Science.gov

Sample records for cost trade study

  1. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  2. Early Life Cycle Cost Trade Study By Parametric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehm, Roy; Patrakis, Stan

    1982-06-01

    Unit production cost and life cycle cost tradestudy considerations are basic to the affordability of a new product. A major portion of the life cycle cost of a product, including production cost, are found to result from decisions made early in the planning phases of a program. Computerized parametric cost modeling generates cost estimates using the information that is available before the developing of engineering detail. The RCA PRICE program, available to all potential users, is used to illustrate the input requirements and steps necessary for parametric estimating of costs for development, production and support in the life cycle of a product. A laser rangefinder equipment is used as a product example to show the utility of this analysis.

  3. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  4. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

  5. Trade study: Liquid hydrogen transportation - Kennedy Space Center. [cost and operational effectivenss of shipping methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cryogenic transportation methods for providing liquid hydrogen requirements are examined in support of shuttle transportation system launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the time frames 1982-1991 in terms of cost and operational effectiveness. Transportation methods considered included sixteen different options employing mobile semi-trailer tankers, railcars, barges and combinations of each method. The study concludes that the most effective method of delivering liquid hydrogen from the vendor production facility in New Orleans to Kennedy Space Center includes maximum utilization of existing mobile tankers and railcars supplemented by maximum capacity mobile tankers procured incrementally in accordance with shuttle launch rates actually achieved.

  6. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 3: Hardware miniaturization versus cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The optimum hardware miniaturization level with the lowest cost impact for space biology hardware was determined. Space biology hardware and/or components/subassemblies/assemblies which are the most likely candidates for application of miniaturization are to be defined and relative cost impacts of such miniaturization are to be analyzed. A mathematical or statistical analysis method with the capability to support development of parametric cost analysis impacts for levels of production design miniaturization are provided.

  7. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 5: Modification of existing hardware (COTS) versus new hardware build cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The JSC Life Sciences Project Division has been directly supporting NASA Headquarters, Life Sciences Division, in the preparation of data from JSC and ARC to assist in defining the Space Biology Initiative (SBI). GE Government Services and Horizon Aerospace have provided contract support for the development and integration of review data, reports, presentations, and detailed supporting data. An SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review at NASA Headquarters, Code B, has been scheduled for the June-July 1989 time period. In a previous NASA Headquarters review, NASA determined that additional supporting data would be beneficial to determine the potential advantages in modifying commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware for some SBI hardware items. In order to meet the demands of program implementation planning with the definition review in late spring of 1989, the definition trade study analysis must be adjusted in scope and schedule to be complete for the SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review. The relative costs of modifying existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware is compared to fabricating new hardware. An historical basis for new build versus modifying COTS to meet current NMI specifications for manned space flight hardware is surveyed and identified. Selected SBI hardware are identified as potential candidates for off-the-shelf modification and statistical estimates on the relative cost of modifying COTS versus new build are provided.

  8. Analytical trade study of the STS payload environment. [design analysis and cost estimates for noise reduction devices for space shuttle orbiter payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, W. P.; Barrett, S.; Raratono, J.; Payne, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    The current predicted acoustic environment for the shuttle orbiter payload bay will produce random vibration environments for payload components and subsystems which potentially will result in design, weight and cost penalties if means of protecting the payloads are not developed. Results are presented of a study to develop, through design and cost effectiveness trade studies, conceptual noise suppression device designs for space shuttle payloads. The impact of noise suppression on environmental levels and associated test costs, and on test philosophy for the various payload classes is considered with the ultimate goal of reducing payload test costs. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  9. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 1: Automation costs versus crew utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Hambright, R. N.; Nedungadi, A.; Mcfayden, G. M.; Tsuchida, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A significant emphasis upon automation within the Space Biology Initiative hardware appears justified in order to conserve crew labor and crew training effort. Two generic forms of automation were identified: automation of data and information handling and decision making, and the automation of material handling, transfer, and processing. The use of automatic data acquisition, expert systems, robots, and machine vision will increase the volume of experiments and quality of results. The automation described may also influence efforts to miniaturize and modularize the large array of SBI hardware identified to date. The cost and benefit model developed appears to be a useful guideline for SBI equipment specifiers and designers. Additional refinements would enhance the validity of the model. Two NASA automation pilot programs, 'The Principal Investigator in a Box' and 'Rack Mounted Robots' were investigated and found to be quite appropriate for adaptation to the SBI program. There are other in-house NASA efforts that provide technology that may be appropriate for the SBI program. Important data is believed to exist in advanced medical labs throughout the U.S., Japan, and Europe. The information and data processing in medical analysis equipment is highly automated and future trends reveal continued progress in this area. However, automation of material handling and processing has progressed in a limited manner because the medical labs are not affected by the power and space constraints that Space Station medical equipment is faced with. Therefore, NASA's major emphasis in automation will require a lead effort in the automation of material handling to achieve optimal crew utilization.

  10. The impact of trade costs on rare earth exports : a stochastic frontier estimation approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, Prabuddha; Brady, Patrick Vane; Vugrin, Eric D.

    2013-09-01

    The study develops a novel stochastic frontier modeling approach to the gravity equation for rare earth element (REE) trade between China and its trading partners between 2001 and 2009. The novelty lies in differentiating betweenbehind the border' trade costs by China and theimplicit beyond the border costs' of China's trading partners. Results indicate that the significance level of the independent variables change dramatically over the time period. While geographical distance matters for trade flows in both periods, the effect of income on trade flows is significantly attenuated, possibly capturing the negative effects of financial crises in the developed world. Second, the total export losses due tobehind the border' trade costs almost tripled over the time period. Finally, looking atimplicit beyond the border' trade costs, results show China gaining in some markets, although it is likely that some countries are substituting away from Chinese REE exports.

  11. Resource Prospector Lander: Architecture and Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Josh; Calvert, Derek; Frady, Greg; Chavers, Greg; Wayne, Andrew; Hull, Patrick; Lowery, Eric; Farmer, Jeff; Trinh, Huu; Rojdev, Kristina; Piatek, Irene; Ess, Kim; Vitalpur, Sharada; Dunn, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a multi-center and multi-institution collaborative project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days. The RP vehicle comprises three elements: the Lander, the Rover, and the Payload. The Payload is housed on the Rover and the Rover is on top of the Lander. The focus of this paper is on the Lander element for the RP vehicle. The design of the Lander was requirements driven and focused on a low-cost approach. To arrive at the final configuration, several trade studies were conducted. Of those trade studies, there were six primary trade studies that were instrumental in determining the final design. This paper will discuss each of these trades in further detail and show how these trades led to the final architecture of the RP Lander.

  12. Apparent impact: the hidden cost of one-shot trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastromatteo, Iacopo

    2015-06-01

    We study the problem of the execution of a moderate size order in an illiquid market within the framework of a solvable Markovian model. We suppose that in order to avoid impact costs, a trader decides to execute her order through a unique trade, waiting for enough liquidity to accumulate at the best quote. We find that despite the absence of a proper price impact, such trader faces an execution cost arising from a non-vanishing correlation among volume at the best quotes and price changes. We characterize analytically the statistics of the execution time and its cost by mapping the problem to the simpler one of calculating a set of first-passage probabilities on a semi-infinite strip. We finally argue that price impact cannot be completely avoided by conditioning the execution of an order to a more favorable liquidity scenario.

  13. Reproduction and lifespan: Trade-offs, overall energy budgets, intergenerational costs, and costs neglected by research.

    PubMed

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    In human females allocation of resources to support reproduction may cause their insufficient supply to other metabolic functions, resulting in compromised physiology, increased risks of diseases and, consequently, reduced lifespan. While many studies on both historical and contemporary populations show that women with high fertility indeed have shorter lifespans. This relationship is far from universal: a lack of correlation between fertility and lifespan, or even an increased lifespan of women with high fertility have also been documented. Reduced lifespan in women with high fertility may be undetectable due to methodological weaknesses of research or it may be truly absent, and its absence may be explained from biological principles. I will discuss the following reasons for a lack of the negative relationship, described in some demographic studies, between the number of children and lifespan in women: (1) Number of children is only a proxy of the total costs of reproduction and the cost of breastfeeding is often higher than the pregnancy cost but is often not taken into account. (2) Costs of reproduction can be interpreted in a meaningful way only when they are analyzed in relation to the overall energy budget of the woman. (3) Trade-offs between risks of different diseases due to reproduction yield different mortality predictions depending on the socio-economic status of the studied populations. (4) Costs of reproduction are related not only to having children but also to having grandchildren. Such intergenerational costs should be included in analysis of trade-offs between costs of reproduction and longevity.

  14. Introducing nonpoint source transferable quotas in nitrogen trading: The effects of transaction costs and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuru; Ye, Weili; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Transaction costs and uncertainty are considered to be significant obstacles in the emissions trading market, especially for including nonpoint source in water quality trading. This study develops a nonlinear programming model to simulate how uncertainty and transaction costs affect the performance of point/nonpoint source (PS/NPS) water quality trading in the Lake Tai watershed, China. The results demonstrate that PS/NPS water quality trading is a highly cost-effective instrument for emissions abatement in the Lake Tai watershed, which can save 89.33% on pollution abatement costs compared to trading only between nonpoint sources. However, uncertainty can significantly reduce the cost-effectiveness by reducing trading volume. In addition, transaction costs from bargaining and decision making raise total pollution abatement costs directly and cause the offset system to deviate from the optimal state. While proper investment in monitoring and measuring of nonpoint emissions can decrease uncertainty and save on the total abatement costs. Finally, we show that the dispersed ownership of China's farmland will bring high uncertainty and transaction costs into the PS/NPS offset system, even if the pollution abatement cost is lower than for point sources.

