cosmic-ray muons in industrial applications. In order to gain maximum benefit from the low muon flux large area detectors are required and plastic scintillators offer useful advantages in size, cost and simplicity. Scintillator slabs up to 1 m2 square and 76.2 mm thick are undergoing testing for applications in the nuclear industry. The most direct approach employs photomultiplier tubes at each corner to measure the relative sizes of muon induced pulses to determine the location of each muon track passing through the scintillator. The performance of this technique is reported and its imaging potential is assessed.

  16. Detectors/Dosemeters of galactic and solar cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, L

    2004-01-01

    Different passive multidetector stacks have been developed at the Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA-stack), which makes it possible to measure directly ionising radiations, low-energy and high-energy neutrons, and high-energy charged (HZE) particles. The stack consists of several types of passive devices, namely recoil-track and fission-track detectors, bubble detectors, thermoluminescence dosemeters and an electronic personal dosemeter. Most of these detectors have been used on earth for the assessment of the occupational exposure, or in outer space for cosmic ray physics and/or for the assessment of the dose received by astronauts. A great deal of efforts and new developments have been required to make these detectors useful for in-flight measurements. As outcome of these extensive efforts, different new detectors have been developed, which exploit some of the most successful principles of radiation detection, such as the use of avalanche processes to facilitate the registration of nuclear tracks and the use of coincidence-counting to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. On the basis of these new detectors, different systems (generally referred to as ANPA-stack) have been obtained, which have been successfully applied for a variety of different measurements of cosmic ray radiation fields and doses.

  17. Four channel Cosmic Ray detector based on polymaq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Guzman, K. N.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R. A.; Felix, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov radiation has been widely studied in transparent materials, and applied to detect and identify elementary particles. But it has not been widely studied in opaque materials. A four channels radiation detector has been designed, built, characterized, and operated; based on four polymaq (UHMW-PE) bars of 2.54 cm X 5.08 cm X 25.4 cm, which is an opaque material to visible radiation to the human eye. Silicon photo detectors, Hamamatsu, avalanche type (APD) are used to detect the radiation produced by the passage of particles in the detector blocks. The design, construction, characterization, operation, and preliminary results of this cosmic ray detector details are presented.

  18. Propagation of Cosmic Rays: Nuclear Physics in Cosmic-ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and alpha-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse gamma-rays and dimsses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near fume. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.

  19. Propagation of Cosmic Rays: Nuclear Physics in Cosmic-Ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2005-05-24

    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and {alpha}-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse {gamma}-rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near future. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.

  20. Cosmic Ray Studies with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.; Baldini, L.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides both direct and indirect measurements of galactic cosmic rays (CR). The LAT high-statistics observations of the 7 GeV - 1 TeV electron plus positron spectrum and limits on spatial anisotropy constrain models for this cosmic-ray component. On a galactic scale, the LAT observations indicate that cosmic-ray sources may be more plentiful in the outer Galaxy than expected or that the scale height of the cosmic-ray diffusive halo is larger than conventional models. Production of cosmic rays in supernova remnants (SNR) is supported by the LAT gamma-ray studies of several of these, both young SNR and those interacting with molecular clouds.

  1. Cosmic Ray Studies with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Baldini, L.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides both direct and indirect measurements of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The LAT high-statistics observations of the 7 GeV - 1 TcV electron plus positron spectrum and limits on spatial anisotropy constrain models for this cosmic-ray component. On a Galactic scale, the LAT observations indicate that cosmic-ray sources may be more plentiful in the outer Galaxy than expected or that the scale height of the cosmic-ray diffusive halo is larger than conventional models. Production of cosmic rays in supernova remnants (SNR) is supported by the LAT gamma-ray studies of several of these, both young SNR and those interacting with molecular clouds.

  2. Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, G. Cini

    SH.3.6.14 Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Environment G. Cini Castagnoli, G. Bonino, P. Della Monica, C. Taricco Istituto di Cosmogeofisica, CNR, Corso Fiume 4, 10133 Torino, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino Recently Svensmark and Friis-Christensen (1997) reported an indication that the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) modulated by the solar wind may contribute to the variations in the formation of clouds, which in turn should follow the 11 y solar cycle. On the other hand experiments, conducted in vitro, on the variations of δ3C in symbiont bearing 1 foraminifera have shown that the carbon isotope fractionation from sea water, of the calcite of their shells, depends mainly on the photosynthetic activity (primary productivity) of the symbionts and therefore from the illumination level of their habitat. We have measured and analyzed (Cini Castagnoli et al., 1999) the δ3C profile of G. ruber in an Ionian sea 1 shallow water core very precisely dated. This allows us to acquire information on the ambient light level (connected to the solar irradiance modulation and to the cloud coverage) of the Gallipoli terrace in the past Millenium. The record (1205-1975 AD) of 200 points with time resolution 3.87 years shows a highly significant 11 y cyclicity covariant with Sunspots of amplitude 0.04 ‰ . A test for determining the δ3C-irradiance relation has been 1 13 performed by studying variations of δ C and the percentage annual number of rainy days during the last century in this region. Our results agree with the expectations on the basis of experiments performed in vitro on G. sacculifer ( on G. ruber is not available). The amplitude of the 11 y δ3C signal turns out to be of the order of 1.5 W/m2. This value seems to be 1 quite high (although of the same order) to be directly induced solely by changes in the solar constant, if in past times they were similar to those measured in space during solar cycles 22-23. The

  3. Cosmic-ray positron energy spectrum measured by PAMELA.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Bianco, A; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S A; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Pizzolotto, C; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Rossetto, L; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stochaj, S J; Stockton, J C; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2013-08-23

    Precision measurements of the positron component in the cosmic radiation provide important information about the propagation of cosmic rays and the nature of particle sources in our Galaxy. The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make a new measurement of the cosmic-ray positron flux and fraction that extends previously published measurements up to 300 GeV in kinetic energy. The combined measurements of the cosmic-ray positron energy spectrum and fraction provide a unique tool to constrain interpretation models. During the recent solar minimum activity period from July 2006 to December 2009, approximately 24,500 positrons were observed. The results cannot be easily reconciled with purely secondary production, and additional sources of either astrophysical or exotic origin may be required.

  4. PAMELA measurements of cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Borisov, S; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Consiglio, L; De Pascale, M P; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Galper, A M; Gillard, W; Grishantseva, L; Jerse, G; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Malvezzi, V; Marcelli, L; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Nikonov, N; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Pizzolotto, C; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Rossetto, L; Sarkar, R; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Wu, J; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2011-04-01

    Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation. Precise measurements of their fluxes are needed to understand the acceleration and subsequent propagation of cosmic rays in our Galaxy. We report precision measurements of the proton and helium spectra in the rigidity range 1 gigavolt to 1.2 teravolts performed by the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA (payload for antimatter matter exploration and light-nuclei astrophysics). We find that the spectral shapes of these two species are different and cannot be described well by a single power law. These data challenge the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants followed by diffusive propagation in the Galaxy. More complex processes of acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays are required to explain the spectral structures observed in our data.

  5. Cosmic-ray record in solar system matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Lal, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) with bodies in the solar system is discussed, and what the record of that interaction reveals about the history of the solar system is considered. The influence of the energy, charge, and mass of the particles on the interaction is addressed, showing long-term average fluxes of solar protons, predicted production rates for heavy-nuclei tracks and various radionuclides as a function of depth in lunar rock, and integral fluxes of protons emitted by solar flares. The variation of the earth's magnetic field, the gardening of the lunar surface, and the source of meteorites and cosmic dust are studied using the cosmic ray record. The time variation of GCR, SCR, and VH and VVH nuclei is discussed for both the short and the long term.

