Science.gov

Sample records for cost field demonstrations

  1. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data

  2. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  3. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    SciTech Connect

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  4. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Demonstration of innovative field devices for the measurement of mercury in soil and sediment is being conducted under the EPA's SITE Program in February 2003 at the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and th...

  6. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  7. Computer-Based Demonstrations in Cognitive Psychology: Benefits and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, David E.; Scott, Jenna R.; Houska, Jeremy Ashton

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the costs and benefits of using demonstrations in an upper level psychology course. For 6 topics, half of the class read a chapter that explained the concept and theoretical explanations for the described effects, and the other half participated in a demonstration in addition to the reading. Students overwhelmingly reported…

  8. 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program data report

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Cromer, M.V.; Newman, G.C.; Beiso, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program, hosted by Fernald Environmental Management Project, was established to investigate technologies that are applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort was evaluating field-screening tools potentially capable of acquiring high-resolution information on uranium contamination distribution in surface soils. Further-more, the information needed to be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner. Seven advanced field-screening technologies were demonstrated at a uranium-contaminated site at Fernald, located 29 kilometers northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The seven technologies tested were: (1) alpha-track detectors, (2) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (3) electret ionization chambers, (4) and (5) two variants of gamma-ray spectrometry, (6) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and (7) long-range alpha detection. The goals of this field demonstration were to evaluate the capabilities of the detectors and to demonstrate their utility within the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration Program. Identical field studies were conducted using four industry-standard characterization tools: (1) a sodium-iodide scintillometer, (2) a low-energy FIDLER scintillometer, (3) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence detector, and (4) standard soil sampling coupled with laboratory analysis. Another important aspect of this program was the application of a cost/risk decision model to guide characterization of the site. This document is a compilation of raw data submitted by the technologies and converted total uranium data from the 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  10. Geolab 2010: Desert Rats Field Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cindy A.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS), NASA's annual field exercise designed to test spacesuit and rover technologies, will include a first generation lunar habitat facility, the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU). The habitat will participate in joint operations in northern Arizona with the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) and will be used as a multi-use laboratory and working space. A Geology Laboratory or GeoLab is included in the HDU design. Historically, science participation in Desert RATS exercises has supported the technology demonstrations with geological traverse activities that are consistent with preliminary concepts for lunar surface science Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Next year s HDU demonstration is a starting point to guide the development of requirements for the Lunar Surface Systems Program and test initial operational concepts for an early lunar excursion habitat that would follow geological traverses along with the LER. For the GeoLab, these objectives are specifically applied to support future geological surface science activities. The goal of our GeoLab is to enhance geological science returns with the infrastructure that supports preliminary examination, early analytical characterization of key samples, and high-grading lunar samples for return to Earth [1, 2] . Figure 1: Inside view schematic of the GeoLab a 1/8 section of the HDU, including a glovebox for handling and examining geological samples. Other outfitting facilities are not depicted in this figure. GeoLab Description: The centerpiece of the GeoLab is a glovebox, allowing for samples to be brought into the habitat in a protected environment for preliminary examination (see Fig. 1). The glovebox will be attached to the habitat bulkhead and contain three sample pass-through antechambers that would allow direct transfer of samples from outside the HDU to inside the glovebox. We will evaluate the need for redundant chambers, and other uses for the glovebox

  11. Construction Cost Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Cole; Thor, Philip W.

    1990-06-01

    The Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) is designed to demonstrate new residential building techniques and product innovations which advance the stage-of-the-art in constructing energy-efficient electrically heated residences. A secondary purpose is to obtain documented cost and energy savings data from which to make accurate assessments of the cost-effectiveness of various conservation innovations. The project solicits participation of regional homebuilders by offering them financial incentives for constructing homes to the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) and including at least one innovation.'' The innovations are determined by BPA and the States prior to construction and represent construction techniques or energy saving products that might reduce the cost of building MCS homes, or expand the options available to builders in achieving MCS levels of energy efficiency in homes. Besides covering some of the additional risk for employing the innovation, the incentive payment guarantees that builders will provide certain amounts of information regarding the cost and acceptability of building the homes. In addition, an incentive is paid to homeowners for their participation in data collection efforts following construction. Several one-time'' tests were performed on the houses and homeowners were required to report energy consumption and temperature data on a weekly basis for approximately 18 months. BPA and the States compile the information obtained from the builders and homeowners. Access to this data is provided for the purpose of analyzing the cost and performance of the RCDP homes, as well as understanding the value of the various innovations that are tested. 25 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Field Demonstration of Multi-Sensor Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, focused electrode leak location (FELL), ...

  13. Low Cost Space Demonstration for a Single-Person Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Dischinger, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for a single-person spacecraft and presents plans for flying a low-cost, robotic demonstration mission. Called FlexCraft, the vehicle integrates propulsion and robotics into a small spacecraft that enables rapid, shirt-sleeve access to space. It can be flown by astronauts or tele-operated and is equipped with interchangeable manipulators used for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. Most FlexCraft systems are verified using ground facilities; however, a test in the weightless environment is needed to assess propulsion and manipulator performance. For this, a simplified, unmanned, version of FlexCraft is flown on a low-cost launch vehicle to a 350 km circular orbit. After separation from the upper stage, the vehicle returns to a target box mounted on the stage testing the propulsion and control capability. The box is equipped with manipulator test items that are representative of tasks performed on ISS, asteroid missions, or for satellites servicing. Nominal and off-nominal operations are conducted over 3 days then the vehicle re-enters the atmosphere without becoming a debris hazard. From concept to management to operations, the FlexCraft demonstration is designed to be low cost project that is launched within three years. This is possible using a simplified test configuration that eliminates nine systems unique to the operational version and by designing-to-availability. For example, the propulsion system is the same as the Manned Maneuvering Unit because it capable, simple, human-rated and all components or equivalent parts are available. A description of the launch vehicle options, mission operations, configuration, and demonstrator subsystems is presented.

  14. Demonstration of the Low-Cost Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, David; Montes, Leticia; Ramos, Angel; Joyce, Brendan; Lumia, Ron

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a low-cost approach of remotely controlling equipment. Our demonstration system consists of a PC, the PUMA 560 robot with Barrett hand, and commercially available controller and teleconferencing software. The system provides a graphical user interface which allows a user to program equipment tasks and preview motions i.e., simulate the results. Once satisfied that the actions are both safe and accomplish the task, the remote user sends the data over the Internet to the local site for execution on the real equipment. A video link provides visual feedback to the remote sight. This technology lends itself readily to NASA's upcoming Mars expeditions by providing remote simulation and control of equipment.

  15. Planning and Conducting Field Demonstration Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddy, Bruce; Gerber, Corey K.; Hillger, David

    2015-01-01

    Extension personnel, agricultural companies, and contract researchers invest a great deal of resources through time, money, and manpower to educate crop consultants, producers, students, and new employees. Creating an in-field, real world, and hands-on learning environment affords an opportunity to engage individuals to learn in ways that cannot…

  16. Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

    1999-10-05

    The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

  17. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  18. Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, electro-scan (FELL-41), and a multi-sens...

  19. Laboratory demonstration of aircraft estimation using low-cost sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four nonlinear state estimators were devised which provide techniques for obtaining the angular orientation (attitude) of the aircraft. An extensive FORTRAN computer program was developed to demonstrate and evaluate the estimators by using recorded flight test data. This program simulates the estimator operation, and it compares the state estimates with actual state measurements. The program was used to evaluate the state estimators with data recorded on the NASA Ames CV-990 and CESSNA 402B aircraft. A preliminary assessment was made of the memory, word length, and timing requirements for implementing the selected state estimator on a typical microcomputer.

  20. RM12-2703 Advanced Rooftop Unit Control Retrofit Kit Field Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doebber, I.; Dean, J.; Dominick, J.; Holland, G.

    2014-03-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This was one of several demonstrations of new and underutilized commercial energy efficiency technologies. The consistent year-round demand for air conditioning and dehumidification in Hawaii provides an advantageous demonstration location for advanced rooftop control (ARC) retrofit kits to packaged rooftop units (RTUs). This report summarizes the field demonstration of ARCs installed on nine RTUs serving a 70,000-ft2 exchange store (large retail) and two RTUs, each serving small office buildings located on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH).

  1. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  2. Reservoir class field demonstration. Publication and presentation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Reservoir Class Field Demonstration Program was initiated in FY92 in response to rapidly declining domestic production and the realization that huge volumes of oil are being abandoned in reservoirs because of uneconomic production techniques. This program is just one of the critical elements of the National Oil Program necessary to move Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) technology from the conceptual stage through research, pilot scale field experiments, and full-scale field demonstrations to industry acceptance and commercialization. Both the successful results and failures of the field demonstrations will provide focus to concurrent research programs. Elements of the field demonstrations that are suitable for broad industry application are being communicated to the industry through the oil program`s technology transfer effort. As part of the technology transfer effort, this listing of publications and presentations by the project operators has been compiled by the US Department of energy`s (DOE) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO). The bibliography contains 240 citations for publications and a similar number of citations for presentations.

  3. SURFACTANT REMEDIATION FIELD DEMONSTRATION USING A VERTICAL CIRCULATION WELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration of surfactant-enhanced solubilization was completed in a shallow unconfined aquifer located at a Coast Guard Station in Traverse City, Michigan. The primary objectives of the study were: (1) to assess the ability of the vertical circulation well (VCW) system...

  4. Demonstration of Reduced Gas Pressure in a Centrifugal Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fred; Wild, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration that shows the change in molecular density and the reduction in pressure of air in a centrifugal field. Uses two circular disks with the same radius and rotating with the same angular velocity, in loose mutual contact, around their symmetry axis. (GA)

  5. Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Shin Kang; Robert Schrecengost

    2009-01-07

    Alstom Power Inc. has conducted a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-04NT42306) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. Mer-Cure{trademark} utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. Mer-Cure{trademark} is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. This full-scale demonstration program was comprised of three seven-week long test campaigns at three host sites including PacifiCorp's 240-MW{sub e} Dave Johnston Unit No.3 burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Basin Electric's 220-MW{sub e} Leland Olds Unit No.1 burning a North Dakota lignite, and Reliant Energy's 170-MW{sub e} Portland Unit No.1 burning an Eastern bituminous coal. All three boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators. The goals for this Round 2 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results for all three host sites indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90%. The estimated mercury removal costs were 25-92% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The estimated costs for control, at sorbent cost of $1.25 to $2.00/lb respectively, are as follows: (1) Dave Johnston Unit No.3--$2,650 to $4,328/lb Hg removed (92.8% less than $60k/lb); (2) Leland Olds Unit No.1--$8,680 to $13,860/lb Hg removed (76.7% less than $60k/lb); and (3) Portland Unit No.1--$28,540 to $45,065/lb Hg removed (24.9% less than $60k/lb). In summary, the results from demonstration testing at all three host

  6. Using an In-Class Demonstration To Enhance Understanding of Product-Costing Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Marianne L.; Blaszcynski, Carol

    2002-01-01

    To help accounting students understand product costing, a class demonstration of the transformation of raw materials into finished goods was conducted. A survey of 55 students found the demonstration was highly correlated with enjoyment, concept usefulness, and improved understanding. (SK)

  7. Lecture demonstrations of relativity of electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2016-07-01

    Students can obtain further insight into the physical essence of the principle of relativity if they experimentally investigate the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction in various reference frames. For this purpose we propose a special apparatus. This device is an indicator of a potential difference. The use of the apparatus makes it possible to detect an electric field in a reference frame moving uniformly and rectilinearly relative to a permanent magnet in a uniform magnetic field, which is created by this magnet. In addition to the above, the indicator of a potential difference ensures the fulfilment of a number of demonstration experiments on electrodynamics.

  8. Hawaii Food Stamp Employment and Training/JOBS Conformance Demonstration: Cost Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dave N.; King, Christopher T.

    An evaluation was conducted of the Hawaii Food Stamp Employment and Training (FSE&T)/Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Program Conformance Demonstration, known as PRIDE (Positive Response in Developing Employment). The cost component determined impact of the demonstration on costs of administering and providing activity components and support…

  9. Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training/JOBS Conformance Demonstration: Cost Analysis Final Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Daniel P.; Norris, Dave N.

    An evaluation was conducted of the Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training(E&T)/Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Program Conformance Demonstration. The cost analysis determined the impact of the demonstration, the BOND (Better Opportunities for New Directions) program, on costs of administering and providing activity components and support…

  10. Surfactant remediation field demonstration using a vertical circulation well

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.C.; Sabatini, D.A.; Harwell, J.H.; Brown, R.E.; West, C.C.; Blaha, F.; Griffin, C.

    1997-11-01

    A field demonstration of surfactant-enhanced solubilization was completed in a shallow unconfined aquifer located at a Coast Guard Station in Traverse City, Michigan. The primary objectives of the study were: (1) to assess the ability of the vertical circulation well (VCW) system for controlling chemical extractants added to the subsurface; and (2) to assess the behavior of the surfactant solution in the subsurface, with a goal of maximum surfactant recovery. A secondary objective was to demonstrate enhanced removal of PCE and recalcitrant components of a jet fuel. The analytical results showed that the surfactant increased the contaminant mass extracted by 40-fold and 90-fold for the PCE and jet fuel constituents, respectively. The surfactant solution demonstrated minimal sorption (retardation) and did not precipitate in the subsurface formation. In addition, the VCW system was able to capture in excess of 95% of the injected surfactant solution. Additional field testing and full-scale implementation of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation should be performed.

  11. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  12. Cost Analysis of Air Force On-the-Job Training: Development and Demonstration of a Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Charles R.; And Others

    A research project was developed to construct and demonstrate a methodology for estimating the costs of conducting on-the-job training (OJT) in the Air Force. The project focused on the formal upgrade training to the three, five, and seven skill levels. Project efforts involved five major tasks: literature review, cost factor identification, cost…

  13. Effects of Expanded Coverage for Chiropractic Services on Medicare Costs in a CMS Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Stason, William B.; Ritter, Grant A; Prottas, Jeffrey; Tompkins, Christopher; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head. Methods The demonstration was conducted in 2005–2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework. Results Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa. Conclusion The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased. PMID:26928221

  14. NASA JSC water monitor system: City of Houston field demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L.; Fricks, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    A water quality monitoring system with on-line and real time operation similar to the function in a spacecraft was investigated. A system with the capability to determine conformance to future high effluent quality standards and to increase the potential for reclamation and reuse of water was designed. Although all system capabilities were not verified in the initial field trial, fully automated operation over a sustained period with only routine manual adjustments was accomplished. Two major points were demonstrated: (1) the water monitor system has great potential in water monitoring and/or process control applications; and (2) the water monitor system represents a vast improvement over conventional (grab sample) water monitoring techniques.

  15. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Rabenhorst, D.W.; Small, T.R.; Wilkinson, W.O.

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 1979. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1-kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; development of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  16. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  17. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  18. Laboratory Demonstration of Low-Cost Method for Producing Thin Film on Nonconductors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebong, A. U.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost procedure for metallizing a silicon p-n junction diode by electroless nickel plating is reported. The procedure demonstrates that expensive salts can be excluded without affecting the results. The experimental procedure, measurement, results, and discussion are included. (Author/KR)

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES - BIRTH COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low cost, low burden monitoring strategies that can be used in a longitudinal epidemiological study that focuses on pregnant women and young children. The focus of this study was on (1) recruiting and retaining partici...

  20. ESEA Title I Allocation Policy: Demonstration Study. Cost Analysis; Planning Year 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Jane Huseby; Ames, Richard

    This report describes resource use and program costs of the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I programs in thirteen demonstration local education agencies (LEAs) during 1975-76. This analysis provides a baseline for comparing data from later years when waivers were granted for compliance with Title I guidelines. This study is concerned…

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES

    SciTech Connect

    Kamshad, Kourosh

    2013-12-31

    This report is the final reporting installment of the DOE project titled DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES. This rerport includes a summary of the work completed to date including the experimental methods used to acheive the results, discussions, conclusions and implications of the final product delivered by the project.

  2. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  3. Altruistic punishment: what field data can (and cannot) demonstrate.

    PubMed

    Nikiforakis, Nikos

    2012-02-01

    The rarity of altruistic punishment in small-scale societies should not be interpreted as evidence that altruistic punishment is not an important determinant of cooperation in general. While it is essential to collect field data on altruistic punishment, this kind of data has limitations. Laboratory experiments can help shed light on the role of altruistic punishment "in the wild."

  4. Key aspects of cost effective collector and solar field design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reeken, Finn; Nicodemo, Dario; Keck, Thomas; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A study has been performed where different key parameters influencing solar field cost are varied. By using levelised cost of energy as figure of merit it is shown that parameters like GoToStow wind speed, heliostat stiffness or tower height should be adapted to respective site conditions from an economical point of view. The benchmark site Redstone (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) has been compared to an alternate site close to Phoenix (AZ, USA) regarding site conditions and their effect on cost-effective collector and solar field design.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF LEAD PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to demonstrate lead-based paint (LBP) removal from architectural wood components in CO2 unoccupied residential housing using four technologies: granular carbon dioxide (CO2 blasting), pelletized CO2 blasting, encapsulant paint remover, and wet abrasive bl...

  6. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  7. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  8. Remediation System Design Optimization: Field Demonstration at the Umatilla Army Deport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, C.; Wang, P. P.

    2002-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, many researchers have shown that the simulation-optimization (S/O) approach is superior to the traditional trial-and-error method for designing cost-effective groundwater pump-and-treat systems. However, the application of the S/O approach to real field problems has remained limited. This paper describes the application of a new general simulation-optimization code to optimize an existing pump-and-treat system at the Umatilla Army Depot in Oregon, as part of a field demonstration project supported by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). Two optimization formulations were developed to minimize the total capital and operational costs under the current and possibly expanded treatment plant capacities. A third formulation was developed to minimize the total contaminant mass of RDX and TNT remaining in the shallow aquifer by the end of the project duration. For the first two formulations, this study produced an optimal pumping strategy that would achieve the cleanup goal in 4 years with a total cost of 1.66 million US dollars in net present value. For comparison, the existing design in operation was calculated to require 17 years for cleanup with a total cost of 3.83 million US dollars in net present value. Thus, the optimal pumping strategy represents a reduction of 13 years in cleanup time and a reduction of 56.6 percent in the expected total expenditure. For the third formulation, this study identified an optimal dynamic pumping strategy that would reduce the total mass remaining in the shallow aquifer by 89.5 percent compared with that calculated for the existing design. In spite of their intensive computational requirements, this study shows that the global optimization techniques including tabu search and genetic algorithms can be applied successfully to large-scale field problems involving multiple contaminants and complex hydrogeological conditions.

  9. RESOLVE's Field Demonstration on Mauna Kea, Hawaii 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Quinn, Jacqueline; Moss, Thomas; Weis, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The resulting water could be electrolyzed into oxygen to support exploration and hydrogen, which would be recycled through the process. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted on a Canadian Space Agency mobility chasis and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in February 2010. The RESOLVE unit is the initial prototype of a robotic prospecting mission to the Moon. RESOLVE is designed to go to the poles of the Moon to "ground truth" the form and concentration of the hydrogen/water/hydroxyl that has been seen from orbit (M3, Lunar Prospector and LRO) and to test technologies to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith. RESOLVE has the ability to capture a one-meter core sample of lunar regolith and heat it to determine the volatiles that may be released and then demonstrate the production of oxygen from minerals found in the regolith. The RESOLVE project, which is led by KSC, is a multi-center and multi-organizational effort that includes representatives from KSC, JSC, GRC, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Center for Advanced Technology (NORCAT). This paper details the results obtained from four days of lunar analog testing that included gas chromatograph analysis for volatile components, remote control of chemistry and drilling operations via satalite communications, and real-time water quantification using a novel capacitance measurement technique.

  10. Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

  11. Field demonstration of rapid turnaround, multilevel groundwater screening

    SciTech Connect

    Tingle, A.R.; Baker, L.; Long, D.D.; Miracle, M.

    1994-09-01

    A combined technology approach to rapidly characterizing source area and downgradient groundwater associated with a past fuel spill has been field tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the presence and extent of fuel-related compounds or indications of their biodegradation in groundwater. The distance from the source area to be investigated was established by calculating the potential extent of a plume based only on groundwater flow velocities. To accomplish this objective, commercially available technologies were combined and used to rapidly assess the source area and downgradient groundwater associated with the fuel discharge. The source of contamination that was investigated overlies glacial sand and gravel outwash deposits. Historical data suggest that from 1955 to 1970 as many as 1 to 6 million pi of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) were god at the study area. Although the remedial investigation (RI) for this study area indicated fuel-related groundwater contamination at the source area, fuel-related contamination was not detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Rapid horizontal groundwater velocities and the 24-year time span from the last reported spill farther suggest that a plume of contaminated groundwater could extend several thousand feet downgradient. The lack of contamination downgradient from the source suggests two possibilities: (1) monitoring wells installed during the RI did not intersect the plume or (2) fuel-related compounds had naturally degraded.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a low-cost tunable semiconductor DFB laser for access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianyan; Tang, Song; Huang, Long; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Simin; Shi, Yuechun; Chen, Xiangfei

    2014-09-01

    A low-cost tunable semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) laser design in access networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It covers 9 nm continuous tuning range by changing the temperature. The side mode suppression ratios are above 42 dB over the tuning range. The current and temperature coefficients of wavelength tuning are 0.0124 nm mA-1 and 0.0875 nm °C, respectively. The results indicate that the reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technique is promising to fabricate low-cost tunable DFB lasers meeting the requirement of wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM-PONs). It should be also noted that the tuning range can be easily extended by using more sections.

  13. Regular patterns in subglacial bedforms demonstrate emergent field behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Ely, Jeremy; Spagnolo, Matteo; Hahn, Ute; Stokes, Chris; Hughes, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Somewhat counter-intuitively, ice-sheets abhor flat beds when flowing over soft sedimentary substrates. Instead, they produce an undulated surface, metres in relief and with length-scales of hundreds of metres. The resistive stresses that such bumps impart on ice flow affect the functioning of ice sheets by slowing ice transfer to lower elevations for melting and calving. The most abundant roughness elements are drumlins, streamlined in the direction of ice flow. Understanding their formation has eluded scientific explanation for almost two centuries with the literature seeking mechanistic explanations for individual bumps. Here we analyse tens of thousands of drumlins and find that they possess a strong regularity in their spatial positioning, which requires interactions between drumlins during their formation. This demonstrates a pattern-forming behaviour that requires explanation at the scale of drumlinised landscapes, beyond that of individual drumlins. Such regularity is expected to arise from interdependence between ice flow, sediment flux and the shape of the bed, with drumlins representing a specific emergent property of these interactions. That bed roughness is found to organise itself into specific, predictable and patterned length-scales might assist next generation of 'sliding laws' that incorporate ice-bed interactions, thereby improving modelling of ice-sheet flow.

  14. Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    A USEPA-sponsored field demonstration program was conducted to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on the electro-scan (FELL -41) pipeline condition assessment technology. Electro-scan technology can be used to estimate the magnitude and location of pote...

  15. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-09-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the original project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  16. NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) In-Field Demonstration at Desert RATS 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry; Gill, Tracy R.; Howe, A. Scott

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction, assembly, subsystem integration, transportation, and field testing operations associated with the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) and discusses lessons learned. In a one-year period beginning summer 2009, a tightly scheduled design-develop-build process was utilized by a small NASA "tiger team" to produce the functional HDU-PEM prototype in time to participate in the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. The process required the coordination of multiple teams, subcontractors, facility management and safety staff. It also required a well-choreographed material handling and transportation process to deliver the finished product from the NASA-Johnson Space Center facilities to the remote Arizona desert locations of the field test. Significant findings of this paper include the team s greater understanding of the HDU-PEM s many integration issues and the in-field training the team acquired which will enable the implementation of the next-generation of improvements and development of high-fidelity field operations in a harsh environment. The Desert RATS analog environment is being promoted by NASA as an efficient means to design, build, and integrate multiple technologies in a mission architecture context, with the eventual goal of evolving the technologies into robust flight hardware systems. The HDU-PEM in-field demonstration at Desert RATS 2010 provided a validation process for the integration team, which has already begun to retool for the 2011 field tests that require an adapted architecture.

  17. Peroxene demonstration performance and cost evaluation. Final report, July 1995--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Liptak, L.; Nay, M.; Stewart, B.

    1998-04-02

    The US Army Environmental Center (USAEC) implemented the Peroxone groundwater treatment plant demonstration to study the performance and analyze the cost of the new Peroxone technology. The effort is part of the Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). TRW and their subcontractor, Montgomery Watson, demonstrated the Peroxone system at the Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CAAP) in Grand Island, Nebraska. The CAAP groundwater was contaminated from the manufacture and loading of explosives for World War II, the Korean Conflict, and the Vietnam Conflict, and was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) (i.e. Superfund site). Therefore, CAAP was a candidate for the Peroxone technology, which is suitable for remediation of groundwater contaminated with residuals and wastes from the manufacturing and loading of conventional explosives products.

  18. Electromagnetic fields and cancer: the cost of doing nothing.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies, and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF). Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of cell phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of society, especially among children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of convincing evidence of adverse biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent studies demonstrate elevations in rates of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their cell phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing will result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing cancer. PMID:20429163

  19. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  20. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (e.g., Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate its feasibility.

  1. Further demonstration of a local evanescent field array coupled (LEAC) biosensor concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Guangwei; Pownall, R.; Stephens, M.; Dandy, D.; Chen, T.; Nikkel, P.; Lear, K.

    2007-03-01

    Low-cost, label-free immunoassay biosensors are needed for point-of-care clinical diagnostics, food safety, environmental monitoring, and biosecurity applications. A novel local, evanescent-field, array coupled (LEAC) photonic biosensor that can simultaneously sense multiple viruses, proteins, or DNA oligomers is being investigated. The sensing mechanism relies on the formation of a biological adlayer via specific binding of an analyte target to one of several localized patches of immobilized biological molecule probes (antibodies, ssDNA, aptamers). The attached analytes modify the waveguide cross-section and thus the optical field. A buried array of evanescently coupled photodetector elements along the length of the waveguide, each opposite a region of specific antibody type, locally sense the modification in the evanescent field due to adlayers of bound analytes. Proof-of-concept experiments have demonstrated strong optical modulation responses to artificial adlayers varying from 17 to ˜100 nm in thickness as observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy. LEAC sensors with electronic readout circuits are have been fabricated in a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Currently, research efforts are characterizing the effect of different polymer and organic molecules adlayers on the detected optical signal using these sensors.

  2. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  3. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-03-20

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we are now negotiating with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. Several commercial sales have also resulted from the partnership with ABB, and sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units now total $2.3 million.

  4. Powered low cost autonomous attack system: a network-centric munition concept demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James C.; O'Neal, John K.; Brown, Robert A.

    2006-05-01

    The Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (PLOCAAS) is an Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PLOCAAS objective is to demonstrate a suite of technologies in an affordable miniature munition to autonomously search, detect, identify, attack and destroy ground mobile targets of military interest. PLOCAAS incorporates a solid state Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms, miniature turbojet engine, multi-mode warhead, and an integrated INS/GPS into a 36" long, high lift-to-drag ratio airframe. Together, these technologies provide standoff beyond terminal defenses, wide area search capability, and high probability of target report with low false target attack rate with high loadouts. Four LADAR seeker captive flight tests provided the sequestered data for robust Air Force ATA algorithm performance assessment. During Part I of the ATD, three successful free-flight tests were completed in which the LADAR seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms have detected, acquired, identified, and tracked ground mobile targets. Part II of the ATD demonstrated the ability to redirect the munition post release via a commercial satellite datalink. In addition to summarizing all program accomplishments, this paper will present results and lessons learned from Part II of the ATD. Part II's objective was to demonstrate the military utility of a two- ay data-link. The data-link allows an Operator-In-The-Loop (OITL) to monitor and control multiple cooperative, wide-area-search munitions and enables these munitions to serve as non-traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets in a networkcentric environment.

  5. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; McKenzie, E A; Cantis, D; May, J; Sorensen, J; Bayes, B; Madden, E; Wyckoff, S; Stone, B; Maass, J

    2015-07-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS. demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS "cost too much" was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were "ROPS wasn't available" for Virginia (80%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were "not enough time to find ROPS" for New York (67%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for Virginia (79%). All

  6. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.; McKenzie, E. A.; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Wyckoff, Sherry; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS “cost too much” was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were “ROPS wasn’t available” for Virginia (80%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were “not enough time to find ROPS” for New York (67%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for Virginia

  7. Demonstrating Effective In Situ Filtration of Pathogens in Saturated Environments: Laboratory and Field Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelko, M. B.

    2009-05-01

    As both water treatment costs and demands for potable water increase, many municipalities around the world are considering low-cost, effective treatment technologies such as riverbank filtration (RBF), which involves situating municipal ground water wells in close proximity to surface water bodies such as rivers to induce conditions of downward infiltration from the river across part or all of the riverbed in the vicinity of the well. A variety of frameworks in various jurisdictions have been proposed for assessing groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI/GUDI) for the ultimate purposes of determining appropriate levels of subsequent treatment or source water protection. While it is relatively easy to observe deterioration of production well water quality and to require more extensive treatment, relying on the subsurface for effective in situ filtration of compounds of public health significance (e.g., pathogens) necessarily requires more extensive demonstration. This work details and summarizes unpublished work from four separate studies focused on improving the water industry's capacity to assess the pathogen removal efficacy of in situ filtration processes such as RBF. Both laboratory and field studies investigating the transport of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Bacillus subtilis spores, and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in saturated sandy environments have indicated that experimental conditions (e.g., microorganism densities present during the studies) can impact transport outcomes by over 3-log. Laboratory experiments have also indicated that experimental configuration (e.g., column orientation) can significantly impact pathogen transport. Accordingly, laboratory and field data must be carefully examined when outcomes are extrapolated for the purpose of policy development.

  8. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  9. A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

  10. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  11. Cost-effective data acquisition for the Odin Field

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D. )

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes a cost-effective method for obtaining reservoir data to define the depletion mechanism in the small Odin gas field. The addition of a simple work program to the drilling plan for the first development well provided basic reservoir and aquifer data, and the well completion scheme provided for continuing reservoir surveillance. Cost-effective methods for reservoir data acquisition are particularly relevant for marginal developments. This discussion should be of interest to operators of gas fields where the depletion mechanism is not well defined and where early acquisition of additional data can indicate the mechanism. A brief development history of the Odin field illustrates the need for good reservoir data. Initially, some uncertainty surrounded the amount of bottomwater influx into the Odin gas sand and the resultant depletion mechanism. Conclusions about the expected type of reservoir depletion mechanisms were drawn from data that included conventional core analysis, measured pressure gradients, fluid saturation logs, and production well tests. Production history that confirms the conclusions made from the initial data acquisition is shown.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  15. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Grand Junction field support for the Lasagna{trademark} technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Zutman, J.L.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Technology Section (ETS) was tasked by the US Department of Energy EM-50 to provide field support for the Lasagna{trademark} Technology Demonstration from 1994 through 1997. The purpose of the Lasagna Technology Demonstration was to determine the effectiveness of using reductive dehalogenation to degrade trichloroethene (TCE) into its innocuous components. The purpose of this technical memorandum is to document the ORNL-ETS field effort, including results from samples analyzed using the ORNL-ETS field laboratory. The primary contribution from the ORNL-ETS field effort was the effectiveness of the field laboratory, which was found superior to standard methods since significant volatile losses occur during the transport of samples. The field laboratory is particularly effective on demonstration projects where large numbers of samples are collected. Data quality is evaluated by submitting a portion of samples to an analytical laboratory.