  15. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  16. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  17. Modeling the trade-off between diet costs and methane emissions: A goal programming approach.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L E; Fadel, J G; Castillo, A R; Casper, D P; Tricarico, J M; Kebreab, E

    2015-08-01

    Enteric methane emission is a major greenhouse gas from livestock production systems worldwide. Dietary manipulation may be an effective emission-reduction tool; however, the associated costs may preclude its use as a mitigation strategy. Several studies have identified dietary manipulation strategies for the mitigation of emissions, but studies examining the costs of reducing methane by manipulating diets are scarce. Furthermore, the trade-off between increase in dietary costs and reduction in methane emissions has only been determined for a limited number of production scenarios. The objective of this study was to develop an optimization framework for the joint minimization of dietary costs and methane emissions based on the identification of a set of feasible solutions for various levels of trade-off between emissions and costs. Such a set of solutions was created by the specification of a systematic grid of goal programming weights, enabling the decision maker to choose the solution that achieves the desired trade-off level. Moreover, the model enables the calculation of emission-mitigation costs imputing a trading value for methane emissions. Emission imputed costs can be used in emission-unit trading schemes, such as cap-and-trade policy designs. An application of the model using data from lactating cows from dairies in the California Central Valley is presented to illustrate the use of model-generated results in the identification of optimal diets when reducing emissions. The optimization framework is flexible and can be adapted to jointly minimize diet costs and other potential environmental impacts (e.g., nitrogen excretion). It is also flexible so that dietary costs, feed nutrient composition, and animal nutrient requirements can be altered to accommodate various production systems.

  18. Performing Trade Studies in the CERCLA Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Mark Wilson; Rice, Philip Matthew; Jamison, Ronald Kirt

    2002-07-01

    During almost any project, situations will arise that require project management and/or engineering personnel to make choices regarding project direction or product development. Often these choices are simply a part of the normal engineering development cycle (e.g., refinement or optimization of the product design). Frequently, on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other similar projects, trade studies are initiated to address concerns or issues raised by stakeholders (e.g., EPA, local and state governments, local tribes, public). Where CERCLA projects, by definition, deal with releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment, these trade studies must balance safety, risk and health issues, as well as cost and engineering viability. How these trade studies are carried out and documented/presented to the stakeholders involved can often be the difference between continued project progress and a "stalemate" leaving the project in limbo. This document describes a basic trade study process, which has proved successful in addressing stakeholder concerns while at the same time balancing the desires of the various parties involved.

  19. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix E: EOS program supporting system trade data. Part 2: System trade studies no. 9 - 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The relative merits of several international data acquisition (IDA) alternatives for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are established and rated on a cost effectiveness basis. The primary alternatives under consideration are: (1) direct transmission to foreign ground stations, (2) a wideband video tape recorder system for collection of foreign data and processing and distribution from the United States, and (3) a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) system for the relay of foreign data to the United States for processing and distribution. A requirements model is established for the analysis on the basis of the heaviest concentration of agricultural areas around the world. The model, the orbit path and the constraints of EOS and data volume summaries are presented. Alternative system descriptions and costs are given in addition to cost-performance summaries.

  20. Trade-off between land vehicle antenna cost and gain for satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Trade-offs between antenna cost and gain made for nine antennas as a feasibility study for the experimental land mobile satellite system, M-SAT(X) reported. This system is under development by JPL-NASA for a mobile telephone system to be used throughout the continental USA and Alaska. The mobile antenna is a key element in the development of this system.

  1. Reliability, Risk and Cost Trade-Offs for Composite Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    Risk and cost trade-offs have been simulated using a probabilistic method. The probabilistic method accounts for all naturally-occurring uncertainties including those in constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry and loading conditions. The probability density function of first buckling load for a set of uncertain variables is computed. The probabilistic sensitivity factors of uncertain variables to the first buckling load is calculated. The reliability-based cost for a composite fuselage panel is defined and minimized with respect to requisite design parameters. The optimization is achieved by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations whose coefficients are functions of probabilistic sensitivity factors. With optimum design parameters such as the mean and coefficient of variation (representing range of scatter) of uncertain variables, the most efficient and economical manufacturing procedure can be selected. In this paper, optimum values of the requisite design parameters for a predetermined cost due to failure occurrence are computationally determined. The results for the fuselage panel analysis show that the higher the cost due to failure occurrence, the smaller the optimum coefficient of variation of fiber modulus (design parameter) in longitudinal direction.

  2. Results of NASA/NOAA HES Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trade studies that were done for the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES). The goal of the trade studies was to minimize instrument cost and risk while producing scientifically useful products. Three vendors were selected to perform the trade study, and were to conduct 11 studies, with the first study a complete wish list of things that scientists would like from GEO orbit to the 11th study which was for a Reduced Accommodation Sounder (RAS) which would still result in useful scientific products, within constrains compatible with flight on GEOS-R. The RAS's from each vendor and one other HES sounders designs are reviewed.

  3. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  4. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  5. Food Mass Reduction Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stoklosa, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and

  6. Trade-Off Between Speed and Cost in Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Steve; Deffner, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Achieving effectively adiabatic dynamics is a ubiquitous goal in almost all areas of quantum physics. Here, we study the speed with which a quantum system can be driven when employing transitionless quantum driving. As a main result, we establish a rigorous link between this speed, the quantum speed limit, and the (energetic) cost of implementing such a shortcut to adiabaticity. Interestingly, this link elucidates a trade-off between speed and cost, namely, that instantaneous manipulation is impossible as it requires an infinite cost. These findings are illustrated for two experimentally relevant systems—the parametric oscillator and the Landau-Zener model—which reveal that the spectral gap governs the quantum speed limit as well as the cost for realizing the shortcut.

  7. Trade-Off Between Speed and Cost in Shortcuts to Adiabaticity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Steve; Deffner, Sebastian

    2017-03-10

    Achieving effectively adiabatic dynamics is a ubiquitous goal in almost all areas of quantum physics. Here, we study the speed with which a quantum system can be driven when employing transitionless quantum driving. As a main result, we establish a rigorous link between this speed, the quantum speed limit, and the (energetic) cost of implementing such a shortcut to adiabaticity. Interestingly, this link elucidates a trade-off between speed and cost, namely, that instantaneous manipulation is impossible as it requires an infinite cost. These findings are illustrated for two experimentally relevant systems-the parametric oscillator and the Landau-Zener model-which reveal that the spectral gap governs the quantum speed limit as well as the cost for realizing the shortcut.

  8. Lunar Outpost Life Support Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering trade-off studies of life support system architecture and technology options were conducted for potential lunar surface mission scenarios within NASA's Constellation Program. The scenarios investigated are based largely on results of the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Phase II study. In particular, the possibility of Hosted Sortie missions, the high cost of power during eclipse periods, and the potential to reduce life support consumables through scavenging, in-situ resources, and alternative EVA technologies were all examined. These trade studies were performed within the Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) element of NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology development project. The tools and methodology used in the study are described briefly, followed by a discussion of mission scenarios, life support technology options and results presented in terms of equivalent system mass for various regenerative life support technologies and architectures. Three classes of repeated or extended lunar surface missions were investigated in this study along with several life support resource scenarios for each mission class. Individual mission durations of 14 days, 90 days and 180 days were considered with 10 missions assumed for each at a rate of 2 missions per year. The 14-day missions represent a class of Hosted Sortie missions where a pre-deployed and potentially mobile habitat provides life support for multiple crews at one or more locations. The 90-day and 180-day missions represent lunar outpost expeditions with a larger fixed habitat. The 180-day missions assume continuous human presence and must provide life support through eclipse periods of up to 122 hours while the 90-day missions are planned for best-case periods of nearly continuous sunlight. This paper investigates system optimization within the assumptions of each scenario and addresses how the scenario selected drives the life support system to different designs

  9. Trade-offs between growth and maturation: the cost of reproduction for surviving environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Luhring, Thomas M; Holdo, Ricardo M

    2015-07-01

    Life-history trade-offs and the costs of reproduction are central concepts in evolution and ecology. Episodic climatic events such as drought and extreme temperatures provide strong selective pressures that can change the balance of these costs and trade-offs. We used size-structured matrix models parameterized from field and laboratory studies to examine the effect of periodic drought on two species of aquatic salamanders (greater siren, Siren lacertina; lesser siren, Siren intermedia) that differ in size at reproduction and maximum body size. Post-drought body size distributions of the larger species (S. lacertina) are consistent with size-dependent mortality. Smaller individuals were extirpated from the population during each drought while large animals persisted, a pattern that contrasted with that seen in several ectotherms. This appears to be largely explained by estivation proficiency and a positive relationship between body size and estivation potential. Increased body size, however, may come at the cost of fecundity and maturation rate compared to a closely related congener. The cost of somatic allocation in this case may manifest itself via reduced per-capita competitive ability, which (at least in simulation studies) allows the smaller, fast-maturing species to outcompete the larger, slow-maturing species when drought is minimal or nonexistent.

  10. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  11. Trading-off tolerable risk with climate change adaptation costs in water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Watson, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Choosing secure water resource management plans inevitably requires trade-offs between risks (for a variety of stakeholders), costs, and other impacts. We have previously argued that water resources planning should focus upon metrics of risk of water restrictions, accompanied by extensive simulation and scenario-based exploration of uncertainty. However, the results of optimization subject to risk constraints can be sensitive to the specification of tolerable risk, which may not be precisely or consistently defined by different stakeholders. In this paper, we recast the water resources planning problem as a multiobjective optimization problem to identify least cost schemes that satisfy a set of criteria for tolerable risk, where tolerable risk is defined in terms of the frequency of water use restrictions of different levels of severity. Our proposed method links a very large ensemble of climate model projections to a water resource system model and a multiobjective optimization algorithm to identify a Pareto optimal set of water resource management plans across a 25 years planning period. In a case study application to the London water supply system, we identify water resources management plans that, for a given financial cost, maximize performance with respect to one or more probabilistic criteria. This illustrates trade-offs between financial costs of plans and risk, and between risk criteria for four different severities of water use restrictions. Graphical representation of alternative sequences of investments in the Pareto set helps to identify water management options for which there is a robust case for including them in the plan.

  12. 48 CFR 2131.205-43 - Trade, business, technical and professional activity costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Trade, business, technical... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 2131.205-43 Trade, business, technical and professional activity costs. (a) FEGLI...

  13. 48 CFR 1631.205-76 - Trade, business, technical, and professional activity costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Trade, business, technical... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL....205-76 Trade, business, technical, and professional activity costs. (a) FEHBP participating...