  6. Are cosmic rays modulated beyond the heliopause?

    SciTech Connect

    Kóta, J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2014-02-10

    We discuss the possible spatial variation of Galactic and anomalous cosmic rays (GCRs and ACRs) at and beyond the heliopause (HP). Remaining within the framework of the Parker transport equation and assuming incompressible plasma in the heliosheath, we consider highly idealized simple-flow models and compare our GCR results with recent publications of Scherer et al. and Strauss et al. First, we discuss an order-of-magnitude estimate and a simple spherical model to demonstrate that the modulation of GCRs beyond the HP must be quite small if the diffusion coefficient beyond the HP is greater than ≈10{sup 26} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}, a value that is two orders of magnitude smaller than the value of 10{sup 28} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1} determined from observations of GCR composition. Second, we construct a non-spherical model, which allows lateral deflection of the flow and uses different diffusion coefficients parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find that modulation of GCRs beyond the HP remains small even if the perpendicular diffusion coefficient beyond the HP is quite small (≈10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}) as long as the parallel diffusion is sufficiently fast. We also consider the case when the parallel diffusion beyond the HP is fast, but the perpendicular diffusion is as small as ≈10{sup 20} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}; this results in a sharp, almost step-like increase of GCR flux (and decrease of ACRs) at the HP. Possible implications are briefly discussed. We further suggest the possibility that the observed sharp gradient of GCRs at the HP might push the HP closer to the Sun than previously thought.

  7. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of pallasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Cook, D. L.; Cosarinsky, M.; Huber, L.; Leya, I.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed cosmogenic nuclides in metal and/or silicate (primarily olivine) separated from the main-group pallasites Admire, Ahumada, Albin, Brahin, Brenham, Esquel, Finmarken, Glorieta Mountain, Huckitta, Imilac, Krasnojarsk, Marjalahti, Molong, Seymchan, South Bend, Springwater, and Thiel Mountains and from Eagle Station. The metal separates contained an olivine fraction which although small, <1 wt% in most cases, nonetheless contributes significantly to the budgets of some nuclides (e.g., up to 35% for 21Ne and 26Al). A correction for olivine is therefore essential and was made using model calculations and/or empirical relations for the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in iron meteoroids and/or measured elemental concentrations. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages for the metal phases of the main-group pallasites range from 7 to 180 Ma, but many of the ages cluster around a central peak near 100 Ma. These CRE ages suggest that the parent body of the main-group pallasites underwent a major break-up that produced most of the meteorites analyzed. The CRE age distribution for the pallasites overlaps only a small fraction of the distribution for the IIIAB iron meteorites. Most pallasites and IIIAB irons originated in different collisions, probably on different parent bodies; a few IIIABs and pallasites may have come out of the same collision but a firm conclusion requires further study. CRE ages calculated from noble gas and radionuclide data of the metal fraction are higher on average than the 21Ne exposure ages obtained for the olivine samples. As the metal and olivine fractions were taken in most cases from different specimens, the depth-dependency of the production rate ratio 10Be/21Ne in metal, not accounted for in our calculations, may explain the difference.

  8. Cosmic Rays in Extragalactic Systems: Clusters and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Thomas

    The existence of cosmic rays (CRs) accelerated outside our galaxy is by now established fact. For instance, the angular and spectral distributions of ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) above roughly an EeV point clearly to their extragalactic origins. Diffuse nonthermal radio emis-sions in clusters and along their perimeters reveal GeV electrons filling volumes sometimes approaching Mpc scales. The radiative lifetimes of those leptonic CRs are so short that they must be accelerated or produced as secondaries in situ. The dominant energy sources for such extragalactic CRs are not clearly established, although they are likely to be consequences of strucure formation. Large-scale shocks (including cluster accretion shocks) and turbulence in-duced by structure formation are strong candidates. There is also the possibility that CRs may be produced through structure formation process on still larger scales associated with cos-mic filaments, although current evidence for that is sketchy. The effectiveness of processes in these environments that might accelerate CRs depends sensitively on poorly understood "mi-crophysics" in very dilute and weakly magnetized plasmas. All of these CR populations have the potential to produce diagnostic gamma rays in the GeV to TeV range. Consequently, detec-tion or improved detection limits by current and coming gamma ray observatories can provide unique and crucial information about physical processes and conditions in these environments. My talk will outline the current status of these issues. This work is supported by the US NSF, NASA and by the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  9. Multiwavelength Signatures of Cosmic Ray Acceleration by Young Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Jacco

    2008-12-24

    An overview is given of multiwavelength observations of young supernova remnants, with a focus on the observational signatures of efficient cosmic ray acceleration. Some of the effects that may be attributed to efficient cosmic ray acceleration are the radial magnetic fields in young supernova remnants, magnetic field amplification as determined with X-ray imaging spectroscopy, evidence for large post-shock compression factors, and low plasma temperatures, as measured with high resolution optical/UV/X-ray spectroscopy. Special emphasis is given to spectroscopy of post-shock plasma's, which offers an opportunity to directly measure the post-shock temperature. In the presence of efficient cosmic ray acceleration the post-shock temperatures are expected to be lower than according to standard equations for a strong shock. For a number of supernova remnants this seems indeed to be the case.

  10. Antideuterons in cosmic rays: sources and discovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herms, Johannes; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vittino, Andrea; Wild, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Antibaryons are produced in our Galaxy in collisions of high energy cosmic rays with the interstellar medium and in old supernova remnants, and possibly, in exotic sources such as primordial black hole evaporation or dark matter annihilations and decays. The search for signals from exotic sources in antiproton data is hampered by large backgrounds from spallation which, within theoretical errors, can solely account for the current data. Due to the higher energy threshold for antideuteron production, which translates into a suppression of the low energy flux from spallations, antideuteron searches have been proposed as a probe for exotic sources. We perform in this paper a comprehensive analysis of the antideuteron fluxes at the Earth expected from known and hypothetical sources in our Galaxy, and we calculate their maximal values consistent with current antiproton data from AMS-02. We find that supernova remnants generate a negligible flux, whereas primordial black hole evaporation and dark matter annihilations or decays may dominate the total flux at low energies. On the other hand, we find that the {detection of cosmic antideuterons} would require, for the scenarios studied in this paper and assuming optimistic values of the coalescence momentum and solar modulation, an increase of the experimental sensitivity compared to ongoing and planned instruments by at least a factor of 2. Finally, we briefly comment on the prospects for antihelium-3 detection.

  11. Detection prospects of the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015).

  12. Detection Prospects of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review.

  13. A Search for Cosmic-ray Proton Anisotropies with Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Matthew; Vandenbroucke, Justin; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In eight years of operation, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a large sample of cosmic-ray protons. The LAT's wide field of view and full-sky coverage make it an excellent instrument for studying anisotropies in the arrival directions of protons at all angular scales. These capabilities enable the LAT to make a full-sky 2D measurement of cosmic-ray proton anisotropy complementary to many recent TeV measurements, which are performed by projecting onto right ascension. Any detected anisotropies probe the structure of the local interstellar magnetic field and could indicate the presence of a nearby source

  14. 100 years since the discovery of cosmic rays. A brief history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    With the words "Cosmic Rays" we mean particles impinging on the earth atmosphere. The existence of these particles was discovered in 1912, i.e. exactly 100 years ago, by the Austrian physicist Victor Hesss. In this contribution I will describe the steps that lead to such a discovery: from the electroscope measurements, showing their spontaneous discharge, to the correct explanation of this results with the existence of charged particles arriving from outside of the atmosphere. Then I will discuss the first steps of experimental particle physics, obtained with experiments performed detecting cosmic rays, that allowed important discoveries as the detection of antimatter and of new subatominc particles as muons and pions.

  15. The imprint of Gould's belt on the local cosmic ray electron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Perrot, C.; Grenier, I.