  17. Test plan for the field evaluation and demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Winberg, M.R.; Thompson, D.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes test details of a full demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a mobile trailer capable of employing the use of soil fixatives, dust suppression agents, misting, and vacuum systems. These systems can perform a large number of contamination control functions to support the Office of Waste Technology Development (OTD) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) projects, transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, and emergency response for hazardous and radioactive materials incidents. The demonstration will include both performance testing at the North Holmes Laboratory Facility (NHLF) and field testing in conjunction with the Remote Excavation System Demonstration at the Cold Test Pit. The NHLF will test operational parameters using water only, and the field demonstration at the Cold Test Pit involves full scale operation of vacuum, fixant, misting, and dust suppression systems. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the field demonstration are included in this test plan.

  18. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  19. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

  1. Demonstration of the spatial separation of the entangled quantum sidebands of an optical field

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, E.H.; Milford, G.N.; Robilliard, C.; Ralph, T.C.; Gloeckl, O.; Andersen, U.L.; Lorenz, S.; Leuchs, G.

    2005-04-01

    Quantum optics experiments on 'bright' beams are based on the spectral analysis of field fluctuations and typically probe correlations between radio-frequency sideband modes. However, the extra degree of freedom represented by this dual-mode picture is generally ignored. We demonstrate the experimental operation of a device which can be used to separate the quantum sidebands of an optical field. We use this device to explicitly demonstrate the quantum entanglement between the sidebands of a squeezed beam.

  2. Experimental manipulation of female reproduction demonstrates its fitness costs in kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When resources are scarce, female mammals should face a trade-off between lactation and other life-history traits such as growth, survival and subsequent reproduction. Kangaroos are ideal to test predictions about reproductive costs because they may simultaneously lactate and carry a young, and have indeterminate growth and a long breeding season. An earlier study in three of our five study populations prevented female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from reproducing during one reproductive season by either inserting contraceptive implants or removing very small pouch young. We explored how individual and environmental variables affect the costs of reproduction over time, combining this experimental reduction of reproductive effort with multi-year monitoring of 270 marked females. Experimental manipulation should control for individual heterogeneity, revealing the costs of reproduction and their likely sources. We also examined the fitness consequences of reproductive effort and offspring sex among unmanipulated individuals to test whether sex allocation strategies affected trade-offs. Costs of reproduction included longer inter-birth intervals and lower probability of producing a young that survived to 7 months in the subsequent reproductive event. Weaning success, however, did not differ significantly between manipulated and control females. By reducing reproductive effort, manipulation appeared to increase individual condition and subsequent reproductive success. Effects of offspring sex upon subsequent reproductive success varied according to year and study population. Mothers of sons were generally more likely to have a young that survived to 7 months, compared to mothers of daughters. The fitness costs of reproduction arise from constraints in both acquisition and allocation of resources. To meet these costs, females delay subsequent parturition and may manipulate offspring sex. Reproductive tactics thus vary according to the amount of resource

  3. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  4. Lower cost offshore field development utilizing autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Vie, K.J.; Welch, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The offshore oil and gas industry has the requirement to inspect offshore oil and gas pipelines for scour, corrosion and damage as well as inspect and intervene on satellite production facilities. This task is currently performed with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) operated from dynamically positioned (DP) offshore supply or diving support boats. Currently, these tasks are expensive due to the high day rates for DP ships and the slow, umbilical impeded, 1 knot inspection rates of the tethered ROVs, Emerging Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) technologies offer opportunities to perform these same inspection tasks for 50--75% lower cost, with comparable or improved quality. The new generation LAPV (Linked Autonomous Power Vehicles) will operate from fixed facilities such as TLPs or FPFs and cover an operating field 10 kms in diameter.

  5. Cost of Treatment Procedures in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foch, Craig B.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program (NPDDP) delivered five different regimens of school based preventive dental care to groups of children in 10 American cities between 1977 and 1981. All clinical techniques employed had previously been demonstrated to be both safe and effective in clinical trials. The purpose of the NPDDP was…

  6. Low cost antiviral activity of Plodia interpunctella haemolymph in vivo demonstrated by dose dependent infection.

    PubMed

    Saejeng, A; Siva-Jothy, M T; Boots, M

    2011-02-01

    Given the ubiquity of infectious disease it is important to understand the way in which hosts defend themselves and any costs that they may pay for this defence. Despite this, we know relatively little about insect immune responses to viruses when compared to their well-characterized responses to other pathogens. In particular it is unclear whether there is significant haemocoelic response to viral infection. Here we directly examine this question by examining whether there is a dose-dependency in infection risk when a DNA virus is injected directly into the haemocoel. Infection from direct injection into the haemocoel showed a clear dose dependency that is indicative of an active intrahaemocoelic immune response to DNA viruses in insects. In contrast to the natural oral infection route, we found no measurable sublethal effects in the survivors from direct injection. This suggests that the immune responses in the haemocoel are less costly than those that occur earlier.

  7. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  8. Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.

  9. Field demonstration of surfactant-enhanced solubilization of DNAPL at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware.

    PubMed

    Childs, Jeffrey; Acosta, Edgar; Annable, Michael D; Brooks, Michael C; Enfield, Carl G; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Hasegawa, Mark; Knox, Robert C; Rao, P Suresh C; Sabatini, David A; Shiau, Ben; Szekeres, Erika; Wood, A Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on a surfactant-based flood for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) removal from a control test cell at the Dover National Test Site. The surfactant formulation (sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-MA or AMA), isopropanol and calcium chloride) was able to achieve a high concentration of PCE in swollen micelles (supersolubilization) without vertical PCE migration. The hydraulic system included eight screened wells that were operated in both vertical circulation and line drive configurations. After 10 pore volumes of flushing, the overall PCE removal was 68% (65% of which corresponded to the surfactant flooding alone). In addition, the residual PCE saturation was reduced from 0.7% to 0.2%, and the concentration of PCE in the groundwater was reduced from 37-190 mg/L before the flushing to 7.3 mg/L after flooding. Recycling the surfactant solution reduced the required surfactant mass (and thus cost, and waste) by 90%. Close to 80% of the total PCE removal was obtained during the first five pore volumes which were operated in an upward vertical circulation flow scheme. No free oil phase was observed during the test. Further analysis of multilevel sampler data suggests that most of the trapped oil remaining in the cell was likely localized in secluded regions of the aquifer, which helps explain the lower PCE groundwater concentration after remedial activities. In summary, this field study demonstrated the feasibility of surfactant-enhanced remediation to reduce the mass in the source zone and significantly reduce the PCE aqueous concentration and therefore the risk associated with the contaminant plume.

  10. Demonstration of Cost-Effective, High-Performance Computing at Performance and Reliability Levels Equivalent to a 1994 Vector Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2000-01-01

    The Affordable High Performance Computing (AHPC) project demonstrated that high-performance computing based on a distributed network of computer workstations is a cost-effective alternative to vector supercomputers for running CPU and memory intensive design and analysis tools. The AHPC project created an integrated system called a Network Supercomputer. By connecting computer work-stations through a network and utilizing the workstations when they are idle, the resulting distributed-workstation environment has the same performance and reliability levels as the Cray C90 vector Supercomputer at less than 25 percent of the C90 cost. In fact, the cost comparison between a Cray C90 Supercomputer and Sun workstations showed that the number of distributed networked workstations equivalent to a C90 costs approximately 8 percent of the C90.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  12. Cost of isolation: daily cost of isolation determined and cost avoidance demonstrated from the overuse of personal protective equipment in an acute care facility.

    PubMed

    Verlee, Kerrie; Berriel-Cass, Dorine; Buck, Kristen; Nguyen, Chau

    2014-04-01

    We determined the prevalence and associated cost of isolation precautions. Current census and historic microbiology cultures were assessed for isolation appropriateness following national guidelines. Based on patient assessment and culture data, isolation was discontinued resulting in 4,087 days of isolation and over $141,000 dollars avoided from excess supplies and time.

  13. Near Real Time Prospecting for Lunar Volatiles: Demonstrating RESOLVE Science in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Heldmann, Jennifer; Mattes, Gregory W.; Ennico, Kimberly; Sanders, Gerald; Quinn, Jacqueline; Tegnerud, Erin Leigh; Marinova, Margarita; Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin; Morse, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project aims to demonstrate the utility of "in situ resource utilization". In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is a way to rebalance the economics of spaceflight by reducing or eliminating materials that must be brought up from Earth and placed on the surface of the Moon for human use. RESOLVE is developing a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important not only for ISRU but are also critically important for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar polar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the 4-7 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. In July 2012 the RESOLVE project conducted a full-scale field demonstration. In particular, the ability to perform the real-time measurement analysis necessary to search for volatiles and the ability to combine the various measurement techniques to meet the mission measurement and science goals. With help from the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES), a lunar rover prototype (provided by the Canadian Space Agency) was equipped with prospecting instruments (neutron spectrometer and near-infrared spectrometer), subsurface access and sampling tools, including both an auger and coring drill (provided by CSA) and subsurface sample analysis instrumentation, including a sample oven system, the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN), and Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometer system, the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) system. Given the relatively short time period this

  14. Near Real-Time Prospecting for Lunar Volatiles: Demonstrating RESOLVE Science in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Mattes, G.; Ennico, K.; Sanders, G. B.; Quinn, J.; Fritzler, E.; Marinova, M.; Roush, T. L.; Stoker, C.; Larson, W.; Picard, M.; McMurray, R.; Morse, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project aims to demonstrate the utility of "in situ resource utilization". In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is a way to rebalance the economics of spaceflight by reducing or eliminating materials that must be brought up from Earth and placed on the surface of the Moon for human use. RESOLVE is developing a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important not only for ISRU but are also critically important for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar polar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the 4-7 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. In July 2012 the RESOLVE project conducted a full-scale field demonstration. In particular, the ability to perform the real-time measurement analysis necessary to search for volatiles and the ability to combine the various measurement techniques to meet the mission measurement and science goals. With help from the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES), a lunar rover prototype (provided by the Canadian Space Agency) was equipped with prospecting instruments (neutron spectrometer and near-infrared spectrometer), subsurface access and sampling tools, including both an auger and coring drill (provided by CSA) and subsurface sample analysis instrumentation, including a sample oven system, the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN), and Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometer system, the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) system. Given the relatively short time period this

  15. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier.

  16. A simple analogue teaching device for demonstrating visual-receptive-field properties.

    PubMed

    Moulden, B; Martin, D

    1988-01-01

    A cheap (under 100 pounds at current prices) and simple analogue device is described which permits one to demonstrate, according to an adjustable configuration of the photoreceptive elements, some of the main properties of (i) circularly-symmetrical, (ii) 'simple' elongated opponent-flank, and (iii) multiple-discharge-centre visual receptive fields. The design and construction of the device are described, together with some suggested demonstrations.

  17. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  18. Performance of in situ chemical oxidation field demonstrations at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been investigating the use of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate organic contaminants (VOCs, SVOCs, and PCBs) in soils and groundwater at the laboratory and field scales. Field scale design parameters (e.g., oxidant loading rates and oxidant delivery techniques) are often dictated by site conditions (e.g., soil properties and initial contaminant concentrations). Chemical destruction of organic compounds can be accomplished using a variety of oxidants. Recent research has involved field scale in situ chemical oxidation demonstrations using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4} in conjunction with soil mixing as the oxidant delivery mechanism. A description of some of these fields activities and future field-scale work is presented here.

  19. Natural resource risk and cost management in environmental restoration: Demonstration project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is both a trustee for the natural resources present on its properties and the lead response agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As such, DOE is addressing the destruction or loss of those resources caused by releases of hazardous substances from its facilities (DOE 1991) and collecting data to be used in determining the extent of contamination at its facilities, estimating risks to human health and the environment, and selecting appropriate remedial actions. The remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process is used to investigate sites and select remedial actions. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process may be used to determine whether natural resources have also been injured by the released hazardous substances and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In FY 1994, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was chosen to serve as a demonstration site for testing the integrated NRDA framework and demonstrating how NRDA concerns might be integrated into the environmental restoration activities of an actual site that is characteristically large and complex. The demonstration project (1) provided a means to illustrate the use of complex analyses using real information on the specific natural resources of the SRS; (2) served as a vehicle for reinforcing and expanding the SRS staff`s understanding of the links between the NRDA and RI/FS processes; (3) provided a forum for the discussion of strategic issues with SRS personnel; and (4) allowed the refining and elaboration of DOE guidance by benchmarking the theoretical process using real information and issues.

  20. EPA Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains at Louisville, KY - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies that was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted by EPA’s contractor (Battelle), and hosted by the Louisvill...

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  2. Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  3. EPA FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS AT LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies that was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted by EPA’s contractor (Battelle), and hosted by the Louisvil...

  4. 47 CFR 5.87 - Frequencies for field strength surveys or equipment demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for field strength surveys or equipment demonstrations. 5.87 Section 5.87 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Applications and Licenses § 5.87 Frequencies for...

  5. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory



    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County...

  6. A Simple Demonstration of a General Rule for the Variation of Magnetic Field with Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple experiment demonstrating the variation in magnitude of a magnetic field with distance. The method described requires only an ordinary magnetic compass and a permanent magnet. The proposed graphical analysis illustrates a unique method for deducing a general rule of magnetostatics. (Contains 1 table and 6 figures.)

  7. Experimental demonstration of using divergence cost-function in SPGD algorithm for coherent beam combining with tip/tilt control.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chao; Luo, Wen; Tan, Yi; Liu, Hongmei; Mu, Jinbo; Li, Xinyang

    2013-10-21

    A novel approach of tip/tilt control by using divergence cost function in stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm for coherent beam combining (CBC) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally in a seven-channel 2-W fiber amplifier array with both phase-locking and tip/tilt control, for the first time to our best knowledge. Compared with the conventional power-in-the-bucket (PIB) cost function for SPGD optimization, the tip/tilt control using divergence cost function ensures wider correction range, automatic switching control of program, and freedom of camera's intensity-saturation. Homemade piezoelectric-ring phase-modulator (PZT PM) and adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC) are developed to correct piston- and tip/tilt-type aberrations, respectively. The PIB cost function is employed for phase-locking via maximization of SPGD optimization, while the divergence cost function is used for tip/tilt control via minimization. An average of 432-μrad of divergence metrics in open loop has decreased to 89-μrad when tip/tilt control implemented. In CBC, the power in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the main lobe increases by 32 times, and the phase residual error is less than λ/15. PMID:24150347

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-06-30

    in the pilot. (7) Expenses are shifted from Budget Period 2 to Budget Period 1 to cover costs of additional reservoir characterization. All modified activities and tasks would maintain the existing required industry match of 55% in Budget Period 1, 65% in Budget Period 2, and 90% in Budget Period 3. Carbon dioxide supplied by the USEP ethanol facility would be valued such that the total cost of CO2 delivered to the demonstration site injection wellhead would not exceed the $3.00/MCF cost of supplying CO2 from Guymon, OK. Total cost of the modified project is $4,415,300 compared with $5,388,064 in the original project. The modified project would require no additional funding from US DOE.

  9. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-22

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  10. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is now working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  11. Field demonstration for P-D-680 solvent replacement. interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, I.S.; Velez, C.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the second phase in development of environmentally compliant solvent alternatives to P-D-680, field demonstrations were initiated at Ft. Lewis WA, Ft. Hood TX, and Kelly Air Force Base. The main objectives of this demonstration were to validate performance of candidate solvents with existing military equipment and to determine the environmental applicability for these candidate solvents. Four (4) petroleum based solvents and four (4) terpene/hydrocarbon blended solvents have been selected as candidates for these field demonstrations. Ft. Lewis was designated as a major field testing site and evaluated eight (8) candidate solvents in various military ground equipment, helicopter, and weapon cleaning application. Ft. Hood evaluated two (2) different types of candidate solvents in helicopter maintenance applications. San Antonio Air Logistic Center at Kelly AFB evaluated three (3) candidate solvents using existing part washers for aviation applications. Field test results showed that both severe hydrotreated odorless hydrocarbon solvents and hydrotreated terpene/hydrocarbon blended solvents were well accepted in all applications. Six candidate solvents were rated by users as acceptable replacements for P-D-680.

  12. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas: Nineteenth Quarterly Progress Report (Second Quarter 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-06-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation, and is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  13. Ultrafast time domain demonstration of bulk magnetization precession at zero magnetic field ferromagnetic resonance induced by terahertz magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Namai, A; Ohkoshi, S; Suemoto, T

    2010-08-16

    We report the first observation of sub-terahertz bulk-magnetization precession, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetization precession in gallium-substituted epsilon-iron oxide nano-ferromagnets under zero magnetic field is induced by the impulsive magnetic field of the THz wave through the gyromagnetic effect. Just at the resonance frequency, the linear to circular polarized wave conversion is realized. This is understood as the free induction decay signal radiated from a rotating magnetic dipole corresponding to the natural resonance. Furthermore, this demonstration reveals that the series of gallium-substituted epsilon-iron oxide nano-ferromagnets is very prospective for magneto-optic devices, which work at room temperature without external magnetic field, in next-generation wireless communication.

  14. On-Field Demonstration Results of Medium Concentration System HSun®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Lopes, J.; Pina, L.; Reis, F.; Coelho, S.; Wemans, J.; Sorasio, G.; Pereira, N.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the HSUN®, a new medium concentration photovoltaic (CPV) system, developed and produced by WS Energia S.A. The low cost manufacturing and standard components used by HSUN® technology increases the potential of the system to reach grid parity. The system was designed to have stable performance and low cost manufacturing, with a total active collector area of 1.68 m2 and 6.3 kg/m2 of weight. Based on a 20X integrated parabolic trough with coupled reflective secondary optics, the system uses high efficiency silicon cells, a passive cooling integrated system and is integrated in 1-axis horizontal tracking structure, the WS CPV HORIZON®. The open-chain configuration ensures that the wind drag is greatly reduced, increasing the reliability of the tracker, while the optimized optics design enables a high acceptance angle and uniform distribution of radiation throughout the PV receiver, using low-cost and low-weight components. Ray tracing simulations and experimental imaging acquisitions of the radiation profile were performed and compared, finite element models were used to perform thermal and structural analysis, and a specifically developed model was used to predict the electrical parameters of the receiver as a function of the concentration. All the components that integrate HSUN® technology are produced with machines used in mature industrial sectors thus guarantying mass production and benefiting from economies of scale. The on-field results are presented and discussed.

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-02-28

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd nitrogen removal/gas treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project field test at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  16. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-12-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects.

  17. Economic analysis based on land costs of collector spacing in a collector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    Three collector fluid outlet average field temperatures were used: 200, 250, and 300 C. Land cost varied from $0.54/sq m to $215.20/sq m. and collector costs from $53.80/sq. m to $322.80/sq. m FOB factory. Costs of fees, controls, foundations, etc, are considered as separate items which are added to the land and collector costs to obtain the total cost of the systems. These studies were normalized to a 5,000,000 Btu/day requirement. Thus, the life-cycle costs of the various configurations are, in essence, the cost of energy.

  18. Heliostat field cost reduction by `slope drive' optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbes, Florian; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Wöhrbach, Markus

    2016-05-01

    An algorithm to optimize power tower heliostat fields employing heliostats with so-called slope drives is presented. It is shown that a field using heliostats with the slope drive axes configuration has the same performance as a field with conventional azimuth-elevation tracking heliostats. Even though heliostats with the slope drive configuration have a limited tracking range, field groups of heliostats with different axes or different drives are not needed for different positions in the heliostat field. The impacts of selected parameters on a benchmark power plant (PS10 near Seville, Spain) are analyzed.

  19. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-09-01

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  1. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-12-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPERATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-01-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  3. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-11-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Da Costa

    2003-11-24

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During precommissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. The target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  5. Field demonstration of the combined effects of absorption and evapotranspiration on septic system drainfield capacity.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, Andrew; Ingram, Wesley; Lee, Chang Yong; Thompson, David; Mollhagen, Tony; Ramsey, Heyward; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Drainfields for disposal of septic tank effluents are typically designed by considering the loss of water by either upward evapotranspiration into the atmosphere or lateral and downward absorption into the adjacent soil. While this approach is appropriate for evapotranspiration systems, absorption systems allow water loss by both mechanisms. It was proposed that, in areas where high evapotranspiration rates coincide with permeable soils, drainfield sizes could be substantially reduced by accounting for both mechanisms. A two-year field demonstration was conducted to determine appropriate design criteria for areas typical of the Texas High Plains. The study consisted of evaluating the long-term acceptance rates for three different drainfield configurations: evapotranspiration only, absorption only, and combined conditions. A second field demonstration repeated the experiments for additional observation of the combined evapotranspiration and absorption and achieved similar results as the first study. The field tests indicated that the current design loading criteria may be increased by at least a factor of two for the Texas High Plains region and other Texas areas with similar soil composition and evapotranspiration rates, while still retaining a factor of safety of two.

  6. A field demonstration of the use of wet and dry scrubber sludges in engineered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Cline, J.H.

    1995-03-01

    In a research program being performed at The Ohio State University, the agronomic and engineering properties of flue gas desulfurization by-products are being evaluated. The purpose of this project is to identify potentially beneficial uses for these materials and in so doing reduce the amount of by-product that must be disposed of in landfills. The results of the experimental program have demonstrated that FGD by-products possess the physical properties that should make them suitable for use as a select fill in a variety of construction projects. To verify the laboratory findings on a larger scale, work was begun on a number of field demonstration projects in which the behavior of the FGD could be evaluated under actual field conditions. Two of these field projects were conducted at an Ohio State University research farm where both wet and dry FGD materials were used to stabilize the soil bases in cattle feedlots. Ash from American Electric Power`s Tidd PFBC plant in Brilliant, Ohio was placed in three lots each designed to accommodate approximately fifty animals. Stability wet scrubber sludge from AEP`s Conesville, Ohio plant was placed at two hay bale storage and Winter feeding sites. The construction of the test plots is described. Visual inspections of the plots as well as laboratory tests on samples of the by-product collected at several times during the months since the FGD bases installed have shown that in general, the materials have performed satisfactorily.

  7. Field Demonstration of a Multiplexed Point-of-Care Diagnostic Platform for Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Han Yih; Wang, Yuling; Wee, Eugene J H; Botella, Jose R; Trau, Matt

    2016-08-16

    Effective disease management strategies to prevent catastrophic crop losses require rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection methods for timely decision making. To address this need, a rapid, highly specific and sensitive point-of-care method for multiplex detection of plant pathogens was developed by taking advantage of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) labeled nanotags and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is a rapid isothermal amplification method with high specificity. In this study, three agriculturally important plant pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae, and Fusarium oxysporum) were used to demonstrate potential translation into the field. The RPA-SERS method was faster, more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction, and could detect as little as 2 copies of B. cinerea DNA. Furthermore, multiplex detection of the three pathogens was demonstrated for complex systems such as the Arabidopsis thaliana plant and commercial tomato crops. To demonstrate the potential for on-site field applications, a rapid single-tube RPA/SERS assay was further developed and successfully performed for a specific target outside of a laboratory setting. PMID:27403651

  8. Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-21

    We demonstrate wide-field fluorescent and darkfield imaging on a cell-phone with compact, light-weight and cost-effective optical components that are mechanically attached to the existing camera unit of the cell-phone. For this purpose, we used battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to pump the sample of interest from the side using butt-coupling, where the pump light was guided within the sample cuvette to uniformly excite the specimen. The fluorescent emission from the sample was then imaged using an additional lens that was positioned right in front of the existing lens of the cell-phone camera. Because the excitation occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to our detection path, an inexpensive plastic colour filter was sufficient to create the dark-field background required for fluorescent imaging, without the need for a thin-film interference filter. We validate the performance of this platform by imaging various fluorescent micro-objects in 2 colours (i.e., red and green) over a large field-of-view (FOV) of ∼81 mm(2) with a raw spatial resolution of ∼20 μm. With additional digital processing of the captured cell-phone images, through the use of compressive sampling theory, we demonstrate ∼2 fold improvement in our resolving power, achieving ∼10 μm resolution without a trade-off in our FOV. Further, we also demonstrate darkfield imaging of non-fluorescent specimen using the same interface, where this time the scattered light from the objects is detected without the use of any filters. The capability of imaging a wide FOV would be exceedingly important to probe large sample volumes (e.g., >0.1 mL) of e.g., blood, urine, sputum or water, and for this end we also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of labeled white-blood cells from whole blood samples, as well as water-borne pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia cysts. Weighing only ∼28 g (∼1 ounce), this compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform

  9. Field demonstrations of a direct push FO-LIBS metal sensor.

    PubMed

    Mosier-Boss, P A; Lieberman, S H; Theriault, G A

    2002-09-15

    A direct push, FO-LIBS sensor probe for real-time, in-situ measurement of metals in soils has been built and its capabilities demonstrated at three sites. The response of the FO-LIBS sensor is affected by the soil matrix conditions of grain size, composition, and water content. For each site, uncontaminated soil was collected and spiked with known quantities of the metal under investigation. These calibration standards were used to generate a site-specific calibration curve, which compensates for variations in soil matrix conditions of grain size, composition, porosity, etc. To compensate for moisture content, extra laser pulses are used to volatilize the water, higher power densities and/or shortened acquisition delay times are used. The LIBS experiment inherently exhibits poor precision since it is a point measurement. When multiple spectra are taken of a single, homogenized soil sample, there is a significant amount of variability in the peak intensities. There is no internal standard available to correct for this variability. In this communication, it is shown that normalizing the peak areas under the spectral curves to one effectively corrects for variation due to differences in the plasma volume. Because the LIBS technique is essentially a point measurement the FO-LIBS sensor is used as a semiquantitative field screening tool and not as a quantitative analytical method. In the field demonstrations reported in this communication, remarkably good agreement between the in-situ FO-LIBS results and ICP lab results were obtained.

  10. Projected impact of travoprost versus both timolol and latanoprost on visual field deficit progression and costs among black glaucoma subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Michael T; Covert, David W; Robin, Alan L

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared differences associated with use of travoprost and latanoprost on both progression of perimetric loss over time and associated costs among black patients. METHODS: Patients with primary open-angle glaucome or ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to one of four arms in a 12-month, double-masked study: travoprost (0.004% or 0.0015%), latanoprost (0.005%), or timolol (0.5%). Forty-nine patients received 0.004% travoprost, 43 received latanoprost, and 40 received timolol. We applied algorithms found in published studies that link intraocular pressure (IOP) control to visual field progression and calculated the likelihood of visual field deterioration based on IOP data. This was used to estimate differences in medical care costs. RESULTS: The average IOP was lower for patients receiving travoprost than for patients receiving latanoprost or timolol (17.3 versus 18.7 versus 20.5 mm Hg respectively, P < .05). Travoprost-treated patients had a smaller predicted change in visual field defect score (VFDS) than latanoprost-treated patients and timolol-treated patients, and significantly fewer were expected to demonstrate visual field progression. Medical care costs would be higher for latanoprost-treated and timolol-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies have provided algorithms linking IOP control to changes in visual fields. We found that treatment with travoprost was associated with less visual field progression and potential cost savings. PMID:12545683

  11. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part II: cost comparison of different sanitation systems.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, M; Peter-Fröhlich, A; Dlabacs, C; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A

    2007-01-01

    The experience from the EU demonstration project was used for a cost analysis of different sanitation systems with regard to nutrient recycling. The analysis was made for an existing residential area, for which the different sanitation systems have been applied. The cost calculations were made for a lifetime of 50 years. The multiple sewer systems cause higher investment costs, mainly for the installation of the additional facilities; the investment costs for the treatment are lower. The cost analysis did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case in comparison with the conventional system. Economic benefits are demonstrated for the operation costs. The result will be reinforced by the consideration of an increase of the energy costs. The revenues for the nutrient related products have only a very small impact on the result. PMID:17881859

  12. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part II: cost comparison of different sanitation systems.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, M; Peter-Fröhlich, A; Dlabacs, C; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A

    2007-01-01

    The experience from the EU demonstration project was used for a cost analysis of different sanitation systems with regard to nutrient recycling. The analysis was made for an existing residential area, for which the different sanitation systems have been applied. The cost calculations were made for a lifetime of 50 years. The multiple sewer systems cause higher investment costs, mainly for the installation of the additional facilities; the investment costs for the treatment are lower. The cost analysis did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case in comparison with the conventional system. Economic benefits are demonstrated for the operation costs. The result will be reinforced by the consideration of an increase of the energy costs. The revenues for the nutrient related products have only a very small impact on the result.

  13. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-11-04

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science. PMID:26531855

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science. PMID:26531855

  16. Field demonstration of wastewater concentration by seeded reverse osmosis: Final report. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, M.B.; Jones, G.R.

    1988-08-01

    Objectives were to demonstrate Seeded reverse osmosis (SRO) effectiveness in concentrating typical power plant wastewaters and to develop an economic comparison of SRO with other wastewater concentration technologies. Researchers transported a previously fabricated SRO pilot unit to the Utah Power and Light Company Hunter Station for a three-phase field study. In the first phase, they operated the SRO pilot unit to recover 80% of a cooling-tower blowdown feed. During the second phase, the SRO pilot unit recovered 65% of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) thickener overflow feed. In the third and final phase, researchers reconfigured the SRO pilot unit to evaluate simultaneously the performance of five tubular, cellulose-acetate membranes provided by four manufacturers. Using field test results, the team then completed an economic analysis comparing SRO with other wastewater treatment processes. The SRO pilot unit membranes showed no signs of fouling from inorganic scaling throughout all three phases of the field testing. However, the membranes experienced a rapid deterioration during the first two test phases. 7 refs., 37 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. A Simple Demonstration of a General rule for the Variation of Magnetic Field with Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2009-05-01

    Most science students have some basic knowledge about magnets: magnetic poles attract or repel, depending on their polarity; the shorter the distance to the magnet, the greater the magnetic force. However, the specific magnetic force-distance relationship seems to confuse students. Many students appear to believe, mistakenly based on analogy to the electrostatic field or to gravity, that the force between magnets follows the familiar inverse-square law. It is difficult to teach them that the direction and magnitude of a magnetic field varies in quite a different manner from other interacting forces. I propose an educational demonstration illustrating the variation in magnitude of a magnetic field with distance, allowing students to grasp the idea of magnetic poles and dipoles. The method uses an ordinary geologic compass, a small circular magnet, and a bar magnet about 60 cm long. The small magnet is similar to those commonly used on household bulletin boards or refrigerator doors. The long bar magnet is a steel bar magnetized by a long solenoid coil with the application of a small current. The experiment is unique in that it is designed to permit students to infer a general law from their observations and requires no special instruments. The principle of this experiment is based on electromagnetism but is more readily understood, as it uses only ratios of measured properties. Some logarithmic and trigonometric calculations, easily computed with a pocket calculator, are required. No special calculations requiring a computer are necessary.

  18. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  19. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-07-09

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations--a college dormitory and a research laboratory--during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pilot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air.