  14. Heliostat cost optimization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  15. Perceived Cost and Intrinsic Motor Variability Modulate the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off

    PubMed Central

    Bertucco, Matteo; Bhanpuri, Nasir H.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-01-01

    Fitts’ Law describes the speed-accuracy trade-off of human movements, and it is an elegant strategy that compensates for random and uncontrollable noise in the motor system. The control strategy during targeted movements may also take into account the rewards or costs of any outcomes that may occur. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that movement time in Fitts’ Law emerges not only from the accuracy constraints of the task, but also depends on the perceived cost of error for missing the targets. Subjects were asked to touch targets on an iPad® screen with different costs for missed targets. We manipulated the probability of error by comparing children with dystonia (who are characterized by increased intrinsic motor variability) to typically developing children. The results show a strong effect of the cost of error on the Fitts’ Law relationship characterized by an increase in movement time as cost increased. In addition, we observed a greater sensitivity to increased cost for children with dystonia, and this behavior appears to minimize the average cost. The findings support a proposed mathematical model that explains how movement time in a Fitts-like task is related to perceived risk. PMID:26447874

  16. Perceived Cost and Intrinsic Motor Variability Modulate the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off.

    PubMed

    Bertucco, Matteo; Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-01-01

    Fitts' Law describes the speed-accuracy trade-off of human movements, and it is an elegant strategy that compensates for random and uncontrollable noise in the motor system. The control strategy during targeted movements may also take into account the rewards or costs of any outcomes that may occur. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that movement time in Fitts' Law emerges not only from the accuracy constraints of the task, but also depends on the perceived cost of error for missing the targets. Subjects were asked to touch targets on an iPad® screen with different costs for missed targets. We manipulated the probability of error by comparing children with dystonia (who are characterized by increased intrinsic motor variability) to typically developing children. The results show a strong effect of the cost of error on the Fitts' Law relationship characterized by an increase in movement time as cost increased. In addition, we observed a greater sensitivity to increased cost for children with dystonia, and this behavior appears to minimize the average cost. The findings support a proposed mathematical model that explains how movement time in a Fitts-like task is related to perceived risk.

  17. Framework for Architecture Trade Study Using MBSE and Performance Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Jessica; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchim, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity in modern systems as well as cost and schedule constraints require a new paradigm of system engineering to fulfill stakeholder needs. Challenges facing efficient trade studies include poor tool interoperability, lack of simulation coordination (design parameters) and requirements flowdown. A recent trend toward Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) includes flexible architecture definition, program documentation, requirements traceability and system engineering reuse. As a new domain MBSE still lacks governing standards and commonly accepted frameworks. This paper proposes a framework for efficient architecture definition using MBSE in conjunction with Domain Specific simulation to evaluate trade studies. A general framework is provided followed with a specific example including a method for designing a trade study, defining candidate architectures, planning simulations to fulfill requirements and finally a weighted decision analysis to optimize system objectives.

  18. Feasibility study for retrofitting/repowering of Unit 2, Station A at Kosovo, (EPK) Yugoslavia: Scope of work and detailed cost estimate. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The primary objective of the feasibility study is to examine the life extension of the existing Unit 2 at Station A of the Electric Power Company of Kosovo (EPK). The study will consider state-of-the-art fluidized bed combustion boiler technology along with revitalization and retrofitting of the existing boiler with conventonal environmental controls for reduction of sulfur and particulate emissions. in addition, the study will include the examination of the rest of the power plant equipment for refurbishment and/or replacement.

  19. Cost-Efficiency Trade-off and the Design of Thermoelectric Power Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-07-27

    The energy conversion efficiency of today’s thermoelectric generators is significantly lower than that of conventional mechanical engines. Almost all of the existing research is focused on materials to improve the conversion efficiency. Here we propose a general framework to study the cost-efficiency trade-off for thermoelectric power generation. A key factor is the optimization of thermoelectric modules together with their heat source and heat sinks. Full electrical and thermal co-optimization yield a simple analytical expression for optimum design. Based on this model, power output per unit mass can be maximized. We show that the fractional area coverage of thermoelectric elements in a module could play a significant role in reducing the cost of power generation systems.

  20. Cost-efficiency trade-off and the design of thermoelectric power generators.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-09-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of today's thermoelectric generators is significantly lower than that of conventional mechanical engines. Almost all of the existing research is focused on materials to improve the conversion efficiency. Here we propose a general framework to study the cost-efficiency trade-off for thermoelectric power generation. A key factor is the optimization of thermoelectric modules together with their heat source and heat sinks. Full electrical and thermal co-optimization yield a simple analytical expression for optimum design. Based on this model, power output per unit mass can be maximized. We show that the fractional area coverage of thermoelectric elements in a module could play a significant role in reducing the cost of power generation systems.

  1. Airframe Integration Trade Studies for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, Chauncey; Rivers, Kevin; Martin, Carl; Smith, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Future launch vehicles must be lightweight, fully reusable and easily maintained if low-cost access to space is to be achieved. The goal of achieving an economically viable Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is not easily achieved and success will depend to a large extent on having an integrated and optimized total system. A series of trade studies were performed to meet three objectives. First, to provide structural weights and parametric weight equations as inputs to configuration-level trade studies. Second, to identify, assess and quantify major weight drivers for the RLV airframe. Third, using information on major weight drivers, and considering the RLV as an integrated thermal structure (composed of thrust structures, tanks, thermal protection system, insulation and control surfaces), identify and assess new and innovative approaches or concepts that have the potential for either reducing airframe weight, improving operability, and/or reducing cost.

  2. Template for Systems Engineering Tools Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Michelle D.

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of Systems Engineering tools brings out numerous preferences and reactions regarding tools of choice as well as the functions those tools are to perform. A recent study of Systems Engineering Tools for a new Program illustrated the need for a generic template for use by new Programs or Projects to determine the toolset appropriate for their use. This paper will provide the guidelines new initiatives can follow and tailor to their specific needs, to enable them to make their choice of tools in an efficient and informed manner. Clearly, those who perform purely technical functions will need different tools than those who perform purely systems engineering functions. And, everyone has tools they are comfortable with. That degree of comfort is frequently the deciding factor in tools choice rather than an objective study of all criteria and weighting factors. This paper strives to produce a comprehensive list of criteria for selection with suggestions for weighting factors based on a number of assumptions regarding the given Program or Project. In addition, any given Program will begin with assumptions for its toolset based on Program size, tool cost, user base and technical needs. In providing a template for tool selection, this paper will guide the reader through assumptions based on Program need; decision criteria; potential weighting factors; the need for a compilation of available tools; the importance of tool demonstrations; and finally a down selection of tools. While specific vendors cannot be mentioned in this work, it is expected that this template could serve other Programs in the formulation phase by alleviating the trade study process of some of its subjectivity.

  3. Risk/Requirements Trade-off Guidelines for Low Cost Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Man, Kin F.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerating trend toward faster, better, cheaper missions places increasing emphasis on the trade-offs between requirements and risk to reduce cost and development times, while still improving quality and reliability. The Risk/Requirement Trade-off Guidelines discussed in this paper are part of an integrated approach to address the main issues by focusing on the sum of prevention, analysis, control, or test (PACT) processes.

  4. Pathfinder 2: In Situ Design Cost Trades (IDCT) Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    PE Ph.D. Research on affordability analysis, life-cycle cost No Marray Harris MBA Research on web portals Website design and development Yes...Derrick Pratt MBA Website design and development Yes Charles Liggett UG WebEx and research support Yes Casey Dunnagan UG Research web-based

  5. Safety-cost trade-offs in medical device reuse: a Markov decision process model.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Thomas W

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare expenditures in the US are approaching 2 trillion dollars, and hospitals and other healthcare providers are under tremendous pressure to rein in costs. One cost-saving approach which is gaining popularity is the reuse of medical devices which were designed only for a single use. Device makers decry this practice as unsanitary and unsafe, but a growing number of third-party firms are willing to sterilize, refurbish, and/or remanufacture devices and resell them to hospitals at a fraction of the original price. Is this practice safe? Is reliance on single-use devices sustainable? A Markov decision process (MDP) model is formulated to study the trade-offs involved in these decisions. Several key parameters are examined: device costs, device failure probabilities, and failure penalty cost. For each of these parameters, expressions are developed which identify the indifference point between using new and reprocessed devices. The results can be used to inform the debate on the economic, ethical, legal, and environmental dimensions of this complex issue.

  6. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  7. Cost Effectiveness Trade-Offs in Software Support Environment Standardization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    investments in environments. USAF s cost fcr direct labor (in the form of USAF " spaces ," "faces" or "contract dollars") really dominates the economic...Researchers are exploring available systems, or are building their own improved versions, to relieve software developers of tedious or time-consuming tasks...Transactions on Software Engineeri, Vol. SE-lO, No. 5, Sept., 1984, pp. 494-497. Paper explores software reuse. It discusses briefly some economic

  8. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David; Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  9. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  10. Southern thailand coal fired project: Feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report addresses various technical, environmental, and economic aspects of developing four 1,000 MW units of coal fired electric generating facilities at a site near Prachuap Khiri Khan. The study includes a cost estimate for the units and the fuel delivery port as well as the major conceptual design decisions made for the project. This volume of the report is the Feasibility Study and is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction/Summary; (2) Generation Planning Study; (3) Site Selection Study; (4) Project Description; (5) Fuel Resource Assessment; (6) Water Resource Assessment; (7) Technical Information to Support the Environmental Impact Assessment; (8) Plant Conceptual Design; (9) Transmission Interconnection; (10) Project Capital Cost Estimate; (11) Project Schedule; (12) Project Implementation Plan; (13) Project Risk Analysis.

  11. Space Biology Initiative. Trade Studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The six studies which are addressed are entitled: Design Modularity and Commonality; Modification of Existing Hardware (COTS) vs. New Hardware Build Cost Analysis; Automation Cost vs. Crew Utilization; Hardware Miniaturization versus Cost; Space Station Freedom/Spacelab Modules Compatibility vs. Cost; and Prototype Utilization in the Development of Space Hardware. The product of these six studies was intended to provide a knowledge base and methodology that enables equipment produced for the Space Biology Initiative program to meet specific design and functional requirements in the most efficient and cost effective form consistent with overall mission integration parameters. Each study promulgates rules of thumb, formulas, and matrices that serves has a handbook for the use and guidance of designers and engineers in design, development, and procurement of Space Biology Initiative (SBI) hardware and software.

  12. Space Biology Initiative. Trade Studies, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The six studies which are the subjects of this report are entitled: Design Modularity and Commonality; Modification of Existing Hardware (COTS) vs. New Hardware Build Cost Analysis; Automation Cost vs. Crew Utilization; Hardware Miniaturization versus Cost; Space Station Freedom/Spacelab Modules Compatibility vs. Cost; and Prototype Utilization in the Development of Space Hardware. The product of these six studies was intended to provide a knowledge base and methodology that enables equipment produced for the Space Biology Initiative program to meet specific design and functional requirements in the most efficient and cost effective form consistent with overall mission integration parameters. Each study promulgates rules of thumb, formulas, and matrices that serves as a handbook for the use and guidance of designers and engineers in design, development, and procurement of Space Biology Initiative (SBI) hardware and software.