    2001-08-01

    In a recent paper Pohl and Esposito (1998) demonstrated that if the sources of cosmic-rays are discrete, as are Supernova Remnants (SNR), then the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons largely vary with location and time and the locally measured electron spectrum may not be representative of the electron spectra elsewhere in the Galaxy, which could be substantially harder than the local one. They have shown that the observed excess of γ-ray emission above 1 GeV can in fact be partially explained as a correspondingly hard inverse Compton component, provided the bulk of cosmic-ray electrons is produced in SNR. As part of a program to model the Galactic γ-ray foreground we have continued the earlier studies by investigating the impact of the star forming region Gould's Belt on the local electron spectrum. If the electron sources in Gould's Belt were continous, the local electron spectrum would be slightly hardened. If the electron sources are discrete, which is the more probable case, the variation in the local electron spectrum found by Pohl & Esposito persists. 1 The local cosmic-ray electron spectrum The recent detections of non-thermal X-ray synchrotron radiation from the supernova remnants SN1006 (Koyama et al., 1995), RX J1713.7-3946 (Koyama et al., 1997), IC443 (Keohane et al., 1997; Slane et al., 1999), Cas A (Allen et al., 1997), and RCW86 (Borkowski et al., 2001) and the subsequent detections of SN1006 (Tanimori et al., 1998), RX J1713.7-3946 (Muraishi et al., 2000), and Cas A (Aharonian et al., 2001) at TeV energies support the hypothesis that at least Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated predominantly in SNR. The Galactic distribution and spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons are intimately linked to the distribution and nature of their sources. Supernovae and hence their remnants are tran-

  16. Cosmic-Ray Injection from Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Eric; Profumo, Stefano; Linden, Tim

    2016-09-01

    At present, all physical models of diffuse Galactic γ -ray emission assume that the distribution of cosmic-ray sources traces the observed populations of either OB stars, pulsars, or supernova remnants. However, since H2 -rich regions host significant star formation and numerous supernova remnants, the morphology of observed H2 gas (as traced by CO line surveys) should also provide a physically motivated, high-resolution tracer for cosmic-ray injection. We assess the impact of utilizing H2 as a tracer for cosmic-ray injection on models of diffuse Galactic γ -ray emission. We employ state-of-the-art 3D particle diffusion and gas density models, along with a physical model for the star-formation rate based on global Schmidt laws. Allowing a fraction, fH2,of cosmic-ray sources to trace the observed H2 density, we find that a theoretically well-motivated value fH 2˜0.20 - 0.25 (i) provides a significantly better global fit to the diffuse Galactic γ -ray sky and (ii) highly suppresses the intensity of the residual γ -ray emission from the Galactic center region. Specifically, in models utilizing our best global fit values of fH2˜0.20 - 0.25 , the spectrum of the galactic center γ -ray excess is drastically affected, and the morphology of the excess becomes inconsistent with predictions for dark matter annihilation.

  17. Cosmic-Ray Injection from Star-Forming Regions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric; Profumo, Stefano; Linden, Tim

    2016-09-09

    At present, all physical models of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission assume that the distribution of cosmic-ray sources traces the observed populations of either OB stars, pulsars, or supernova remnants. However, since H_{2}-rich regions host significant star formation and numerous supernova remnants, the morphology of observed H_{2} gas (as traced by CO line surveys) should also provide a physically motivated, high-resolution tracer for cosmic-ray injection. We assess the impact of utilizing H_{2} as a tracer for cosmic-ray injection on models of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission. We employ state-of-the-art 3D particle diffusion and gas density models, along with a physical model for the star-formation rate based on global Schmidt laws. Allowing a fraction, f_{H_{2}}, of cosmic-ray sources to trace the observed H_{2} density, we find that a theoretically well-motivated value f_{H_{2}}∼0.20-0.25 (i) provides a significantly better global fit to the diffuse Galactic γ-ray sky and (ii) highly suppresses the intensity of the residual γ-ray emission from the Galactic center region. Specifically, in models utilizing our best global fit values of f_{H_{2}}∼0.20-0.25, the spectrum of the galactic center γ-ray excess is drastically affected, and the morphology of the excess becomes inconsistent with predictions for dark matter annihilation.

  18. Ultra high energy gamma rays, cosmic rays and neutrinos from accreting degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brecher, K.; Chanmugam, G.

    1985-01-01

    Super-Eddington accretion for a recently proposed unipolar induction model of cosmic ray acceleration in accreting binary star systems containing magnetic white dwarfs or neutron stars is considered. For sufficiently high accretion rates and low magnetic fields, the model can account for: (1) acceleration of cosmic ray nuclei up to energies of 10 to the 19th power eV; (2) production of more or less normal solar cosmic ray composition; (3) the bulk of cosmic rays observed with energies above 1 TeV, and probably even down to somewhat lower energies as well; and (4) possibly the observed antiproton cosmic ray flux. It can also account for the high ultra high energy (UHE) gamma ray flux observed from several accreting binary systems (including Cygnus X-3), while allowing the possibility of an even higher neutrino flux from these sources, with L sub nu/L sub gamma is approximately 100.

  19. LOWER BOUND ON THE COSMIC TeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.

    2016-02-20

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation in the GeV band. However, investigation on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation still remains sparse. Here, we report the lower bound on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background spectrum placed by the cumulative flux of individual detected extragalactic TeV sources including blazars, radio galaxies, and starburst galaxies. The current limit on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background above 0.1 TeV is obtained as 2.8 × 10{sup −8}(E/100 GeV){sup −0.55} exp(−E/2100GeV)[GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1}] < E{sup 2}dN/dE < 1.1 × 10{sup −7}(E/100 GeV){sup −0.49} [GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1}], where the upper bound is set by requirement that the cascade flux from the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation can not exceed the measured cosmic GeV gamma-ray background spectrum. Two nearby blazars, Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, explain ∼70% of the cumulative background flux at 0.8–4 TeV, while extreme blazars start to dominate at higher energies. We also provide the cumulative background flux from each population, i.e., blazars, radio galaxies, and starburst galaxies which will be the minimum requirement for their contribution to the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation.

  20. GALAXY MERGERS AS A SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS, NEUTRINOS, AND GAMMA RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2014-07-20

    We investigate the shock acceleration of particles in massive galaxy mergers or collisions, and show that cosmic rays (CRs) can be accelerated up to the second knee energy ∼0.1-1 EeV and possibly beyond, with a hard spectral index of Γ ≈ 2. Such CRs lose their energy via hadronuclear interactions within a dynamical timescale of the merger shock, producing gamma rays and neutrinos as a by-product. If ∼10% of the shock dissipated energy goes into CR acceleration, some local merging galaxies will produce gamma-ray counterparts detectable by the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Also, based on the concordance cosmology, where a good fraction of the massive galaxies experience a major merger in a cosmological timescale, the neutrino counterparts can constitute ∼20%-60% of the isotropic background detected by IceCube.

  1. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  2. Space-atmospheric interactions of energetic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isar, Paula Gina

    2015-02-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays are the most energetic particles in the Universe of which origin still remain a mystery since a century from their descovery. They are unique messengers coming from far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy, which provides insights into the fundamental matter, energy, space and time. As subatomic particles flying through space to nearly light speed, the ultra-high energy cosmic rays are so rare that they strike the Earth's atmosphere at a rate of up to only one particle per square kilometer per year or century. While the atmosphere is used as a giant calorimeter where cosmic rays induced air showers are initiated and the medium through which Cherenkov or fluorescence light or radio waves propagate, all cosmic ray measurements (performed either from space or ground) rely on an accurate atmospheric monitoring and understanding of atmospheric effects. The interdisciplinary link between Astroparticle Physics and Atmospheric Environment through the ultra-high energy comic rays space - atmospheric interactions, based on the present ground- and future space-based cosmic ray observatories, will be presented.