  20. Field demonstration of pervaporation for the separation of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid.

    PubMed

    Vane, L M; Hitchens, L; Alvarez, F R; Giroux, E L

    2001-01-29

    As part of a Department of Defense project, the US Environmental Protection Agency was responsible for designing, building and field operating a pilot-scale pervaporation unit. The field site was an active dry cleaning facility on the grounds of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, NC. The overall goal of the project was to remove tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from the soil beneath the dry cleaning shop using a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid and to recycle/reuse the surfactant. In order to reinject the recovered surfactant, the pervaporation unit was required to achieve an average 95% removal of contaminants from the extracted fluid over the duration of the test period. PCE removal averaged 95.8% during peak surfactant levels and exceeded 99.9% in the absence of surfactant, thereby meeting the reinjection requirement. Removal of a group of secondary contaminants at the site, termed Varsol compounds, was monitored via concentrations of three Varsol marker compounds: decane, undecane and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. The pervaporation system processed 100,000 gal of groundwater and surfactant solution over a period of 70 days. In order to evaluate and validate process performance, a variety of process variables and properties were monitored over the course of the demonstration. Pervaporation costs are projected to be on the order of $20 per 1000 gal of surfactant solution treated for a moderate size system (10 gpm).

  1. Field demonstration of an instrument performing automatic classification of geologic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Dmitriy L; Thompson, David R; Abbey, William J; Cabrol, Nathalie A; Francis, Raymond; Manatt, Ken S; Ortega, Kevin F; Wagstaff, Kiri L

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a method with which to automate simple aspects of geologic image analysis during space exploration. Automated image analysis on board the spacecraft can make operations more efficient by generating compressed maps of long traverses for summary downlink. It can also enable immediate automatic responses to science targets of opportunity, improving the quality of targeted measurements collected with each command cycle. In addition, automated analyses on Earth can process large image catalogs, such as the growing database of Mars surface images, permitting more timely and quantitative summaries that inform tactical mission operations. We present TextureCam, a new instrument that incorporates real-time image analysis to produce texture-sensitive classifications of geologic surfaces in mesoscale scenes. A series of tests at the Cima Volcanic Field in the Mojave Desert, California, demonstrated mesoscale surficial mapping at two distinct sites of geologic interest.

  2. Field demonstration of an instrument performing automatic classification of geologic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Dmitriy L; Thompson, David R; Abbey, William J; Cabrol, Nathalie A; Francis, Raymond; Manatt, Ken S; Ortega, Kevin F; Wagstaff, Kiri L

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a method with which to automate simple aspects of geologic image analysis during space exploration. Automated image analysis on board the spacecraft can make operations more efficient by generating compressed maps of long traverses for summary downlink. It can also enable immediate automatic responses to science targets of opportunity, improving the quality of targeted measurements collected with each command cycle. In addition, automated analyses on Earth can process large image catalogs, such as the growing database of Mars surface images, permitting more timely and quantitative summaries that inform tactical mission operations. We present TextureCam, a new instrument that incorporates real-time image analysis to produce texture-sensitive classifications of geologic surfaces in mesoscale scenes. A series of tests at the Cima Volcanic Field in the Mojave Desert, California, demonstrated mesoscale surficial mapping at two distinct sites of geologic interest. PMID:24886217

  3. Demonstration of the Wide-Field Imaging Interferometer Testbed Using a Calibrated Hyperspectral Image Projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Leisawitz, David; Maher, Steve; Rinehart, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Imaging Interferometer testbed (WIIT) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center uses a dual-Michelson interferometric technique. The WIIT combines stellar interferometry with Fourier-transform interferometry to produce high-resolution spatial-spectral data over a large field-of-view. This combined technique could be employed on future NASA missions such as the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the Sub-millimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). While both SPIRIT and SPECS would operate at far-infrared wavelengths, the WIIT demonstrates the dual-interferometry technique at visible wavelengths. The WIIT will produce hyperspectral image data, so a true hyperspectral object is necessary. A calibrated hyperspectral image projector (CHIP) has been constructed to provide such an object. The CHIP uses Digital Light Processing (DLP) technology to produce customized, spectrally-diverse scenes. CHIP scenes will have approximately 1.6-micron spatial resolution and the capability of . producing arbitrary spectra in the band between 380 nm and 1.6 microns, with approximately 5-nm spectral resolution. Each pixel in the scene can take on a unique spectrum. Spectral calibration is achieved with an onboard fiber-coupled spectrometer. In this paper we describe the operation of the CHIP. Results from the WIIT observations of CHIP scenes will also be presented.

  4. Demonstration of hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Kook

    2016-06-01

    The steady scaling-down of semiconductor device for improving performance has been the most important issue among researchers. Recently, as low-power consumption becomes one of the most important requirements, there have been many researches about novel devices for low-power consumption. Though scaling supply voltage is the most effective way for low-power consumption, performance degradation is occurred for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) when supply voltage is reduced because subthreshold swing (SS) of MOSFETs cannot be lower than 60 mV/dec. Thus, in this thesis, hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs) are investigated as one of the most promising alternatives to MOSFETs. By replacing source-side gate insulator with a high- k material, HG TFETs show higher on-current, suppressed ambipolar current and lower SS than conventional TFETs. Device design optimization through simulation was performed and fabrication based on simulation demonstrated that performance of HG TFETs were better than that of conventional TFETs. Especially, enlargement of gate insulator thickness while etching gate insulator at the source side was improved by introducing HF vapor etch process. In addition, the proposed HG TFETs showed higher performance than our previous results by changing structure of sidewall spacer by high- k etching process.

  5. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hansen, Paul; Cheng, Yao-Te; Lu, Tsung-Ju; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-06-11

    Optical tweezers have been widely used to manipulate biological and colloidal material, but the diffraction limit of far-field optics makes focused beams unsuitable for manipulating nanoscale objects with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light. While plasmonic structures have recently been successful in trapping nanoscale objects with high positioning accuracy, using such structures for manipulation over longer range has remained a significant challenge. In this work, we introduce a conveyor belt design based on a novel plasmonic structure, the resonant C-shaped engraving (CSE). We show how long-range manipulation is made possible by means of handoff between neighboring CSEs, and we present a simple technique for controlling handoff by rotating the polarization of laser illumination. We experimentally demonstrate handoff between a pair of CSEs for polystyrene spheres 200, 390, and 500 nm in diameter. We then extend this technique and demonstrate controlled particle transport down a 4.5 μm long "nano-optical conveyor belt." PMID:24807058

  6. Field Demonstrations of Five Geophysical Methods that Could Be Used to Characterize Deposits of Alluvial Aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Burton, B.L.; Lucius, J.E.; Haines, S.S.; Fitterman, D.V.; Witty, J.A.; Carlson, D.; Milburn, B.; Langer, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc., conducted field demonstrations of five different geophysical methods to show how these methods could be used to characterize deposits of alluvial aggregate. The methods were time-domain electromagnetic sounding, electrical resistivity profiling, S-wave reflection profiling, S-wave refraction profiling, and P-wave refraction profiling. All demonstrations were conducted at one site within a river valley in central Indiana, where the stratigraphy consisted of 1 to 2 meters of clay-rich soil, 20 to 35 meters of alluvial sand and gravel, 1 to 6 meters of clay, and multiple layers of limestone and dolomite bedrock. All geophysical methods, except time-domain electromagnetic sounding, provided information about the alluvial aggregate that was consistent with the known geology. Although time-domain electromagnetic sounding did not work well at this site, it has worked well at other sites with different geology. All of these geophysical methods complement traditional methods of geologic characterization such as drilling.

  7. REMOVAL OF ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL FROM A SURFACTANT-BASED SOIL REMEDIATION FLUID BY PERVAPORATION: PILOT SCALE FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, NRMRL participated in a field demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process. The main purpose of this field demonstration was to combine and optimize the subsurface extraction of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid with the above ground deconta...

  8. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection and potential impacts on groundwater quality at Brackenridge Field Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y.; Yang, C.; Guzman, N.; Delgado, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Horvoka, S.; Trevino, R.

    2015-12-01

    One concern related to GCS is possible risk of unintended CO2 leakage from the storage formations into overlying potable aquifers on underground sources of drinking water (USDW). Here we present a series of field tests conducted in an alluvial aquifer which is on a river terrace at The University of Texas Brackenridge Field Laboratory. Several shallow groundwater wells were completed to the limestone bedrock at a depth of 6 m and screened in the lower 3 m. Core sediments recovered from the shallow aquifer show that the sediments vary in grain size from clay-rich layers to coarse sandy gravels. Two main types of field tests were conducted at the BFL: single- (or double-) well push-pull test and pulse-like CO2 release test. A single- (or double-) well push-pull test includes three phases: the injection phase, the resting phase and pulling phase. During the injection phase, groundwater pumped from the shallow aquifer was stored in a tank, equilibrated with CO2 gasand then injected into the shallow aquifer to mimic CO2 leakage. During the resting phase, the groundwater charged with CO2 reacted with minerals in the aquifer sediments. During the pulling phase, groundwater was pumped from the injection well and groundwater samples were collected continuously for groundwater chemistry analysis. In such tests, large volume of groundwater which was charged with CO2 can be injected into the shallow aquifer and thus maximize contact of groundwater charged with CO2. Different than a single- (or double-) well push-pull test, a pulse-like CO2 release test for validating chemical sensors for CO2 leakage detection involves a CO2 release phase that CO2 gas was directly bubbled into the testing well and a post monitoring phase that groundwater chemistry was continuously monitored through sensors and/or grounder sampling. Results of the single- (or double-) well push-pull tests conducted in the shallow aquifer shows that the unintended CO2 leakage could lead to dissolution of

  9. Accelerating aerobic DRO biodegradation in stream bank sediments through oxygen enhancements: Laboratory results and field pilot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Sturman, P.J.; Cunningham, A.B.; Wemple, C.

    1997-12-31

    A novel technique has been developed for accomplishing in situ, aerobic bioremediation of low-temperature, low-permeability, high-organic carbon containing stream bank sediments impacted with diesel range petroleum hydrocarbons. Laboratory microcosms tests have demonstrated efficient removal of diesel range organics (DRO) when sediments are amended with oxygen-releasing and solubilizing compounds. This technique was conceived, designed and tested to provide a superior alternative to destructive and costly intrusive remediation for a fragile, pristine, riparian environment. Laboratory microcosm tests using sediments from a DRO impacted mountain stream were amended with surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate 810-4.5), a magnesium peroxide containing mixture (Oxygen Release Compound{reg_sign}, Regenesis, Inc.), hydrogen peroxide, and ethanol to determine the effects of these oxygen-enhancing and solubilizing amendments on biodegradation extent and DRO bioavailability. Laboratory test results and subsequent field toxicity testing using aquatic biota indicated the MgO, mixture to be most suitable for field use at this site. While laboratory microcosm tests showed significant reductions to both DRO and the water surface sheen associated with trapped hydrocarbons, biodegradation endpoints in the range of 500-1000 mg/kg were observed. These non-zero biotreatment endpoints suggest that biodegradation in situ is limited by DRO bioavailability. Because contaminant transport to groundwater and adjacent surface waters is very slow, exposure risk is minimal. Based on successful laboratory testing, a field pilot test was initiated in September 1996 wherein slurried Oxygen Release Compound{reg_sign} (ORC) was pressure-injected into shallow, DRO impacted stream bank sediments.

  10. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  11. Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

    2013-04-01

    Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid

  12. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  13. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in

  14. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  15. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, F.; Russell, G.C.; Lugelo, A.; Ndabigaye, A.; Mnyambwa, N.; Keyyu, J.; Kazwala, R.; Grant, D.; Percival, A.; Deane, D.; Haig, D.M.; Cleaveland, S.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases. PMID:26706270

  16. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lankester, F; Russell, G C; Lugelo, A; Ndabigaye, A; Mnyambwa, N; Keyyu, J; Kazwala, R; Grant, D; Percival, A; Deane, D; Haig, D M; Cleaveland, S

    2016-02-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases.

  17. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results.

  18. Demonstration of risk based, goal driven framework for hydrological field campaigns and inverse modeling with case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harken, B.; Geiges, A.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    There are several stages in any hydrological modeling campaign, including: formulation and analysis of a priori information, data acquisition through field campaigns, inverse modeling, and forward modeling and prediction of some environmental performance metric (EPM). The EPM being predicted could be, for example, contaminant concentration, plume travel time, or aquifer recharge rate. These predictions often have significant bearing on some decision that must be made. Examples include: how to allocate limited remediation resources between multiple contaminated groundwater sites, where to place a waste repository site, and what extraction rates can be considered sustainable in an aquifer. Providing an answer to these questions depends on predictions of EPMs using forward models as well as levels of uncertainty related to these predictions. Uncertainty in model parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, leads to uncertainty in EPM predictions. Often, field campaigns and inverse modeling efforts are planned and undertaken with reduction of parametric uncertainty as the objective. The tool of hypothesis testing allows this to be taken one step further by considering uncertainty reduction in the ultimate prediction of the EPM as the objective and gives a rational basis for weighing costs and benefits at each stage. When using the tool of statistical hypothesis testing, the EPM is cast into a binary outcome. This is formulated as null and alternative hypotheses, which can be accepted and rejected with statistical formality. When accounting for all sources of uncertainty at each stage, the level of significance of this test provides a rational basis for planning, optimization, and evaluation of the entire campaign. Case-specific information, such as consequences prediction error and site-specific costs can be used in establishing selection criteria based on what level of risk is deemed acceptable. This framework is demonstrated and discussed using various synthetic case

  19. Demonstration of large field effect in topological insulator films via a high-κ back gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.; Lin, H. Y.; Yang, S. R.; Chen, K. H. M.; Lin, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Young, L. B.; Cheng, C. K.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Tseng, S. C.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2016-05-01

    The spintronics applications long anticipated for topological insulators (TIs) has been hampered due to the presence of high density intrinsic defects in the bulk states. In this work we demonstrate the back-gating effect on TIs by integrating Bi2Se3 films 6-10 quintuple layer (QL) thick with amorphous high-κ oxides of Al2O3 and Y2O3. Large gating effect of tuning the Fermi level EF to very close to the band gap was observed, with an applied bias of an order of magnitude smaller than those of the SiO2 back gate, and the modulation of film resistance can reach as high as 1200%. The dependence of the gating effect on the TI film thickness was investigated, and ΔN2D/ΔVg varies with TI film thickness as ˜t-0.75. To enhance the gating effect, a Y2O3 layer thickness 4 nm was inserted into Al2O3 gate stack to increase the total κ value to 13.2. A 1.4 times stronger gating effect is observed, and the increment of induced carrier numbers is in good agreement with additional charges accumulated in the higher κ oxides. Moreover, we have reduced the intrinsic carrier concentration in the TI film by doping Te to Bi2Se3 to form Bi2TexSe1-x. The observation of a mixed state of ambipolar field that both electrons and holes are present indicates that we have tuned the EF very close to the Dirac Point. These results have demonstrated that our capability of gating TIs with high-κ back gate to pave the way to spin devices of tunable EF for dissipationless spintronics based on well-established semiconductor technology.

  20. Field Demonstration of DNAPL Dehalogenation Using Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Sam; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nano-scale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (V005) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

  1. Field demonstration of DNAPL dehalogenation using emulsified zero-valent iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Woong-Sang; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nanoscale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

  2. Field demonstration of DNAPL dehalogenation using emulsified zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Woong-Sang; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nanoscale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

  3. Field Demonstration of Acetone Pretreatment and Composting of Particulate-TNT-Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, Corey William; Smith, D.; Owen, S.; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2002-02-01

    Solid fragments of explosives in soil are common in explosives testing and training areas. In this study we initially sieved the upper 6 in of contaminated soil through a 3-mm mesh, and found 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) fragments. These contributed to an estimated concentration of 1.7 kg per cubic yard soil, or for 2000 ppm TNT in the soil. Most of the fragments ranged 4 mm to 10 mm diameter in size, but explosives particles weighing up to 56 g (about 4 cm diameter) were frequently observed. An acetone pretreatment/composting system was then demonstrated at field scale. The amount of acetone required for a TNT-dissolving slurry process was controlled by the viscosity of the soil/acetone mix rather than the TNT dissolution rate. The amount needed was estimated at about 55 gallons acetone per cubic yard soil. Smaller, 5- to 10-mm-diameter fragments went into solution in less than 15 min at a mixer speed of 36 rpm, with a minimum of 2 g TNT going into solution per 30 min for the larger chunks. The slurries were than mixed with compost starting materials and composted in a vented 1 yd3 container. After 34 days incubation time TNT was below the site-specific regulatory threshold of 44 ppm. TNT metabolites and acetone were also below their regulatory thresholds established for the site.

  4. Field-scale demonstration of induced biogeochemical reductive dechlorination at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lonnie G; Everett, Jess W; Becvar, Erica; DeFeo, Donald

    2006-11-20

    Biogeochemical reductive dechlorination (BiRD) is a new remediation approach for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The approach stimulates common sulfate-reducing soil bacteria, facilitating the geochemical conversion of native iron minerals into iron sulfides. Iron sulfides have the ability to chemically reduce many common CAH compounds including PCE, TCE, DCE, similar to zero valent iron (Fe(0)). Results of a field test at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware, are given in this paper. BiRD was stimulated by direct injection of Epson salt (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) and sodium (L) lactate (NaC(3)H(5)O(3)) in five injection wells. Sediment was sampled before and 8 months after injection. Significant iron sulfide minerals developed in the sandy aquifer matrix. From ground water analyses, treatment began a few weeks after injection with up to 95% reduction in PCE, TCE, and cDCE in less than 1 year. More complete CAH treatment is likely at a larger scale than this demonstration.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has

  7. Three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulation of the EGS Demonstration Project at The Geysers geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Andrea; Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curt M.; Hutchings, Lawrence; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Jeanne, Pierre; Dobson, Patrick; Boyle, Katie

    2013-04-01

    The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration Project, currently underway at the Northwest Geysers, California, aims to demonstrate the feasibility of stimulating a deep high-temperature reservoir (up to 400 °C) through water injection over a 2-year period. On October 6, 2011, injection of 25 l/s started from the Prati 32 well at a depth interval of 1850-2699 m below sea level. After a period of almost 2 months, the injection rate was raised to 63 l/s. The flow rate was then decreased to 44 l/s after an additional 3.5 months and maintained at 25 l/s up to August 20, 2012. Significant well-head pressure changes were recorded at Prati State 31 well, which is separated from Prati 32 by about 500 m at reservoir level. More subdued pressure increases occur at greater distances. The water injection caused induced seismicity in the reservoir in the vicinity of the well. Microseismic monitoring and interpretation shows that the cloud of seismic events is mainly located in the granitic intrusion below the injection zone, forming a cluster elongated SSE-NNW (azimuth 170°) that dips steeply to the west. In general, the magnitude of the events increases with depth and the hypocenter depth increases with time. This seismic cloud is hypothesized to correlate with enhanced permeability in the high-temperature reservoir and its variation with time. Based on the existing borehole data, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes, from the top down, a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (known as the normal temperature reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (where the high-temperature reservoir is located), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. We then map this model onto a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH2 multiphase, multicomponent, non

  8. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process. Quarterly report No. 7, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  11. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  12. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  13. A Long-Term Experimental Study Demonstrates the Costs of Begging That Were Not Found over the Short Term

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Carra, Laura G.; Medina-Molina, Eloy; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Martín-Gálvez, David

    2014-01-01

    Parent–offspring conflict theory predicts that begging behaviour could escalate continuously over evolutionary time if it is not prevented by costliness of begging displays. Three main potential physiological costs have been proposed: growth, immunological and metabolic costs. However, empirical evidence on this subject remains elusive because published results are often contradictory. In this study, we test for the existence of these three potential physiological costs of begging in house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings by stimulating a group of nestlings to beg for longer and another group for shorter periods than in natural conditions. All nestlings were fed with the same quantity of food. Our study involves a long-term experimental treatment for begging studies (five consecutive days). Long-term studies frequently provide clearer results than short-term studies and, sometimes, relevant information not reported by the latter ones. Our long-term experiment shows (i) a clear effect on the immune response even since the first measurement (6 hours), but it was higher during the second (long-term) than during the first (short-term) test; (ii) evidence of a growth cost of begging in house sparrow nestlings not previously found by other studies; (iii) body condition was affected by our experimental manipulation only after 48 hour; (iv) a metabolic cost of begging never previously shown in any species, and (v) for the first time, it has shown a simultaneous effect of the three potential physiological costs of begging: immunocompetence, growth, and metabolism. This implies first, that a multilevel trade-off can occur between begging and all physiological costs and, second, that a lack of support in a short-term experiment for the existence of a tested cost of begging does not mean absence of that cost, because it can be found in a long-term experiment. PMID:25372280

  14. Final Report on Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the best performers on processes and coatings specific to the agency. Laser systems used during this project were all of a similar design, most of which had integrated vacuum systems in order to collect materials removed from substrate surfaces during operation. Due to the fact that the technology lends itself to a bide variety of processes, several site demonstrations were organized in order to allow for greater evaluation of the laser systems across NASA. The project consisted of an introductory demonstration and a more in-depth evaluation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Additionally, field demonstrations occurred at Glenn Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. During these demonstrations several NASA specific applications were evaluated, including the removal of coatings within Orbiter tile cavities and Teflon from Space Shuttle Main Engine gaskets, removal of heavy grease from Solid Rocket Booster components and the removal of coatings on weld lines for Shuttle and general ground service equipment for non destructive evaluation (NDE). In addition, several general industry applications such as corrosion removal, structural coating removal, weld-line preparation and surface cleaning were evaluated. This included removal of coatings and corrosion from surfaces containing lead-based coatings and applications similar to launch-structure maintenance and Crawler maintenance. During the project lifecycle, an attempt was made to answer process specific concerns and questions as they arose. Some of these initially unexpected questions concerned the effects lasers might have on substrates used on flight equipment including strength, surface re-melting, substrate temperature and corrosion resistance effects. Additionally a concern was PPE required for operating such a system including eye, breathing and hearing protection. Most of these questions although not initially planned, were fully explored as a part of this project. Generally the results from tesng

  15. C. elegans Demonstrates Distinct Behaviors within a Fixed and Uniform Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Steven D.; Waite, Christopher B.; Scoville, Alison G.; Carnell, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    C. elegans will orient and travel in a straight uninterrupted path directly towards the negative pole of a DC electric field. We have sought to understand the strategy worms use to navigate to the negative pole in a uniform electric field that is fixed in both direction and magnitude. We examined this behavior by quantifying three aspects of electrotaxis behavior in response to different applied field strengths: the mean approach trajectory angles of the animals’ tracks, turning behavior (pirouettes) and average population speeds. We determined that C. elegans align directly to the negative pole of an electric field at sub-preferred field strength and alter approach trajectories at higher field strengths to maintain taxis within a preferred range we have calculated to be ~ 5V/cm. We sought to identify the sensory neurons responsible for the animals’ tracking to a preferred field strength. eat-4 mutant animals defective in glutamatergic signaling of the amphid sensory neurons are severely electrotaxis defective and ceh-36 mutant animals, which are defective in the terminal differentiation of two types of sensory neurons, AWC and ASE, are partially defective in electrotaxis. To further elucidate the role of the AWC neurons, we examined the role of each of the pair of AWC neurons (AWCOFF and AWCON), which are functionally asymmetric and express different genes. nsy-5/inx-19 mutant animals, which express both neurons as AWCOFF, are severely impaired in electrotaxis behavior while nsy-1 mutants, which express both neurons as AWCON, are able to differentiate field strengths required for navigation to a specific field strength within an electric field. We also tested a strain with targeted genetic ablation of AWC neurons and found that these animals showed only slight disruption of directionality and turning behavior. These results suggest a role for AWC neurons in which complete loss of function is less disruptive than loss of functional asymmetry in electrotaxis

  16. C. elegans Demonstrates Distinct Behaviors within a Fixed and Uniform Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Steven D; Waite, Christopher B; Scoville, Alison G; Carnell, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    C. elegans will orient and travel in a straight uninterrupted path directly towards the negative pole of a DC electric field. We have sought to understand the strategy worms use to navigate to the negative pole in a uniform electric field that is fixed in both direction and magnitude. We examined this behavior by quantifying three aspects of electrotaxis behavior in response to different applied field strengths: the mean approach trajectory angles of the animals' tracks, turning behavior (pirouettes) and average population speeds. We determined that C. elegans align directly to the negative pole of an electric field at sub-preferred field strength and alter approach trajectories at higher field strengths to maintain taxis within a preferred range we have calculated to be ~ 5V/cm. We sought to identify the sensory neurons responsible for the animals' tracking to a preferred field strength. eat-4 mutant animals defective in glutamatergic signaling of the amphid sensory neurons are severely electrotaxis defective and ceh-36 mutant animals, which are defective in the terminal differentiation of two types of sensory neurons, AWC and ASE, are partially defective in electrotaxis. To further elucidate the role of the AWC neurons, we examined the role of each of the pair of AWC neurons (AWCOFF and AWCON), which are functionally asymmetric and express different genes. nsy-5/inx-19 mutant animals, which express both neurons as AWCOFF, are severely impaired in electrotaxis behavior while nsy-1 mutants, which express both neurons as AWCON, are able to differentiate field strengths required for navigation to a specific field strength within an electric field. We also tested a strain with targeted genetic ablation of AWC neurons and found that these animals showed only slight disruption of directionality and turning behavior. These results suggest a role for AWC neurons in which complete loss of function is less disruptive than loss of functional asymmetry in electrotaxis

  17. A FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE UV/OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO TREAT GROUND WATER WITH VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the field evaluation results of the ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology developed by Ultrox International, Santa Ana, California. The field evaluation was performed at the Loretta Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site in San Jose, California, under the Super...

  18. Monte Carlo Demonstration of Solid-State Diffusion in an Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murch, G. E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the phenomenological and microscopic aspects of solid-state diffusion in an electric field and presents a Monte Carlo method which is used to stimulate an atomistic model of diffusion in an electric field. The Nernst-Einstein relation is also discussed. (HM)

  19. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation.

  20. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  1. The 2010 Field Demonstration of the Solar Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith to Produce Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gustafson, Robert (Bob)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a demonstration of the use of solar carbothermal reduction processing of regolith to produce oxygen and silicon from silica. A contractor developed the Carbothermal Regolith Reduction Module to demonstrate the extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith simulant using concentrated solar energy at a site that has similar terrain to the moon and Mars.

  2. A new low cost wide-field illumination method for photooxidation of intracellular fluorescent markers.

    PubMed

    da Silva Filho, Manoel; Santos, Daniel Valle Vasconcelos; Costa, Kauê Machado

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing cell morphology is crucial in the fields of cell biology and neuroscience. One of the main methods for evaluating cell morphology is by using intracellular fluorescent markers, including various commercially available dyes and genetically encoded fluorescent proteins. These markers can be used as free radical sources in photooxidation reactions, which in the presence of diaminobenzidine (DAB) forms an opaque and electron-dense precipitate that remains localized within the cellular and organelle membranes. This method confers many methodological advantages for the investigator, including absence of photo-bleaching, high visual contrast and the possibility of correlating optical imaging with electron microscopy. However, current photooxidation techniques require the continuous use of fluorescent or confocal microscopes, which wastes valuable mercury lamp lifetime and limits the conversion process to a few cells at a time. We developed a low cost optical apparatus for performing photooxidation reactions and propose a new procedure that solves these methodological restrictions. Our "photooxidizer" consists of a high power light emitting diode (LED) associated with a custom aluminum and acrylic case and a microchip-controlled current source. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method by converting intracellular DiI in samples of developing rat neocortex and post-mortem human retina. DiI crystals were inserted in the tissue and allowed to diffuse for 20 days. The samples were then processed with the new photooxidation technique and analyzed under optical microscopy. The results show that our protocols can unveil the fine morphology of neurons in detail. Cellular structures such as axons, dendrites and spine-like appendages were well defined. In addition to its low cost, simplicity and reliability, our method precludes the use of microscope lamps for photooxidation and allows the processing of many labeled cells simultaneously in relatively large tissue samples

  3. Californian demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. We present a fully automated computational methodology to extract agricultural fields from 30m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series and results for approximately 250,000 square kilometers (eleven 150 x 150 km WELD tiles) encompassing all the major agricultural areas of California. The extracted fields, including rectangular, circular, and irregularly shaped fields, are evaluated by comparison with manually interpreted Landsat field objects. Validation results are presented in terms of standard confusion matrix accuracy measures and also the degree of field object over-segmentation, under-segmentation, fragmentation and shape distortion. The apparent success of the presented field extraction methodology is due to several factors. First, the use of multi-temporal Landsat data, as opposed to single Landsat acquisitions, that enables crop rotations and inter-annual variability in the state of the vegetation to be accommodated for and provides more opportunities for cloud-free, non-missing and atmospherically uncontaminated surface observations. Second, the adoption of an object based approach, namely the variational region-based geometric active contour method that enables robust segmentation with only a small number of parameters and that requires no training data collection. Third, the use of a watershed algorithm to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field segments and a geometry based algorithm to detect and associate parts of

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field analytical screening program (FASP) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) method uses a temperature-programmable gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCBs. Gas chromatography is an EPA-approved method for determi...

  5. Field demonstration of technologies for characterization of uranium contamination in surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.; Schwing, J.; Nuhfer, K.R.; Weigand, G.

    1993-03-01

    One means of improving the efficiency of studies associated with CERCLA and RCRA investigations of. sites contaminated with uranium is to introduce new field screening technologies capable of quickly delineating the contamination distribution in surface soils. To this end, the performance of four technologies suitable for field measurement of uranium concentrations in soils was evaluated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The four technologies tested were high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, wide-area beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). The performance of each technique was assessed by comparing of the results obtained in the field and by comparing the field measurements to data obtained from laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  6. Field demonstration of technologies for characterization of uranium contamination in surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C. ); Lee, S.Y. ); Perry, D.L. ); Tidwell, V.C. ); Schwing, J.; Nuhfer, K.R. . Fernald Environmental Management P

    1993-01-01

    One means of improving the efficiency of studies associated with CERCLA and RCRA investigations of. sites contaminated with uranium is to introduce new field screening technologies capable of quickly delineating the contamination distribution in surface soils. To this end, the performance of four technologies suitable for field measurement of uranium concentrations in soils was evaluated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The four technologies tested were high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, wide-area beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). The performance of each technique was assessed by comparing of the results obtained in the field and by comparing the field measurements to data obtained from laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  7. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Davis

    1999-11-03

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface.

  8. Perimetric demonstration of spontaneous visual field recovery following occipital lobe haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siying; George, Badie Z; Wilson-Holt, Nicholas J

    2013-08-29

    A 45-year-old patient on lifelong warfarin therapy after a metal aortic valve replacement developed a homonymous visual field defect following an occipital lobe haemorrhage. The patient received only conservative management and yet described continued improvement in her visual field defect for up to 20 months following the initial cerebral insult. We present the first conclusive illustrative documentation of visual recovery in a patient with an occipital lobe haemorrhage with sequential automated perimetric assessments over an extended period of time.

  9. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  10. The strategic logic of costly punishment necessitates natural field experiments, and at least one such experiment exists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tim

    2012-02-01

    Costly punishment's scarcity "in the wild" does not belie strong reciprocity theory as Guala claims. In the presence of strong reciprocators, strategic defectors will cooperate and sanctioning will not occur. Accordingly, natural field experiments are necessary to assess a "wide" reading of costly punishment experiments. One such field experiment exists, and it supports the hypothesis that costly punishment promotes cooperation.