  13. NASA Constellation Distributed Simulation Middleware Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, David; Bowman, James D.; Fisher, Nancy; Cutts, Dannie; Cures, Edwin Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a trade study designed to assess three distributed simulation middleware technologies for support of the NASA Constellation Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) project and Test and Verification Distributed System Integration Laboratory (DSIL). The technologies are the High Level Architecture (HLA), the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA), and an XML-based variant of Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS-XML) coupled with the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). According to the criteria and weights determined in this study, HLA scores better than the other two for DSES as well as the DSIL.

  14. Middleware Trade Study for NASA Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This presentation presents preliminary results of a trade study designed to assess three distributed simulation middleware technologies for support of the NASA Constellation Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) project and Test and Verification Distributed System Integration Laboratory (DSIL). The technologies are: the High Level Architecture (HLA), the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA), and an XML-based variant of Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS-XML) coupled with the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). According to the criteria and weights determined in this study, HLA scores better than the other two for DSES as well as the DSIL

  15. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix E: EOS program supporting system. Part 1: System trade studies no. 1 through 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design requirements and associated cost impacts for using the space shuttle to deliver the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are identified. The additional impact of achieving full compatibility for resupply and retrieval is considered. Based on the results of the analysis, it is concluded that the EOS-Shuttle compatibility can be realized with reasonable spacecraft weight and cost penalties. Inherent space shuttle capabilities are adequate to meet the requirements of all missions except E and F. Mission E (Tiros 0) may be accommodated by either an EOS orbit transfer capability or a tug. The tug appears to be the only viable approach to satisfying the mission F (SEOS) requirements.

  16. Global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard (Editor); Hypes, Warren D. (Editor); Wright, Robert L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

  17. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  18. Parametric trade studies on a Shuttle 2 launch system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Talay, Theodore A.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Morris, W. Douglas; Naftel, J. Christopher; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1991-01-01

    A series of trade studies are presented on a complementary architecture of launch vehicles as a part of a study often referred to as Shuttle-2. The results of the trade studies performed on the vehicles of a reference Shuttle-2 mixed fleet architecture have provided an increased understanding of the relative importance of each of the major vehicle parameters. As a result of trades on the reference booster-orbiter configuration with a methane booster, the study showed that 60 percent of the total liftoff thrust should be on the booster and 40 percent on the orbiter. It was also found that the liftoff thrust to weight ratio (T/W) on the booster-orbiter should be 1.3. This leads to a low dry weight and still provides enough thrust to allow the design of a heavy lift architecture. As a result of another trade study, the dry weight of the reference booster-orbiter was chosen for a variety of operational considerations. Other trade studies on the booster-orbiter demonstrate that the cross feeding of propellant during boost phase is desirable and that engine-out capability from launch to orbit is worth the performance penalty. Technology assumptions made during the Shuttle-2 design were shown to be approx. equivalent to a 25 percent across the board weight reduction over the Space Shuttle technology. The vehicles of the Shuttle-2 architecture were also sized for a wide variety of payloads and missions to different orbits. Many of these same parametric trades were also performed on completely liquid hydrogen fueled fully reusable concepts. If a booster-orbiter is designed using liquid hydrogen engines on both the booster and orbiter, the total vehicle dry weight is only 3.0 percent higher than the reference dual-fuel booster-orbiter, and the gross weight is 3.8 percent less. For this booster-orbiter vehicle, a liftoff T/W of 1.3, a thrust of about 60 percent on the booster, and a Mach staging number of 3 all proved to be desirable. This modest dry weight increase for a

  19. United States/Mexico electricity trade study. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    During energy discussions between the United States and Mexico, it was suggested that the two countries revisit the issue of enhanced electricity trade because 10 years had elapsed since this issue was first studied. Responsibility to organize the updated study was jointly assigned to the US and to the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The study highlights the opportunities for increased cooperation among the electric utilities in the U.S. and Mexico. Direct benefits could include increased reliability of electric power service and cost savings through diversity of peak demand patterns and locational benefits associated with the siting of new generation sources. Indirect benefits could include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. While the study indicates that increased electricity trade is possible, there are significant technical and economic issues to consider. Any major increase in electricity trade would require a higher level of cooperation and coordination among utilities in both countries and would need to be preceded by a detailed analysis of associated benefits and costs (including environmental impacts) on both a short-term and a long-term basis. Whether US utilities and CFE decide to pursue specific projects will depend upon the need for and economics of those projects. The study recommends that the work begun by the two utility groups be continued. The study also recommends that regulators at all levels consider policies to increase coordination and review among all relevant parties so that unnecessary delays in planning and constructing needed facilities are avoided. 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  1. A Parallel Trade Study Architecture for Design Optimization of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongman; Mullins, James; Ragon, Scott; Soremekun, Grant; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2005-01-01

    Design of a successful product requires evaluating many design alternatives in a limited design cycle time. This can be achieved through leveraging design space exploration tools and available computing resources on the network. This paper presents a parallel trade study architecture to integrate trade study clients and computing resources on a network using Web services. The parallel trade study solution is demonstrated to accelerate design of experiments, genetic algorithm optimization, and a cost as an independent variable (CAIV) study for a space system application.

  2. Multi-Megawatt Power System Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Parks, Benjamin Travis

    2001-11-01

    As part of a larger task, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform a trade study comparing liquid-metal cooled reactors having Rankine power conversion systems with gas-cooled reactors having Brayton power conversion systems. This report summarizes the approach, the methodology, and the results of that trade study. Findings suggest that either approach has the possibility to approach the target specific mass of 3-5 kg/kWe for the power system, though it appears either will require improvements to achieve that. Higher reactor temperatures have the most potential for reducing the specific mass of gas-cooled reactors but do not necessarily have a similar effect for liquid-cooled Rankine systems. Fuels development will be the key to higher reactor operating temperatures. Higher temperature turbines will be important for Brayton systems. Both replacing lithium coolant in the primary circuit with gallium and replacing potassium with sodium in the power loop for liquid systems increase system specific mass. Changing the feed pump turbine to an electric motor in Rankine systems has little effect. Key technologies in reducing specific mass are high reactor and radiator operating temperatures, low radiator areal density, and low turbine/generator system masses. Turbine/generator mass tends to dominate overall power system mass for Rankine systems. Radiator mass was dominant for Brayton systems.

  3. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Propulsion system trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Propulsion System Trade Study described in this summary report was to investigate various propulsion options available for incorporation on the RRS and to select the option best suited for RRS application. The design requirements for the RRS propulsion system were driven by the total impulse requirements necessary to operate within the performance envelope specified in the RRS System Requirements Documents. These requirements were incorporated within the Design Reference Missions (DRM's) identified for use in this and other subsystem trade studies. This study investigated the following propulsion systems: solid rocket, monopropellant, bipropellant (monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or MMH/NTO), dual-mode bipropellant (hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or N2H4/NTO), liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2), and an advanced design propulsion system using SDI-developed components. A liquid monopropellant blowdown propulsion system was found to be best suited for meeting the RRS requirements and is recommended as the baseline system. This system was chosen because it is the simplest of all investigated, has the fewest components, and is the most cost effective. The monopropellant system meets all RRS performance requirements and has the capability to provide a very accurate deorbit burn which minimizes reentry dispersions. In addition, no new hardware qualification is required for a monopropellant system. Although the bipropellant systems offered some weight savings capability for missions requiring large deorbit velocities, the advantage of a lower mass system only applies if the total vehicle design can be reduced to allow a cheaper launch vehicle to be used. At the time of this trade study, the overall RRS weight budget and launch vehicle selection were not being driven by the propulsion system selection. Thus, the added cost and complexity of more advanced systems did not warrant application.

  4. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  5. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  6. NASA/Navy lift/cruise fan cost reduction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost reduction studies were performed for the LCF459 turbotip fan for application with the YJ97-GE-100 gas generator in a multimission V/STOL research and technology aircraft. A 20 percent cost reduction of the research configuration based on the original preliminary design was achieved. The trade studies performed and the results in the area of cost reduction and weight are covered. A fan configuration is defined for continuation of the program through the detailed design phase.

  7. Army ants dynamically adjust living bridges in response to a cost-benefit trade-off.

    PubMed

    Reid, Chris R; Lutz, Matthew J; Powell, Scott; Kao, Albert B; Couzin, Iain D; Garnier, Simon

    2015-12-08

    The ability of individual animals to create functional structures by joining together is rare and confined to the social insects. Army ants (Eciton) form collective assemblages out of their own bodies to perform a variety of functions that benefit the entire colony. Here we examine ‟bridges" of linked individuals that are constructed to span gaps in the colony's foraging trail. How these living structures adjust themselves to varied and changing conditions remains poorly understood. Our field experiments show that the ants continuously modify their bridges, such that these structures lengthen, widen, and change position in response to traffic levels and environmental geometry. Ants initiate bridges where their path deviates from their incoming direction and move the bridges over time to create shortcuts over large gaps. The final position of the structure depended on the intensity of the traffic and the extent of path deviation and was influenced by a cost-benefit trade-off at the colony level, where the benefit of increased foraging trail efficiency was balanced by the cost of removing workers from the foraging pool to form the structure. To examine this trade-off, we quantified the geometric relationship between costs and benefits revealed by our experiments. We then constructed a model to determine the bridge location that maximized foraging rate, which qualitatively matched the observed movement of bridges. Our results highlight how animal self-assemblages can be dynamically modified in response to a group-level cost-benefit trade-off, without any individual unit's having information on global benefits or costs.

  8. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  9. Student Housing Cost Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Univ. Residential Building System.

    Target costs for the University Residential Building System (URBS) Project of the University of California are presented. Findings depict the effectiveness of building design and material applications and should be useful in guiding future student housing design work, whether the design utilizes the URBS system or not. Ten recently constructed…

  10. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-03-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly.

  11. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  12. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  13. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  14. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-01-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  15. A New Model for Solving Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off Problems in Construction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A poor quality affects project makespan and its total costs negatively, but it can be recovered by repair works during construction. We construct a new non-linear programming model based on the classic multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem considering repair works. In order to obtain satisfactory quality without a high increase of project cost, the objective is to minimize total quality cost which consists of the prevention cost and failure cost according to Quality-Cost Analysis. A binary dependent normal distribution function is adopted to describe the activity quality; Cumulative quality is defined to determine whether to initiate repair works, according to the different relationships among activity qualities, namely, the coordinative and precedence relationship. Furthermore, a shuffled frog-leaping algorithm is developed to solve this discrete trade-off problem based on an adaptive serial schedule generation scheme and adjusted activity list. In the program of the algorithm, the frog-leaping progress combines the crossover operator of genetic algorithm and a permutation-based local search. Finally, an example of a construction project for a framed railway overpass is provided to examine the algorithm performance, and it assist in decision making to search for the appropriate makespan and quality threshold with minimal cost.