  3. Active galactic nuclei, neutrinos, and interacting cosmic rays in NGC 253 and NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Gallagher III, J. S.; Everett, John E.

    2014-01-10

    The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in γ-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic-ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming a constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and γ-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fit the observed γ-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic-ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed γ-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of γ-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

  4. Cross-Correlating the Cosmic Infrared and Cosmic X-Ray Background Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Rachel Ann; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Urry, C. Megan; Guo, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Studying unresolved (i.e., undetected) sources is a way to probe the faintest, and thus the least understood, source populations. In particular, such studies have suggested a population of high redshift accreting black holes. We present cross-power spectra and coherence between the cosmic infrared and cosmic x-ray background fluctuations, using infrared images from Spitzer Space Telescope and x-ray images from XMM-Newton of the ˜2 square degree area of the COSMOS field. We first masked all known sources and subtracted model images of the masked x-ray sources’ PSF tails so as to isolate the unresolved cosmic backgrounds. We have considered infrared data from two bands, 3.6 and 4.5 μm, and x-ray data from five bands, [0.3-0.5], [0.5-1], [1-2], [0.5-2], and [2-10] keV. We find strong correlation between the cosmic infrared and cosmic x-ray backgrounds, which suggests an origin in a common population, i.e., stars and/or growing black holes.

  5. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  6. Bioeffectiveness of Cosmic Rays Near the Earth Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, N. K.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental studies of the dynamics of morphological and functional state of the diverse biosystems (microflora, plant Maranta leuconeura «Fascinator», cell cultures, human peripheral blood, the human body ) have shown that geocosmical agents modulated the functional state of biological systems Belisheva 2006; Belisheva et all 2007 ) . First time on the experimental data showed the importance of the increase in the fluxes of solar cosmic rays (CRs ) with high energies (Belisheva et all 2002; 2012; Belisheva, Lammer, Biernat, 2004) and galactic cosmic ray variations (Belisheva et al, 2005; 2006; Vinnichenko Belisheva, 2009 ) near the Earth surface for the functional state of biosystems. The evidence of the presence of the particles with high bioeffectiveness in the secondary cosmic rays was obtained by simulating the particle cascades in the atmosphere, performed by using Geant4 (Planetocosmics, based on the Monte Carlo code (Maurchev et al, 2011), and experimental data, where radiobiological effects of cosmic rays were revealed. Modeling transport of solar protons through the Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles in different layers of the atmosphere, allowed us to estimate the total neutron flux during three solar proton events, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays - Ground Level Enhancement GLE (43, 44, 45) in October 1989 (19, 22, 24 October). The results obtained by simulation were compared with the data of neutron monitors and balloon measurements made during solar proton events. Confirmation of the neutron fluxes near the Earth surface during the GLE (43, 44, 45) were obtained in the experiments on the cellular cultures (Belisheva et al. 2012). A direct evidence of biological effects of CR has been demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the

  7. Monopole, astrophysics and cosmic ray observatory at Gran Sasso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Giglietto, N.; Posa, F.; Attolini, M.; Baldetti, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Grianti, F.; Margiotta, A.; Serra, P.

    1985-01-01

    A new large area detector, MACRO was approved for installation at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The detector will be dedicated to the study of naturally penetrating radiation deep underground. It is designed with the general philosophy of covering the largest possible area with a detector having both sufficient built-in redundancy and use of complementary techniques to study very rare phenomena. The detector capabilities will include monopole investigations significantly below the Parker bound; astrophysics studies of very high energy gamma ray and neutrino point sources; cosmic ray measurements of single and multimuons; and the general observation of rare new forms of matter in the cosmic rays.

  8. Cosmic-ray Propagation and Interactions in the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, Andrew W.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Ptuskin, Vladimir S.; /Troitsk, IZMIRAN

    2007-01-22

    We survey the theory and experimental tests for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy up to energies of 10{sup 15} eV. A guide to the previous reviews and essential literature is given, followed by an exposition of basic principles. The basic ideas of cosmic-ray propagation are described, and the physical origin of its processes are explained. The various techniques for computing the observational consequences of the theory are described and contrasted. These include analytical and numerical techniques. We present the comparison of models with data including direct and indirect--especially gamma-ray--observations, and indicate what we can learn about cosmic-ray propagation. Some particular important topics including electrons and antiparticles are chosen for discussion.

  9. Acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova remnant shocks: constraints from gamma-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2016-06-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the primary sources of the bulk of Galactic cosmicray (CR) protons observed at Earth, up to the knee energy at ˜3 PeV. Our understanding of CR acceleration in SNRs mainly relies on the Diffusive Shock Acceleration theory which is commonly invoked to explain several observational (though, indirect) lines of evidence for efficient particle acceleration at the SNR forward shocks up to very high energies. In particular, recent observations of young SNRs in the high-energy (HE; 0.1 < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray domains have raised several questions and triggered numerous theoretical investigations. However, these detections still do not constitute a conclusive proof that supernova remnants accelerate the bulk of Galactic cosmic-rays, mainly due to the difficulty of disentangling the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the observed gamma-ray emission. In my presentation, I will review the most relevant results of gamma ray astronomy on supernova remnants (shell-type and middle-age interacting with molecular clouds) and the constraints derived concerning their efficiency to accelerate cosmic-rays.

  10. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers contributed to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference which address high energy interactions and related phenomena are compiled. Particular topic areas include cross sections; particle production; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collisions; gamma ray and hadron spectra; C-jets, a-jets, and super families; and emulsion chamber simulations.

  11. Low Clouds and Cosmic Rays: Possible Reasons for Correlation Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenenko, S. V.; Ogurtsov, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we investigated the nature of correlations between low cloud cover anomalies (LCA) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) variations detected on the decadal time scale, as well as possible reasons for the violation of these correlations in the early 2000s. It was shown that the link between cloud cover at middle latitudes and GCR fluxes is not direct, but it is realized through GCR influence on the development of extratropical baric systems (cyclones and troughs) which form cloud field. As the sign of GCR effects on the troposphere dynamics seems to depend on the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex, a possible reason for the violation of a positive correlation between LCA and GCR fluxes in the early 2000s may be the change of the vortex state which resulted in the reversal of GCR effects on extratropical cyclone development.

  12. Review of the Theoretical and Experimental Status of Dark Matter Identification with Cosmic-Ray Antideuterons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; Hamilton, B.; Ibarra, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mognet, I.; Ong, R.A.; Pereira, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or gamma-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Therefore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  13. Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; Hamilton, B.; Ibarra, A.; Mitchell, J.; Ong, R. A.; Pereira, R.; Perez, K.; Putze, A.; Raklev, A.; Salati, P.; Sasaki, M.; Urbano, A.; Vittino, A.; Wild, S.; Xue, W.; Yoshimura, K.

    2016-01-27

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or γ-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth’s geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Lastly, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Furthermore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  14. Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; Hamilton, B.; Ibarra, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mognet, I.; Ong, R. A.; Pereira, R.; Perez, K.; Putze, A.; Raklev, A.; Salati, P.; Sasaki, M.; Tarle, G.; Urbano, A.; Vittino, A.; Wild, S.; Xue, W.; Yoshimura, K.

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or γ-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Therefore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  15. Separation of the electron and proton cosmic-ray components by means of a calorimeter in the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment for the case of particle detection within a large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A. V.; Borisov, S. V.; Voronov, S. A.; Malakhov, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    The PAMELA satellite-borne experiment is designed to study cosmic rays over a broad energy range. The apparatus has been in near-Earth cosmic space from June 2006 to the present time. It is equipped with a magnetic spectrometer for determining the sign of the particle charge and rigidity. In solving some problems, however, information from the magnetic spectrometer becomes inaccessible, so that it is necessary to employ a calorimeter to separate the electron and nuclear cosmic-ray components. A procedure for separating these components for particles arriving off the magnetic-spectrometer aperture is considered.