  11. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Beshouri; Kirby S. Chapman; Jim McCarthy; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Mike Whelan

    2006-03-01

    This quarterly report re-evaluates current market objectives in the exploration and production industry, discusses continuing progress in testing that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine, and presents a scheme for enacting remote monitoring and control of engines during upcoming field tests. The examination of current market objectives takes into account technological developments and changing expectations for environmental permitting which may have occurred over the last year. This demonstrates that the continuing work in controlled testing and toward field testing is on track Market pressures currently affecting the gas exploration and production industry are shown to include a push for increased production, as well as an increasing cost for environmental compliance. This cost includes the direct cost of adding control technologies to field engines as well as the indirect cost of difficulty obtaining permits. Environmental regulations continue to require lower emissions targets, and some groups of engines which had not previously been regulated will be required to obtain permits in the future. While the focus remains on NOx and CO, some permits require reporting of additional emissions chemicals. Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOx emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing

  12. Getting from Here to There. The Bridges to Work Demonstration. First Report to the Field. Field Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palubinsky, Beth Z.; Watson, Bernardine H.

    Research has shown that three main barriers impede the ability of inner-city, low-income job seekers to find employment in the suburbs: an administrative or information barrier, a physical barrier, and a social barrier. The Bridges to Work demonstration program was designed to test the idea that improved access to suburban jobs can significantly…

  13. DESIGN OF A SURFACTANT REMEDIATION FIELD DEMONSTRATION BASED ON LABORATORY AND MODELINE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation is being evaluated as an innovative technology for expediting ground-water remediation. This paper reports on laboratory and modeling studies conducted in preparation for a pilot-scale field test of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remedia...

  14. Demonstrating Pre-Service Teacher Learning through Engagement in Global Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Raymond W.

    2015-01-01

    Global opportunities for students to engage in teaching and learning have the potential to have a great impact on their professional knowledge base as a future teacher. However, little information is available about how global field experiences impact pre-service teachers' understanding due to substantial challenges in collecting and analyzing…

  15. Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

  16. Field demonstration of X-band photonic antenna remoting in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Lutes, G.; Logan, R. T., Jr.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We designed a photonic link for antenna remoting based on our integrated system analysis. With this 12-km link, we successfully demonstrated photonic antenna-remoting capability at X-band (8.4 GHz) at one of NASA's Deep Space Stations while tracking the Magellan spacecraft.

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF LEAD-BASED PAINT REMOVAL AND INORGANIC STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a wet abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from exterior wood siding and brock substrates and to stabilize the resultant blasting media (coal slag and mineral sand) paint debris to reduce the leachable l...

  18. Demonstration using field collections that Argentina fall armyworm populations exhibit strain-specific host plant preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of corn (maize), cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Studies in the United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil demonstrated the existence of two subpopulations ...

  19. Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor Digital Logic Gates Demonstrated at 600 deg. C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1998-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing silicon carbide (SiC) for use in harsh conditions where silicon, the semiconductor used in nearly all of today's electronics, cannot function. The HTIES team recently fabricated and demonstrated the first semiconductor digital logic gates ever to function at 600 C.

  20. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A system that performs water quality monitoring on-line and in real time much as it would be done in a spacecraft, was developed and demonstrated. The system has the capability to determine conformance to high effluent quality standards and to increase the potential for reclamation and reuse of water.

  1. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    PubMed Central

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  2. A simple field method for spinal cord removal demonstrated in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Walzer, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Robert, Nadia

    2002-01-01

    Removal of the spinal cord is considered time consuming and difficult. A delay in the necropsy procedure, especially in the central nervous system, can result in significant tissue autolysis and subsequent diagnostic difficulties. In the field, where many necropsies are performed, suitable electric saws are mostly unavailable. A technically simple and rapid method for spinal cord removal, requiring only a straightforward tool, has been devised. No necropsy-induced structural damage has been noted on histopathologic examination.

  3. Multiple Vibrio vulnificus strains in oysters as demonstrated by clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Buchrieser, C; Gangar, V V; Murphree, R L; Tamplin, M L; Kaspar, C W

    1995-01-01

    Clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis and a computer program for managing electrophoresis banding patterns (ELBAMAP) were used to analyze genomic DNA of 118 Vibrio vulnificus strains, isolated from three oysters by direct plating. Analysis with SfiI resulted in 60 restriction endonuclease digestion profiles (REDP), while analysis with SrfI produced 53 different REDP. Similarities between REDP ranged from 7 to 93%. Principal-component analysis showed that the strains were heterogeneous. PMID:7793918

  4. A continuous emissions monitor for metals: Field demonstration of a prototype probe

    SciTech Connect

    Flower, W.; Peng, L.; Woods, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted field tests of a prototype continuous emissions monitor for metals at Clemson University, August 5-11, 1994, in cooperation with the joule-melter vitrification project at Clemson and Savannah River. The monitor is based on Laser Spark Spectroscopy, an established laboratory diagnostic technique that has been adapted for monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment facilities. In the field tests described in this report, emissions were measured from a joule melter that was processing a surrogate waste-water treatment sludge from Oak Ridge. Data from this test provides the first insight into how emissions change (in real time) as operating parameters such as waste feed rate are changed. We detected all metals that were present above the estimated minimum detectability limits (in the parts-per-billion range for Clean Air Act metals), in addition to glass-making species such as calcium, boron, and silicon. This report summarizes the Clemson field tests, including design of the prototype probe, preparations leading up to the tests, the tests themselves, and analysis of results.

  5. A field based, self-excited compulsator power supply for a 9 MJ railgun demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, W. A.; Pratap, S. B.; Brinkman, W. G.; Cook, K. G.; Herbst, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Fabrication efforts have begun on a field-based compulsator, for firing 9-MJ projectiles from a railgun launcher, storing 200 MJ kinetic energy to fire a salvo of nine rounds in three minutes at velocities between 2.5 and 4.0 km/s. Prime power required to meet this firing schedule is 1.865 kW, and will be supplied by a gas-turbine engine. It is also possible to fire a burst of two shots in rapid succession, if desired. A two-pole configuration is used for pulse-length considerations, and selectively passive compensation is used to produce a relatively flat pulse and limit peak projectile acceleration to about 980,000 m/sec-squared. Other distinguishing features include an air core magnetic circuit, separate rotor armature windings for self-excitation and railgun firing, ambient temperature field coils, and excitation field magnetic energy recovery capability. Fabrication and assembly methods are reviewed, and the current status of the project is discussed.

  6. Sealing rice field boundaries in Bangladesh: a pilot study demonstrating reductions in water use, arsenic loading to field soils, and methane emissions from irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Pracht, Lara E; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf

    2014-08-19

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated and methane-rich groundwater loads arsenic into field soils and releases methane into the atmosphere. We tested the water-savings potential of sealing field bunds (raised boundaries around field edges) as a way to mitigate these negative outcomes. We found that, on average, bund sealing reduced seasonal water use by 52 ± 17% and decreased arsenic loading to field soils by 15 ± 4%; greater savings in both water use and arsenic loading were achieved in fields with larger perimeter-to-area ratios (i.e., smaller fields). Our study is the first to quantify emission of methane from irrigation water in Bangladesh, a currently unaccounted-for methane source. Irrigation water applied to unsealed fields at our site emits 18 to 31 g of methane per square-meter of field area per season, potentially doubling the atmospheric input of methane from rice cultivation. Bund sealing reduced the emission of methane from irrigation water by 4 to 19 g/m(2). While the studied outcomes of bund sealing are positive and compelling, widespread implementation of the technique should consider other factors, such as effect on yields, financial costs, and impact on the hydrologic system. We provide an initial and preliminary assessment of these implementation factors. PMID:24961792

  7. A Low-Cost Demonstration Kit for Locating an Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Integrated with a Ray Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a low-cost, easy to make apparatus that can be used to locate the position of an image formed by a plane mirror. The apparatus is combined with a method used to identify an image's position by drawing a ray diagram, based on the principle of reflection, to show how an image is formed. An image's distance and an object's…

  8. Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foisel, Hans-Martin; Hanik, Norbert; Braun, Ralf-Peter; Lehr, Georg; Gladisch, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on the ASTN and Ethernet-MAN configuration, an UMS (Upper Monitoring System) is being developed. Furthermore broadband application were implemented to visualise the network functions. The ASTN backbone consists of four cross connects and an ULH-WDM system with 3x 10Gbit/s channels (OCh) between Berlin and Darmstadt, whereby each OCh is treated as a virtual fibre.

  9. Possible demonstration of ionization cooling using absorbers in a solenoidal field

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Fernow; Juan C. Gallardo; H. G. Kirk; T. Kycia; Y. Y. Lee; L. Littenberg; Robert B. Palmer; V. Polychronakos; I. Stumer; David Neuffer; David Winn; R. Thun; R. Ball; M. Marx; Yagmur Torun; M. Zeller

    1994-11-01

    Ionization cooling may play an important role in reducing the phase space volume of muons for a future muon-muon collider. We describe a possible experiment to demonstrate transverse emittance cooling using a muon beam at the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The experiment uses device dimensions and parameters and beam conditions similar to what is expected in an actual muon-muon collider.

  10. Field Demonstration of Photonic Antenna Remoting at X-Band in the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X.; Lutes, G.; Logan, R.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of antenna remoting at X-band using a low phase noise and high dynamic range fiber optic link in an operating antenna receiving system, while tracking Magellan spacecraft. The insertion of the fiber link into the existing system adds no observable degradation in noise temperature to the system. We compare the experimental results with our theoretical predictions of degradations in noise temperature and dynamic range of the system caused by the insertion of the fiber link.

  11. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  12. Regularized quadratic cost-function for integrating wave-front gradient fields.

    PubMed

    Villa, Jesús; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén

    2016-05-15

    From the Bayesian regularization theory we derive a quadratic cost-function for integrating wave-front gradient fields. In the proposed cost-function, the term of conditional distribution uses a central-differences model to make the estimated function well consistent with the observed gradient field. As will be shown, the results obtained with the central-differences model are superior to the results obtained with the backward-differences model, commonly used in other integration techniques. As a regularization term we use an isotropic first-order differences Markov Random-Field model, which acts as a low-pass filter reducing the errors caused by the noise. We present simulated and real experiments of the proposal applied in the Foucault test, obtaining good results.

  13. Cost effective spectral sensor solutions for hand held and field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reetz, Edgar; Correns, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    Optical spectroscopy is without doubt one of the most important non-contact measurement principles. It is used in a wide range of applications from bio-medical to industrial fields. One recent trend is to miniaturize spectral sensors to address new areas of application. The most common spectral sensor type is based on diffraction gratings, while other types are based on micro mechanical systems (MEMS) or filter technologies. The authors represent the opinion that there is a potentially wide spread field of applications for spectrometers, but the market limits the range of applications since they cannot keep up with targeted cost requirements for consumer products. The present article explains an alternative approach for miniature multichannel spectrometer to enhance robustness for hand held field applications at a cost efficient price point.

  14. Exploiting SENTINEL-1 Amplitude Data for Glacier Surface Velocity Field Measurements: Feasibility Demonstration on Baltoro Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascetti, A.; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Di Rico, C.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity through SAR imagery, in particular using the amplitude data from the new ESA satellite sensor Sentinel-1 imagery. These imagery key aspects are the free access policy, the very short revisit time (down to 6 days with the launch of the Sentinel-1B satellite) and the high amplitude resolution (up to 5 m). In order to verify the reliability of the proposed approach, a first experiment has been performed using Sentinel-1 imagery acquired over the Karakoram mountain range (North Pakistan) and Baltoro and other three glaciers have been investigated. During this study, a stack of 11 images acquired in the period from October 2014 to September 2015 has been used in order to investigate the potentialities of the Sentinel-1 SAR sensor to retrieve the glacier surface velocity every month. The aim of this test was to measure the glacier surface velocity between each subsequent pair, in order to produce a time series of the surface velocity fields along the investigated period. The necessary coregistration procedure between the images has been performed and subsequently the glaciers areas have been sampled using a regular grid with a 250 × 250 meters posting. Finally the surface velocity field has been estimated, for each image pair, using a template matching procedure, and an outlier filtering procedure based on the signal to noise ratio values has been applied, in order to exclude from the analysis unreliable points. The achieved velocity values range from 10 to 25 meters/month and they are coherent to those obtained in previous studies carried out on the same glaciers and the results highlight that it is possible to have a continuous update of the glacier surface velocity field through free Sentinel-1 imagery, that could be very useful to investigate the seasonal effects on the glaciers fluid-dynamics.

  15. Development of a Low-Cost and High-speed Single Event Effects Testers based on Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. W.; Kim, H.; Berg, M.; LaBel, K. A.; Stansberry, S.; Friendlich, M.; Irwin, T.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of a low cost, high speed tester reconfigurable Field Programmable Gata Array (FPGA) is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Objectives; 3) Tester Descriptions; 4) Tester Validations and Demonstrations; 5) Future Work; and 6) Summary.

  16. Demonstrating the Temperature Gradient Impact on Grain Growth in UO2 Using the Phase Field Method

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; Xianming Bai; Paul C Millett

    2014-01-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) are driven to migrate up a temperature gradient. In this work, we use a phase field (PF) model to investigate the impact of temperature gradients on normal grain growth. GB motion in 2D UO2 polycrystals is predicted under increasing temperature gradients. We find that the temperature gradient does not significantly impact the average grain growth behavior, because the curvature driving force is dominant. However, it does cause significant local migration of the individual grains. In addition, the change in the GB mobility due to the temperature gradient results in larger grains in the hot portion of the polycrystal.

  17. An economic model demonstrating the long-term cost benefits of incorporating fertility control into wild horse (Equus caballus) management programs on public lands in the United States.

    PubMed

    de Seve, Charles W; Griffin, Stephanie L Boyles

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Wild Horse and Burro Management program costs have increased dramatically due to a rise in the number of animals removed from public lands coupled with significantly decreased adoption rates. To assist with development and implementation of effective, cost-containing management programs, a robust economic model to project the costs and optimize outcomes of various management scenarios was created. For example, preliminary demonstration model runs show that by gradually replacing "removal-only" programs with contraception-and-removal programs on one hypothetical Herd Management Area (HMA), the BLM could save about US$8 million over 12 years while maintaining an area target population of 874 horses. Because the BLM estimates that more than 38,000 wild horses roam on 179 HMAs in the United States, the use of this economic model could result in a cost-savings of tens of millions of dollars if applied broadly across all HMAs.

  18. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  19. A field demonstration of multi-INT surveillance and data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Arthur; Havens, Steve

    2008-03-01

    Collecting data in any domain is often only the first step in creating intelligence. This is the beginning of a process which includes fusing that data with other data sources to create something more than the individual data elements. This has been historically difficult because collection sensors are optimized for their respective conventional domains. We have developed a multi-sensor system combining an electro-optical camera and infrared camera, using a revolutionary data handling and manipulating process to fuse multiple types of data to create intelligence. To address the data fusion needs of such a system, we have developed an internationally recognized, open data fusion language called Transducer Markup Language (TML). TML was used in conjunction with the multi-sensor system to describe data from the EO and IR cameras and support sensors all within a self-contained mobile delivery system during military exercises in July 2007. The TML data was collected and disseminated to multiple users within a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), after which it was further distributed using Cursor-On-Target (COT) messages over a second network. This demonstrated both data fusion of multiple sensor data sources and integration into existing data distribution infrastructures. Key innovations of this demonstration included the use of multiple sensors including EO & IR cameras and a single sensor data exchange language to capture and describe sensor output.

  20. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  2. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2006-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provides onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 13 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  3. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2005-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provided onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 11 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  4. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  5. Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

  6. The 2010 Field Demonstration of the Solar Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith to Produce Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, R. J.; White, B. C.; Fidler, M. J.; Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon and other space exploration destinations are comprised of a variety of oxygen-bearing minerals, providing a virtually unlimited quantity of raw material which can be processed to produce oxygen. One attractive method to extract oxygen from the regolith is the carbothermal reduction process, which is not sensitive to variations in the mineral composition of the regolith. It also creates other valuable resources within the processed regolith, such as iron and silicon metals. Using funding from NASA, ORBITEC recently built and tested the Carbothermal Regolith Reduction Module to process lunar regolith simulants using concentrated solar energy. This paper summarizes the experimental test results obtained during a demonstration of the system at a lunar analog test site on the Mauna Kea volcano on Hawaii in February 2010.

  7. [Field scale demonstration of fungi-bacteria augmented remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-long; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Jian-min; Miao, Chang-chun; Zhang, Kun; Jin, Wen-biao; Liu, Zheng

    2008-02-01

    Pilot demonstration of the fungal-bacterial augmented in situ remediation of petroleum contaminated soil was carried out in Zhongyuan Oilfield, Henan, using artificially prepared soil, newly and aged contaminated soil as sample, respectively. For the first run of the experiment started from Nov. 5, 2004 and lasted for 122 days, the removal of contaminate was 61.0%, 48.3% and 38.3% for diesel, lube and crude oil, respectively. For the second run started from May 18, 2005 and lasted for 161 days, the removal of TPH was 75% for the artificially contaminated soil sample while 46.0% and 56.6% for the fresh and aged contaminated soil. The removal of high concentration salt was involved in the remediation of the freshly and aged contaminated soil. The changes of the petroleum composition was monitored during the remediation process, which confirmed the effective degradation of alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon compounds by the fungi-bacteria consortia, as compared to that obtained without the inoculation of the consortia. To further demonstrate the remediation, wheat was planted in above reclaimed soil. While wheat production in the reclaimed artificially contaminated soil yielded nearly as much as that obtained in the normal farmland, the output of wheat in the reclaimed refresh and aged contaminated soil was 57.2% and 70.3% of the averaged output of the normal farmland. The above results further confirmed the workability of fungal-bacterial augmented in situ remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and its application potential as well.

  8. Costs of Arsenic Removal Technologies for Small Water Systems: U.S. EPA Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Arsenic Rule Implementation Research Program, between July 2003 and July 2011, the U.S. environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. ...

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite

    2003-09-30

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2003 to September 30, 2003. Conductivity testing between the CO{sub 2}I No.1 and CO{sub 2} No.13 was performed over the period 08/20/03 through 09/05/03. Observed response in CO{sub 2} 13 production rates to changes in CO{sub 2}I No.1 injection rates are consistent with sufficient permeability between CO{sub 2}I No.1 and CO{sub 2} No.13 for a viable CO{sub 2} flood with a sufficient Process Pore Volume Rate (PPV). Based on the permeabilities near the CO{sub 2} No.16, a 2-producing well pattern has been determined to be optimal but may be changed during the flood depending on the response observed in the CO{sub 2} No.16. Present inter-well test results indicate there is greater permeability architecture complexity than originally predicted and that a low-permeability region or barrier that restricts but does stop flow may exist between the CO{sub 2}I No.1 and the CO{sub 2} No.13. Pilot area repressurization began on 09/05/03, immediately after CO{sub 2}I No.1-CO{sub 2} No.13 conductivity testing was complete, by increasing injection in the CO{sub 2}I No.1, CO{sub 2} No.10, and CO{sub 2} No.18. Adequate reservoir pressure in the portion of the pilot area needed to be above minimum miscibility pressure should be reached in November at which time initial CO{sub 2} injection could begin. It is estimated the 2-producing well, 10+-acre (4.05 ha) producing pattern will produce 18,000-21,000 BO (barrels oil; 2,880-3,360 m{sup 3}). Depending primarily on surface facilities costs, operating expenses, and the price of oil, for the predicted range of oil recovery the pilot is estimated to either break-even or be profitable from this point forward. Final arrangements and agreements for CO{sub 2} supply and delivery are being worked on and will be finalized in the next month.

  10. Field demonstration and commercialization of silent discharge plasma hazardous air pollutant control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Secker, D.A.; Reimers, R.F.; Herrmann, P.G.; Chase, P.J.; Gross, M.P. |; Jones, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases, and treating other environmentally- hazardous chemical compounds. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been studying the silent discharge plasma (SDP) for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater). In this paper, we will summarize the basic principles of SDP processing, discuss illustrative applications of the technology, and present results from small-scale field tests that are relevant to our commercialization effort.

  11. Granular ferric hydroxide adsorbent for phosphate removal: demonstration preparation and field study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bei; Zhang, Yu; Dou, Xiaomin; Yuan, Hongying; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Ferric hydroxide (FHO), which has high phosphate adsorption capacity, was prepared by precipitation at industrial scale and then fabricated via the drum granulation method with cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as the binder. The optimum binder/FHO powder ratio was 0.6 for producing a granular adsorbent with a high phosphate adsorption capacity and stability. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of powder and granular FHOs were 74.07 mg g⁻¹ and 56.18 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0 ± 0.2, respectively, which were higher than those of other reported phosphate adsorbents under neutral or acidic conditions. Phosphate-loaded granular FHO could be regenerated by NaOH solution. Columns containing the granular FHO were used for phosphate removal from ozonated secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant at space velocity (SV) of 2 and 5 h⁻¹. During more than 2 months' operation, the average removal percentage of PO(4)(3-) was more than 90% and the turbidity and concentration of CODMn in the effluents were lower than in the influents. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray results suggested that active sites inside the granular FHO were available for phosphate removal. The results demonstrated that granular FHO can be applied as an assist technology for phosphate removal from secondary effluents.

  12. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  13. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  14. Dynamic Memory Cells Using MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors Demonstrating Femtoampere Leakage Currents.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Chaitanya U; Xu, Weichao; Su, Yang; Robbins, Matthew C; Kim, Chris H; Koester, Steven J

    2016-09-27

    Two-dimensional semiconductors such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of tremendous interest for scaled logic and memory applications. One of the most promising TMDs for scaled transistors is molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and several recent reports have shown excellent performance and scalability for MoS2 MOSFETs. An often overlooked feature of MoS2 is that its wide band gap (1.8 eV in monolayer) and high effective masses should lead to extremely low off-state leakage currents. These features could be extremely important for dynamic memory applications where the refresh rate is the primary factor affecting the power consumption. Theoretical predictions suggest that leakage currents in the 10(-18) to 10(-15) A/μm range could be possible, even in scaled transistor geometries. Here, we demonstrate the operation of one- and two-transistor dynamic memory circuits using MoS2 MOSFETs. We characterize the retention times in these circuits and show that the two-transistor memory cell reveals MoS2 MOSFETs leakage currents as low as 1.7 × 10(-15) A/μm, a value that is below the noise floor of conventional DC measurements. These results have important implications for the future use of MoS2 MOSFETs in low-power circuit applications.

  15. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  16. Dynamic Memory Cells Using MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors Demonstrating Femtoampere Leakage Currents.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Chaitanya U; Xu, Weichao; Su, Yang; Robbins, Matthew C; Kim, Chris H; Koester, Steven J

    2016-09-27

    Two-dimensional semiconductors such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of tremendous interest for scaled logic and memory applications. One of the most promising TMDs for scaled transistors is molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and several recent reports have shown excellent performance and scalability for MoS2 MOSFETs. An often overlooked feature of MoS2 is that its wide band gap (1.8 eV in monolayer) and high effective masses should lead to extremely low off-state leakage currents. These features could be extremely important for dynamic memory applications where the refresh rate is the primary factor affecting the power consumption. Theoretical predictions suggest that leakage currents in the 10(-18) to 10(-15) A/μm range could be possible, even in scaled transistor geometries. Here, we demonstrate the operation of one- and two-transistor dynamic memory circuits using MoS2 MOSFETs. We characterize the retention times in these circuits and show that the two-transistor memory cell reveals MoS2 MOSFETs leakage currents as low as 1.7 × 10(-15) A/μm, a value that is below the noise floor of conventional DC measurements. These results have important implications for the future use of MoS2 MOSFETs in low-power circuit applications. PMID:27559610

  17. Cost accounting for end-of-life care: recommendations to the field by the Cost Accounting Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Seninger, Stephen; Smith, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of economic costs is prerequisite to progress in improving the care delivered to Americans during the last stage of life. The Robert Wood Johnson Excellence in End-of-Life Care national program assembled a Cost Accounting Workgroup to identify accurate and meaningful methods to measure palliative and end-of-life health care use and costs. Eight key issues were identified: (1) planning the cost analysis; (2) identifying the perspective for cost analysis; (3) describing the end-of-life care program; (4) identifying the appropriate comparison group; (5) defining the period of care to be studied; (6) identifying the units of health care services; (7) assigning monetary values to health care service units; and (8) calculating costs. Economic principles of cost measurement and cost measurement issues encountered by practitioners were reviewed and incorporated into a set of recommendations.

  18. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Robinson, Daryl C.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    Novel transistors and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low-power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. For NASA applications, nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for increased onboard data processing, and thus autonomous decisionmaking ability, and novel sensors that detect and respond to environmental stimuli with little oversight requirements. Polyaniline/polyethylene oxide (PANi/PEO) nanofibers are of interest because they have electrical conductivities that can be changed from insulating to metallic by varying the doping levels and conformations of the polymer chain. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have observed field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun PANi/PEO nanofibers doped with camphorsulfonic acid. The nanofibers were deposited onto Au electrodes, which had been prepatterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The preceding scanning electron image shows the device used in the transistor measurements. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages (see the following graph). The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4x10(exp -4)sq cm/V sec, whereas the one-dimensional charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx.10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating one-dimensional polymer FET's.

  19. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide. [Polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents.

  20. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-30

    The objective of this project was to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions was conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute partially supported the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. During the course of this project, MTR has sold thirteen commercial units related to the field test technology. Revenue generated from new business is already more than four times the research dollars invested in this process by DOE. The process is ready for broader commercialization and the expectation is to pursue the commercialization plans developed during this project, including collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  1. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2004-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Lokhandwala; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; C. Bailey; M. Jacobs; R. Baker; Membrane Group

    2000-04-04

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  3. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2001-12-31

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre) CO{sub 2} demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. Testing of present Colliver lease injection water on Lansing-Kansas City (L-KC) oomoldic rock indicates that injection brine must be filtered to < {approx}3-5 um and <15 um to prevent plugging of rocks with permeability as low as 1 md (millidarcy; 0.001 um2) and 10 md (0.01 um2), respectively. Pressure build-up testing on the Carter-Colliver No.7 well is interpreted to indicate the L-KC reservoir surrounding this well is {approx}9 ft (2.7 m) thick having an average effective water permeability of 25-35 md (0.025-0.035 um2) that is connected to the wellbore by either a high permeability fracture, bed, or region with low skin. Reservoir simulation evaluation of gridcell size effect on model oil recovery prediction indicates that, based on the model prediction of distribution of produced oil and CO{sub 2} volumes, oil recovery is strongly influenced by gravity segregation of CO{sub 2} into the upper higher permeability layers and indicates the strong control that vertical permeability and permeability barriers between depositional flood cycles exert on the CO{sub 2} flooding process. Simulations were performed on modifications of the 60-acre, two-injector pattern to evaluate oil recovery using other large-scale patterns. Simulations indicated that several 73-acre patterns with a single injector located near the Colliver No.7 could provide improved economics without increasing the amount of CO{sub 2} injected. The US Energy Partners ethanol plant in Russell, KS began operations in October ahead

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2003-06-30

    Progress is reported for the period from April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. The pilot water injection plant became operational 4/18/03 and began long-term injection in the CO2I No.1 on 4/23/03. The CO2I No.1 exhibits sufficient injectivity for pilot requirements with average absolute permeability surrounding this well equal to {approx}85 millidarcies. Response to injection in the CO2I No.1 has established that conductivity between CO2I No.1 and CO2 No.12, No.10, No.18 and TB Carter No.5 is sufficient for the demonstration. Workovers of the CO2 No.16 and CO2 No.13 were completed in April and May, respectively. Pressure response indicates No.16 communicates with the flood pattern area but core, swab-test, and pressure response data indicate permeability surrounding No.16 is not adequate to maintain the production rates needed to support the original pattern as the well is presently completed. Decisions concerning possible further testing and stimulation have been postponed until after testing of the No.13 is complete. Production rates for the No.13 are consistent with a surrounding reservoir average absolute permeability of {approx}80 md. However, pressure and rate tests results, partially due to the nature of the testing conducted to date, have not confirmed the nature of the CO2I No.1-CO2 No.13 conductivity. A build-up test and conductivity test are planned to begin the first weeks of the next quarter to obtain reservoir properties data and establish the connectivity and conductivity between CO2 I-1 and CO2 No.13. A new geomodel of the pattern area has been developed based on core from No.16 and the new wireline logs from the No.10, No.12, No.16, and No.13. The new geomodel is currently being incorporated into the basic calculations of reservoir volume and flood design and predicted response as well as the reservoir simulators. Murfin signed a letter agreement with FLOCO2 of Odessa, TX for supply of CO2 storage and injection equipment. Technology transfer activities

  7. A low-cost, high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging-compatible actuator.

    PubMed

    Secoli, Riccardo; Robinson, Matthew; Brugnoli, Michele; Rodriguez y Baena, Ferdinando

    2015-03-01

    To perform minimally invasive surgical interventions with the aid of robotic systems within a magnetic resonance imaging scanner offers significant advantages compared to conventional surgery. However, despite the numerous exciting potential applications of this technology, the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible robotics has been hampered by safety, reliability and cost concerns: the robots should not be attracted by the strong magnetic field of the scanner and should operate reliably in the field without causing distortion to the scan data. Development of non-conventional sensors and/or actuators is thus required to meet these strict operational and safety requirements. These demands commonly result in expensive actuators, which mean that cost effectiveness remains a major challenge for such robotic systems. This work presents a low-cost, high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging-compatible actuator: a pneumatic stepper motor which is controllable in open loop or closed loop, along with a rotary encoder, both fully manufactured in plastic, which are shown to perform reliably via a set of in vitro trials while generating negligible artifacts when imaged within a standard clinical scanner. PMID:25833997

  8. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.H.; Dwyer, B.

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained.

  9. Demonstrating the cost effectiveness of an expert occupational and environmental health nurse: application of AAOHN's success tools. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A; Smith, P S

    2001-12-01

    According to DiBenedetto, "Occupational health nurses enhance and maximize the health, safety, and productivity of the domestic and global work force" (1999b). This project clearly defined the multiple roles and activities provided by an occupational and environmental health nurse and assistant, supported by a part time contract occupational health nurse. A well defined estimate of the personnel costs for each of these roles is helpful both in demonstrating current value and in future strategic planning for this department. The model highlighted both successes and a business cost savings opportunity for integrated disability management. The AAOHN's Success Tools (1998) were invaluable in launching the development of this cost effectiveness model. The three methods were selected from several tools of varying complexities offered. Collecting available data to develop these metrics required internal consultation with finance, human resources, and risk management, as well as communication with external health, safety, and environmental providers in the community. Benchmarks, surveys, and performance indicators can be found readily in the literature and online. The primary motivation for occupational and environmental health nurses to develop cost effectiveness analyses is to demonstrate the value and worth of their programs and services. However, it can be equally important to identify which services are not cost effective so knowledge and skills may be used in ways that continue to provide value to employers (AAOHN, 1996). As evidence based health care challenges the occupational health community to demonstrate business rationale and financial return on investment, occupational and environmental health nurses must meet that challenge if they are to define their preferred future (DiBenedetto, 2000).