  16. A New Model for Solving Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off Problems in Construction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A poor quality affects project makespan and its total costs negatively, but it can be recovered by repair works during construction. We construct a new non-linear programming model based on the classic multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem considering repair works. In order to obtain satisfactory quality without a high increase of project cost, the objective is to minimize total quality cost which consists of the prevention cost and failure cost according to Quality-Cost Analysis. A binary dependent normal distribution function is adopted to describe the activity quality; Cumulative quality is defined to determine whether to initiate repair works, according to the different relationships among activity qualities, namely, the coordinative and precedence relationship. Furthermore, a shuffled frog-leaping algorithm is developed to solve this discrete trade-off problem based on an adaptive serial schedule generation scheme and adjusted activity list. In the program of the algorithm, the frog-leaping progress combines the crossover operator of genetic algorithm and a permutation-based local search. Finally, an example of a construction project for a framed railway overpass is provided to examine the algorithm performance, and it assist in decision making to search for the appropriate makespan and quality threshold with minimal cost. PMID:27911939

  17. Predicting Cost/Performance Trade-Offs for Whitney: A Commodity Computing Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeffrey C.; Nitzberg, Bill; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in low-end processor and network technology have made it possible to build a "supercomputer" out of commodity components. We develop simple models of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2 (NPB 2) to explore the cost/performance trade-offs involved in building a balanced parallel computer supporting a scientific workload. We develop closed form expressions detailing the number and size of messages sent by each benchmark. Coupling these with measured single processor performance, network latency, and network bandwidth, our models predict benchmark performance to within 30%. A comparison based on total system cost reveals that current commodity technology (200 MHz Pentium Pros with 100baseT Ethernet) is well balanced for the NPBs up to a total system cost of around $1,000,000.

  18. Predicting Cost/Performance Trade-offs For Whitney: A Commodity Computing Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeffrey C.; Nitzberg, Bill; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.; Tweten, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in low-end processor and network technology have made it possible to build a "supercomputer" out of commodity components. We develop simple models of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2 (NPB 2) to explore the cost/performance trade-offs involved in building a balanced parallel computer supporting a scientific workload. By measuring single processor benchmark performance, network latency, and network bandwidth, and using closed form expressions detailing the number and size of messages sent by each benchmark, our models predict benchmark performance to within 30%. A comparison based on total system cost reveals that current commodity technology (200 MHz Pentium Pros with 100baseT Ethernet) is well balanced for the NPBs up to a total system cost of around $ 1,000,000.

  19. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Nabilo, Bahram; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world’s greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran’s comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran’s trade in this field. Methods: To identify Iran’s comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran’s Customs Administration, Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Results: The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world’s total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran’s pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. Conclusions: The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26153184

  20. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    PubMed

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals.

  1. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  2. Cost Trade Between Multi-Junction, Gallium Arsenide, and Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    Multi-junction (MJ), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon (Si) solar cells have respective test efficiencies of approximately 24%, 18.5% and 14.8%. Multi-junction and gallium arsenide solar cells weigh more than silicon solar 2 cells and cost approximately five times as much per unit power at the cell level. A trade is performed for the TRMM spacecraft to determine which of these cell types would have offered an overall performance and price advantage to the spacecraft. A trade is also performed for the multi-junction cells under the assumption that they will cost over ten times that of silicon cells at the cell level. The trade shows that the TRMM project, less the cost of the instrument, ground systems and mission operations, would spend approximately $552,000 dollars per kilogram to launch and suppon3science in the case of the spacecraft equipped with silicon solar cells. If these cells are changed out for gallium arsenide solar cells, an additional 31 kilograms of science can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $90 thousand per kilogram. The weight reduction is shown to derive from the smaller area of the array and hence reductions in the weight of the array substrate and supporting structure. ff the silicon solar cells are changed out for multi-junction solar cells, an additional 45 kilograms of science above the silicon base line can be launched and supported at a price of approximately $58,000 per kilogram. The trade shows that even if the multi-junction cells are priced over ten times that of silicon cells, a price that is much higher than projected, that the additional 45 kilograms of science are launched and serviced at $180,000 per kilogram. This is still much less than the original $552,000 per kilogram to launch and service the science. Data and qualitative factors are presented to show that these figures are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. Nonetheless, the benefit of the higher efficiency solar cells for TRMM is far greater

  3. Trade-off study of data storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadyszewski, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    The need to store and retrieve large quantities of data at modest cost has generated the need for an economical, compact, archival mass storage system. Very significant improvements in the state-of-the-art of mass storage systems have been accomplished through the development of a number of magnetic, electro-optical, and other related devices. This study was conducted in order to do a trade-off between these data storage devices and the related technologies in order to determine an optimum approach for an archival mass data storage system based upon a comparison of the projected capabilities and characteristics of these devices to yield operational systems in the early 1980's.

  4. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  5. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  6. Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Brown, L. Bromberg, M. Cole

    2009-05-27

    number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  7. Results of Compact Stellarator Eengineering Trade Studies

    SciTech Connect

    T. Brown, L. Bromberg, and M. Cole

    2009-09-25

    A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  8. Analysis and trade-off studies of large lightweight mirror structures. [large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.; Grin, R.; Ayer, F.

    1975-01-01

    A candidate mirror, hexagonally lightweighted, is analyzed under various loadings using as complete a procedure as possible. Successive simplifications are introduced and compared to an original analysis. A model which is a reasonable compromise between accuracy and cost is found and is used for making trade-off studies of the various structural parameters of the lightweighted mirror.

  9. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  10. Costly carotenoids: a trade-off between predation and infection risk?

    PubMed

    van Der Veen, I T

    2005-07-01

    Carotenoid reserves in copepods seem costly in terms of predation risk because they make individuals conspicuous. However, carotenoids also seem to play an important role in immune defence as free radical scavengers. To test whether predation risk influences carotenoid levels and whether changes in carotenoid levels are related to changes in immune defence, I examined individual changes in large carotenoid and other lipid droplets upon exposure to predation risk and subsequent exposure to parasites in the copepod Macrocyclops albidus. Copepods reduced carotenoid reserves upon exposure to predators, through which they potentially avoided the costs of being conspicuous under predation risk. Thus, the size of carotenoid reserves is a plastic trait. Such a decrease in carotenoid reserves may also have a negative impact on the copepods' immune system as individuals that decreased their reserves suffered higher parasite prevalence upon exposure to the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. These results suggest that carotenoid reserves may be individually optimized to trade-off each individual's unique costs (predation risk) and benefits (immune defence) of having these reserves.

  11. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies

    PubMed Central

    Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619

  12. [The study of the costs of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Prot-Herczyńska, K

    1998-01-01

    The present paper considers the problems of measurement of the costs of psychiatric services. Classification of costs' studies includes cost of illness, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility studies. Costs should be comprehensively measured. Randomised clinical trial is recommended. Information of costs should be integrated with information on patient outcomes. The paper discusses the research which tries to estimate the costs and benefits of community care, using naturalistic or random patient sample methods.

  13. Liquid rocket booster study. Volume 2, book 2, appendix 1: Trades studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A list is presented of the trade studies which were planned and the status to which they have been accomplished. Full descriptions are also given of the trade studies along with line drawings and graphs illustrating the studies.

  14. Trade-offs in the vertical distribution of zooplankton: ideal free distribution with costs?

    PubMed

    Lampert, Winfried; McCauley, Edward; Manly, Bryan F J

    2003-04-07

    Zooplankton vertical migratory patterns are a classic example of optimal habitat choice. We hypothesize that zooplankton distribute themselves vertically in the water column according to an ideal free distribution (IFD) with costs such as to optimize their fitness. In lakes with a deep-water chlorophyll maximum, zooplankton are faced with a trade-off, either experiencing high food (high reproductive potential) but low temperature (slow development) in the hypolimnion or high temperature and low food in the epilimnion. Thus, in the absence of fish predation (e.g. at night) they should allocate the time spent in the different habitats according to fitness gain dependent on the temperature gradient and distribution of food. We tested this hypothesis with a Daphnia hyalina x galeata clone in large indoor columns (Plön Plankton Towers) and with a dynamic energy budget model. In the tower experiments, we simulated a deep-water algal maximum below the thermocline with epilimnetic/hypolimnetic temperature differences of 2, 5 and 10 degrees C. Experimental data supported the model. We found a significantly larger proportion of daphniids in the hypolimnion when the temperature difference was smaller. Our results are consistent with the concept of IFD with costs originally developed for stream fishes. This concept can be applied to predict the vertical distribution of zooplankton in habitats where fish predation is of minor importance.

  15. Trade-offs in the vertical distribution of zooplankton: ideal free distribution with costs?

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Winfried; McCauley, Edward; Manly, Bryan F J

    2003-01-01

    Zooplankton vertical migratory patterns are a classic example of optimal habitat choice. We hypothesize that zooplankton distribute themselves vertically in the water column according to an ideal free distribution (IFD) with costs such as to optimize their fitness. In lakes with a deep-water chlorophyll maximum, zooplankton are faced with a trade-off, either experiencing high food (high reproductive potential) but low temperature (slow development) in the hypolimnion or high temperature and low food in the epilimnion. Thus, in the absence of fish predation (e.g. at night) they should allocate the time spent in the different habitats according to fitness gain dependent on the temperature gradient and distribution of food. We tested this hypothesis with a Daphnia hyalina x galeata clone in large indoor columns (Plön Plankton Towers) and with a dynamic energy budget model. In the tower experiments, we simulated a deep-water algal maximum below the thermocline with epilimnetic/hypolimnetic temperature differences of 2, 5 and 10 degrees C. Experimental data supported the model. We found a significantly larger proportion of daphniids in the hypolimnion when the temperature difference was smaller. Our results are consistent with the concept of IFD with costs originally developed for stream fishes. This concept can be applied to predict the vertical distribution of zooplankton in habitats where fish predation is of minor importance. PMID:12713752

  16. Independent Study Course Development Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Clayton R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses actual costs for developing independent study print courses for use in learning centers or for distance delivery, and presents a resource allocation guideline based on figures from Grant MacEwan Community College (Alberta). Topics discussed include the course writer/developer, clerical support, copyright clearance, instructional design,…

  17. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  18. Trade study plan for Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document (with support from TA 1) describes the trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination For this most suitable configuration the structural attachment of the wing, and the most suitable GCPS composite materials for intertank, wing, tail and thrust structure are identified. This trade study analysis uses extensive information derived in the TA 1 trade study plan and is identified within the study plan. In view of this, for convenience, the TA 1 study plan is included as an appendix to this document.