  16. Cosmic-ray induced gamma-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2014-05-09

    Cosmic rays in galaxies interact with the interstellar medium and give us a direct view of nuclear and particle interactions in the cosmos. For example, cosmic-ray proton interactions with interstellar hydrogen produce gamma rays via PcrPism→π{sup 0}→γγ. For a 'normal' star-forming galaxy like the Milky Way, most cosmic rays escape the Galaxy before such collisions, but in starburst galaxies with dense gas and huge star formation rate, most cosmic rays do suffer these interactions [1,2]. We construct a 'thick-target' model for starburst galaxies, in which cosmic rays are accelerated by supernovae, and escape is neglected. This model gives an upper limit to the gamma-ray emission. Only two free parameters are involved in the model: cosmic-ray proton acceleration energy rate from supernova and the proton injection spectral index. The pionic gamma-radiation is calculated from 10 MeV to 10 TeV for the starburst galaxy NGC 253, and compared to Fermi and HESS data. Our model fits NGC 253 well, suggesting that cosmic rays in this starburst are in the thick target limit, and that this galaxy is a gamma-ray calorimeter.

  17. Solar modulation of cosmic rays observed by PAMELA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boezio, Mirko

    2016-07-01

    It was the 15th of June of 2006 when the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakstan. Since then, PAMELA has been making high-precision measurements of the charged component of the cosmic radiation opening a new era of precision studies in cosmic rays. In this talk we will present the time dependence of the various components of the cosmic radiations from the unusual 23rd solar minimum through the following period of solar maximum activity. The detailed study of these components clearly shows the effects of solar modulation as well as charge sign dependence of the modulation.

  18. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECR magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.

  19. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    DOE PAGES

    Aartsen, M. G.

    2016-01-20

    This study presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECRmore » magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.« less

  20. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.

    2016-01-20

    This study presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECR magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.

  1. Probing cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation with H{sub 3}{sup +} observations

    SciTech Connect

    Indriolo, Nick; Fields, Brian D.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    As cosmic rays traverse the interstellar medium (ISM) they interact with the ambient gas in various ways. These include ionization of atoms and molecules, spallation of nuclei, excitation of nuclear states, and production of pions among others. All of these interactions produce potential observables which may be used to trace the flux of cosmic rays. One such observable is the molecular ion H{sub 3}{sup +}-produced via the ionization of an H{sub 2} molecule and its subsequent collision with another H{sub 2}-which can be identified by absorption lines in the 3.5-4 μm spectral region. We have detected H{sub 3}{sup +} in several Galactic diffuse cloud sight lines and used the derived column densities to infer ζ{sub 2}, the cosmic-ray ionization rate of H{sub 2}. Ionization rates determined in this way vary from about 7×10{sup −17} s{sup −1} to about 8×10{sup −16} s{sup −1}, and suggest the possibility of discrete sources producing high local fluxes of low-energy cosmic rays. Theoretical calculations of the ionization rate from postulated cosmic-ray spectra also support this possibility. Our recent observations of H{sub 3}{sup +} near the supernova remnant IC 443 (a likely site of cosmic-ray acceleration) point to even higher ionization rates, on the order of 10{sup −15} s{sup −1}. Together, all of these results can further our understanding of the cosmic-ray spectrum both near the acceleration source and in the general Galactic ISM.

  2. Atmospheric cosmic rays and solar energetic particles at aircraft altitudes.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; Friedberg, W; Sauer, H H; Smart, D F

    1996-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays, which are thought to be produced and accelerated by a variety of mechanisms in the Milky Way galaxy, interact with the solar wind, the earth's magnetic field, and its atmosphere to produce hadron, lepton, and photon fields at aircraft altitudes that are quite unlike anything produced in the laboratory. The energy spectra of these secondary particles extend from the lowest possible energy to energies over an EeV. In addition to cosmic rays, energetic particles, generated on the sun by solar flares or coronal mass ejections, bombard the earth from time to time. These particles, while less energetic than cosmic rays, also produce radiation fields at aircraft altitudes which have qualitatively the same properties as cosmic rays. The authors have calculated atmospheric cosmic-ray angular fluxes, spectra, scalar fluxes, and ionization, and compared them with experimental data. Agreement with these data is seen to be good. These data have been used to calculate equivalent doses in a simplified human phantom at aircraft altitudes and the estimated health risks to aircraft crews. The authors have also calculated the radiation doses from several large solar energetic particle events (known as GLEs, or Ground Level Events), which took place in 1989, including the very large event known as GLE 42, which took place on September 29th and 30th of that year. The spectra incident on the atmosphere were determined assuming diffusive shock theory. Unfortunately, there are essentially no experimental data with which to compare these calculations.

  3. An estimation of Canadian population exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Timmins, Rachel; Verdecchia, Kyle; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2009-08-01

    The worldwide average exposure to cosmic rays contributes to about 16% of the annual effective dose from natural radiation sources. At ground level, doses from cosmic ray exposure depend strongly on altitude, and weakly on geographical location and solar activity. With the analytical model PARMA developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, annual effective doses due to cosmic ray exposure at ground level were calculated for more than 1,500 communities across Canada which cover more than 85% of the Canadian population. The annual effective doses from cosmic ray exposure in the year 2000 during solar maximum ranged from 0.27 to 0.72 mSv with the population-weighted national average of 0.30 mSv. For the year 2006 during solar minimum, the doses varied between 0.30 and 0.84 mSv, and the population-weighted national average was 0.33 mSv. Averaged over solar activity, the Canadian population-weighted average annual effective dose due to cosmic ray exposure at ground level is estimated to be 0.31 mSv.

  4. Cosmic ray anisotropies to 5 PeV

    SciTech Connect

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W. E-mail: a.w.wolfendale@durham.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    Several large cosmic ray (CR) detectors have recently provided data on the arrival directions of CR, which taken together with previous data recorded over many decades allow the amplitude and phase of the first harmonic to be derived with reasonable precision and up to higher energies. We find a high degree of consistency amongst the various measurements. The new data indicate that at an energy above ∼ 0.1 PeV a change of the CR anisotropy sets in. The amplitude of the first harmonic, which rises to 3 TeV, then diminishes and begins to rise again. The direction of the phase also changes to the opposite one. A measure of understanding follows from the use of two-dimensional maps of cosmic ray excesses over the mean background. When the energy of cosmic rays approaches the PeV region, the excess of cosmic rays moves from the Galactic Anti-Centre to the opposite direction of the Galactic Centre. The possible role of such potential cosmic ray sources as the supernovae Monogem Ring and Vela, which could help to explain some of the observed results, is discussed.

  5. Cosmic rays, supernova and the origin of ultrahigh energy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1985-07-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, greater than or equal to 10(15 to 20) eV, is still an unsolved problem in high-energy astrophysics. The now classical mechanism of stochastic acceleration of cosmic rays in a strong shock in the interstellar or intergalactic medium is limited in time and dimension for all likely acceleration sites, particularly for the highest energies. Acceleration of cosmic rays across a plasma shock of velocity, (BETA)/sub s/ ((BETA)/sub s/ = v/sub shock//c), requires 1/(BETA)/sub s/ number of crossings and therefore (1/(BETA)/sub s/) (2) number of scatterings for doubling the energy of a particle. This requires space of the order of 1/9BETA)/sub s/ x the scattering length, or a multiple of the Larmor radius and hence, the space requirements to cosmic ray acceleration are very many Larmor orbits in dimension, as well as times that are larger by (1/(BETA)/sub s/) (2) x t/sub Larmor/. The acceleration of cosmic rays by the shock in the envelope of a Type 1 supernova is reviewed, and the interaction of the accelerated matter with the nearby ISM is considered.