  10. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Camargo, Plínio B; Cerri, Carlos E; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C; Vieira, Ima C G; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  11. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Camargo, Plínio B.; Cerri, Carlos E.; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C.; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor—an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  12. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Camargo, Plínio B; Cerri, Carlos E; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C; Vieira, Ima C G; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  13. Reducing heliostat field costs by direct measurement and control of the mirror orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Donker, P.; Rosinga, G.; van Voorthuysen, E. du Marchie

    2016-05-01

    The first commercial CSP Central Receiver System has been in operation since 2007. The technology required for such a central receiver system is quite new. The determining factor of the price of electricity is the capital investment in the heliostat field. The cost level per square meter of the heliostat field is rather high. Sun2point is questioning the market development, which is trying to get the cost level down by aiming at large heliostats. Sun2Point aims at mass manufacturing small heliostats to achieve low prices. Mass manufacturing off-site and transport over long distances is possible for small heliostats only. Calibration on the spot is a labour-intensive activity. Autonomous, factory calibrated and wireless controlled heliostats are the solution to lower installation cost. A new measurement method that directly reports the orientation of the heliostat in relation to the earth and the sun can solve the calibration problem when the heliostats are installed. The application of small heliostats will be much cheaper as a result of this measurement method. In this paper several methods for such a measurement are described briefly. The new Sun2Point method has successfully been tested. In this paper Sun2Point challenges the CSP community to investigate this approach. A brief survey is presented of many aspects that lead to a low price.

  14. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  15. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  16. Environmental benefits and economic costs of manure incorporation on dairy waste application fields.

    PubMed

    Osei, E; Gassman, P W; Hauck, L M; Jones, R; Beran, L; Dyke, P T; Goss, D W; Flowers, J D; McFarland, A M S; Saleh, A

    2003-05-01

    Model simulations performed representing dairies in a 93000 ha watershed in north central Texas suggest that manure incorporation results in reduced phosphorus (P) losses at relatively small to moderate cost to producers. Simulated manure incorporation with a tandem disk on fields double-cropped with sorghum/winter wheat resulted in up to 33, 45, and 37% reductions in per hectare sediment-bound, soluble, and total P losses in edge-of-field runoff, relative to simulated surface manure applications. The effects of incorporation were evaluated at three different manure application rates. On aggregate across all three manure application rates, significant declines in P losses were obtained with incorporation except for sediment-bound P losses under the N-based manure application rate scenario. We found that the practice of incorporating manure shortly after it has been broadcast on the soil surface could help reduce P losses in such situations where P-based rates alone prove inadequate. The cost the producer incurs when manure is incorporated is on average about 1% of net returns when manure is applied at the N rate and 2-3% when it is applied at alternative P-based rates. In practice the costs could be lower because producers may substitute the manure incorporation operation for a tandem disk operation performed prior to manure application. As more and more dairy producers switch to the use of sorghum and corn silage in dairy rations and consequent on-farm production of these forages, the practice of manure incorporation may help to reduce phosphorus losses resulting from dairy manure applications to fields with these forage crops. PMID:12767858

  17. Growth in conventional fields in high-cost areas: a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration managers commonly base future drilling decisions on past experience in an area. To do this well, they should consider both discovered and undiscovered resources to characterize total future potential. Discovery-size estimates should be adjusted to account for future field growth; otherwise, the relative efficiency of recent exploration will be undervalued. This study models and projects field growth for pre-1997 discoveries in the U.S. Federal Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Projected additions to reserves for these fields from field growth through 2020 are 5.2 billion bbl of oil and 46 Tcfg. Projections include growth associated with sizable new oil discoveries in deepwater areas and initial reserve additions from new subsalt plays discovered through 1996. This article focuses on the U.S. GOM because it has produced longer than other worldwide offshore areas. Its field-growth profile may be prototypical of other offshore provinces such as the North Sea, Scotian Shelf and deepwater Angola, as well as high-cost onshore areas.

  18. Low-cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Ikehara, Curtis S.; Merritt, John O.

    1992-06-01

    A low cost helmet-mounted stereoscopic color viewing system designed for field testing teleoperator tasks is described. A stereo camera pair was mounted on a helmet to allow testing of a helmet-mounted display with real time video input. The display consisted of a pair of LCD color monitors viewed through a modified Wheatstone mirror system. The components were arranged on a stable platform that was attached to a hard plastic helmet. The helmet weight (9.5 pounds) was supported by a modified backpack. This backpack also contained support electronics and batteries. Design, construction, and evaluation tests of this viewing system are discussed.

  19. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASOLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    George C. Vradis; Hagen Schempf

    2004-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its sixth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot completed its first field demonstration in June 2004 and is undergoing further extensive endurance testing and some minor modifications in order to prepare for the second and last field demonstration planned for October 2004.

  20. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2003-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NGA member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its third six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on the last system integration issues and on software development for the turning and launching routines. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Summer 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early Fall 2003.

  1. Frontier Fields: A Cost-Effective Approach to Bringing Authentic Science to the Education Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B.; Summers, F.; Ryer, H.

    2015-11-01

    For more than two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community and the public, and to engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based, curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, and professional development workshops. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. The Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community in a cost-effective way. Frontier Fields observations and results have been, and will continue to be, embedded into existing product lines and professional development offerings. We also are leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog.

  2. Field calibrations of a low-cost aerosol sensor at a regulatory monitoring site in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, D. M.; Pillarisetti, A.; Smith, K. R.; Seto, E.

    2014-04-01

    Health effects attributed to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) now rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, but existing monitoring infrastructure cannot adequately characterize spatial and temporal variability in urban PM2.5 concentrations, nor in human population exposures. The development and evaluation of more portable and affordable monitoring instruments based on low-cost sensors may offer a means to supplement and extend existing infrastructure, increasing the density and coverage of empirical measurements and thereby improving exposure science and control. Here, we report on field calibrations of a custom-built, battery-operated aerosol monitoring instrument we developed using low-cost, off-the-shelf optical aerosol sensors. We calibrated our instruments using 1 h and 24 h PM2.5 data from a class III US EPA Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) PM2.5 β-attenuation monitor in continuous operation at a regulatory monitoring site in Oakland, California. We observed negligible associations with ambient humidity and temperature; linear corrections were sufficient to explain 60% of the variance in 1 h reference PM2.5 data and 72% of the variance in 24 h data. Performance at 1 h integration times was comparable to commercially available optical instruments costing considerably more. These findings warrant further exploration of the circumstances under which this class of aerosol sensors may profitably be deployed to generate improved PM2.5 data sets.

  3. An extended cost potential field cellular automata model considering behavior variation of pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-11-01

    The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.

  4. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGLs) and remove water from raw natural gas. To convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process, we plan to conduct an extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions. The membrane system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR). The MTR membrane system and the compressor are now onsite at BP's Pascagoula, MS plant. The plant is undergoing a very significant expansion and the installation of the membrane unit into the test location is being implemented, albeit at a slower rate than we expected. The startup of the system and conducting of tests will occur in the next six months, depending on the availability of the remaining budget. In the interim, significant commercial progress has been made regarding the introduction of the NGL membrane and systems into the natural gas market.

  5. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions. PMID:23598358

  6. SUPPORT FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE ARM PROJECT AND DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE GWIS MODEL FOR A VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE

    SciTech Connect

    F. DAVID MARTIN; MARK B. MURPHY - STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES, LLC

    1999-12-31

    Strategic Technology Resources, L.L.C. (STR) provided work for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in response to Request for Proposal 005BZ0019-35. The objectives of the work in this project were to: (1) support the completion of the Advanced Reservoir Management (ARM) cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) LA9502037, and (2) support the development of a field demonstration of the LANL-developed Global Weapons Information System (GWIS) model for virtual enterprises. The second objective was contingent upon DOE approval of the Advanced Information Management (AIM) CRADA. At the request of the LANL Technical Representative, the project was granted a no-cost extension to November 30, 1999. As part of the project, STR provided managerial support for the ARM CRADA by: (1) assessing the data resources of the participating companies, (2) facilitating the transfer of technical data to LANL, (3) preparing reports, (4) managing communications between the parties to the ARM CRADA, and (5) assisting with the dissemination of information between the parties to technical professional societies and trade associations. The first phase of the current project was to continue to engage subcontractors to perform tasks in the ARM CRADA for which LANL expertise was lacking. All of the ARM field studies required of the project were completed, and final reports for all of the project studies are appended to this final report. The second phase of the current project was to support the field demonstration of the GWIS model for virtual enterprises in an oilfield setting. STR developed a hypertext Webpage that describes the concept and implementation of a virtual enterprise for reservoir management in the petroleum industry. Contents of the hypertext document are included in this report on the project.

  7. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  8. Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems.

    PubMed

    Hugues-Salas, E; Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Wei, J L; Zheng, X; Hong, Y; Shu, C; Tang, J M

    2011-02-14

    The feasibility of utilising low-cost, un-cooled vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as intensity modulators in real-time optical OFDM (OOFDM) transceivers is experimentally explored, for the first time, in terms of achievable signal bit rates, physical mechanisms limiting the transceiver performance and performance robustness. End-to-end real-time transmission of 11.25 Gb/s 64-QAM-encoded OOFDM signals over simple intensity modulation and direct detection, 25 km SSMF PON systems is experimentally demonstrated with a power penalty of 0.5 dB. The low extinction ratio of the VCSEL intensity-modulated OOFDM signal is identified to be the dominant factor determining the maximum obtainable transmission performance. Experimental investigations indicate that, in addition to the enhanced transceiver performance, adaptive power loading can also significantly improve the system performance robustness to variations in VCSEL operating conditions. As a direct result, the aforementioned capacity versus reach performance is still retained over a wide VCSEL bias (driving) current (voltage) range of 4.5 mA to 9 mA (275 mVpp to 320 mVpp). This work is of great value as it demonstrates the possibility of future mass production of cost-effective OOFDM transceivers for PON applications.

  9. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the New York Gas Group (NYGAS; a trade association of the publicly owned gas utilities in New York State), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The DOE's contribution to this current phase of the project is $499,023 out of a total of $780,735 (not including NASA's contribution). The present report

  10. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Auchter, B.; Cautley, D.; Ahl, D.; Earle, L.; Jin, X.

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  11. Demonstration/field study of new designs of automated gas chromatographs in Connecticut and other locations, 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Pollack, A.J.; Pate, A.D.

    1993-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to install, test and demonstrate two automated gas chromatographic (GC) systems to state and regional EPA groups. The Dynatherm/Hewlett Packard GC system was designed for the measurement of the 41 toxic compounds listed in EPA's Compendium of Methods for Method TO-14. The second system was a Perkin Elmer GC configured for the analysis of the 55 ozone precursor compounds identified in the EPA Technical Assistance Document No. EPA/600-8-91/215. Both GC systems performed well during the field evaluations with data capture of 98 percent. A method quantitation limit (MQL) of 0.5 ppbv was obtained for most of the target compounds. In examining daily control check runs, the variation of corrected GC retention times for each instrument and detector ranged from 0.023 to 0.044 minutes.

  12. Field demonstration of a scanning lidar and detection algorithm for spatially mapping honeybees for biological detection of land mines.

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Erik S; Wicks, Geoffrey R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L; Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B

    2011-05-10

    A biological detection scheme based on the natural foraging behavior of conditioned honeybees for detecting chemical vapor plumes associated with unexploded ordnance devices utilizes a scanning lidar instrument to provide spatial mapping of honeybee densities. The scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) instrument uses a frequency doubled Nd:YAG microchip laser to send out a series of pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 6.853 kHz. The scattered light is monitored to produce a discrete time series for each range. This discrete time series is then processed using an efficient algorithm that is able to isolate and identify the return signal from a honeybee in a cluttered environment, producing spatially mapped honeybee densities. Two field experiments were performed with the scanning lidar instrument that demonstrate good correlation between the honeybee density maps and the target locations. PMID:21556112

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  14. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    George C. Vradis, Hagen Schempf

    2004-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fifth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot is undergoing extensive endurance testing in order to prepare for the field demonstrations planned for June 2004.

  15. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2003-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fourth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on endurance testing and testing of launching procedures. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Fall 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in Winter 2003-2004.

  16. A low-cost, easy-to-handle calibration phantom for MR thermometry in HIFU fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Koch, Christian; Seifert, Frank; Klepsch, Tobias; Shaw, Adam

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a calibration phantom based on an electrical resistor heating rod is presented, which creates a temperature distribution similar to those in typical HIFU fields (diameter ˜2 mm, heating rate ˜10 K/s). The temperature distribution is measured first with a calibrated reference device and then with MR thermometry. Equal conditions for both measurements can be ensured by monitoring the voltage and current across the resistor during the heating. From the comparison of both measurements, the accuracy of the MR measurement can be assessed. The calibration phantom is MR compatible, and it has high reproducibility and low production costs. A wide variety of possible heating sequences can be employed and the phantom has a compact and easy setup. Thus, it can be used to quickly verify the results from newly developed MR thermometry sequences as well as to evaluate the uncertainties of existing sequences.

  17. Development of a DC Glow Discharge Exhibit for the Demonstration of Plasma Behavior in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    The DC Glow Discharge Exhibit is intended to demonstrate the effects a magnetic field produces on a plasma in a vacuum chamber. The display, which will be featured as a part of The Liberty Science Center's ``Energy Quest Exhibition,'' consists of a DC glow discharge tube and information panels to educate the general public on plasma and its relation to fusion energy. Wall posters and an information booklet will offer brief descriptions of fusion-based science and technology, and will portray plasma's role in the development of fusion as a viable source of energy. The display features a horse-shoe magnet on a movable track, allowing viewers to witness the effects of a magnetic field upon a plasma. The plasma is created from air within a vacuum averaging between 100-200 mTorr. Signage within the casing describes the hardware components. The display is pending delivery to The Liberty Science Center, and will replace a similar, older exhibit presently at the museum.

  18. A field demonstration project utilizing FBC/PCC residues for paving materials. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoori, N.

    1994-12-31

    Research has been undertaken into engineering properties of roller compacted concretes containing fluidized bed combustion/pulverized coal combustion (FBC/PCC) by-products as well as FBC/PCC-Portland Cement concrete mixtures prepared using conventional placement technique. This laboratory effort has resulted in identification of a number of potentially viable commercial applications for the FBC by-products residues derived from Illinois high-sulfur coal. One potential and promising application of the FBC/PCC solid waste residues, which also accounts for the large utilization of coal-based by-product materials, is in pavement construction. The proposal presented herein is intended to embark into a new endeavor in order to bring the commercialization aspect of the initial laboratory project a step closer to reality by conducting a field demonstration of the optimized mixtures identified during the two-year laboratory investigation. A total of twenty-three different pavement slabs will be constructed at an identified site located in the Illinois Coal Development Park, Carterville, Illinois, by two construction contractors who are part of the industrial participants of the initial project and have expressed interest in the construction of experimental slabs. Both conventional and roller compacted concrete placement techniques will be utilized. All sections will be subjected to an extensive engineering evaluation and will be monitored for nearly a year for both short and long-term performance. The field results will be compared to that of the equivalent laboratory-prepared mixes in order to ascertain the suitability, of the proposed mixes for field application. During this reporting period, the physico-chemical and preconditioning characteristics of the raw materials were evaluated. Construction of the experimental road consisting of twenty-three surface and base course slab sections was also completed.

  19. Subsurface Characterization and Seismic Monitoring for the Southwest Partnerships Phase III Demonstration Project at Farnsworth Field, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, R. A.; Balch, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration is performing seismic based characterization and monitoring activities at an active CO2 EOR project at Farnsworth Field, Texas. CO2 is anthropogenically sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. The field has 13 CO2 injectors and has sequestered 302,982 metric tonnes of CO2 since October 2013. The field site provides an excellent laboratory for testing a range of monitoring technologies in an operating CO2 flood since planned development is sequential and allows for multiple opportunities to record zero CO2 baseline data, mid-flood data, and fully flooded data. The project is comparing and contrasting several scales of seismic technologies in order to determine best practices for large scale commercial sequestration projects. Characterization efforts include an 85 km2 3D surface seismic survey, baseline and repeat 3D VSP surveys centered on injection wells, cross-well tomography baseline and repeat surveys between injector/producer pairs, and a borehole passive seismic array to monitor induced seismicity. All surveys have contributed to detailed geologic models which were then used for fluid flow and risk assessment simulations. 3D VSP and cross-well data with repeat surveys have allowed for direct comparisons of the reservoir prior to CO2 injection and at eight months into injection, with a goal of imaging the CO2 plume as it moves away from injection wells. Additional repeat surveys at regular intervals will continue to refine the plume. The goal of this work is to demonstrate seismic based technologies to monitor CO2 sequestration projects, and to contribute to best practices manuals for commercial scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this talk the seismic plan will be outlined, progress towards goals enumerated, and preliminary results from baseline and repeat seismic data will be discussed. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  20. Feasibility Demonstration of a Massively Parallelizable Near-Field Sensor for Sub-Wavelength Defect Detection and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, consisting of a remotely interrogating array of dipoles, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. In the present work a remotely interrogating slot antenna inside a 60nm silver slab is designed which increases the signal to noise ratio of the original system. The antenna is tuned to resonance at 600nm range by taking advantage of the plasmon resonance properties of the metal's negative permittivity and judicious shaping of the slot element. Full-physics simulations show the capability of detecting an 8nm particle using red light illumination. The sensitivity to the lambda/78 particle is attained by detecting the change induced on the antenna's far field signature by the proximate particle, a change that is 15dB greater than the scattering signature of the particle by itself. To verify the capabilities of this technology in a readily accessible experimental environment, a radiofrequency scale model is designed using a meta-material to mimic the optical properties of silver in the 2GHz to 5GHz range. Various approaches to the replication of the metal's behavior are explored in a trade-off between fidelity to the metal's natural plasmon response, desired bandwidth of the demonstration, and ii manufacturability of the meta-material. The simulation and experimental results successfully verify the capability of the proposed near-field sensor in sub-wavelength detection and imaging not only as a proof of concept for optical frequencies but also as a

  1. Demonstration of Brain Tumor-Induced Neurovascular Uncoupling in Resting-State fMRI at Ultrahigh Field.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shruti; Sair, Haris I; Airan, Raag; Hua, Jun; Jones, Craig K; Heo, Hye-Young; Olivi, Alessandro; Lindquist, Martin A; Pekar, James J; Pillai, Jay J

    2016-05-01

    To demonstrate in a small case series for the first time the phenomenon of brain tumor-related neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at ultrahigh field (7T). Two de novo (i.e., untreated) brain tumor patients underwent both BOLD resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) on a 7T MRI system and motor task-based BOLD fMRI at 3T. Ipsilesional (i.e., ipsilateral to tumor or IL) and contralesional (i.e., contralateral to tumor or CL) region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on both 3T motor task-related general linear model-derived activation maps and on 7T rsfMRI independent component analysis (ICA)-derived sensorimotor network maps for each case. Asymmetry scores (ASs) were computed based on numbers of suprathreshold voxels in the IL and CL ROIs. In each patient, ASs derived from ROI analysis of suprathreshold voxels in IL and CL ROIs in task-related activation maps and rsfMRI ICA-derived sensorimotor component maps indicate greater number of suprathreshold voxels in contralesional than ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex in both maps. In patient 1, an AS of 0.2 was obtained from the suprathreshold Z-score spectrum (voxels with Z-scores >5.0) of the task-based activation map and AS of 1.0 was obtained from the suprathreshold Z-score spectrum (Z-scores >5.0) of the ICA-derived sensorimotor component map. Similarly, in patient 2, an AS of 1.0 was obtained from the suprathreshold Z-score spectrum (Z-scores >5.0) of the task-based activation map and an AS of 1.0 was obtained from the suprathreshold Z-score spectrum (Z-scores >5.0) of the ICA-derived sensorimotor component map. Overall, decreased BOLD signal was noted in IL compared with CL ROIs on both task-based activation maps and ultrahigh field resting-state maps, indicating the presence of NVU. We have demonstrated evidence of NVU on ultrahigh field 7T rsfMRI comparable with the findings on standard 3T motor task-based fMRI in both cases

  2. Demonstration of the Applicability of Novel Photoacoustic Aerosol Monitor for Optical Absorption Coefficient Determination. Laboratory and Field Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Schnaiter, M.; Linke, C.; Vragel, M.; Filep, Á.; Fődi, L.; Motika, G.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2009-04-01

    Despite of its importance, the possibilities to determine the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols is very limited due to lack of the reliable on-line instruments. Therefore there is an increasing concern for novel methods promising more accurate and reliable results in this field. The accuracy and reliability of the available on-line instruments like SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer), MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer), are limited by the weakness of the spectral resolution or the sampling artefact of filter matrix during the light attenuation measurement on the deposited filter. These methods neither suitable for direct determination of the light absorption by aerosols nor dispose the capability of the source apportionment. In this work we present a novel photoacoustic based instrument for direct light absorption measurements in the atmosphere and demonstrate the suitability of that both in laboratory and field circumstances. We have developed a novel Multi Wavelength PhotoAcoustic System (WaSul-MuWaPas) based on the diode laser pumped, high repetition rate, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its frequency converted harmonics for direct determination of light absorption by aerosols. This instrument has designed to make in situ measurements at four different wavelengths simultaneously from the NIR to the UV wavelength range (1064nm, 532nm, 355nm, 266nm). The Wasul-MuWaPas measures directly the optical absorption coefficient on airborne particles, not belong to the integrated plate type technique (filter-free operation), operating at wide wavelength range (source apportionment possibilities), due to the possibilities of the wavelength independent cell constant determination the measurement method is absolute. Because of these the Wasul-MuWaPas system may become one of the best candidate for absorption measurements of various atmospheric aerosols such as black carbon, mineral dust, and secondary organic and inorganic aerosols as well as for source

  3. Accounting for polarization cost when using fixed charge force fields. II. Method and application for computing effect of polarization cost on free energy of hydration.

    PubMed

    Swope, William C; Horn, Hans W; Rice, Julia E

    2010-07-01

    Polarization cost is the energy needed to distort the wave function of a molecule from one appropriate to the gas phase to one appropriate for some condensed phase. Although it is not currently standard practice, polarization cost should be considered when deriving improved fixed charge force fields based on fits to certain types of experimental data and when using such force fields to compute observables that involve changes in molecular polarization. Building on earlier work, we present mathematical expressions and a method to estimate the effect of polarization cost on free energy and enthalpy implied by a charge model meant to represent a solvated state. The charge model can be any combination of point charges, higher-order multipoles, or even distributed charge densities, as long as they do not change in response to environment. The method is illustrated by computing the effect of polarization cost on free energies of hydration for the neutral amino acid side chain analogues as predicted using two popular fixed charge force fields and one based on electron densities computed using quantum chemistry techniques that employ an implicit model to represent aqueous solvent. From comparison of the computed and experimental hydration free energies, we find that two commonly used force fields are too underpolarized in their description of the solute-water interaction. On the other hand, a charge model based on the charge density from a hybrid density functional calculation that used an implicit model for aqueous solvent performs well for hydration free energies of these molecules after the correction for dipole polarization is applied. As such, an improved description of the density (e.g., B3LYP, MP2) in conjunction with an implicit solvent (e.g., PCM) or explicit solvent (e.g., QM/MM) approach may offer promise as a starting point for the development of improved fixed charge models for force fields.

  4. Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Oztoprak, Cetin; Tseng, Derek; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Protection of human health and well-being through water quality management is an important goal for both the developed and the developing parts of the world. In the meantime, insufficient disinfection techniques still fail to eliminate pathogenic contaminants in freshwater as well as recreational water resources. Therefore, there is a significant need for screening of water quality to prevent waterborne outbreaks and incidents of water-related diseases. Toward this end, here we investigate the use of a field-portable and cost-effective lensfree holographic microscope to image and detect pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia and Cryptosporidium Parvum at low concentration levels. This compact lensless microscope (O. Mudanyali et al., Lab Chip, 2010, 10, 1417–1428), weighing ~46 grams, achieves a numerical aperture of ~0.1–0.2 over an imaging field of view that is more than an order of magnitude larger than a typical 10X objective lens, and therefore may provide an important high-throughput analysis tool for combating waterborne diseases especially in resource limited settings. PMID:20694255

  5. Nursing Management Minimum Data Set: Cost-Effective Tool To Demonstrate the Value of Nurse Staffing in the Big Data Science Era.

    PubMed

    Pruinelli, Lisiane; Delaney, Connie W; Garciannie, Amy; Caspers, Barbara; Westra, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence of the relationship of nurse staffing to patient, nurse, and financial outcomes. With the advent of big data science and developing big data analytics in nursing, data science with the reuse of big data is emerging as a timely and cost-effective approach to demonstrate nursing value. The Nursing Management Minimum Date Set (NMMDS) provides standard administrative data elements, definitions, and codes to measure the context where care is delivered and, consequently, the value of nursing. The integration of the NMMDS elements in the current health system provides evidence for nursing leaders to measure and manage decisions, leading to better patient, staffing, and financial outcomes. It also enables the reuse of data for clinical scholarship and research.

  6. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Auchter, B.; Cautley, D.; Ahl, D.; Earle, L.; Jin, X.

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  7. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2016-01-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and “cutting” into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size. PMID:27185385

  8. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E

    2016-01-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and "cutting" into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size. PMID:27185385

  9. GroundWinds 2000 field campaign: demonstration of new Doppler lidar technology and wind lidar data intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoe, James G.; Varma Raja, M. K. Rama; Hardesty, R. Michael; Brewer, W. Alan; Moore, Berrien, III; Ryan, James M.; Hays, Paul B.; Nardell, Carl A.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Day, Michelle; Rancourt, Kenneth

    2003-03-01

    A field campaign featuring three collocated Doppler wind lidars was conducted over ten days during September 2000 at the GroundWinds Observatory in New Hampshire. The lidars were dissimilar in wavelength and Doppler detection method. The GroundWinds lidar operated at 532 nm and used fringe-imaging direct detection, while the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) ran at 355 nm and employed double-edge filter direct detection, and the NOAA mini-MOPA operated at 10 microns and used heterodyne detection. The objectives of the campaign were (1) to demonstrate the capability of the GroundWinds lidar to measure winds while employing several novel components, and (2) to compare directly the radial wind velocities measured by the three lidars for as wide a variety of conditions as possible. Baseline wind profiles and ancillary meteorological data (temperature and humidity profiles) were obtained by launching GPS radiosondes from the observatory as frequently as every 90 minutes. During the final week of the campaign the lidars collected data along common lines-of-sight for several extended periods. The wind speed varied from light to jet stream values, and sky conditions ranged from clear to thick clouds. Intercomparisons of overlapping lidar and radiosonde observations show that all three lidars were able to measure wind given sufficient backscatter. At ranged volumes containing thicker clouds, and those beyond, the wind sensing capability of the direct detection lidars was adversely affected.

  10. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2016-05-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and “cutting” into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size.

  11. The stability of source localization in a whole-head magnetoencephalography system demonstrated by auditory evoked field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuen-Lin; Yang, Hong-Chang; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Horng, Herng-Er; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kwon, Hyukchan

    2011-10-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which is a very sensitive magnetic sensor, has been widely used to detect the ultra-small magnetic signals in many different territories, especially in the biomagnetic measurement. In this study, a 128-channel SQUID first-order axial gradiometer system for whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements was setup to characterize the auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs). A 500 Hz monaural pure tone persisting 425 ms with the sound pressure level of 80 dB was randomly applied to the left ear of subject with the inter-stimulus interval of 1.5 ˜ 2.8 s to prevent fatigue of nerves. We demonstrated the characteristic waveforms of AEFs can be accurately recorded and analyzed. Using source localization processes, the origins of AEFs were successfully calculated to be at the auditory cortices which are brain areas known for responsive to sound stimulus. A phantom experiment also proved the good localization accuracy of the established MEG system and measurement procedures. The validated performance of the SQUID system suggests that this technique can also be employed in other brain research.

  12. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this program is to construct and demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The system, which was designed in an earlier effort, is built in a modular fashion in order to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system to be built under this project will include all the basic modules needed by the system, i.e. the locomotion, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has been designed, constructed and tested in the earlier effort. In the current effort, the full prototype system will be tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The purpose for EXPLORER is to be able to access live gas mains, insert the system in the piping network, and remotely ''drive'' it within the gas main and its laterals through distances of five to ten thousand feet. Its adaptable locomotion system allows the robot to function through varying diameter pipes (150 - 200 mm or 6- to 8-inches) and is powered via on-board battery-banks. The presence of fish-eye cameras in both ends of the robot allows the operator to view the forward and circumferential views of the internals live using an above-ground TV. Communication takes place via wireless link between the robot and the launch-chamber used to insert/retrieve the system. This link is based on commercial technology presently employed in wireless telecommunication networks. Communication over long distances as well as battery re-charging will be accomplished without retrieving the robot but

  13. Cost of high-field Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi accelerator dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1982-11-01

    Future high-energy proton accelerators will likely require very high magnetic fields if the size of the accelerator and associated experimental areas are to be limited to dimensions that can be accomodated by the terrain at convenient sites. Two commercially available superconductors can be used to produce magnetic fields of 10T or more. The first is Nb/sub 3/Sn, which can operate in pool boiling helium at 4.4 K. The second is NbTi, which must be cooled to about 1.9 K in superfluid helium. In this paper the costs of 5-cm-bore, 6-m-long magnets made of these materials and operating at fields from 5 to 11 T are compared. At 10 T the capital cost of a NbTi coil operating in superfluid helium is 35% less than the cost of a Nb/sub 3/Sn coil. The cost of the NbTi coil is still 10% less after the differential operating costs that will be incurred over the life of the accelerator are included. The results presented here are a summary of a detailed analysis of these costs given in a separate report.

  14. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: DEMONSTRATION OF AMBERSORB 563 ADSORBENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of Ambersorb® 5631 carbonaceous adsorbent for remediating groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Ambersorb adsorbent technology demonstration consist...

  15. Dynamics and termination cost of spatially coupled mean-field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caltagirone, Francesco; Franz, Silvio; Morris, Richard G.; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by recent progress in information theory and signal processing where the so-called spatially coupled design of systems leads to considerably better performance. We address relevant open questions about spatially coupled systems through the study of a simple Ising model. In particular, we consider a chain of Curie-Weiss models that are coupled by interactions up to a certain range. Indeed, it is well known that the pure (uncoupled) Curie-Weiss model undergoes a first-order phase transition driven by the magnetic field, and furthermore in the spinodal region such systems are unable to reach equilibrium in subexponential time if initialized in the metastable state. In contrast, the spatially coupled system is instead able to reach the equilibrium even when initialized to the metastable state. The equilibrium phase propagates along the chain in the form of a traveling wave. Here we study the speed of the wave front and the so-called termination cost—i.e., the conditions necessary for the propagation to occur. We reach several interesting conclusions about optimization of the speed and the cost.

  16. Planetary and Space Science Education by Mathematica Demonstrations: Lunar Probe Planning, Instrumentations and Field Operation Simulations for Hunveyor Model by Studies of Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabai, S.; Bérczi, Sz.

    2008-03-01

    By interactive Mathematica Demonstrations of the Wolfram Research instrumentation, mechatronics and field operation simulations of lunar and martian space probes were studied focusing on our Surveyor- type educational space probe model: Hunveyor.

  17. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  18. Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ∼100  mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ∼30  mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments.