  19. Impact of information cost and switching of trading strategies in an artificial stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chao; Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Xu, Hai-Chuan

    2014-08-01

    This paper studies the switching of trading strategies and its effect on the market volatility in a continuous double auction market. We describe the behavior when some uninformed agents, who we call switchers, decide whether or not to pay for information before they trade. By paying for the information they behave as informed traders. First we verify that our model is able to reproduce some of the stylized facts in real financial markets. Next we consider the relationship between switching and the market volatility under different structures of investors. We find that there exists a positive relationship between the market volatility and the percentage of switchers. We therefore conclude that the switchers are a destabilizing factor in the market. However, for a given fixed percentage of switchers, the proportion of switchers that decide to buy information at a given moment of time is negatively related to the current market volatility. In other words, if more agents pay for information to know the fundamental value at some time, the market volatility will be lower. This is because the market price is closer to the fundamental value due to information diffusion between switchers.

  20. Development and application of a model for the analysis of trades between space launch system operations and acquisition costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Michael B.

    2005-12-01

    Early design decisions in the development of space launch systems determine the costs to acquire and operate launch systems. Some sources indicate that as much as 90% of life cycle costs are fixed by the end of the critical design review phase. System characteristics determined by these early decisions are major factors in the acquisition cost of flight hardware elements and facilities and influence operations costs through the amount of maintenance and support labor required to sustain system function. Operations costs are also dependent on post-development management decisions regarding how much labor will be deployed to meet requirements of market demand and ownership profit. The ability to perform early trade-offs between these costs is vital to the development of systems that have the necessary capacity to provide service and are profitable to operate. An Excel-based prototype model was developed for making early analyses of trade-offs between the costs to operate a space launch system and to acquire the necessary assets to meet a given set of operational requirements. The model, integrating input from existing models and adding missing capability, allows the user to make such trade-offs across a range of operations concepts (required flight rates, staffing levels, shifts per workday, workdays per week and per year, unreliability, wearout and depot maintenance) and the number, type and capability of assets (flight hardware elements, processing and supporting facilities and infrastructure). The costs and capabilities of hypothetical launch systems can be modeled as a function of interrelated turnaround times and labor resource levels, and asset loss and retirement. The number of flight components and facilities required can be calculated and the operations and acquisition costs compared for a specified scenario. Findings, based on the analysis of a hypothetical two stage to orbit, reusable, unmanned launch system, indicate that the model is suitable for the

  1. Selection process for trade study: Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable unpressurized graphite composite structures and material selections is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of payload bay, wing, and thrust structure full scale test articles representing segments of the prototype structures. The selection process for this TA 2 trade study is the same as that for the TA 1 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  2. Materials trade study for lunar/gateway missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Anderson, B. M.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) administrator has identified protection from radiation hazards as one of the two biggest problems of the agency with respect to human deep space missions. The intensity and strength of cosmic radiation in deep space makes this a 'must solve' problem for space missions. The Moon and two Earth-Moon Lagrange points near Moon are being proposed as hubs for deep space missions. The focus of this study is to identify approaches to protecting astronauts and habitats from adverse effects from space radiation both for single missions and multiple missions for career astronauts to these destinations. As the great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions, reduction of mass, without compromising safety, is of paramount importance. The choice of material and selection of the crew profile play major roles in design and mission operations. Material trade studies in shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space mission's to two Earth-Moon co-linear Lagrange points (L1) between Earth and the Moon and (L2) on back side of the moon as seen from Earth, and to the Moon have been studied. It is found that, for single missions, current state-of-the-art knowledge of material provides adequate shielding. On the other hand, the choice of shield material is absolutely critical for career astronauts and revolutionary materials need to be developed for these missions. This study also provides a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation for more detailed geometry studies in progress. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Materials trade study for lunar/gateway missions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Anderson, B M; Simonsen, L C

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) administrator has identified protection from radiation hazards as one of the two biggest problems of the agency with respect to human deep space missions. The intensity and strength of cosmic radiation in deep space makes this a 'must solve' problem for space missions. The Moon and two Earth-Moon Lagrange points near Moon are being proposed as hubs for deep space missions. The focus of this study is to identify approaches to protecting astronauts and habitats from adverse effects from space radiation both for single missions and multiple missions for career astronauts to these destinations. As the great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions, reduction of mass, without compromising safety, is of paramount importance. The choice of material and selection of the crew profile play major roles in design and mission operations. Material trade studies in shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space mission's to two Earth-Moon co-linear Lagrange points (L1) between Earth and the Moon and (L2) on back side of the moon as seen from Earth, and to the Moon have been studied. It is found that, for single missions, current state-of-the-art knowledge of material provides adequate shielding. On the other hand, the choice of shield material is absolutely critical for career astronauts and revolutionary materials need to be developed for these missions. This study also provides a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation for more detailed geometry studies in progress.

  4. 49 CFR 1139.3 - Cost study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost study. 1139.3 Section 1139.3 Transportation... Commodities § 1139.3 Cost study. (a) The respondents shall submit a cost study. Highway Form B may be used for this purpose. Service unit-costs shall be developed for each individual study carrier, adjusted by...

  5. 49 CFR 1139.3 - Cost study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost study. 1139.3 Section 1139.3 Transportation... Commodities § 1139.3 Cost study. (a) The respondents shall submit a cost study. Highway Form B may be used for this purpose. Service unit-costs shall be developed for each individual study carrier, adjusted by...

  6. 49 CFR 1139.3 - Cost study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost study. 1139.3 Section 1139.3 Transportation... Commodities § 1139.3 Cost study. (a) The respondents shall submit a cost study. Highway Form B may be used for this purpose. Service unit-costs shall be developed for each individual study carrier, adjusted by...

  7. 49 CFR 1139.3 - Cost study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost study. 1139.3 Section 1139.3 Transportation... Commodities § 1139.3 Cost study. (a) The respondents shall submit a cost study. Highway Form B may be used for this purpose. Service unit-costs shall be developed for each individual study carrier, adjusted by...

  8. 49 CFR 1139.3 - Cost study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost study. 1139.3 Section 1139.3 Transportation... Commodities § 1139.3 Cost study. (a) The respondents shall submit a cost study. Highway Form B may be used for this purpose. Service unit-costs shall be developed for each individual study carrier, adjusted by...

  9. A Trade-Off Study Revealing Nested Timescales of Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Wijnants, M. L.; Cox, R. F. A.; Hasselman, F.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Van Orden, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates human performance in a cyclic Fitts task at three different scales of observation, either in the presence (difficult condition) or in the absence (easy condition) of a speed–accuracy trade-off. At the fastest scale, the harmonicity of the back and forth movements, which reflects the dissipation of mechanical energy, was measured within the timeframe of single trials. At an intermediate scale, speed and accuracy measures were determined over a trial. The slowest scale pertains to the temporal structure of movement variability, which evolves over multiple trials. In the difficult condition, reliable correlations across each of the measures corroborated a coupling of nested scales of performance. Participants who predominantly emphasized the speed-side of the trade-off (despite the instruction to be both fast and accurate) produced more harmonic movements and clearer 1/f scaling in the produced movement time series, but were less accurate and produced more random variability in the produced movement amplitudes (vice versa for more accurate participants). This implied that speed–accuracy trade-off was accompanied by a trade-off between temporal and spatial streams of 1/f scaling, as confirmed by entropy measures. In the easy condition, however, no trade-offs nor couplings among scales of performance were observed. Together, these results suggest that 1/f scaling is more than just a byproduct of cognition. These findings rather support the claim that interaction-dominant dynamics constitute a coordinative basis for goal-directed behavior. PMID:22654760

  10. Evolution of intrinsic growth rate: metabolic costs drive trade-offs between growth and swimming performance in Menidia menidia.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Stephen A; Chiba, Susumu; Conover, David O

    2006-06-01

    There is strong evidence that genetic capacity for growth evolves toward an optimum rather than an absolute maximum. This implies that fast growth has a cost and that trade-offs occur between growth and other life-history traits, but the fundamental mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous work on the Atlantic silverside fish Menidia menidia has demonstrated a trade-off between growth and swimming performance. We hypothesize that the trade-off derives from the competing metabolic demands associated with growth and swimming activity. We tested this by measuring standard metabolic rate (M(STD)), maximum sustainable metabolic rate (M(ACT)) and metabolic scope of laboratory-reared silversides originating from two geographically distinct populations with well-documented differences in genetic capacity for growth. The fast-growth genotype had a significantly greater M(STD) than the slow-growth genotype, but a similar MACT when swum to near exhaustion. The scope for activity of the fast-growth genotype was lower than that of the slow-growth genotype. Furthermore, the fast-growth genotype eats larger meals, thereby incurring a greater postprandial oxygen demand. We conclude that a metabolic trade-off occurs between growth and other metabolic demands and that this trade-off provides a general mechanism underlying the evolution of growth rate.

  11. Plumbing. Trade and Industrial Education Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erisman, Kenneth E., Comp.; Gerberich, Charles F., Comp.