  6. The Energetic Trans-Iron Cosmic-ray Experiment (ENTICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Adams. J. H.; Barghouty, A. F.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Link, J. T.; Mewwaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; De Nolfo, G. A.; Sasaki, M.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The ENTICE experiment is one of two instruments that comprise the "Orbiting Astrophysical Spectrometer in Space (OASIS)", which is presently undergoing a NASA "Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study". ENTICE is designed to make high precision measurements of the abundances of individual elements from neon through the actinides and, in addition, will search for possible superheavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic rays. The ENTICE instrument utilizes silicon detectors, aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov counters, and a scintillating optical fiber hodoscope to measure the charge and energy of these ultra-heavy nuclei for energies greater than 0.5 GeV/nucleon. It is a large instrument consisting of four modules with a total effective geometrical factor of approx.20 sq m sr. Measurements made in space for a period of three years with ENTICE will enable us to determine if cosmic rays include a component of recently synthesized transuranic elements (Pu-94 and Cm-96), to measure the age of that component, and to test the model of the OB association origin of galactic cosmic rays. Additionally, these observations will enable us to study how diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays operates differently on interstellar grains and gas. Keywords: cosmic rays Galaxy:abundances

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MAXIMUM ENERGY OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, M.; Katayose, Y.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.

    2010-06-20

    A model of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum is proposed that assumes various acceleration limits at multiple sources. The model describes the broken power-law energy spectrum of cosmic rays by superposition of multiple sources; a diffusive shock acceleration mechanism plays an essential role. The maximum energy of galactic cosmic rays is discussed based on a comparison of experimental data with calculations done using the proposed model. The model can describe the energy spectrum at very high energies of up to several times 10{sup 18} eV, but the observed highest-energy cosmic rays deviate from the model predictions, indicating a different origin, such as an extragalactic source. This model describes the steepening of the power index at the so-called knee. However, it was found that additional assumptions are needed to explain the sharpness of the knee. Two possible explanations for the structure of the knee are discussed in terms of nearby source(s) and the hard energy spectrum suggested by nonlinear effects of cosmic-ray acceleration mechanisms.

  8. Research on ICCD for space observation of cosmic ray and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bingliang; Gao, Xiaohui; Wang, Le; Pi, Haifeng; Wei, Cuiyu

    2014-07-01

    The low light level imaging and ultrafast detection system is a high performance ICCD composed of imaging intensifier and high-frame-rate CCD, the important readout system of the semi-digital 3D-imaging calorimeter for space observation of cosmic ray and dark matter that has the function of intensifying, delaying, imaging and memorizing, making rapid response to the ultrafast low light signals that is transmitted by tens of thousands of wavelength shifting fibers, generated by the semi-digital 3D-imaging calorimeter when cosmic ray is passing through. Using the images of ICCD and the semi-digital information reconstruction method, the particle type, energy and direction of cosmic ray can be obtained. By solving some key technologies such as coupling techniques of optical parts, low noise and high speed imaging of high-frame-rate and large-area CCD, the high speed gating system of imager intensifier, the prototype of high performance ICCD is developed. The prototype of ICCD can meet the requirements: up to 400 frames per second, detection ability for low light about 10 photons, linear dynamic range more than 300.Performances verification of the prototype is carried out by using a single photon test system. In this paper we will describe the requirement of ICCD for the ground cosmic detection system which is used to verify the theory of Herd (High Energy Cosmic-Radiation Detection), the key techniques used to achieve perfect performances, and test method and result of the ICCD.

  9. Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    “The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest.” - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing it, causing changes in its chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved over the past ∼3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lightning plays a very important role in the formation of complex organic molecules, which are the building blocks of more complex structures forming life. There is growing evidence of increase in the lightning rate with increasing flux of charged particles. Is there a connection between enhanced rate of cosmic rays and the origin of life? Cosmic ray secondaries are also known to damage DNA and cause mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. It is now possible to compute radiation doses from secondary particles, in particular muons and neutrons. Have the variations in cosmic ray flux affected the evolution of life on earth? We describe the mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life and review the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth.

  10. Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    DOE PAGES

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; ...

    2016-01-27

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or γ-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectablemore » cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth’s geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Lastly, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Furthermore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.« less

  11. Opportunities in cosmic-ray physics and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council established the Committee on Cosmic-Ray Physics to prepare a review of the field that addresses both experimental and theoretical aspects of the origin of cosmic radiation from outside the heliosphere. The following recommendations are made: NASA should provide the opportunity to measure cosmic-ray electrons, positrons, ultraheavy nuclei, isotopes, and antiparticles in space; NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Energy (DOE) should facilitate direct and indirect measurement of the elemental composition to as high an energy as possible, for which the support of long-duration ballooning and hybrid ground arrays will be needed; NSF and DOE should support the new Fly's Eye and provide for U.S. participation in the big projects on the horizon, which include giant arrays, ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, and neutrino telescopes; and NASA, NSF, and DOE should support a strong program of relevant theoretical investigations.

  12. Precision Cosmic Ray physics with space-born experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incagli, Marco

    2016-07-01

    More than 100 years after their discoveries, cosmic rays have been extensively studied, both with balloon experiments and with ground observatories. More recently, the possibility of mounting detectors on satellites or on the International Space Station has allowed for a long duration (several years) continuous observation of primary cosmic rays, i.e. before their interaction with the earth atmosphere, thus opening a new regime of precision measurements. In this review, recent results from major space experiments, as Pamela, AMS02 and Fermi, as well as next generation experiments proposed for the International Space Station, for standalone satellites or for the yet to come Chinese Space Station, will be presented. The impact of these experiment on the knowledge of Cosmic Ray propagation will also be discussed.

  13. Drift and observations in cosmic-ray modulation, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potgieter, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The significant effect of drift on the radial and latitudinal dependence of cosmic rays for consecutive solar minimum periods is illustrated. Compared with the integral radial gradient observed in 1976, the calculated value seems too small. A detailed comparison will however have to await the forthcoming solar minimum. The same applies to the latitudinal gradient which is as yet inconclusive about drift effects. Searching the literature for observations related to the IMF polarity reversal, distinct differences were found in neutron monitor response functions for consecutive solar minimum periods, and also in the annual variations of cosmic rays observed before and after polarity reversals. Whether drift is the predominant effect is however not yet clear. Better correlation was found between variations in the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity parameters over a much wider range of heliolatitude during 1970-80 compared to before this period.

  14. Cosmic-ray heating of the interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1995-01-01

    Cosmic rays streaming out of the Galaxy can become locked to resonantly excited Alfven waves as they pass through a region of increasing temperature at the disk-halo interface. A large fraction of the energy is approximately greater than 1 GeV cosmic rays goes into heating of the thermal gas via nonlinear Landau damping of the waves. This mode of cosmic-ray heating can balance radiative cooling for gas in the temperature range 10(exp 4.5) K approximately less than T approximately less than 10(exp 6), creating a thermal transition zone with a column density exceeding that of an ordinary conductive interface. This layer could be the site of much of the observed emission and absorption by highly ionized species such as C IV, N V, and O VI.