  19. Low-cost field test kits for arsenic detection in water.

    PubMed

    Das, Joyati; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Panda, Jigisha; Pal, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic, a common contaminant of groundwater, affects human health adversely. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the maximum recommended contamination level of arsenic in drinking water is 10 μg/L. The purpose of this research was to develop user-friendly kits for detection of arsenic to measure at least up to 10 μg/L in drinking water, so that a preventive measure could be taken. Two different kits for detection of total arsenic in water are reported here. First, the arsenic in drinking water was converted to arsine gas by a strong reducing agent. The arsine produced was then detected by paper strips via generation of color due to reaction with either mercuric bromide (KIT-1) or silver nitrate (KIT-2). These were previously immobilized on the detector strip. The first one gave a yellow color and the second one grey. Both of these kits could detect arsenic contamination within a range of 10 μg/L-250 μg/L. The detection time for both the kits was only 7 min. The kits exhibited excellent performance compared to other kits available in the market with respect to detection time, ease of operation, cost and could be easily handled by a layman. The field trials with these kits gave very satisfactory results. A study on interference revealed that these kits could be used in the presence of 24 common ions present in the arsenic contaminated water. Though the kits were meant for qualitative assay, the results with unknown concentrations of real samples, when compared with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) were in good agreement as revealed by the t-test. PMID:24117090

  20. Low-cost field test kits for arsenic detection in water.

    PubMed

    Das, Joyati; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Panda, Jigisha; Pal, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic, a common contaminant of groundwater, affects human health adversely. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the maximum recommended contamination level of arsenic in drinking water is 10 μg/L. The purpose of this research was to develop user-friendly kits for detection of arsenic to measure at least up to 10 μg/L in drinking water, so that a preventive measure could be taken. Two different kits for detection of total arsenic in water are reported here. First, the arsenic in drinking water was converted to arsine gas by a strong reducing agent. The arsine produced was then detected by paper strips via generation of color due to reaction with either mercuric bromide (KIT-1) or silver nitrate (KIT-2). These were previously immobilized on the detector strip. The first one gave a yellow color and the second one grey. Both of these kits could detect arsenic contamination within a range of 10 μg/L-250 μg/L. The detection time for both the kits was only 7 min. The kits exhibited excellent performance compared to other kits available in the market with respect to detection time, ease of operation, cost and could be easily handled by a layman. The field trials with these kits gave very satisfactory results. A study on interference revealed that these kits could be used in the presence of 24 common ions present in the arsenic contaminated water. Though the kits were meant for qualitative assay, the results with unknown concentrations of real samples, when compared with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) were in good agreement as revealed by the t-test.

  1. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P

    2014-06-01

    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4-8.1 mmol mol(-1)) than C3 averages (0.7-6.8 mmol mol(-1)), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses are

  2. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P

    2014-06-01

    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4-8.1 mmol mol(-1)) than C3 averages (0.7-6.8 mmol mol(-1)), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses are

  3. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS: ACOUSTIC PIPE WALL ASSESSMENT, INTERNAL INSPECTION, AND EXTERNAL INSPECTIONVOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine pipe wall integrity assessment technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condi...

  4. Pilot-scale field tests for the methanotrophic technology cometabolic bioreactor demonstration at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Herbes, S.E.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes a demonstration of cometabolic technology for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated and aromatic solvents conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The technology demonstration is located at a seep from the K-1070-C/D Classified Burial Ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Funding for this demonstration is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program, Office of Technology Development.

  5. Novel, low-cost separator plates and flow-field elements for use in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    PEM fuel cells offer promise for a wide range of applications including vehicular (e.g., automotive) and stationary power generation. The performance and cost targets that must be met for PEM technology to be commercially successful varies to some degree with the application. However, in general the cost of PEM fuel cell stacks must be reduced substantially if they are to see widespread use for electrical power generation. A significant contribution to the manufactured cost of PEM fuel cells is the machined carbon plates that traditionally serve as bipolar separator plates and flow-field elements. In addition, carbon separator plates are inherently brittle and suffer from breakage due to shock, vibration, and improper handling. This report describes a bifurcated separator device with low resistivity, low manufacturing cost, compact size and durability.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF PERVAPORATION FOR THE SEPARATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM A SURFACTANT-BASED SOIL REMEDIATION FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a Department of Defense project, the US Environmental Protection Agency was responsible for designing, building and field operating a pilot-scale pervaporation unit. The field site ws an active dry cleaning facility on the grounds of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in J...

  7. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

    2008-09-30

    In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW

  8. Demonstration of the frequency offset errors introduced by an incorrect setting of the Zeeman/magnetic field adjustment on the cesium beam frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fine frequency setting of a cesium beam frequency standard is accomplished by adjusting the C field control with the appropriate Zeeman frequency applied to the harmonic generator. A novice operator in the field, even when using the correct Zeeman frequency input, may mistakenly set the C field to any one of seven major Beam I peaks (fingers) represented by the Ramsey curve. This can result in frequency offset errors of as much as 2.5 parts in ten to the tenth. The effects of maladjustment are demonstrated and suggestions are discussed on how to avoid the subtle traps associated with C field adjustments.

  9. Cost-effective and full-field method for measuring vibration of loudspeaker membrane using fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Yong; Zhang, Zhiliang; Gao, Peng

    2014-11-01

    We proposed a cost-effective and full-field method for measuring vibration of loudspeaker using general industrial camera and fringe projection. The loudspeaker is excited by a sinusoidal signal. The fringe pattern is projected on the measured loudspeaker membrane that is dynamically deformed. Then the deformed fringes are captured by a camera. A trigger generation circuit is designed to control the camera. The Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) is adopted for 3D shape reconstruction. The validity of this method is approved by experiments. The cost of proposed measurement system is dramatically lower than that using high-speed camera.

  10. Development and Field Testing of a Model to Simulate a Demonstration of Le Chatelier's Principle Using the Wheatstone Bridge Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickner, Edward Henry, Jr.

    An electronic simulation model was designed, constructed, and then field tested to determine student opinion of its effectiveness as an instructional aid. The model was designated as the Equilibrium System Simulator (ESS). The model was built on the principle of electrical symmetry applied to the Wheatstone bridge and was constructed from readily…

  11. Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-06-29

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.

  12. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  13. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-09-01

    This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of 21 adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from amygdala of the same brain hemispheres is also included with three different stains: DiI and Hoechst stained microscopic images (confocal microscopy) and ALDH1L1 antibody based immunohistochemistry. These stains may be used to evaluate neurite density (DiI), nuclear density (Hoechst) and astrocytic density (ALDH1L1). This combination of high field diffusion data and high resolution images from microscopy enables comparison of microstructural parameters derived from diffusion MRI to histological microstructure. The data provided here is used in the article (Jespersen, 2016) [1]. PMID:27508246

  14. Do ambient electromagnetic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the relationship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide.

    PubMed

    Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Henry, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    The relationship between ambient electromagnetic fields and human mood and behaviour is of great public health interest. The relationship between Ap indices of geomagnetic storm activity and national suicide statistics for Australia from 1968 to 2002 was studied. Ap index data was normalised so as to be globally uniform and gave a measure of storm activity for each day. A geomagnetic storm event was defined as a day in which the Ap index was equal to or exceeded 100 nT. Suicide data was a national tally of daily male and female death figures where suicide had been documented as the cause of death. A total of 51 845 males and 16 327 females were included. The average number of suicides was greatest in spring for males and females, and lowest in autumn for males and summer for females. Suicide amongst females increased significantly in autumn during concurrent periods of geomagnetic storm activity (P = .01). This pattern was not observed in males (P = .16). This suggests that perturbations in ambient electromagnetic field activity impact behaviour in a clinically meaningful manner. The study furthermore raises issues regarding other sources of stray electromagnetic fields and their effect on mental health. PMID:16304696

  15. A field demonstration project utilizing FBC/PCC residues for paving materials. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoori, N.

    1995-12-31

    In the past two years, southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), under the sponsorship of Illinois Clean coal Institute, has performed a series of laboratory research into engineering properties of roller compacted concretes containing fluidized bed combustion/pulverized coal combustion (FBS/PCC) by-products as well as FBC/PCC-Portland cement concrete mixtures prepared under conventional placement technique. This laboratory effort has resulted in identification of a number of potentially viable commercial applications for the FBC by-products residues derived from Illinois high-sulfur coal. One potential and promising application of the FBC/PCC solid waste residues, which also accounts for the large utilization of coal-based by-product materials, is in pavement construction. A total of twenty-three different pavement slabs will be constructed at an identified site located in the Illinois Coal Development Park, Carterville, Illinois, by two construction contractors who are part of the industrial participants of the initial project. Both conventional and roller compacted concrete placement techniques will be utilized. All sections will be subjected to an extensive engineering evaluation and will be monitored for nearly a year for both short- and long-term performance. The field results will be compared to that of the equivalent laboratory- prepared mixes in order to ascertain the suitability of the proposed mixes for field applications. During this reporting period, the long- term durability of the field and laboratory vibratory-placed FBC/PCC surface and base concrete slabs were evaluated.

  16. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  17. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  18. Low cost sensors: Field evaluations and multi-sensor approaches for emissions factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development, and application of low cost sensors to measure both particulate and gas-phase air pollutants is poised to explode over the next several years. The need for the sensors is driven by poor air quality experienced in inhabited regions throughout the world, in both de...

  19. COST AND BENEFIT IN CONTROL OF THE GRAY FIELD SLUG IN WESTERN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify the impact of a selection of slug baits on slug mortality and on slug-associated damage to perennial ryegrass seedlings along with the relative costs associated with utilizing specific slug control strategies. We evaluated slug mortality, egg fucundity, ...

  20. Case Studies in the Field of Marketing Education: Learner Impact, Case Performance, and Cost Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spais, George S.

    2005-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to identify a methodology that will help educators in marketing to efficiently manage the design, impact, and cost of case studies. It is my intention is to examine the impact of case study characteristics in relation to the degree of learner involvement in the learning process. The author proposes that…

  1. Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; George Koperna

    2008-09-30

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale

  2. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    SciTech Connect

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  3. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  4. Demonstrating Cost-Effective Marker Assisted Selection for Biomass Yield in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.) – Part 1: Paternity Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many methods have been proposed to incorporate molecular markers into breeding programs. Presented is a cost effective marker assisted selection (MAS) methodology that utilizes individual plant phenotypes, seed production-based knowledge of maternity, and molecular marker-determined paternity. Proge...

  5. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  6. Selected hydrologic data for the field demonstration of three permeable reactive barriers near Fry Canyon, Utah, 1996-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkowske, Chris D.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Naftz, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Three permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) were installed near Fry Canyon, Utah, in August 1997 to demonstrate the use of PRBs to control the migration of uranium in ground water. Reactive material included (1) bone-char phosphate, (2) zero-valent iron pellets, and (3) amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide coated gravel. An extensive monitoring network was installed in and around each PRB for collection of water samples, analysis of selected water-quality parameters, and monitoring of water levels. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (oxidation-reduction potential), and dissolved oxygen were measured continuously within three different barrier materials, and in two monitoring wells. Water temperature and water level below land surface were electronically recorded every hour with pressure transducers. Data were collected from ground-water monitoring wells installed in and around the PRBs during 1996-98 and from surface-water sites in Fry Creek.

  7. A low-cost and versatile system for projecting wide-field visual stimuli within fMRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Greco, V.; Frijia, F.; Mikellidou, K.; Montanaro, D.; Farini, A.; D’Uva, M.; Poggi, P.; Pucci, M.; Sordini, A.; Morrone, M. C.; Burr, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a custom-made magnetic-imaging-compatible visual projection system designed to project on a very wide visual field (~80°). A standard projector was modified with a coupling lens, projecting images into the termination of an image fiber. The other termination of the fiber was placed in the 3-T scanner room with a projection lens, which projected the images relayed by the fiber onto a screen over the head coil, viewed by a participant wearing magnifying goggles. To validate the system, wide-field stimuli were presented in order to identify retinotopic visual areas. The results showed that this low-cost and versatile optical system may be a valuable tool to map visual areas in the brain that process peripheral receptive fields. PMID:26092392

  8. Histological Confirmation and Biological Significance of Cartilage Canals Demonstrated Using High Field MRI in Swine at Predilection Sites of Osteochondrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Ferenc; Nissi, Mikko J.; Zhang, Jinjin; Benson, Michael; Schmitter, Sebastian; Ellermann, Jutta M.; Carlson, Cathy S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage canal vessels in epiphyseal cartilage have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans. The present study aimed to validate high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods to visualize these vessels in young pigs. Osteochondral samples from the distal femur and distal humerus (predilection sites of osteochondrosis) of piglets were imaged post-mortem: (1) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in an MRI scanner, followed by histological evaluation; and (2) after barium perfusion using μCT, followed by clearing techniques. In addition, both stifle joints of a 25-day-old piglet were imaged in vivo using SWI and gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted MRI, after which distal femoral samples were harvested and evaluated using μCT and histology. Histological sections were compared to corresponding MRI slices, and three-dimensional visualizations of vessels identified using MRI were compared to those obtained using μCT and to the cleared specimens. Vessels contained in cartilage canals were identified using MRI, both ex vivo and in vivo; their locations matched those observed in the histological sections, μCT images, and cleared specimens of barium-perfused tissues. The ability to visualize cartilage canal blood vessels by MRI, without using a contrast agent, will allow future longitudinal studies to evaluate their role in developmental orthopedic disease. PMID:23939946

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  11. Cost-effectiveness of bulk-tank milk testing for surveys to demonstrate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine enzootic leucosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Reber, A; Reist, M; Schwermer, H

    2012-05-01

    In Switzerland, annual surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) are implemented by a random allocation of farms to the respective survey as well as blood sampling of individual animals at farm level. Contrary to many other European countries, bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples have not been used for active cattle disease surveillance for several years in Switzerland. The aim of this project was to provide a financial comparison between the current surveillance programme consisting of blood sampling only and a modified surveillance programme including BTM sampling. A financial spreadsheet model was used for cost comparison. Various surveillance scenarios were tested with different sample sizes and sampling frequencies for BTM samples. The costs could be halved without compromising the power to substantiate the freedom from IBR and EBL through the surveillance programme. Alternatively, the sensitivity could be markedly increased when keeping the costs at the actual level and doubling the sample size. The risk-based sample size of the actual programme results in a confidence of 94,18 % that the farm level prevalence is below 0,2 %. Which the doubled sample size, the confidence is 99,69 % respectively. PMID:22547334

  12. German Contribution to the X-38 CRV Demonstrator in the Field of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppa, Uwe; Görlach, Thomas; Roenneke, Axel Justus

    2002-01-01

    As a solution to meet a safety requirement to the future full scale space station infrastructure, the Crew Return/Rescue Vehicle (CRV) was supposed to supply the return capability for the complete ISS crew of 7 astronauts back to earth in case of an emergency. A prototype of such a vehicle named X-38 has been developed and built by NASA with European partnership (ESA, DLR). An series of aerial demonstrators (V13x) for tests of the subsonic TAEM phase and the parafoil descent and landing system has been flown by NASA from 1998 to 2001. A full scale unmanned space flight demonstrator (V201) has been built at JSC Houston and although the project has been stopped for budgetary reasons in 2002, it will hopefully still be flown in near future. The X-38 is a lifting body with hypersonic lift to drag ratio about 0.9. In comparison to the Space Shuttle Orbiter, this design provides less aerodynamic maneuvrability and a different actuator layout (divided body flap and winglet rudders instead as combined aileron and elevon in addition to thrust- ers for the early re-entry phase). Hence, the guidance and control concepts used onboard the shuttle orbiter had to be adapted and further developed for the application on the new vehicle. In the frame of the European share of the X-38 project and also of the German TETRA (TEchnol- ogy for future space TRAnsportation) project different GNC related contributions have been made: First, the primary flight control software for the autonomous guidance and control of the X-38 para- foil descent and landing phase has been developed, integrated and successfully flown on multiple vehicles and missions during the aerial drop test campaign conducted by NASA. Second, a real time X-38 vehicle simulator was provided to NASA which has also been used for the validation of a European re-entry guidance and control software (see below). According to the NASA verification and validation plan this simulator is supposed to be used as an independent vali

  13. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  14. A systematic variant screening in familial cases of congenital heart defects demonstrates the usefulness of molecular genetics in this field.

    PubMed

    El Malti, Rajae; Liu, Hui; Doray, Bérénice; Thauvin, Christel; Maltret, Alice; Dauphin, Claire; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Teboul, Michel; Blanchet, Patricia; Roume, Joëlle; Gronier, Céline; Ducreux, Corinne; Veyrier, Magali; Marçon, François; Acar, Philippe; Lusson, Jean-René; Levy, Marilyne; Beyler, Constance; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Cordier-Alex, Marie-Pierre; Heitz, François; Sanlaville, Damien; Bonnet, Damien; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    The etiology of congenital heart defect (CHD) combines environmental and genetic factors. So far, there were studies reporting on the screening of a single gene on unselected CHD or on familial cases selected for specific CHD types. Our goal was to systematically screen a proband of familial cases of CHD on a set of genetic tests to evaluate the prevalence of disease-causing variant identification. A systematic screening of GATA4, NKX2-5, ZIC3 and Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) P311 Kit was setup on the proband of 154 families with at least two cases of non-syndromic CHD. Additionally, ELN screening was performed on families with supravalvular arterial stenosis. Twenty-two variants were found, but segregation analysis confirmed unambiguously the causality of 16 variants: GATA4 (1 ×), NKX2-5 (6 ×), ZIC3 (3 ×), MLPA (2 ×) and ELN (4 ×). Therefore, this approach was able to identify the causal variant in 10.4% of familial CHD cases. This study demonstrated the existence of a de novo variant even in familial CHD cases and the impact of CHD variants on adult cardiac condition even in the absence of CHD. This study showed that the systematic screening of genetic factors is useful in familial CHD cases with up to 10.4% elucidated cases. When successful, it drastically improved genetic counseling by discovering unaffected variant carriers who are at risk of transmitting their variant and are also exposed to develop cardiac complications during adulthood thus prompting long-term cardiac follow-up. This study provides an important baseline at dawning of the next-generation sequencing era.

  15. The Importance of Wide-field Foreground Removal for 21 cm Cosmology: A Demonstration with Early MWA Epoch of Reionization Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, J. C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Beardsley, A. P.; Barry, N. A.; Martinot, Z. E.; Sullivan, I. S.; Morales, M. F.; Bell, M. E.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dillon, Joshua. S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A. M.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D. C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P.; Kratzenberg, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present observations, simulations, and analysis demonstrating the direct connection between the location of foreground emission on the sky and its location in cosmological power spectra from interferometric redshifted 21 cm experiments. We begin with a heuristic formalism for understanding the mapping of sky coordinates into the cylindrically averaged power spectra measurements used by 21 cm experiments, with a focus on the effects of the instrument beam response and the associated sidelobes. We then demonstrate this mapping by analyzing power spectra with both simulated and observed data from the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that removing a foreground model that includes sources in both the main field of view and the first sidelobes reduces the contamination in high k∥ modes by several per cent relative to a model that only includes sources in the main field of view, with the completeness of the foreground model setting the principal limitation on the amount of power removed. While small, a percent-level amount of foreground power is in itself more than enough to prevent recovery of any Epoch of Reionization signal from these modes. This result demonstrates that foreground subtraction for redshifted 21 cm experiments is truly a wide-field problem, and algorithms and simulations must extend beyond the instrument’s main field of view to potentially recover the full 21 cm power spectrum.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  18. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-07-01

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

  19. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.

  20. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  1. Simple, Low-Cost Data Collection Methods for Agricultural Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Winger, Marlon; Kitchen, Boyd

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes relatively simple and inexpensive methods for collecting data from agricultural field studies. Describes methods involving on-farm testing, crop yield measurement, quality evaluations, weed control effectiveness, plant nutrient status, and other measures. Contains 29 references illustrating how these methods were used to conduct…

  2. Cost-Effective Training Strategy at Field Level Strengthens Influence of Extension Agents in Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Philip

    1981-01-01

    Communications for Social Development, a regional training program designed by UNICEF to teach field extension agents in developing countries about interpersonal and group communications, is described in the lead article in this issue of Development Communication Report. The strategy employed in the development of this program involves a simple…

  3. a Simple, Cost Effective Raman-Fluorescence Spectrometer for Use in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Frank E.; Pride, Michael A.; Rojo, Michellle; Brinker, Katelyn R.; Walker, Zachary; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Mormile, Melanie R.; Grubbs, G. S., II

    2015-06-01

    Research, design, construction, and operation of a portable mixed Raman and Fluorescence type spectrometer implemented by the Missouri University of Science and Technology's Mars Rover Design Team will be presented. This spectrometer has been built for the team's annual competition. The spectrometer, completely built by undergraduates, is designed to use a 50 mW, 532 nm constant waveform laser to probe a sample of soil to find bacteria or bio-markers. However, initial tests of the spectrometer were carried out in a laboratory environment making the spectrometer also suitable for simple undergraduate physical chemistry or chemical physics laboratory experiments. The final cost of the device is roughly 2100, weighs 1.4 kg, and is 22.9 cm x 22.6 cm in size. Integrating the spectrometer with a computer database, results from the competition, complications of fitting mixed Raman-Fluorescence spectra, and future ideas/improvements will also be discussed.

  4. Field Testing of Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-03-01

    A test wall built with phase change material (PCM)-enhanced loose-fill cavity insulation was monitored for a period of about a year in the warm-humid climate of Charleston, South Carolina. The test wall was divided into various sections, one of which contained only loose-fill insulation and served as a control for comparing and evaluating the wall sections with the PCM-enhanced insulation. This report summarizes the findings of the field test.

  5. Results from field trial of a low-cost solar cooker with novel concentrator geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Ian; Jelley, Nick; Stone, Richard; Dadd, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Solar cookers are generally of either box-type or make use of parabolic dishes, including approximations thereof. The former are cheap but operate at low solar concentrations and temperatures, whilst the latter often require complex mirror geometries and can be prohibitively expensive to manufacture. This paper will present the results from a field trial of a prototype solar cooker which use of a novel concentrator geometry to achieve high temperatures.

  6. Deflection of a Λ-type three-level atom by a light field: a mechanical demonstration of the coherent population trapping effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldossary, Omar M.; Lembessis, Vassilis E.

    2012-06-01

    We consider the deflection of a three-level atom of Λ-type interacting with a light field of two coherent laser beams. We employ the dressed state formalism, which is suitable for large Rabi frequencies and/or large detunings. A full study of the interaction and relaxation processes is performed. We show that a beam of atoms is split into three beams once it crosses the light field. This is a three-state version of the well-known optical Stern-Gerlach effect, which has been theoretically studied and experimentally demonstrated for two-level atoms. Under coherent population trapping conditions, the splitting of the beam becomes twofold. This gives us, in principle, the opportunity of a mechanical demonstration of the coherent population trapping effect.

  7. A decade of telerobotics in rehabilitation: Demonstrated utility blocked by the high cost of manipulation and the complexity of the user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry; Michalowski, Stefan; Vanderloos, Machiel

    1991-01-01

    The Stanford/VA Interactive Robotics Laboratory set out in 1978 to test the hypothesis that industrial robotics technology could be applied to serve the manipulation needs of severely impaired individuals. Five generations of hardware, three generations of system software, and over 125 experimental subjects later, we believe that genuine utility is achievable. The experience includes development of over 65 task applications using voiced command, joystick control, natural language command and 3D object designation technology. A brief foray into virtual environments, using flight simulator technology, was instructive. If reality and virtuality come for comparable prices, you cannot beat reality. A detailed review of assistive robot anatomy and the performance specifications needed to achieve cost/beneficial utility will be used to support discussion of the future of rehabilitation telerobotics. Poised on the threshold of commercial viability, but constrained by the high cost of technically adequate manipulators, this worthy application domain flounders temporarily. In the long run, it will be the user interface that governs utility.

  8. Cost-Effective Force Field Tailored for Solid-Phase Simulations of OLED Materials.

    PubMed

    Moral, M; Son, W-J; Sancho-García, J C; Olivier, Y; Muccioli, L

    2015-07-14

    A united atom force field is empirically derived by minimizing the difference between experimental and simulated crystal cells and melting temperatures for eight compounds representative of organic electronic materials used in OLEDs and other devices: biphenyl, carbazole, fluorene, 9,9'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole)-1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (pCBP), phenazine, phenylcarbazole, and triphenylamine. The force field is verified against dispersion-corrected DFT calculations and shown to also successfully reproduce the crystal structure for two larger compounds employed as hosts in phosphorescent and thermally activated delayed fluorescence OLEDs: N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPD), and 1,3,5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI). The good performances of the force field coupled to the large computational savings granted by the united atom approximation make it an ideal choice for the simulation of the morphology of emissive layers for OLED materials in crystalline or glassy phases.

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

  10. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-12-31

    This report highlights work done on a project intended to lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting for Exploration and Production (E&P) operators by identifying, developing, testing, and commercializing emissions control and monitoring technologies. Promising technologies have already been identified and developed. Current work focuses on testing these promising technologies. Specifically, several technologies are being tested in the laboratory for application to lean-burn engines or fully characterized on-site for use with rich-burn engines. Upon completion of these tests, the most cost-effective and robust technologies will be tested in the field and commercialization will ensue. During this quarter, progress in laboratory testing for lean-burn engines was limited by maintenance issues on the KSU Ajax DP-115. The difficulties that required maintenance to be performed will likely require that the 180 psig prototype valve be tested in the future, if possible. The maintenance was performed, and it is expected that the Ajax will be available for testing in the coming quarter. Although laboratory testing was slowed as a result of maintenance issues, progress in experimental characterization of technologies has been significant. NSCR systems will be characterized as applied to rich-burn engines on-site. This characterization will ensure high-quality data in final field testing on rich-burn engines and is considered to be essential, despite that the work requires the delay of official field testing until 2008. Many preliminary and administrative tasks have been completed, including initial site selection, official proposal submittal, and beginning a process to approve necessary changes to installed field engines.

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  12. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  13. Field Demonstration of Using Advanced PV Inverter Functionality to Mitigate the Impacts of High-Penetration PV Grid Integration on the Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Barry; Gebeyehu, Araya

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes a field demonstration that was completed to show the ability of currently installed PV inverters to implement advanced PV inverter functionality and that such functionality was effective at reducing the voltage-related PV impacts of high-penetration PV integration. A distribution circuit was instrumented and then tested for a two week period using off-unity power factor operation. Specifically, an inductive power factor of -0.95 was demonstrated. The results show that the PV inverters were capable of such operation and that the use of off-unity power factor operation was highly effective at reducing the voltage-related impacts of the PV systems interconnected to the circuits used in the demonstration. The impacts of using off-unity power factor operation - resulting in additional reactive current flow on the distribution circuit - are also presented and analyzed.

  14. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated.

  15. Holographic imaging of crowded fields: high angular resolution imaging with excellent quality at very low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.; Yelda, S.; Ghez, A.; Girard, J. H.; Labadie, L.; Rebolo, R.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Morris, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for speckle holography that is optimized for crowded fields. Its two key features are an iterative improvement of the instantaneous point spread functions (PSFs) extracted from each speckle frame and the (optional) simultaneous use of multiple reference stars. In this way, high signal-to-noise ratio and accuracy can be achieved on the PSF for each short exposure, which results in sensitive, high-Strehl reconstructed images. We have tested our method with different instruments, on a range of targets, and from the N[10 μm] to the I[0.9 μm] band. In terms of PSF cosmetics, stability and Strehl ratio, holographic imaging can be equal, and even superior, to the capabilities of currently available adaptive optics (AO) systems, particularly at short near-infrared to optical wavelengths. It outperforms lucky imaging because it makes use of the entire PSF and reduces the need for frame selection, thus, leading to higher Strehl and improved sensitivity. Image reconstruction a posteriori, the possibility to use multiple reference stars and the fact that these reference stars can be rather faint means that holographic imaging offers a simple way to image large, dense stellar fields near the diffraction limit of large telescopes, similar to, but much less technologically demanding than, the capabilities of a multiconjugate AO system. The method can be used with a large range of already existing imaging instruments and can also be combined with AO imaging when the corrected PSF is unstable.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  18. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  20. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  1. Field-testing of a cost-effective mobile-phone based microscope for screening of Schistosoma haematobium infection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Tseng, Derek; Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Duah, Evans; Tee, Joseph; Andrews, Jason R.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic and neglected tropical disease, and affects <200-million people across the world, with school-aged children disproportionately affected. Here we present field-testing results of a handheld and cost effective smartphone-based microscope in rural Ghana, Africa, for point-of-care diagnosis of S. haematobium infection. In this mobile-phone microscope, a custom-designed 3D printed opto-mechanical attachment (~150g) is placed in contact with the smartphone camera-lens, creating an imaging-system with a half-pitch resolution of ~0.87µm. This unit includes an external lens (also taken from a mobile-phone camera), a sample tray, a z-stage to adjust the focus, two light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and two diffusers for uniform illumination of the sample. In our field-testing, 60 urine samples, collected from children, were used, where the prevalence of the infection was 72.9%. After concentration of the sample with centrifugation, the sediment was placed on a glass-slide and S. haematobium eggs were first identified/quantified using conventional benchtop microscopy by an expert diagnostician, and then a second expert, blinded to these results, determined the presence/absence of eggs using our mobile-phone microscope. Compared to conventional microscopy, our mobile-phone microscope had a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.1%, specificity of 100%, positive-predictive-value of 100%, and a negative-predictive-value of 57.1%. Furthermore, our mobile-phone platform demonstrated a sensitivity of 65.7% and 100% for low-intensity infections (≤50 eggs/10 mL urine) and high-intensity infections (<50 eggs/10 mL urine), respectively. We believe that this cost-effective and field-portable mobile-phone microscope may play an important role in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and various other global health challenges.

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  4. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-10-01

    This quarterly report discusses the results from a testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies followed by a battery of tests that demonstrate synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed loop control, low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. The battery of tests include pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing. During several phases of the tests, the ignition timing also was varied to determine the optimal point for ignition timing. The results from these tests suggest that an optimum exists where fuel consumption is minimized along with NO{sub x} emissions. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and the cost to operate the engine is very inexpensive.

  5. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  6. Field Method for Measuring the Shrinkage/Swelling Dynamics of Cracks Using a Low-Cost ``Crack-o-meter''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Abou Najm, M. R.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Shrinking/swelling soils are characterized by transient crack networks which function as dominant controls on the partitioning of surface and subsurface flow, the rate and depth of percolation, and evaporation rates. For such soils, understanding the dynamics of cracks is critical to accurately quantify their influence on groundwater recharge, stream-flow generation, and solute transport, among other component of a site’s hydrology. We propose a low-cost method for measuring transient crack-volume using a sealed plastic bag connected by a hose to a PVC standpipe. The empty bag is placed into the crack, and then water is added via the standpipe, until the bag has expanded to the boundaries of the crack and some water remains in the standpipe. As the crack shrinks or swells, its volume changes, causing water displacement within the bag, which is measured as a corresponding change in water level in the standpipe. An automated level logger within the standpipe is used to record changes in water level, which are converted to volumetric changes from the known internal cross-sectional area of the standpipe. The volume of water filling the bag is accurately measured at the start and completion of the experiment (to check for leakage). Adding the startup volume to the cumulative temporal volumetric change in the standpipe provides a simple and accurate method for monitoring transient crack volume. Currently, the design is undergoing preliminary testing in a field site in Ninhue, Chile, and field and laboratory testing in Corvallis, Oregon. Initial results from the Chilean field site suggest that the crack-o-meters are responding to the closing of cracks, but further effort is needed to calibrate and validate the results. We hope that these low-cost “crack-o-meters” will become useful and simple tools for researchers to quantify temporal changes in crack volume with the objective of incorporating these results into hydrological modeling efforts.