    Intended to be used as a teaching and learning guide, the basic course of study presented in these materials is designed to provide the essentials of the plumbing trade, insuring that students who successfully complete the course will have sufficient competencies for initial employment and ample orientation for growth and development. The course…

  12. Electrical Occupations. Trade and Industrial Education Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomolak, John D., Comp.; And Others

    Intended to be used as a teaching and learning guide, the basic course of study presented in these materials is designed to provide the essentials of the electrical occupations trade, insuring that the students who successfully complete the course will have sufficient competencies for initial employment and ample orientation for growth and…

  13. The trade-off between hospital cost and quality of care. An exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Morey, R C; Fine, D J; Loree, S W; Retzlaff-Roberts, D L; Tsubakitani, S

    1992-08-01

    The debate concerning quality of care in hospitals, its "value" and affordability, is increasingly of concern to providers, consumers, and purchasers in the United States and elsewhere. We undertook an exploratory study to estimate the impact on hospital-wide costs if quality-of-care levels were varied. To do so, we obtained costs and service output data regarding 300 U.S. hospitals, representing approximately a 5% cross section of all hospitals operating in 1983; both inpatient and outpatient services were included. The quality-of-care measure used for the exploratory analysis was the ratio of actual deaths in the hospital for the year in question to the forecasted number of deaths for the hospital; the hospital mortality forecaster had earlier (and elsewhere) been built from analyses of 6 million discharge abstracts, and took into account each hospital's actual individual admissions, including key patient descriptors for each admission. Such adjusted death rates have increasingly been used as potential indicators of quality, with recent research lending support for the viability of that linkage. The authors then utilized the economic construct of allocative efficiency relying on "best practices" concepts and peer groupings, built using the "envelopment" philosophy of Data Envelopment Analysis and Pareto efficiency. These analytical techniques estimated the efficiently delivered costs required to meet prespecified levels of quality of care. The marginal additional cost per each death deferred in 1983 was estimated to be approximately $29,000 (in 1990 dollars) for the average efficient hospital. Also, over a feasible range, a 1% increase in the level of quality of care delivered was estimated to increase hospital cost by an average of 1.34%. This estimated elasticity of quality on cost also increased with the number of beds in the hospital.

  14. Data Systems Dynamic Simulation - A total system for data system design assessments and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, J. W.; Rowe, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Data Systems Dynamic Simulation is a simulation system designed to reduce cost and time and increase the confidence and comprehensiveness of Data Systems Simulation. It is designed to simulate large data processing and communications systems from end-to-end or by subsystem. Those features relevant to system timing, control, sizing, personnel support activities, cost and external influences are modeled. Emphasis is placed on ease of use, comprehensive system performance measures, and extensive post simulation analysis capability. The system has been used to support trade studies of the NASA data system needs in the 1985 to 1990 time frame.

  15. Jail Removal Cost Study. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    This second volume of the jail removal cost study provides a detailed report of the study findings which examine the costs, experiences, and ramifications of removing children from adult jails and lockups. The foreword supplies background information and hypothetical removal cost estimates. The approach used to conduct the jail removal cost study…

  16. Trade study plan for Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 1 document describes the trade study plan (with support from TA 2) that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The analysis uses information derived in the TA 2 study as identified within the study plan. In view of this, for convenience, the TA 2 study plan is included as an appendix to this document.

  17. Limited encoding of effort by dopamine neurons in a cost-benefit trade-off task

    PubMed Central

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; Turner, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are thought to evaluate the desirability of action options using a unified scale that combines predicted benefits (“rewards”), costs, and the animal’s internal motivational state. Midbrain dopamine neurons have long been associated with the reward part of this equation, but it is unclear whether these neurons also estimate the costs of taking an action. We studied the spiking activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during a reaching task in which the energetic costs incurred (friction loads) and the benefits gained (drops of food) were manipulated independently. Although the majority of dopamine neurons encoded the upcoming reward alone, a subset predicted net utility of a course of action by signaling the expected reward magnitude, discounted by the invested cost in terms of physical effort. In addition, the tonic activity of some dopamine neurons was slowly reduced in conjunction with the accumulated trials, which is consistent with the hypothesized role for tonic dopamine in the invigoration or motivation of instrumental responding. The present results shed light on an oft-hypothesized role for dopamine in the regulation of the balance in natural behaviors between the energy expended and the benefits gained, which could explain why dopamine disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, lead to a breakdown of that balance. PMID:23658169

  18. Multi-Megawatt Power System Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Parks, Benjamin Travis

    2002-02-01

    A concept study was undertaken to evaluate potential multi-megawatt power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nominal electric power requirement was set at 15 MWe with an assumed mission profile of 120 days at full power, 60 days in hot standby, and another 120 days of full power, repeated several times for 7 years of service. Two configurations examined were (1) a gas-cooled reactor based on the NERVA Derivative design, operating a closed cycle Brayton power conversion system; and (2) a molten metal-cooled reactor based on SP-100 technology, driving a boiling potassium Rankine power conversion system. This study considered the relative merits of these two systems, seeking to optimize the specific mass. Conclusions were that either concept appeared capable of approaching the specific mass goal of 3-5 kg/kWe estimated to be needed for this class of mission, though neither could be realized without substantial development in reactor fuels technology, thermal radiator mass efficiency, and power conversion and distribution electronics systems capable of operating at high temperatures. The gas-Brayton systems showed an apparent specific mass advantage (3.53 vs 6.43 kg/kWe for the baseline cases) under the set of assumptions used, but reconciling differences in conservatism in the design algorithms used would make results much more comparable. Brayton systems eliminate the need to deal with two-phase working fluid flows in the microgravity environment of space.

  19. Multi-megawatt power system trade study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Parks, Benjamin T.

    2002-01-01

    A concept study was undertaken to evaluate potential multi-megawatt power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nominal electric power requirement was set at 15 MWe with an assumed mission profile of 120 days at full power, 60 days in hot standby, and another 120 days of full power, repeated several times for 7 years of service. Two configurations examined were (1) a gas-cooled reactor based on the NERVA Derivative design, operating a closed cycle Brayton power conversion system; and (2) a molten metal-cooled reactor based on SP-100 technology, driving a boiling potassium Rankine power conversion system. This study considered the relative merits of these two systems, seeking to optimize the specific mass. Conclusions were that either concept appeared capable of reaching the specific mass goal of 3-5 kg/kWe estimated to be needed for this class of mission, though neither could be realized without substantial development in reactor fuels technology, thermal radiator mass and volume efficiency, and power conversion and distribution electronics and systems capable of operating at high temperatures. The gas-Brayton system showed a specific mass advantage (3.17 vs 6.43 kg/kWe for the baseline cases) under the set of assumptions used and eliminated the need to deal with two-phase working fluid flows in the microgravity environment of space. .

  20. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As human visions of space applications expand and as we probe further out into the universe, our needs for power will also expand, and missions will evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources have been defined. These include Earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration, and terrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. Presented here are results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear reactor energy sources, combined with various energy conversion devices for Earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rovers, surface power, and planetary exploration.

  1. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As visions of space applications expand and as probes extend further and further out into the universe, the need for power also expands, and missions evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources are defined. These include earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration and extraterrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. This paper presents results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear-reactor energy sources combined with various energy-conversion devices for earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rover and surface power, and planetary exploration.

  2. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  3. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource tracking model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/GUNNS RTM simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier reactor methane which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Additionally simulation of EVAs conducted from the exploration module was added. Since the focus of the exploration module is to provide a habitat during deep space operations the EVA simulation approach to EVA is based on ISS EVA protocol and processes. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  4. Young Dutch people's experiences of trading sex: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution.

  5. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Configuration trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The overall Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Phase B Study objective is to design a relatively inexpensive satellite to access space for extended periods of time, with eventual recovery of experiments on Earth. The expected principal use for such a system is research on the effects of variable gravity (0-1.5 g) and radiation on small animals, plants, lower life forms, tissue samples, and materials processes. The RRS will be capable of: (1) being launched by a variety of expendable launch vehicles; (2) operating in low earth orbit as a free flying unmanned laboratory; and (3) executing independent atmospheric reentry and soft landing. The RRS will be designed to be refurbished and reused up to three times a year for a period of 10 years. The information provided in this report describes the process involved in the evolution of the RRS overall configuration. This process considered reentry aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, internal equipment layout, and vehicle mass properties. This report delineates the baseline design decisions that were used to initiate the RRS design effort. As a result, there will be deviations between this report and the RRS Final Report. In those instances, the RRS Final Report shall be considered to be the definitive reference.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  7. Desk study - Arricifes Units 1 through 5 - Venezuela. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-27

    Electricidad de La Caracas (E.de.C) of Venezuela has requested a grant from the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) to fund a feasibility study to examine repowering the existing Arrecifies five units for combined cycle operation. The report reviews an earlier definitional mission report (DM report) and evaluates develops, and costs out the scope of work for the study; estimates the potential exports of U.S. equipment and services during project implementation; and makes a recommendation as to whether TDP should fund the study. A detailed scope of work and cost basis for the study is included in the appendix. An overall cost estimate for the implementation of the project, potential value of exports and a list of major equipment and services required from U.S. for project implementation and recommendations for TDP funding are presented.

  8. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-offs: Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how some energy-efficiency measure cost increases can balance against measures that reduce up-front costs: Advanced framing cuts lumber costs, right sizing can mean downsizing the HVAC, moving HVAC into conditioned space cuts installation costs, designing on a 2-foot grid reduces materials waste, etc.

  9. Druzhba feasibility study: Barsukov and Tarasov fields, 1995. Main report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-03

    The study, conducted by NEFT, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the rehabilitation of oil wells in Baruskov and Tarasov fields. The objectives of the study include a plan for improving well and waterflood performance, and to determine materials and equipment needed. The report also covers capital and operating costs, as well as an evaluation of project economics based on Russian law. This is Volume 1 of the study containing the Main Report. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Figures; (2) Tables; (3) Economic Tables; (4) Maps; (5) Environmental Safety.

  10. Cycle 0(CY1991) NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 1: Structures and core vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report (SR-1: Structures, Trades, and Analysis), documents the Core Tankage Trades and analyses performed in support of the National Launch System (NLS) Cycle 0 preliminary design activities. The report covers trades that were conducted on the Vehicle Assembly, Fwd Skirt, LO2 Tank, Intertank, LH2 Tank, and Aft Skirt of the NLS Core Tankage. For each trade study, a two page executive summary and the detail trade study are provided. The trade studies contain study results, recommended changes to the Cycle 0 Baselines, and suggested follow on tasks to be performed during Cycle 1.

  11. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description.

  12. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  13. A robust simulation-optimization modeling system for effluent trading--a case study of nonpoint source pollution control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J L; Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a robust simulation-optimization modeling system (RSOMS) is developed for supporting agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) effluent trading planning. The RSOMS can enhance effluent trading through incorporation of a distributed simulation model and an optimization model within its framework. The modeling system not only can handle uncertainties expressed as probability density functions and interval values but also deal with the variability of the second-stage costs that are above the expected level as well as capture the notion of risk under high-variability situations. A case study is conducted for mitigating agricultural NPS pollution with an effluent trading program in Xiangxi watershed. Compared with non-trading policy, trading scheme can successfully mitigate agricultural NPS pollution with an increased system benefit. Through trading scheme, [213.7, 288.8] × 10(3) kg of TN and [11.8, 30.2] × 10(3) kg of TP emissions from cropped area can be cut down during the planning horizon. The results can help identify desired effluent trading schemes for water quality management with the tradeoff between the system benefit and reliability being balanced and risk aversion being considered.