  15. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  16. Constraining Proton-Dark Matter Scattering Using Cosmic Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappiello, Christopher; Ng, Kenny; Beacom, John

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter scattering cross sections with protons and electrons are largely unconstrained below a dark matter mass of 1 GeV. By considering propagation of cosmic rays through a region with the dark matter density of the Milky Way, we demonstrate that if electrons and protons scatter with dark matter, this interaction adds an energy loss term to the cosmic ray propagation equation. This energy loss term distorts the calculated cosmic ray spectra from the observed spectra. By fitting the calculated spectra to data, we can set limits on the proton and electron scattering cross sections for dark matter. Chris Cappiello was supported by both The Ohio State University and the Ohio State University Department of Physics. Kenny Ng and John Beacom were supported by NSF Grant PHY-1404311 to John Beacom.

  17. Restrictions from Lorentz invariance violation on cosmic ray propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Huerta, H.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.

    2017-03-01

    Lorentz invariance violation introduced as a generic modification to particle dispersion relations is used to study high energy cosmic ray attenuation processes. It is shown to reproduce the same physical effects for vacuum Cherenkov radiation, as in some particular models with spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry. This approximation is also implemented for the study of photon decay in vacuum, where stringent limits to the violation scale are derived from the direct observation of very high energy cosmic ray photon events on gamma telescopes. Photo production processes by cosmic ray primaries on photon background are also addressed, to show that Lorentz violation may turn off this attenuation process at energies above a well-defined secondary threshold.

  18. ORIGIN OF THE COSMIC-RAY SPECTRAL HARDENING

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Nicola

    2012-06-10

    Recent data from ATIC, CREAM, and PAMELA indicate that the cosmic-ray energy spectra of protons and nuclei exhibit a remarkable hardening at energies above 100 GeV nucleon{sup -1}. We propose that the hardening is an interstellar propagation effect that originates from a spatial change of the cosmic-ray transport properties in different regions of the Galaxy. The key hypothesis is that the diffusion coefficient is not separable into energy and space variables as usually assumed. Under this scenario, we can reproduce the observational data well. Our model has several implications for cosmic-ray acceleration/propagation physics and can be tested by ongoing experiments such as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer or Fermi-LAT.

  19. The origins of cosmic rays and quantum effects on gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomozawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays is explained by particles emitted during a thermal expansion of explosive objects inside and near the galaxy, remnants of which may be supernova and/or active talaxies, or even stars or galaxies that disappeared from our sight after the explosion. A power law energy spectrum for cosmic rays, E to the (-alpha -1, is obtained from an expansion rate T is proportional to R to the alpha. Using the solution of the Einstein equation, we obtain a spectrum which agrees very well with experimental data. The implication of an inflationary early universe on the cosmic ray spectrum is also discussed. It is also suggested that the conflict between this model and the singularity theorem in classical general relativity may be eliminated by quantum effects.

  20. The elemental and isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A directly accessible sample of matter which originates outside the solar system is provided by galactic cosmic rays. The present investigation is primarily concerned with progress related to questions raised regarding the similarity or difference between solar system matter and matter coming from outside the solar system. The investigation takes into account U.S. contributions to this topic over the period from 1979 to 1982. The cosmic ray (CR) abundances of all the elements from H to Ni (atomic number Z=1 to 28) have now been measured. Cosmic ray source (CRS) and solar system (SS) elemental compositions are listed in a table, and the ratio of CRS to SS abundance for 21 elements is shown in a graph. There is now clear evidence from CR isotope studies that the nucleosynthesis of CRS material has differed from that of SS material.

  1. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  2. The Local Bubble as a cosmic-ray isotropizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, I.; Weinreuter, M.; Kunz, S.; Gaggero, D.

    2015-07-01

    The arrival directions of energetic positrons and electrons convey fundamental information on their origin. PAMELA, and more recently AMS, have measured an anomalous population of energetic positrons, which cannot be explained in standard cosmic ray propagation models. Two possible sources have been extensively discussed: astrophysical point sources, such as local pulsars, and dark matter. In the first case an anisotropy in the flux of energetic particles is expected. Reliable predictions of the level of anisotropy need to account for the Sun's peculiar environment: the Sun resides in the so-called Local Bubble, an underdense region, embedded in a dense wall of molecular clouds. This structure is expected to act as an efficient cosmic-ray isotropizer. Using realistic assumptions on the impact of the Local Bubble on cosmic-ray diffusion, we demonstrate that the Local Bubble can indeed dilute the directional information of energetic positrons and electrons.

  3. The All Particle Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectrum Measured with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel-Arias, Zigfried; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present results of a measurement of the all-particle cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 10 TeV with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory. HAWC is a ground based air shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcán Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, México. It comprises 300 large light-tight water tanks covering an area of 20,000 square meters. Each tank is instrumented with four photomultipliers to detect particles from extensive air showers produced by gamma rays and cosmic rays upon entering the Earth's atmosphere. HAWC is optimized for the detection of gamma-ray induced air showers, yet the background flux of hadronic air showers is four orders of magnitude greater, allowing for a detailed study of the cosmic-ray flux in the TeV energy range. The primary cosmic-ray energy is determined with a maximum likelihood approach using the particle density as a function of distance to the shower core. Introducing quality cuts to isolate events with shower cores landing on the array, the reconstructed energy distribution is unfolded iteratively. We will report on the energy resolution of the technique and the results of the unfolding.

  4. High energy irradiations simulating cosmic-ray-induced planetary gamma ray production. I - Fe target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Parker, R. H.; Yellin, J.

    1986-01-01

    Two thick Fe targets were bombarded by a series of 6 GeV proton irradiations for the purpose of simulating the cosmic ray bombardment of planetary objects in space. Gamma ray energy spectra were obtained with a germanium solid state detector during the bombardment, and 46 of the gamma ray lines were ascribed to the Fe targets. A comparison between observed and predicted values showed good agreement for Fe lines from neutron inelastic scattering and spallation reactions, and less satisfactory agreement for neutron capture reactions, the latter attributed to the difference in composition between the Fe target and the mean lunar abundance used in the modeling. Through an analysis of the irradiation results together with continuum data obtained in lunar orbit, it was found that 100 hours of measurement with a current instrument should generate a spectrum containing approximately 20 lines due to Fe alone, with a 2-sigma sensitivity for detection of about 0.2 percent.

  5. Cosmic-Ray Modulation: an Ab Initio Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of cosmic-ray modulation in the heliosphere can only be gained through a proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic rays. We present an ab initio model for cosmic-ray modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. This model is solved for periods of minimum solar activity, utilizing boundary values chosen so that model results are in fair to good agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities, not only in the solar ecliptic plane but also along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modelled slab and 2D turbulence energy spectra. The latter spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers commencing at the 2D outerscale. There currently exist no models or observations for this quantity, and it is the only free parameter in this study. The modelled turbulence spectra are used as inputs for parallel mean free path expressions based on those derived from quasi-linear theory and perpendicular mean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. Furthermore, the effects of turbulence on cosmic-ray drifts are modelled in a self-consistent way, employing a recently developed model for drift along the wavy current sheet. The resulting diffusion coefficients and drift expressions are applied to the study of galactic cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons using a three-dimensional, steady-state cosmic-ray modulation code, and sample solutions in fair agreement with multiple spacecraft observations are presented.

  6. Towards real-time identification of cosmic rays with LOw-Frequency ARray radio antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonardi, Antonio; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katie; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Jörg Paul; Rossetto, Laura; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; Thoudam, Satyendra; Trinh, Gia; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere produce Extensive Air Showers, which emit a radio signal through Geo-magnetic radiation and Askaryan emission. At the present time, one of the biggest challenges for assessing the Radio detection as a valuable technique for Cosmic-ray observation is to identify in real-time the very short (less than 100 ns) radio signals over the background noise. In this work, we present the latest updates on the real-time identification of radio signals from Extensive Air Showers by using the data from LOFAR Low Band Antenna stations, which are sensitive in the 30-80 MHz region.