  7. Effect of external magnetic field on IV 99mTc-labeled aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: demonstration in a rat model: special report.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Mauro; Barteri, Mario; Megna, Valentina; D'Elia, Piera; Rebonato, Stefania; Latini, Augusto; De Angelis, Francesca; Scaramuzzo, Francesca Anna; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Guadagno, Noemi Antonella; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rubello, Domenico; Pala, Alessandro; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-02-01

    Among the most interesting applications of ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine is the potential for localizing pharmacologically or radioactively tagged agents directly to selected tissues selected by an adjustable external magnetic field. This concept is demonstrated by the application external magnetic field on IV Tc-labeled aminosilane-coated iron oxide NPs in a rat model. In a model comparing a rat with a 0.3-T magnet over a hind paw versus a rat without a magnet, a static acquisition at 45 minutes showed that 27% of the administered radioactivity was in the area subtended by the magnet, whereas the liver displays a percentage of binding of 14% in the presence of the magnet and of 16% in the absence of an external magnetic field. These preliminary results suggest that the application of an external magnetic field may be a viable route for the development of methods for the confinement of magnetic NPs labeled with radioactive isotopes targeted for predetermined sites of the body.

  8. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision.

    PubMed

    Goavec-Mérou, G; Chrétien, N; Friedt, J-M; Sandoz, P; Martin, G; Lenczner, M; Ballandras, S

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates. PMID:24517814

  9. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: Demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goavec-Mérou, G.; Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Sandoz, P.; Martin, G.; Lenczner, M.; Ballandras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates.

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for college level chemistry courses including: "Electrochemical Cells Using Sodium Silicate" and "A Simple, Vivid Demonstration of Selective Precipitation." Lists materials, preparation, procedures, and precautions. (CW)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  18. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J; Darling, Samuel T; Sihuincha, Moisés; Padilla, Norma; Devine, Gregor J

    2007-01-01

    Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p < 0.0001). In Peru, collections were performed for four hours, commencing two hours after repellent application. The PMD/LG repellent provided 95% protection for six hours after application with a biting pressure of >46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities. PMID:17678537

  19. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations used in laboratory chemistry courses. Discusses a "pH-activated" display used to chemically and visually supplement lecture demonstrations. Outlines another demonstration designed to show that copper(II) chloride is made of two ions, blue and yellow, which are combined to produce green. (TW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  5. Cost effective stream-gaging strategies for the Lower Colorado River basin; the Blythe field office operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical developments and illustrates the applications of techniques that recently have been assembled to analyze the cost-effectiveness of federally funded stream-gaging activities in support of the Colorado River compact and subsequent adjudications. The cost effectiveness of 19 stream gages in terms of minimizing the sum of the variances of the errors of estimation of annual mean discharge is explored by means of a sequential-search optimization scheme. The search is conducted over a set of decision variables that describes the number of times that each gaging route is traveled in a year. A gage route is defined as the most expeditious circuit that is made from a field office to visit one or more stream gages and return to the office. The error variance is defined as a function of the frequency of visits to a gage by using optimal estimation theory. Currently a minimum of 12 visits per year is made to any gage. By changing to a six-visit minimum, the same total error variance can be attained for the 19 stations with a budget of 10% less than the current one. Other strategies are also explored. (USGS)

  6. A cost-effective and field-ready potentiostat that poises subsurface electrodes to monitor bacterial respiration.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Elliot S; Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Lee, Alexander W; Lipson, David A; Land, Bruce R; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-02-15

    Here, we present the proof-of-concept for a subsurface bioelectrochemical system (BES)-based biosensor capable of monitoring microbial respiration that occurs through exocellular electron transfer. This system includes our open-source design of a three-channel microcontroller-unit (MCU)-based potentiostat that is capable of chronoamperometry, which laboratory tests showed to be accurate within 0.95 ± 0.58% (95% Confidence Limit) of a commercial potentiostat. The potentiostat design is freely available online: http://angenent.bee.cornell.edu/potentiostat.html. This robust and field-ready potentiostat, which can withstand temperatures of -30°C, can be manufactured at relatively low cost ($600), thus, allowing for en-masse deployment at field sites. The MCU-based potentiostat was integrated with electrodes and a solar panel-based power system, and deployed as a biosensor to monitor microbial respiration in drained thaw lake basins outside Barrow, AK. At three different depths, the working electrode of a microbial three-electrode system (M3C) was maintained at potentials corresponding to the microbial reduction of iron(III) compounds and humic acids. Thereby, the working electrode mimics these compounds and is used by certain microbes as an electron acceptor. The sensors revealed daily cycles in microbial respiration. In the medium- and deep-depth electrodes the onset of these cycles followed a considerable increase in overall activity that corresponded to those soils reaching temperatures conducive to microbial activity as the summer thaw progressed. The BES biosensor is a valuable tool for studying microbial activity in situ in remote environments, and the cost-efficient design of the potentiostat allows for wide-scale use in remote areas. PMID:22209069

  7. A cost-effective and field-ready potentiostat that poises subsurface electrodes to monitor bacterial respiration.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Elliot S; Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Lee, Alexander W; Lipson, David A; Land, Bruce R; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-02-15

    Here, we present the proof-of-concept for a subsurface bioelectrochemical system (BES)-based biosensor capable of monitoring microbial respiration that occurs through exocellular electron transfer. This system includes our open-source design of a three-channel microcontroller-unit (MCU)-based potentiostat that is capable of chronoamperometry, which laboratory tests showed to be accurate within 0.95 ± 0.58% (95% Confidence Limit) of a commercial potentiostat. The potentiostat design is freely available online: http://angenent.bee.cornell.edu/potentiostat.html. This robust and field-ready potentiostat, which can withstand temperatures of -30°C, can be manufactured at relatively low cost ($600), thus, allowing for en-masse deployment at field sites. The MCU-based potentiostat was integrated with electrodes and a solar panel-based power system, and deployed as a biosensor to monitor microbial respiration in drained thaw lake basins outside Barrow, AK. At three different depths, the working electrode of a microbial three-electrode system (M3C) was maintained at potentials corresponding to the microbial reduction of iron(III) compounds and humic acids. Thereby, the working electrode mimics these compounds and is used by certain microbes as an electron acceptor. The sensors revealed daily cycles in microbial respiration. In the medium- and deep-depth electrodes the onset of these cycles followed a considerable increase in overall activity that corresponded to those soils reaching temperatures conducive to microbial activity as the summer thaw progressed. The BES biosensor is a valuable tool for studying microbial activity in situ in remote environments, and the cost-efficient design of the potentiostat allows for wide-scale use in remote areas.

  8. Full-scale demonstration of in situ cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater 2. Comprehensive analysis of field data using reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Rahul K.; Hopkins, Gary D.; Goltz, Mark N.; Gorelick, Steven M.; McCarty, Perry L.

    2002-04-01

    We present an analysis of an extensively monitored full-scale field demonstration of in situ treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination by aerobic cometabolic biodegradation. The demonstration was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California. There are two TCE-contaminated aquifers at the site, separated from one another by a clay aquitard. The treatment system consisted of two recirculating wells located 10 m apart. Each well was screened in both of the contaminated aquifers. Toluene, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide were added to the water in both wells. At one well, water was pumped from the upper aquifer to the lower aquifer. In the other well, pumping was from the lower to the upper aquifer. This resulted in a ``conveyor belt'' flow system with recirculation between the two aquifers. The treatment system was successfully operated for a 410 day period. We explore how well a finite element reactive transport model can describe the key processes in an engineered field system. Our model simulates TCE, toluene, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and microbial growth/death. Simulated processes include advective-dispersive transport, biodegradation, the inhibitory effect of hydrogen peroxide on biomass growth, and oxygen degassing. Several parameter values were fixed to laboratory values or values from previous modeling studies. The remaining six parameter values were obtained by calibrating the model to 7213 TCE concentration data and 6997 dissolved oxygen concentration data collected during the demonstration using a simulation-regression procedure. In this complex flow field involving reactive transport, TCE and dissolved oxygen concentration histories are matched very well by the calibrated model. Both simulated and observed toluene concentrations display similar high-frequency oscillations due to pulsed toluene injection approximately one half hour during each 8 hour period. Simulation results indicate that over the course of the demonstration, 6.9 kg

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gachango, F. G.; Pedersen, S. M.; Kjaergaard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads. PMID:26239649

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  12. Improved secondary oil recovery by controlled waterflooding-pilot demonstration: Ranger Zone, Fault Block VII, Wilmington Field. Phase IV. Quarterly report, April-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-12

    The project is an improved waterflood demonstration of alkaline water-flooding in a typical well flood pattern of the Ranger Zone of the Long Beach Unit portion of the Wilmington Field. A mixture of 0.4% sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in fresh water containing 0.75 to 1.0% salt is being injected to improve oil recovery. The demonstration pattern in which D.O.E. participated involves the input of approximately 30,000 to 34,000 B/D water in 8 injection wells which surround 11 active producers in an area of 93 acres. Reservoir engineering studies have shown that the total area being affected by the injection in these 8 wells is much larger, being approximately 200 acres including areas situated both north and south. If the alkaline injection is successful, improved flood efficiency should occur as demonstrated by reduced water-oil ratios and increased oil recovery. Chemical injection continued in the quarter. A simple long term solution to the floc formed on mixing the dilute alkaline solution with the concentrated salt brine was not found. Alternating one week slug injection of soft water with alkali and then soft water with salt continued throughout the quarter. A four-hour soft water spacer with no chemicals was placed between the slugs. Injection and oil, water production data are presented. 7 figures, 1 table.

  13. Improved secondary oil recovery by controlled waterflooding-pilot demonstration: Ranger Zone, Fault Block VII, Wilmington Field. Phase IV. Quarterly report, January-March, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-12

    The project is an improved waterflood demonstration of alkaline waterflooding in a typical well flood pattern of the Ranger Zone of the Long Beach Unit portion of the Wilmington Field. A mixture of 0.4% sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in fresh water containing 0.75 to 1.0% salt is being injected to improve oil recovery. The demonstration pattern in which DOE participated involves the input of approximately 30,000 to 34,000 B/D water in 8 injection wells which surround 11 active producers in an area of 93 acres. Reservoir engineering studies have shown that the total area being affected by the injection in these 8 wells is much larger, being approximately 200 acres including areas situated both north and south. If the alkaline injection is successful, improved flood efficiency should occur as demonstrated by reduced water-oil ratios and increased oil recovery. Chemical injection continued in the quarter. A simple long term solution to the floc formed on mixing the dilute alkaline solution with the concentrated salt brine was not found. Alternating one week slug injection of soft water with alkali and then soft water with salt continued throughout the quarter. A four-hour soft water spacer with no chemicals was placed between the slugs. Injection data and graphs showing performance of the area are presented. 7 figures, 2 tables.

  14. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD OF THE SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-11-01

    This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  8. Complete Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  13. Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) Method for Advection of Active Compositional Fields with Discontinuous Boundaries: Demonstration and Comparison with Other Methods in the Mantle Convection Code ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Billen, M. I.; Puckett, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Flow in the Earth's mantle is driven by thermo-chemical convection in which the properties and geochemical signatures of rocks vary depending on their origin and composition. For example, tectonic plates are composed of compositionally-distinct layers of crust, residual lithosphere and fertile mantle, while in the lower-most mantle there are large compositionally distinct "piles" with thinner lenses of different material. Therefore, tracking of active or passive fields with distinct compositional, geochemical or rheologic properties is important for incorporating physical realism into mantle convection simulations, and for investigating the long term mixing properties of the mantle. The difficulty in numerically advecting fields arises because they are non-diffusive and have sharp boundaries, and therefore require different methods than usually used for temperature. Previous methods for tracking fields include the marker-chain, tracer particle, and field-correction (e.g., the Lenardic Filter) methods: each of these has different advantages or disadvantages, trading off computational speed with accuracy in tracking feature boundaries. Here we present a method for modeling active fields in mantle dynamics simulations using a new solver implemented in the deal.II package that underlies the ASPECT software. The new solver for the advection-diffusion equation uses a Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) algorithm, which combines features of both finite element and finite volume methods, and is particularly suitable for problems with a dominant first-order term and discontinuities. Furthermore, we have applied a post-processing technique to insure that the solution satisfies a global maximum/minimum. One potential drawback for the LDG method is that the total number of degrees of freedom is larger than the finite element method. To demonstrate the capabilities of this new method we present results for two benchmarks used previously: a falling cube with distinct buoyancy and

  14. Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) Method for Advection of Active Compositional Fields with Discontinuous Boundaries: Demonstration and Comparison with Other Methods in the Mantle Convection Code ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. K.; Armada, L. T.; Yeh, Y. C.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Doo, W. B.; Liang, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Flow in the Earth's mantle is driven by thermo-chemical convection in which the properties and geochemical signatures of rocks vary depending on their origin and composition. For example, tectonic plates are composed of compositionally-distinct layers of crust, residual lithosphere and fertile mantle, while in the lower-most mantle there are large compositionally distinct "piles" with thinner lenses of different material. Therefore, tracking of active or passive fields with distinct compositional, geochemical or rheologic properties is important for incorporating physical realism into mantle convection simulations, and for investigating the long term mixing properties of the mantle. The difficulty in numerically advecting fields arises because they are non-diffusive and have sharp boundaries, and therefore require different methods than usually used for temperature. Previous methods for tracking fields include the marker-chain, tracer particle, and field-correction (e.g., the Lenardic Filter) methods: each of these has different advantages or disadvantages, trading off computational speed with accuracy in tracking feature boundaries. Here we present a method for modeling active fields in mantle dynamics simulations using a new solver implemented in the deal.II package that underlies the ASPECT software. The new solver for the advection-diffusion equation uses a Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) algorithm, which combines features of both finite element and finite volume methods, and is particularly suitable for problems with a dominant first-order term and discontinuities. Furthermore, we have applied a post-processing technique to insure that the solution satisfies a global maximum/minimum. One potential drawback for the LDG method is that the total number of degrees of freedom is larger than the finite element method. To demonstrate the capabilities of this new method we present results for two benchmarks used previously: a falling cube with distinct buoyancy and

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations suitable for chemistry instruction. One involves fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface and the other deals with molecular weights and music. (TW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Two demonstrations are presented: a verification of the discontinuity of matter based on the law of definite proportions, and a series of consecutive chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria. (BB)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  5. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  7. Numerical Demonstration of A New Method of Computing Wave Fields as A Realization of An Isolated Linear Dynamic System Excited Periodically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; Ishii, K.; Kumazawa, M.

    2004-12-01

    A strong demand exists for the computation code of wave field in an arbitrary medium excited by a sinusoidal force for the system designing in ACROSS technology and also for the data analysis. Numerical examination is made on the new method of wave field computation proposed by Kumazawa et al., (2003). The theory is expected to be applied commonly to both elastic and electromagnetic waves in any heterogeneous medium with anisotropy and frequency dependent property. Wave field w(t,x) is described by an inhomogeneous differential equation of the second order with respect to time and space, DW = e, where D (= p1(∂ /∂ t)2+∇ (p2 ∇ ) ) is a dynamic operator (p1 & p2: two material parameters, ∇ : nabla) and e is an excitation as an inhomogeneous term. Whereas the spatial discontinuity in p1 & p2 does not allow the space-differentiation in ordinary sense, we do differentiate all parameters and variables in wave equation by introducing hyper-function in their description in space. Then we can rewrite the wave equation in a local form of D(ω , κ , x)w(x)=e(x), where both ω and κ originate from time and space derivatives, respectively. The consequence is the derivation of a set of two linear dynamic system equations of global nature; D(ω , κ ',κ )w(ω ,κ ) = e(ω , κ ') and w(ω , κ ) = R(ω , κ ,κ ') e(ω , κ '), which are mutually inverse with DR=1 at a specified frequency ω , where κ and κ ' are wavenumber vectors of wave field and excitation, respectively. The R(ω , κ ,κ ') is the `frequency-wavenumber response characteristics', relating the wavenumber spectrum of excitation e(ω , κ ') to that of the wave field w(ω , κ ) linearly. Validity of this theory is numerically demonstrated with a simple model in 1D medium. There are two paths to derive R(ω , κ ,κ ') numerically from D(ω , κ , x) : Path-1 via D(ω , κ ',κ ) involving large matrix inverse leads to more accurate result, whereas path-2 via 1/D(ω , κ , x) without large

  8. The demonstration of promising Ge n-type multi-gate-field-effect transistors with the magnetic FePt metal gate scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.-H.; Huang, S. C.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the tetragonal-phase BaTiO3 high dielectric (HK) layer and the magnetic FePt metal gate (MG) film are proposed to be the gate stack scheme on the Ge three dimensional (3D) n-type multi-gate-field-effect transistors (FETs). The ˜75% dielectric constant (κ-value) improvement, ˜100× gate leakage (Jg) reduction, and ˜70% on-state current (Ion) enhancement are achieved due to the colossal magneto-capacitance effect. The magnetic field from the magnetic FePt MG film couples and triggers more dipoles in the BaTiO3 HK layer and then results in the super gate stack characteristics. The promising transistor's performance (˜200 μA/μm on the device with the gate length Lch = 60 nm) on the high mobility (Ge) material in the 3D n-type multi-gate-FETs device structure demonstrated in this work provides the useful solution for the future advanced logic device design.

  9. A field demonstration project utilizing FRC/PCC residues for paving materials. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoori, N.

    1995-12-31

    In the past two years, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), under the sponsorship of Illinois Clean Coal Institute, has performed a series of laboratory research into engineering properties of roller compacted concretes containing fluidized bed combustion/pulverized coal combustion (FBC/PCC) by-products as well as FBC/PCC-portland cement concrete mixtures prepared under conventional placement technique. This laboratory effort has resulted in identification of a number of potentially viable commercial applications for the FBC by-products residues derived from Illinois high-sulfur coal. One potential and promising application of the FBC/PCC solid waste residues, which also accounts for the large utilization of coal-based by-product materials, is in pavement construction. The proposal presented herein is intended to embark into a new endeavor in order to bring the commercialization aspect of the initial laboratory project a step closer to reality by conducting a field demonstration of the optimized mixtures identified during the two -year laboratory investigation. A total of twenty-three different pavement slabs will be constructed at an identified site located in the Illinois Coal Development Park, Carterville, Illinois, by two construction contractors who are part of the industrial participants of the initial project and have expressed interest in the construction of experimental slabs. Both conventional and roller compacted concrete placement techniques will be utilized. All sections will be subjected to an extensive engineering evaluation and will be monitored for nearly a year for both short- and long-term performance. The field results will be compared to that of the equivalent laboratory-prepared mixes in order to ascertain the suitability of proposed mixes for field applications.

  10. Empirical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Near-Field Plate-Boundary and Crustal Fault Sources Demonstrated for the Pacific Coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate an empirical method for preliminary tsunami hazard assessment of near-field fault sources that lack long historic records, paleoseismic/paleotsunami data and/or adequate tsunami modelling studies. Along the Pacific coast of Canada, the North America plate boundary is characterized by varying degrees of convergence with adjacent oceanic plates and microplates. The 1700 M~9 Cascadia earthquake ruptured at least the full extent of Juan de Fuca plate subduction as far north as central Vancouver Island; paleoseismic data show that similar events have occurred approximately every 500 years throughout the Holocene, accompanied by large tsunamis. Further north along the margin, the paleoseismic and paleotsunami histories of the Explorer, Winona, and Haida Gwaii segments of the margin are unknown. The Explorer plate is subducting beneath Vancouver Island at about half the rate of the Juan de Fuca plate; this locked segment may rupture independently or it may slip concurrently with the rest of the Cascadia subduction zone system to the south. The tsunamigenic potential of the Winona segment off northern Vancouver Island is poorly understood. The occurrence of the 2012 M7.8 thrust earthquake off southern Haida Gwaii confirmed the tsunamigenic nature of partitioned convergent slip on this dominantly transform margin segment. Parts of the coastline face additional tsunami hazard from submarine crustal faults. For potentially tsunamigenic faults with unknown history, we use (1) geophysical data to constrain fault rupture area, (2) empirical relations to estimate earthquake magnitude from the rupture area, (3) plate motion models and geodetic data to constrain convergence and thrust earthquake recurrence rates, and (4) empirical relations to estimate near-field tsunami runup at coastal sites, given distance from the rupture. The success of this approach is demonstrated by general agreement between expected and observed earthquake magnitude and near-field tsunami

  11. Real-time demonstration of QoS guaranteed 25-Gb/s PON prototype with Ethernet-PON MAC/PHY and cost-effective APD receivers for 100-Gb/s access networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Hyub; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Mun, Sil-Gu; Kim, Kwangok; Lee, Jie Hyun; Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Park, Heuk; Park, Nowook; Park, Hyungjin; Chung, Hwan Seok

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate a real-time 25-Gb/s PON prototype with ethernet-PON MAC/PHY, O-band transmitter, and cost-effective APD receivers. With applying parasitic inductance and capacitance reduction, the frequency response of 25-Gb/s APD ROSA with TO46-pacakge is improved to support high receiver sensitivity around -25 dBm at the BER of 10-3. The 30 dB power budget of 25 Gb/s downstream is achieved at the BER of 10-3. With long-term ethernet packet transmission, 25 Gigabit and 10 Gigabit ethernet traffics are successfully transmitted through the 20-km SMF over 14 hour's observation window. Furthermore, QoS and bandwidth re-assignment function of the 25-Gb/s PON prototype are successfully demonstrated with respect to residential, business and mobile backhaul services in ONUs. PMID:27410561

  12. Optical low-cost and portable arrangement for full field 3D displacement measurement using a single camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Alba, E.; Felipe-Sesé, L.; Schmeer, S.; Díaz, F. A.

    2016-11-01

    In the current paper, an optical low-cost system for 3D displacement measurement based on a single camera and 3D digital image correlation is presented. The conventional 3D-DIC set-up based on a two-synchronized-cameras system is compared with a proposed pseudo-stereo portable system that employs a mirror system integrated in a device for a straightforward application achieving a novel handle and flexible device for its use in many scenarios. The proposed optical system splits the image by the camera into two stereo images of the object. In order to validate this new approach and quantify its uncertainty compared to traditional 3D-DIC systems, solid rigid in and out-of-plane displacements experiments have been performed and analyzed. The differences between both systems have been studied employing an image decomposition technique which performs a full image comparison. Therefore, results of all field of view are compared with those using a stereoscopy system and 3D-DIC, discussing the accurate results obtained with the proposed device not having influence any distortion or aberration produced by the mirrors. Finally, the adaptability of the proposed system and its accuracy has been tested performing quasi-static and dynamic experiments using a silicon specimen under high deformation. Results have been compared and validated with those obtained from a conventional stereoscopy system showing an excellent level of agreement.

  13. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball B. A.; Lewin K.; Conley, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small ({le}3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 ms{sup -1} wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  3. Wireless Transmission of Monitoring Data out of an Underground Repository: Results of Field Demonstrations Performed at the HADES Underground Laboratory - 13589

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.J.; Rosca-Bocancea, E.; Hart, J.

    2013-07-01

    As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) performed experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless data transmission through the subsurface over large distances by low frequency magnetic fields in the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The main objective of NRG's contribution is to characterize and optimize the energy use of this technique within the specific context of post-closure monitoring of a repository. For that, measurements have been performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located at Mol, Belgium, at 225 m depth. The experimental set-up utilizes a loop antenna for the transmitter that has been matched to the existing infrastructure of the HADES. Between 2010 and 2012 NRG carried out several experiments at the HADES URL in order to test the technical set-up and to characterize the propagation behavior of the geological medium and the local background noise pattern. Transmission channels have been identified and data transmission has been demonstrated at several frequencies, with data rates up to 10 bit/s and bit error rates <1%. A mathematical model description that includes the most relevant characteristics of the transmitter, transmission path, and receiver has been developed and applied to analyze possible options to optimize the set-up. With respect to the energy-efficiency, results so far have shown that data transmission over larger distances through the subsurface is a feasible option. To support the conclusions on the energy need per bit of transmitted data, additional experiments are foreseen. (authors)

  4. Economic assessment of proposed electric-discharge non-thermal plasma field-pilot demonstration units for NO{sub x} removal in jet-engine exhaust: White paper for SERDP Project CP-1038

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Chang, J.S.; Urashima, Kuniko; Kim, S.J.; Miziolek, A.W.

    1999-01-05

    This project is currently evaluating non-thermal plasma (NTP) technologies for treating jet-engine exhaust arising from DoD test facilities. In the past, some economic analyses for NTP de-NO{sub x} have shown that it is not economical, compared to other techniques. The main reasons for this conclusion was that the previous analyses examined stand-alone, or less mature electrical-discharge reactors, or electron-beam based systems that incorporated both chemical additives and quite expensive electron accelerators. Also, in contrast to more recent developments, both the discharge and electron-beam techniques of the past did not extensively incorporate methods to increase the yields of active NO{sub x}-decomposing species. In an earlier White paper and a Project Report, the authors have analyzed the costs of more mature NTP systems incorporating chemical additives and new-concept NTP technologies for jet-engine emissions control and have shown lower exhaust-gas treatment costs for NTP systems compared to baseline standard de-NO{sub x} technologies like Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) combined with a wet scrubber or SCR combined with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In this paper, the authors will examine their most-promising candidate NTP reactor systems for a field-pilot demonstration on jet-engine exhaust and discuss the economic analyses for these hybrid units, which show that the economics of the proposed candidate systems are more favorable than earlier NTP reactor economic-assessment conclusions for NO{sub x} removal.

  5. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  6. Field-based simulation of a demonstration site for carbon dioxide sequestration in low-permeability saline aquifers in the Ordos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jian; Zhang, Keni; Hu, Litang; Pavelic, Paul; Wang, Yongsheng; Chen, Maoshan

    2015-11-01

    Saline formations are considered to be candidates for carbon sequestration due to their great depths, large storage volumes, and widespread occurrence. However, injecting carbon dioxide into low-permeability reservoirs is challenging. An active demonstration project for carbon dioxide sequestration in the Ordos Basin, China, began in 2010. The site is characterized by a deep, multi-layered saline reservoir with permeability mostly below 1.0 × 10-14 m2. Field observations so far suggest that only small-to-moderate pressure buildup has taken place due to injection. The Triassic Liujiagou sandstone at the top of the reservoir has surprisingly high injectivity and accepts approximately 80 % of the injected mass at the site. Based on these key observations, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed and applied, to predict the plume dynamics and pressure propagation, and in the assessment of storage safety. The model is assembled with the most recent data and the simulations are calibrated to the latest available observations. The model explains most of the observed phenomena at the site. With the current operation scheme, the CO2 plume at the uppermost reservoir would reach a lateral distance of 658 m by the end of the project in 2015, and approximately 1,000 m after 100 years since injection. The resulting pressure buildup in the reservoir was below 5 MPa, far below the threshold to cause fracturing of the sealing cap (around 33 MPa).

  7. E. coli electroeradication on a closed loop circuit by using milli-, micro- and nanosecond pulsed electric fields: comparison between energy costs.

    PubMed

    Guionet, Alexis; David, Fabienne; Zaepffel, Clément; Coustets, Mathilde; Helmi, Karim; Cheype, Cyril; Packan, Denis; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Blanckaert, Vincent; Teissié, Justin

    2015-06-01

    One of the different ways to eradicate microorganisms, and particularly bacteria that might have an impact on health consists in the delivery of pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The technologies of millisecond (ms) or microsecond (μs) PEF are still well known and used for instance in the process of fruit juice sterilization. However, this concept is costly in terms of delivered energy which might be too expensive for some other industrial processes. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) might be an alternative at least for lower energetic cost. However, only few insights were available and stipulate a gain in cost and in efficiency as well. Using Escherichia coli, the impact of frequency and low rate on eradication and energy consumption by msPEF, μsPEF and nsPEF have been studied and compared. While a 1 log10 was reached with an energy cost of 100 and 158 kJ/L with micro- and millisecond PEFs respectively, nsPEF reached the reduction for similar energy consumption. The best condition was obtained for a 1 log10 deactivation in 0.5h, for energy consumption of 143 kJ/L corresponding to 0.04 W · h when the field was around 100 kV/cm. Improvement can also be expected by producing a generator capable to increase the electric field.

  8. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  9. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E; McDonald, Birgitte I; Williams, Terrie M; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102±11 s; P<0.01). Despite incurred costs, most other dive and transit behaviours were conserved across treatments, including fixed, rhythmic swimming gaits. Because of this, and because each flipper stroke had a predictable effect on total costs (P<0.001), total energy expenditure was strongly correlated with time spent at sea under both treatments (P<0.0001). These results suggest that transiting elephant seals have a limited capacity to modify their locomotory behaviour without increasing their transport costs. Based on this, we conclude that elephant seals and other ocean predators occupying similar niches may be particularly sensitive to increased transport costs incurred when avoiding unanticipated disturbances.

  10. Field performance in an agricultural setting of a wireless temperature monitoring system based on a low-cost infrared sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous measurement of plant canopy temperature is useful in both research and production agriculture settings. Industrial-quality infrared thermometers which are often used for measurement of canopy temperatures, while reliable, are not always cost effective. For this study a relatively low-cost...

  11. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E; McDonald, Birgitte I; Williams, Terrie M; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102±11 s; P<0.01). Despite incurred costs, most other dive and transit behaviours were conserved across treatments, including fixed, rhythmic swimming gaits. Because of this, and because each flipper stroke had a predictable effect on total costs (P<0.001), total energy expenditure was strongly correlated with time spent at sea under both treatments (P<0.0001). These results suggest that transiting elephant seals have a limited capacity to modify their locomotory behaviour without increasing their transport costs. Based on this, we conclude that elephant seals and other ocean predators occupying similar niches may be particularly sensitive to increased transport costs incurred when avoiding unanticipated disturbances. PMID:24790099

  12. The interrelationship of riparian vegetation and water temperature demonstrated with field data measurements and analysis of the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde

    2015-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is an important part of riverine system and plays a key role in terms of eco-sustainable streams, which consequently also affect the water driven erosion processes and flooding from an engineering point of view. Furthermore it is a crucial prerequisite for intact and balanced terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Due to intensive anthropogenic impacts, especially in lowlands, streams in Central Europe were strongly influenced and set to a moderate ecological status. Riverine forests changed to settlements or agricultural areas and so important functions of the riparian vegetation, such as shading decreased. Consequently, stream warming occurs and has an impact on the water quality of small and moderate sized streams. The objective of this study is to correlate different vegetation parameters and the river water temperature. The study was carried out in the Pinka and Lafnitz river catchments, located in the Austrian provinces Styria and Burgenland. Both rivers are medium sized lowland rivers of the "Hungarian Plains". Digital aerial photograph analysis and field measurements are the basement of the vegetation analysis. Water temperature was measured at several points along both rivers. Data were sampled every hour from July 2012 until September 2013. For the water temperature measurements HOBO Pendant Temperature/Light Data Logger 8K * UA-002-08 were used. The results show that there is a correlation between water temperature and riparian vegetation parameter depending on the temporal and spatial scale. There is a verifiable difference in daily water temperature range (6.7° to 3.5°) of different vegetation stands in contrast to unshaded areas. Also the peak time of the daily water temperature is different comparing high shaded areas with unshaded areas. The results confirm that the riparian vegetation has a significantly impact on the water temperature specifically at low water conditions and demonstrate the need for more in depth studies of this

  13. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Mitigation Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  14. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  15. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  16. GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE PREPARATION OF DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS FOR THE VERIFICATION OF FIELD CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work represents the technical and editorial contributions of a large number of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) employees and others familiar with or interested in the demonstration and evaluation of innovative site characterization and monitoring technologies. In ...