  7. TIME STRUCTURE OF GAMMA-RAY SIGNALS GENERATED IN LINE-OF-SIGHT INTERACTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS FROM DISTANT BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Prosekin, Anton; Aharonian, Felix; Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Blazars are expected to produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. Therefore, observed high-energy gamma rays from distant blazars may contain a significant contribution from secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. Unlike the standard models of blazars that consider only the primary photons emitted at the source, models that include the cosmic-ray contribution predict that even {approx}10 TeV photons should be detectable from distant objects with redshifts as high as z {>=} 0.1. Secondary photons contribute to signals of point sources only if the intergalactic magnetic fields are very small, B {approx}< 10{sup -14} G, and their detection can be used to set upper bounds on magnetic fields along the line of sight. Secondary gamma rays have distinct spectral and temporal features. We explore the temporal properties of such signals using a semi-analytical formalism and detailed numerical simulations, which account for all the relevant processes, including magnetic deflections. In particular, we elucidate the interplay of time delays coming from the proton deflections and from the electromagnetic cascade, and we find that, at multi-TeV energies, secondary gamma rays can show variability on timescales of years for B {approx} 10{sup -15} G.

  8. Hybrid Cosmic Ray Detector at Pico de Orizaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotzomi, J.; Martinez, O.; Medina, M.; Moreno, E.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, G.; Pérez, L.; Villaseñor, L.; Khrenov, B.; Garipov, G.

    2003-07-01

    In this work we present the design features and simulation of the hybrid detector under construction at 4300 m.a.s.l. equivalent to 620 g /cm2 .The goal of this observatory is to study the mass composition of the cosmic rays in the energy range of 1015 - 1018 eV. The observation technique include particle counting and fluorescence detection in order to improve the Energy and Xmax determination. This approach allow us to contribute in the knowledge of the knee composition, corresponding to medium to heavy nuclei. Introduction One of the open problems of the high energy cosmic ray is the composition of the primary particles with energies from 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1018 . In order to contribute to solve this issue, we have design and hybrid detector to be located in the Pico de Orizaba and Sierra la Negra Volcano es. One of the advantages of the site is the altitude, 4200 m.a.s.l, which may help us to observe the extended air showers nearby their maximum development, improving the determination of the parameters of the primary particle. The optical properties of the site have been studied by several years, showing stability and darkness to declare it as a good optical astronomical site. So, we thought that the installation of an fluorescence telescope, should complement the ground array and improve the overall performance of this observatory. In the other side, the implementation of the hybrid technique, based in montecarlo simulations, may allow us to separate the light and the heavy primary components. Based in simulations, we expect good quality measurement of the number of secondary particles due to the proximity of the array to the level of maximum development of the EAS Xmax .

  9. Observation of the ⁶⁰Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Binns, W R; Israel, M H; Christian, E R; Cummings, A C; de Nolfo, G A; Lave, K A; Leske, R A; Mewaldt, R A; Stone, E C; von Rosenvinge, T T; Wiedenbeck, M E

    2016-05-06

    Iron-60 ((60)Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 × 10(5) iron nuclei, with energies ~195 to ~500 mega-electron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 (60)Fe nuclei. The (60)Fe/(56)Fe source ratio is (7.5 ± 2.9) × 10(-5) The detection of supernova-produced (60)Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the (60)Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the (60)Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, ⪍1 kiloparsec. A natural place for (60)Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  10. Observation of the 60Fe Nucleosynthesis-Clock Isotope in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-60 (60Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 105 iron nuclei, with energies 195 to 500 megaelectron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 60Fe nuclei. The 60Fe56Fe source ratio is (7.5 2.9) 105. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, 1 kiloparsec. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  11. Observation of the 60Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    Iron-60 (60Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 × 105 iron nuclei, with energies ~195 to ~500 mega-electron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 60Fe nuclei. The 60Fe/56Fe source ratio is (7.5 ± 2.9) × 10-5. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, ⪍1 kiloparsec. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  12. When did the average cosmic ray flux increase?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Murty, S. V. S.; Marti, K.; Arnold, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A new 129 to 129 Xe method to obtain cosmic ray exposure ages and to study the average cosmic ray flux on a 10 to the 7th power to 10 to the 8th power year time-scale was developed. The method is based on secondary neutron reactions on Te in troilite and the subsequent decay of 129I, the reaction product to stable 129 Xe. The first measurements of 129 I and 129 Xe in aliquot samples of a Cape York troilite sample are reported.

  13. IceCube: Neutrinos Associated with Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis

    2009-12-17

    After a brief review of the status of the kilometer-scale neutrino observatory IceCube, we discuss the prospect that such detectors discover the still-enigmatic sources of cosmic rays. After all, this aspiration set the scale of the instrument. While only a 'smoking gun' is missing for the case that the Galactic component of the cosmic-ray spectrum originates in supernova remnants, the origin of the extragalactic component remains as inscrutable as ever. We speculate on the role of the nearby active galaxies Centaurus A and M87.

  14. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multi-purpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 4{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February - May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run.

  15. Atmospheric ionization and cosmic rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterized by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  16. Search for the end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Linsley, John

    1998-06-15

    The title I was asked to speak about expresses an idea that occurred rather recently in the history of cosmic ray studies. I argue that the idea of a possible end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum came into being after a sequence of three rapid advances in knowledge which I describe, calling them 'breakthroughs'. I suggest that the present workshop be regarded as a step toward a fourth breakthrough. I argue that this may occur through application of the Space Airwatch concept--the earth atmosphere as target and signal generator--as embodied in the NASA OWL project.

  17. Primary Cosmic-Ray Spectra in the Knee Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel V.; Biermann, P. L.

    2003-07-01

    Using EAS inverse approach and KASCADE EAS data the primary energy spectra for different primary nuclei at energies 1015 - 1017 eV are obtained in the framework of multi-comp onent model of primary cosmic ray origin and QGSJET and SIBYLL interaction models. The rigidity-dep endent behavior of spectra is the same for two interaction models. The extrap olation of the obtained primary spectra in a 1017 - 1018 eV energy range displays a presence of the extragalactic component of primary cosmic rays.

  18. Causes of forbush decreases and other cosmic ray variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barouch, E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between neutron monitor variations and the intensity variations of the interplanetary magnetic field is studied, using Deep River data and IMP-series satellite data. In over 80% of the cases studied, identifiable depressions of the cosmic ray intensity are associated with magnetic field enhancements of several hours duration and intensity above 10 gamma. Conversely, each magnetic field enhancement has an identifiable effect (though not necessarily a marked depression) on the cosmic ray intensity. Long lasting Forbush decreases are found to be the consequence of the successive action of several such features. An explanation is presented and discussed.

  19. Effects of solar magnetic field on cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goncher, G. A.; Kolomeets, E. V.; Lyakhova, A. K.; Slyunyaeva, N. V.; Stekolnikov, N. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of the problem of galactic cosmic ray propagation, including inversion of the solar total magnetic field and an analysis of data related to the heliomagnetic cycle are discussed. It is noted that the global structure of the solar magnetic field results in an additional flux of galactic cosmic rays generated by curvature and gradient drifts. An analysis of heliomagnetic cycle data shows that the latitudinal gradient results in a N-S asymmetry, with the amplitude of the effect growing with depth in the atmosphere. The inversion of the solar total magnetic field, drift effects, and other space distributions are found to contribute to a 22-year cycle of solar activity.

  20. Cosmic-ray streaming in the Born approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Burger, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present work invokes the Born approximation to derive a more accurate expression for the streaming of cosmic rays parallel to the mean magnetic field. While all prior results pertaining to the helicity dependence of the diffusion coefficient and convection speed can be recovered as special cases from this streaming equation, it is concluded that a new set of transport parameters presented here is more appropriate for the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, a new parameter related to time variability, which may be a dominant cause of charge sign-dependent transport of solar particles, is introduced.