  17. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  18. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Fort; Don L. Hanosh

    2003-11-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. Resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain oil fields located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP), determine if this system can reduce lift costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improved the economics. Three Phases of work have been defined in the DOE Form 4600.1 Notice of Financial Assistance Award for this project, in which the project objectives are to be attained through a joint venture between Enerdyne LLC (Enerdyne), owner and operator of the fields and Pumping Solutions Inc. (PSI), developer of the submersible pumping system. Upon analysis of the results of each Phase, the DOE will determine if the results justify the continuation of the project and approve the next Phase to proceed or terminate the project and request that the wells be plugged. This topical report shall provide the DOE with Phase I results and conclusions reached by Enerdyne and PSI.

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20-100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of -1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  20. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of −1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  1. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  2. Hydrologic characterization of the Fry Canyon, Utah site prior to field demonstration of reactive chemical barriers to control radionuclide and trace-element contamination in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Naftz, D.L.; Freethey, G.W.; Davis, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The Fry Canyon Site in southeastern Utah has been selected as a long term demonstration site to assess the performance of selected reaction barrier technologies for the removal of uranium and other trace elements from ground water. Objectives include site characterization and evaluation of barrier technologies.

  3. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses continuing work in the testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies, some of which have already been tested, and describes progress toward completing remaining tests to evaluate further synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed-loop control system coupled with a low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. Technologies including pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on preparing the test cell for tests using a 180 psig fuel valve. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine.

  4. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-01-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for this first phase of the agreement was $386,385.00 as detailed in Phase I Authorization For Expenditure (AFE). This report describes the tasks performed, the results, and conclusions for the first phase (Phase I) of the cooperative agreement.

  5. Field validation of a new low-cost method for determining occurrence and duration of combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, A; Gutierrez, O; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2013-10-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) events produced in combined sewer systems (CSS) during wet weather conditions are a threat for the receiving water bodies. The large number of CSO structures normally present in a CSS makes that the monitoring of the complete CSO network in a simultaneous way would drastically increase the investment costs. In this paper, a new methodology is presented aiming to characterize the occurrence and duration of CSO events by means of low-cost temperature sensors. Hence, a large number of CSO structures can be simultaneously monitored and the system can be characterized as a whole. The method assumes temperature differences between the overflowing mix of wastewater and stormwater and the sewer gas phase, so the temperature shift produced during a rainfall episode is related to a CSO event occurrence. The method has been tested and validated in La Garriga CSS (Spain) where the temperature at 13 CSO weirs was monitored for a period of 1 year (57 rainfall episodes). For the whole set of CSO events, occurrence and duration were successfully determined in 80% of cases. Advantages, limitations and potential applications of the method are discussed at the end of the paper.

  6. Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2006-08-15

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

  7. Understanding and development of cost-effective industrial aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nian

    For the long-term strategy of gradual decarbonization of the world's energy supply, high penetration of PV electricity is critical in the future world energy landscape. In order to achieve this, solar electricity with competitive cost to fossil fuel energy is necessary. To be able to obtain high efficiency solar cells, many advanced cell architectures have been developed commercially by PV industry. However, the fabrication of these cells necessitates complex processing steps and high requirements on semiconductor materials, which make it not as cost-effective as the state-of-the-art conventional Al-BSF structure. In order to keep the cost of PV cell low and improve on the efficiency with fewer processing steps, this thesis work focuses on the understanding of the conventional Al-BSF solar cell structure. The research work therefore, focuses on the (i) design, and modeling of front metal electrodes including the use of multi-bus-bar capable of decreasing the gridline resistance, (ii) fine-line printing and (iii) metal contact co-firing using high belt speed that is not common to the solar industry to achieve ~20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cells. In order to achieve the objectives of this thesis work, firstly, the appropriate Al paste was investigated for lowest back surface recombination velocity (BSRV), which gives high open circuit voltage (Voc). Secondly, the impact of emitter sheet resistance on solar cell performance was modeled to determine the optimal sheet resistance, and the uniformity of emitter was also investigated. Thirdly, modeling on the front metal electrodes was carried out to investigate the optimal number of busbars, and determine the optimum number of gridlines and gridline geometries that would result in low series resistance (Rs), high fill factor (FF) and hence high efficiency. Fourthly, the modeled results were experimentally validated through fine-line printing and optimized contact co-firing. By combining each layer to make

  8. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  9. New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Multi-Layer Light Polarizing Panels in an Office Space

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2001-06-14

    An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of multi-layer light polarizing panels in an office space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual working office area provided the capability of evaluating the technology's effectiveness in the real world.

  10. New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Full-Spectrum Polarized Lighting in a Mail Processing/Office Space

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2001-06-14

    An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of full-spectrum polarized lighting in a work space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual mail processing/office work area provided the capability of evaluating the technologies effectiveness in the real world.

  11. Demonstration of a high-field short-period superconducting helical undulator suitable for future TeV-scale linear collider positron sources.

    PubMed

    Scott, D J; Clarke, J A; Baynham, D E; Bayliss, V; Bradshaw, T; Burton, G; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Lintern, A; Rochford, J; Taylor, O; Ivanyushenkov, Y

    2011-10-21

    The first demonstration of a full-scale working undulator module suitable for future TeV-scale positron-electron linear collider positron sources is presented. Generating sufficient positrons is an important challenge for these colliders, and using polarized e(+) would enhance the machine's capabilities. In an undulator-based source polarized positrons are generated in a metallic target via pair production initiated by circularly polarized photons produced in a helical undulator. We show how the undulator design is developed by considering impedance effects on the electron beam, modeling and constructing short prototypes before the successful fabrication, and testing of a final module.

  12. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  13. Transfer-free graphene synthesis on sapphire by catalyst metal agglomeration technique and demonstration of top-gate field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Makoto Arima, Yukinori; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaya; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-08-17

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis was performed on sapphire substrates by using the catalyst metal agglomeration technique, and the graphene film quality was compared to that synthesized on sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Raman scattering measurements indicated that the graphene film on sapphire has better structural qualities than that on sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. The cross-sectional transmission microscopic study also revealed that the film flatness was drastically improved by using sapphire substrates instead of sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. These quality improvements seemed to be due the chemical and thermal stabilities of sapphire. Top-gate field-effect transistors were fabricated using the graphene films on sapphire, and it was confirmed that their drain current can be modulated with applied gate voltages. The maximum field-effect mobilities were estimated to be 720 cm{sup 2}/V s for electrons and 880 cm{sup 2}/V s for holes, respectively.

  14. A field-based method to derive macroinvertebrate benchmark for specific conductivity adapted for small data sets and demonstrated in the Hun-Tai River Basin, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Jia, Xiaobo; Xia, Rui; Lin, Jianing; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Ionic mixtures, measured as specific conductivity, have been increasingly concerned because of their toxicities to aquatic organisms. However, identifying protective values of specific conductivity for aquatic organisms is challenging given that laboratory test systems cannot examine more salt-intolerant species nor effects occurring in streams. Large data sets used for deriving field-based benchmarks are rarely available. In this study, a field-based method for small data sets was used to derive specific conductivity benchmark, which is expected to prevent the extirpation of 95% of local taxa from circum-neutral to alkaline waters dominated by a mixture of SO4(2-) and HCO3(-) anions and other dissolved ions. To compensate for the smaller sample size, species level analyses were combined with genus level analyses. The benchmark is based on extirpation concentration (XC95) values of specific conductivity for 60 macroinvertebrate genera estimated from 296 sampling sites in the Hun-Tai River Basin. We derived the specific conductivity benchmark by using a 2-point interpolation method, which yielded the benchmark of 249 μS/cm. Our study tailored the method that was developed by USEPA to derive aquatic life benchmark for specific conductivity for basin scale application, and may provide useful information for water pollution control and management.

  15. A field-based method to derive macroinvertebrate benchmark for specific conductivity adapted for small data sets and demonstrated in the Hun-Tai River Basin, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Jia, Xiaobo; Xia, Rui; Lin, Jianing; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Ionic mixtures, measured as specific conductivity, have been increasingly concerned because of their toxicities to aquatic organisms. However, identifying protective values of specific conductivity for aquatic organisms is challenging given that laboratory test systems cannot examine more salt-intolerant species nor effects occurring in streams. Large data sets used for deriving field-based benchmarks are rarely available. In this study, a field-based method for small data sets was used to derive specific conductivity benchmark, which is expected to prevent the extirpation of 95% of local taxa from circum-neutral to alkaline waters dominated by a mixture of SO4(2-) and HCO3(-) anions and other dissolved ions. To compensate for the smaller sample size, species level analyses were combined with genus level analyses. The benchmark is based on extirpation concentration (XC95) values of specific conductivity for 60 macroinvertebrate genera estimated from 296 sampling sites in the Hun-Tai River Basin. We derived the specific conductivity benchmark by using a 2-point interpolation method, which yielded the benchmark of 249 μS/cm. Our study tailored the method that was developed by USEPA to derive aquatic life benchmark for specific conductivity for basin scale application, and may provide useful information for water pollution control and management. PMID:27389551

  16. Hybrid Lyot coronagraph for wide-field infrared survey telescope-astrophysics focused telescope assets: occulter fabrication and high contrast narrowband testbed demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Gordon, Brian; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andy; Moody, Dwight; Muller, Richard; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Trauger, John; Wilson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) is one of the two operating modes of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument. It produces starlight suppression over the full 360-deg annular region and thus is particularly suitable to improve the discovery space around WFIRST-AFTA targets. Since being selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in December 2013, the coronagraph technology is being matured to technology readiness level 5 by September 2016. We present the progress of HLC key component fabrication and testbed demonstrations with the WFIRST-AFTA pupil. For the first time, a circular HLC occulter mask consisting of metal and dielectric layers is fabricated and characterized. Wavefront control using two deformable mirrors is successfully demonstrated in a vacuum testbed with narrowband light (<1-nm bandwidth at 516 nm) to obtain repeatable convergence below 8×10-9 mean contrast in the 360-deg dark hole with a working angle between 3λ/D and 9λ/D with arbitrary polarization. We detail the hardware and software used in the testbed, the results, and the associated analysis.

  17. SECONDARY NATURAL GAS RECOVERY IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN: APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN A FIELD DEMONSTRATION SITE, HENDERSON DOME, WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA

    SciTech Connect

    BOB A. HARDAGE; ELOISE DOHERTY; STEPHEN E. LAUBACH; TUCKER F. HENTZ

    1998-08-14

    The principal objectives of this project were to test and evaluate technologies that would result in improved characterization of fractured natural-gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. The Bureau of Economic Geology (Bureau) worked jointly with industry partner Atlas Resources, Inc. to design, execute, and evaluate several experimental tests toward this end. The experimental tests were of two types: (1) tests leading to a low-cost methodology whereby small-scale microfractures observed in matrix grains of sidewall cores can be used to deduce critical properties of large-scale fractures that control natural-gas production and (2) tests that verify methods whereby robust seismic shear (S) waves can be generated to detect and map fractured reservoir facies. The grain-scale microfracture approach to characterizing rock facies was developed in an ongoing Bureau research program that started before this Appalachian Basin study began. However, the method had not been tested in a wide variety of fracture systems, and the tectonic setting of rocks in the Appalachian Basin composed an ideal laboratory for perfecting the methodology. As a result of this Appalachian study, a low-cost commercial procedure now exists that will allow Appalachian operators to use scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of thin sections extracted from oriented sidewall cores to infer the spatial orientation, relative geologic timing, and population density of large-scale fracture systems in reservoir sandstones. These attributes are difficult to assess using conventional techniques. In the Henderson Dome area, large quartz-lined regional fractures having N20E strikes, and a subsidiary set of fractures having N70W strikes, are prevalent. An innovative method was also developed for obtaining the stratigraphic and geographic tops of sidewall cores. With currently deployed sidewall coring devices, no markings from which top orientation can be obtained are made on the sidewall core itself during

  18. Dealer model site demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, H.C.

    1992-08-01

    Model site demonstrations are joint efforts between TVA and cooperating organizations to improve the industry's environmental stewardship. Program objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and management practices to help retail fertilizer/agricultural chemical dealers minimize adverse environmental impacts. The model site demonstrations serve as 'real life' laboratories for researchers, technologists, educators and participants. The retail dealership is treated as a complete unit. The program recognizes the need to: Develop information and experience to guide others; Test numerous methods of containment, materials of construction, management practices, and monitoring techniques; Strengthen and highlight industry's commitment to envirorunental stewardship; Identify future research needs; and Provide a catalyst for cooperation across a broad spectrum of groups and organizations to identify problems and develop solutions appropriate for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers. Emphasis is on transferring current technology and developing and introducing needed new technologies. Field testing and applied research are encouraged at demonstration sites. One of the key concepts is to bridge the gap between research findings and their practical application and evaluation in field settings. Primary audiences include fertilizer dealers and professional workers in agriculture, the fertilizer industry, the environmental arena, and related institutions across the nation. Experiences at participating dealer sites are shared through organized tours, open houses, news articles and publications. Sixteen sites have been selected for demonstrations, and at least four more are planned. TVA provides assistance in engineering, design and educational forums. Dealers pay for installation of needed containment and related features.

  19. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 1. Body of report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Comparative core flood testing of preserved Ranger Zone core rock samples was completed; the past year's results were discouraging. In contrast, Ranger sand pack alkaline flood tests gave encouraging results. New insights were gained on in-situ alkaline consumption. Dehydration of sodium orthosilicate water-produced water-crude oil systems does not appear to create any operational problems. The alkaline injection facilities were completed and placed in operation on March 27, 1980. The preflush injection, which was composed of 11.5 million barrels of softened fresh water with an average 0.96% of salt, was completed at that time. The total preflush amounted to approximately 10 pore volume percent. The 0.4% sodium orthosilicate-1.0% salt-soft fresh water injection started at the end of the preflush. A loss of injectivity began at the same time as alkaline injection, which is attributed to divalent ions in the salt brine. Salt was removed temporarily from the system on May 30, 1980. No injection wells were redrilled during the year. Other than plug back of one injector and one producer because of bad liners and repair of one injection well with an inner liner, well work was routine and minor in nature. Dual injection strings were transferred from one well to another. One of the injection wells whose injectivity was damaged by the alkaline-salt injection was successfully stimulated. The pilot was self certified under the tertiary incentive program and cost recoupments obtained. Preparations are underway for making the alkaline flood simulator performance prediction for the pilot. Laboratory testing is actively underway in an attempt to quickly find a remedy for the floc formation that occurs on mixing the salt brine and dilute alkaline solution. Volume 1 describes the activities for this period. Volumes 2 and 3 contain appendices.

  20. Field demonstration of the conventional steam-drive process with ancillary materials. Quarterly report No. 1, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-10

    The objective of this contract is to field test the potential of chemical blocking foams to increase the efficiency of steam drive operations, particularly in shallow, heavy oil reservoirs. The initial work under the contract has consisted of laboratory work to test foaming materials. The state-of-the art was surveyed through a review of current work and through meetings held with university and industry laboratories. Discussed was equipment, data, and agents in the generation and evaluation of foams. Testing during the first quarter was conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure to screen the foaming agent. These tests were conducted in distilled water, saline water, and water with crude oil added, as described in detail in the appendix. The preliminary results, also included in the appendix, indicate that several chemicals appear promising.

  1. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  2. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  3. A Low-cost data-logging platform for long-term field sensor deployment in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, M. A.; Myre, J. M.; Covington, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Active karst systems are notoriously inhospitable environments for humans and equipment. Caves require equipment to cope with high humidity, high velocity flows, submersion, sediment loads, and harassment from local fauna. Equipment taken into caves is often considered "consumable" due to the extreme nature of cave environments and the difficulty of transport. Further, because many interesting monitoring locations within caves can be considered remote, it is ideal for electronic monitoring platforms to require minimal maintenance of parts and power supplies. To partially address the challenge of scientifically monitoring such environments, we have developed an arduino based platform for environmental monitoring of cave systems. The arduino is a general purpose open source microcontroller that is easily programmed with only a basic knowledge of the C programming language. The arduino is capable of controlling digital and analog electronics in a modular fashion. Using this capability, we have created a platform for monitoring CO2 levels in cave systems that costs one-tenth of a comparable commercial system while using a fraction of the power. The modular nature of the arduino system allows the incorporation of additional environmental sensors in the future.

  4. New insights in the passivation of high-k/InP through interface characterization and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor demonstration: Impact of crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Gu, Jiangjiang J.; Wang, Chen; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Wallace, R. M.; Ye, Peide D.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically studied the passivation of InP (100) and (111)A substrate using atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 as gate dielectric. Modified high- and low-frequency method and full conductance method has been applied to evaluate the interface trap density (Dit) distribution at Al2O3/InP interface through MOS capacitor (MOSCAP) and MOSFET measurements. Lower Dit towards conduction band is obtained from (111)A surface, accompanied by an increase in midgap Dit. This leads to the demonstration of record-high drive current (Ids=600 μA /μm) for a InP (111)A NMOSFET with gate length (LG) of 1 μm and relatively large subthreshold swing of 230 mV/dec at off-state. Detailed DC IV and current drift measurements confirm the trap distribution from capacitance-voltage characterization. A trap neutral level (E0) model is proposed to explain all observations from MOSCAP and MOSFET characterizations. A universal behavior of the E0 shift on III-V (111)A surface is also analyzed and this observation can play a pivotal role in interface engineering for future III-V CMOS technology with 3D structures.

  5. ISS-Lobster: a low-cost wide-field X-ray transient detector on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Robert; Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Racusin, Judith; Marshall, Frank; Ptak, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    ISS-Lobster is a wide-field X-ray transient detector proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes a 3-axis gimbal system that allows fast Target of Opportunity pointing, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor to be contributed by the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology).

  6. Passive damping technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  7. Application of an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation multi-detector approach for metallic engineered nanoparticle characterization--prospects and limitations demonstrated on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Kaegi, Ralf; Traber, Jacqueline; Mertens, Stijn F L; Scherrers, Roger; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2011-11-14

    In this work we discuss about the method development, applicability and limitations of an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (A4F) system in combination with a multi-detector setup consisting of UV/vis, light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The overall aim was to obtain a size dependent-, element specific-, and quantitative method appropriate for the characterization of metallic engineered nanoparticle (ENP) dispersions. Thus, systematic investigations of crucial method parameters were performed by employing well characterized Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as a defined model system. For good separation performance, the A4F flow-, membrane-, and carrier conditions were optimized. To obtain reliable size information, the use of laser light scattering based detectors was evaluated, where an online dynamic light scattering (DLS) detector showed good results for the investigated Au-NP up to a size of 80 nm in hydrodynamic diameter. To adapt large sensitivity differences of the various detectors, as well as to guarantee long term stability and minimum contamination of the mass spectrometer a split-flow concept for coupling ICPMS was evaluated. To test for reliable quantification, the ICPMS signal response of ionic Au standards was compared to that of Au-NP. Using proper stabilization with surfactants, no difference for concentrations of 1-50 μg Au L(-1) in the size range from 5 to 80 nm for citrate stabilized dispersions was observed. However, studies using different A4F channel membranes showed unspecific particle-membrane interaction resulting in retention time shifts and unspecific loss of nanoparticles, depending on the Au-NP system as well as membrane batch and type. Thus, reliable quantification and discrimination of ionic and particular species was performed using ICPMS in combination with ultracentrifugation instead of direct quantification with the A4F multi-detector setup. Figures of merit were obtained, by comparing the

  8. Application of an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation multi-detector approach for metallic engineered nanoparticle characterization--prospects and limitations demonstrated on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Kaegi, Ralf; Traber, Jacqueline; Mertens, Stijn F L; Scherrers, Roger; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2011-11-14

    In this work we discuss about the method development, applicability and limitations of an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (A4F) system in combination with a multi-detector setup consisting of UV/vis, light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The overall aim was to obtain a size dependent-, element specific-, and quantitative method appropriate for the characterization of metallic engineered nanoparticle (ENP) dispersions. Thus, systematic investigations of crucial method parameters were performed by employing well characterized Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as a defined model system. For good separation performance, the A4F flow-, membrane-, and carrier conditions were optimized. To obtain reliable size information, the use of laser light scattering based detectors was evaluated, where an online dynamic light scattering (DLS) detector showed good results for the investigated Au-NP up to a size of 80 nm in hydrodynamic diameter. To adapt large sensitivity differences of the various detectors, as well as to guarantee long term stability and minimum contamination of the mass spectrometer a split-flow concept for coupling ICPMS was evaluated. To test for reliable quantification, the ICPMS signal response of ionic Au standards was compared to that of Au-NP. Using proper stabilization with surfactants, no difference for concentrations of 1-50 μg Au L(-1) in the size range from 5 to 80 nm for citrate stabilized dispersions was observed. However, studies using different A4F channel membranes showed unspecific particle-membrane interaction resulting in retention time shifts and unspecific loss of nanoparticles, depending on the Au-NP system as well as membrane batch and type. Thus, reliable quantification and discrimination of ionic and particular species was performed using ICPMS in combination with ultracentrifugation instead of direct quantification with the A4F multi-detector setup. Figures of merit were obtained, by comparing the

  9. Reproductive Potential of Field-collected Populations of Cimex lectularius L. and the Cost of Traumatic Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Andrea M.; Miller, Dini M.; Brewster, Carlyle C.

    2011-01-01

    Egg production was compared among three field-collected bed bug strains over the course of 13 feeding/oviposition cycles, each of which lasted ∼10 days. No significant differences were found among bed bug strains in the mean number of eggs/female/day (∼1.0 egg). However, significant differences were found among strains in their patterns of egg production throughout the study period. Specifically, differences were observed in the timing of peak egg production and the rapidity of egg production decline among the three strains. Egg production was also quantified for female bed bugs that were subjected to single or multiple traumatic insemination events over a period of six feeding/oviposition cycles. Significant differences were found in egg production between females exposed to single and multiple inseminations. Females mated only once produced 83.8 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) eggs over six feeding cycles. Females exposed to multiple inseminations produced 61.0 ± 3.1 eggs, indicating that multiple traumatic inseminations may reduce female fecundity by as much as 27%. This study is the first to suggest that, in a new infestation (first ∼6 weeks), a solitary, singly-mated female with access to regular blood meals is capable of producing greater numbers of offspring than the same female in the presence of a male. PMID:26467730

  10. ISS-Lobster: a low-cost wide-field x-ray transient detector on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Petre, Rob; Gehrels, Neil; Marshall, Francis; Ptak, Andy; Racusin, Judith

    2015-05-01

    ISS-Lobster is a wide-field X-ray transient detector proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 1.6x10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes a 3-axis gimbal system that allows fast Target of Opportunity pointing, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor. In this article we focus on ISS-Lobster measurements of X-ray counterparts of detections by the world-wide ground-based gravitational wave network.

  11. SECONDARY NATURAL GAS RECOVERY IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN: APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN A FIELD DEMONSTRATION SITE, HENDERSON DOME, WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Patchen

    2000-12-01

    . Subjectivity in interpretation and uncertainty regarding the upward propagation of deeper faulting through multiple unconformities, salt-bearing zones and possible detachments are problematic. On the other hand, modern day basement-involved earthquakes like the nearby 1998 Pymatuning event have been noted which influenced near-surface, water-bearing fractures. This suggests there is merit in recognizing surface features as possible indicators of deeper fault systems in the area. Suggested future research includes confirmation of the natural mode-conversion of P-waves to down going S-waves at the level of the Onondaga Limestone, acquisition of 3-C, 2-D seismic as an alternative to more expensive 3-D seismic, and drilling one or two test wells in which to collect a variety of reservoir information. Formation Imaging Logs, a Vertical Seismic Profile and sidewall cores would be run or collected in each well, providing direct evidence of the presence of fractures and the calibration of fractured rocks to the seismic response. If the study of these data had indicated the presence of fractures in the well(s), and efforts to calibrate from well bores to VSPs had been successful, then a new seismic survey would have been designed over each well. This would result in a practical application of the naturally mode-converted, multi-component seismic method over a well bore in which microfractures and production-scale fractures had been demonstrated to exist, and where the well-bore stratigraphy had been correlated from well logs to the seismic response.

  12. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  13. Combining probabilistic hazard assessment with cost-benefit analysis to support decision making in a volcanic crisis from the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Jolly, Gill; Lindsay, Jan; Howe, Tracy; Marzocchi, Warner

    2010-05-01

    One of the main challenges of modern volcanology is to provide the public with robust and useful information for decision-making in land-use planning and in emergency management. From the scientific point of view, this translates into reliable and quantitative long- and short-term volcanic hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Because of the complexity in characterizing volcanic events, and of the natural variability of volcanic processes, a probabilistic approach is more suitable than deterministic modeling. In recent years, two probabilistic codes have been developed for quantitative short- and long-term eruption forecasting (BET_EF) and volcanic hazard assessment (BET_VH). Both of them are based on a Bayesian Event Tree, in which volcanic events are seen as a chain of logical steps of increasing detail. At each node of the tree, the probability is computed by taking into account different sources of information, such as geological and volcanological models, past occurrences, expert opinion and numerical modeling of volcanic phenomena. Since it is a Bayesian tool, the output probability is not a single number, but a probability distribution accounting for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. In this study, we apply BET_VH in order to quantify the long-term volcanic hazard due to base surge invasion in the region around Auckland, New Zealand's most populous city. Here, small basaltic eruptions from monogenetic cones pose a considerable risk to the city in case of phreatomagmatic activity: evidence for base surges are not uncommon in deposits from past events. Currently, we are particularly focussing on the scenario simulated during Exercise Ruaumoko, a national disaster exercise based on the build-up to an eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field. Based on recent papers by Marzocchi and Woo, we suggest a possible quantitative strategy to link probabilistic scientific output and Boolean decision making. It is based on cost-benefit analysis, in which all costs

  14. Soft-Etching Copper and Silver Electrodes for Significant Device Performance Improvement toward Facile, Cost-Effective, Bottom-Contacted, Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongrui; Dong, Huanli; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Tan, Jiahui; Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiuqiang; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhang, Qichun; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-01

    Poor charge injection and transport at the electrode/semiconductor contacts has been so far a severe performance hurdle for bottom-contact bottom-gate (BCBG) organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we have developed a simple, economic, and effective method to improve the carrier injection efficiency and obtained high-performance devices with low cost and widely used source/drain (S/D) electrodes (Ag/Cu). Through the simple electrode etching process, the work function of the electrodes is more aligned with the semiconductors, which reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the charge injection. Besides, the formation of the thinned electrode edge with desirable micro/nanostructures not only leads to the enlarged contact side area beneficial for the carrier injection but also is in favor of the molecular self-organization for continuous crystal growth at the contact/active channel interface, which is better for the charge injection and transport. These effects give rise to the great reduction of contact resistance and the amazing improvement of the low-cost bottom-contact configuration OFETs performance.

  15. Construction and field test of a programmable and self-cleaning auto-sampler controlled by a low-cost one-board computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    This presentation describes in-depth how a low cost micro-computer was used for substantial improvement of established measuring systems due to the construction and implementation of a purposeful complementary device for on-site sample pretreatment. A fully automated on-site device was developed and field-tested, that enables water sampling with simultaneous filtration as well as effective cleaning procedure of the devicés components. The described auto-sampler is controlled by a low-cost one-board computer and designed for sample pre-treatment, with minimal sample alteration, to meet requirements of on-site measurement devices that cannot handle coarse suspended solids within the measurement procedure or -cycle. The automated sample pretreatment was tested for over one year for rapid and on-site enzymatic activity (beta-D-glucuronidase, GLUC) determination in sediment laden stream water. The formerly used proprietary sampling set-up was assumed to lead to a significant damping of the measurement signal due to its susceptibility to clogging, debris- and bio film accumulation. Results show that the installation of the developed apparatus considerably enhanced error-free running time of connected measurement devices and increased the measurement accuracy to an up-to-now unmatched quality.

  16. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  17. High-tech or field techs: Radio-telemetry is a cost-effective method for reducing bias in songbird nest searching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Fish, Alexander C.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of standard nest-searching methods with finding nests via radio-tagged birds to assess how search technique influenced our determination of nest-site characteristics and nest success for Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera). We also evaluated the cost-effectiveness of using radio-tagged birds to find nests. Using standard nest-searching techniques for 3 populations, we found 111 nests in locations with habitat characteristics similar to those described in previous studies: edges between forest and relatively open areas of early successional vegetation or shrubby wetlands, with 43% within 5 m of forest edge. The 83 nests found using telemetry were about half as likely (23%) to be within 5 m of forest edge. We spent little time searching >25 m into forest because published reports state that Golden-winged Warblers do not nest there. However, 14 nests found using telemetry (18%) were >25 m into forest. We modeled nest success using nest-searching method, nest age, and distance to forest edge as explanatory variables. Nest-searching method explained nest success better than nest age alone; we estimated that nests found using telemetry were 10% more likely to fledge young than nests found using standard nest-searching methods. Although radio-telemetry was more expensive than standard nest searching, the cost-effectiveness of both methods differed depending on searcher experience, amount of equipment owned, and bird population density. Our results demonstrate that telemetry can be an effective method for reducing bias in Golden-winged Warbler nest samples, can be cost competitive with standard nest-searching methods in some situations, and is likely to be a useful approach for finding nests of other forest-nesting songbirds.

  18. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  19. Educational Costs in Technical and Professional Fields of Study. A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Concurrent Resolution 38 (Chapter 50 of the Statutes of 1986). Commission Report 87-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Relative costs in specialized occupational fields of study at the California State University and the University of California are evaluated by the California Postsecondary Education Commission. Procedures used by the universities to allocate resources among various technical and specialized fields of study are described. The analysis indicates…

  20. Demonstration and Field Test of airjacket technology

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1998-06-01

    There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal furniture, and other consumer and industrial products. The materials being sprayed include exterior and interior paints, lacquers, primers, shellacs, stains and varnishes. Our experimental findings indicate that the Airjacket does not significantly reduce the exposure of spray workers to paint fumes during HVLP spraying. The difference between ideal and actual spray paint procedures influence the mechanisms driving spray workers exposures to paint fumes and influence the viability of the Airjacket technology. In the ideal procedure, for which the Airjacket was conceived, the spray worker's exposure to paint fumes is due largely to the formation of a recirculating eddy between the spray worker and the object painted. The Airjacket ejects air to diminish and ventilate this eddy. In actual practice, exposures may result largely from directing paint upstream and from the bounce-back of the air/paint jet of the object being painted. The Airjacket, would not be expected to dramatically reduce exposures to paint fumes when the paint is not directed downstream or when the bounce-back of paint on the object creates a cloud of paint aerosols around the spray worker.