  14. Update on Fabrication of Extrusions for TREAT Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, Erik Paul; Leckie, Rafael M.; Dombrowski, David E.; Papin, Pallas A.

    2014-03-05

    This supplemental report describes fuel fabrication efforts conducted for the Idaho National Laboratory Trade Study for the TREAT Conversion project that is exploring the replacement of the HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) fuel core of the TREAT reactor with LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel. Previous reports have documented fabrication of fuel by the “upgrade” process developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments supplement an earlier report that describes efforts to increase the graphite content of extruded fuel and minimize cracking.

  15. A Classroom Exercise to Examine the Trade-off between Mission Capacity and Life Cycle Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Keebom; Doerr, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a classroom exercise, centered on a simulation that has been used for 4 years in an MBA program to help students develop an understanding of the trade-offs involved in managing capital assets in the public sector. Though often ignored in business schools, "mission" is a key criterion that must be considered when…

  16. How Much is it Going to Cost Me to Complete a Collection of Football Trading Cards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerke, Oke

    2013-01-01

    Trading cards for various sports and a range of other subjects such as architecture, animals, hobbies, and war have been in existence since the late nineteenth century and still enjoy great popularity. Two of the most prominent examples are baseball cards in the U.S. and football cards in Europe. Three strategies for collecting European football…

  17. SLS Trade Study 0058: Day of Launch (DOL) Wind Biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Duffin, Paul; Hill, Ashley; Beck, Roger; Dukeman, Greg

    2014-01-01

    SLS heritage hardware and legacy designs have shown load exceedances at several locations during Design Analysis Cycles (DAC): MPCV Z bending moments; ICPS Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA) loads; Core Stage loads just downstream of Booster forward interface. SLS Buffet Loads Mitigation Task Team (BLMTT) tasked to study issue. Identified low frequency buffet load responses are a function of the vehicle's total angle of attack (AlphaTotal). SLS DOL Wind Biasing Trade team to analyze DOL wind biasing methods to limit maximum AlphaTotal in the M0.8 - 2.0 altitude region for EM-1 and EM-2 missions through investigating: Trajectory design process; Wind wavelength filtering options; Launch availability; DOL process to achieve shorter processing/uplink timeline. Trade Team consisted of personnel supporting SLS, MPCV, GSDO programs.

  18. CA la electricidad de caracas: Arrecifes repowering project. Feasibility study report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The study, conducted by Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of C.A. La Electricidad de Caracas. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted to evaluate the repowering of the Arrecifes Power Plant. The study focuses on capital cost for the project, refurbishment of existing equipment, and the installation of new repowering equipment. The study also evaluates combustion turbine generators of different manufacturers and sizes to determine the most beneficial configuration. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Study Basis; (4) Alternatives Analysis; (5) Layout and Equipment Issues; (6) Performance and Economic Analysis; (7) Repowered Facility Description; (8) Mechanical Systems; (9) Civil/Structural/Architectural; (10) Electrical Systems; (11) Instrumentation and Controls; (12) Environmental Overview; (13) Project Implementation Plan; (14) Project Conceptual Cost Estimate.

  19. Using value-based total cost of ownership (TCO) measures to inform subsystem trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziwill, Nicole M.; DuPlain, Ronald F.

    2010-07-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) is a metric from management accounting that helps expose both the direct and indirect costs of a business decision. However, TCO can sometimes be too simplistic for "make vs. buy" decisions (or even choosing between competing design alternatives) when value and extensibility are more critical than total cost. A three-dimensional value-based TCO, which was developed to clarify product decisions for an observatory prior to Final Design Review (FDR), will be presented in this session. This value-based approach incorporates priority of requirements, satisfiability of requirements, and cost, and can be easily applied in any environment.

  20. The Trade Practices Act, Competitive Neutrality and Research Costing: Issues for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzobs, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly universities are becoming commercial enterprises and their core activities of teaching and research subject to business imperatives. This paper reviews the research costing methodologies of 17 Australian universities. Tension between Competition Law and Competitive Neutrality exists which could be resolved through improved costing and…

  1. Cycle O (CY 1991) NLS trade studies and analyses, book 2. Part 1: Avionics and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard; Kirkland, Zach

    1992-01-01

    An assessment was conducted to determine the maximum LH2 tank stretch capability based on the constraints of the manufacturing, tooling and facilities at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. The maximum tank stretch was determined to be 5 ft. with minor or no modifications, a stretch of 11 ft. with some possible facility modifications and beyond 11 ft. significant new facilities are required. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the impacts for various stretch lengths. Tasks that were defined to perform trades and studies regarding the best approach to meet requirements for the National Launch System Avionics are also discussed.

  2. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-05-06

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by:  Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; Locking in Canada's current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it;  Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics.CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada-not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA's provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes.As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada's single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care.

  3. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by: • Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; • Locking in Canada’s current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it; • Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics. CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada—not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA’s provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes. As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada’s single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care. PMID:24885309

  4. A Trade Study of Thermosphere Empirical Neutral Density Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL ... AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0008 AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0008 A TRADE STUDY OF THERMOSPHERE EMPIRICAL NEUTRAL DENSITY MODELS Chin S. Lin, et al. 1 August...Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings

  5. AEMS implementation cost study for Boeing 727

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Costs for airline operational implementation of a NASA-developed approach energy management system (AEMS) concept, as applied to the 727 airplane, were determined. Estimated costs are provided for airplane retrofit and for installation of the required DME ground stations. Operational costs and fuel cost savings are presented in a cost-of-ownership study. The potential return on the equipment investment is evaluated using a net present value method. Scheduled 727 traffic and existing VASI, ILS, and collocated DME ground station facilities are summarized for domestic airports used by 727 operators.

  6. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  7. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  8. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  9. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-08-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  10. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-01-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  11. A Reference-Dependent Regret Model for Deterministic Trade-off Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2005-02-25

    Today's typical multi-criteria decision analysis is based on classical expected utility theory that assumes a mythical ''Rational Individual'' immune to psychological influences such as anticipated regret. It is therefore in conflict with rational individuals who trade-off some benefits and forgo the alternative with the highest total classical utility for a more balanced alternative in order to reduce their levels of anticipated regret. This paper focuses on decision making under certainty. It presents a reference-dependent regret model (RDRM) in which the level of regret that an individual experiences depends on the absolute values rather than the differences of the utilities of the chosen and forgone alternatives. The RDRM best choice may differ from the conventional linear additive utility model, the analytic hierarchy process, and the regret theory of Bell and Loomes and Sugden. Examples are presented that indicate that RDRM is the better predictive descriptor for decision making under certainty. RDRM satisfies transitivity of the alternatives under pairwise comparisons and models rank reversal consistent with observed reasonable choices under dynamic or distinct situations. Like regret theory, the RDRM utilities of all the alternatives under consideration are interrelated. For complex trade-off studies regret is incorporated as an element of a cost-utility-regret analysis that characterizes each alternative in terms of its monetary cost, an aggregate performance utility, and a regret value. This provides decision makers adequate information to compare the alternatives and depending on their values they may trade-off some performance and/or cost to avoid high levels of regret. The result is a well-balanced alternative often preferred by reasonable decision makers to the optimal choice of classical multi-attribute utility analysis. The model can readily be extended to incorporate rejoicing to suit decision makers who seek it. The approach is illustrated using a

  12. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Three primary tasks were identified which include task 1-trade studies, task 2-trade study comparison and technology selection, and task 3-technology definition. Task 1 general objectives were to identify candidate technology trade areas, determine which areas have the highest potential payoff, define specific trades within the high payoff areas, and perform the trade studies. In order to satisfy these objectives, a structured, organized approach was employed. Candidate technology areas and specific trades were screened using consistent selection criteria and considering possible interrelationships. A data base comprising both manned and unmanned space platform documentation was used as a source of system and subsystem requirements. When requirements were not stated in the data base documentation, assumptions were made and recorded where necessary to characterize a particular spacecraft system. The requirements and assumptions were used together with the selection criteria to establish technology advancement goals and select trade studies. While both manned and unmanned platform data were used, the study was focused on the concept of an early manned space station.

  13. Trade-offs between data resolution, accuracy, and cost when choosing information to plan reserves for coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Vivitskaia J; Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-03-01

    Conservation planners must reconcile trade-offs associated with using biodiversity data of differing qualities to make decisions. Coarse habitat classifications are commonly used as surrogates to design marine reserve networks when fine-scale biodiversity data are incomplete or unavailable. Although finely-classified habitat maps provide more detail, they may have more misclassification errors, a common problem when remotely-sensed imagery is used. Despite these issues, planners rarely consider the effects of errors when choosing data for spatially explicit conservation prioritizations. Here we evaluate trade-offs between accuracy and resolution of hierarchical coral reef habitat data (geomorphology and benthic substrate) derived from remote sensing, in spatial planning for Kubulau District, Fiji. For both, we use accuracy information describing the probability that a mapped habitat classification is correct to design marine reserve networks that achieve habitat conservation targets, and demonstrate inadequacies of using habitat maps without accuracy data. We show that using more detailed habitat information ensures better representation of biogenic habitats (i.e. coral and seagrass), but leads to larger and more costly reserves, because these data have more misclassification errors, and are also more expensive to obtain. Reduced impacts on fishers are possible using coarsely-classified data, which are also more cost-effective for planning reserves if we account for data collection costs, but using these data may under-represent reef habitats that are important for fisheries and biodiversity, due to the maps low thematic resolution. Finally, we show that explicitly accounting for accuracy information in decisions maximizes the chance of successful conservation outcomes by reducing the risk of missing conservation representation targets, particularly when using finely classified data.

  14. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

  15. Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

  16. Analysis of success probability/cost trades for small landers in a Mars network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.

    1990-01-01

    The premise to be tested in this analysis is whether cost economics may accrue by delivering more landers designed to lower reliability of operation (compared to fewer landers of higher reliability) to obtain a desired probability of achieving a given number of lander successes. Generally, the application in mind is a network of penetrators, although the analysis may apply as well to other small lander concepts or even to simple rovers. The method of analysis is based on a probabilistic model of lander success and a related probabilistic model of project cost including the lander, spacecraft carrier, and integration, but not launch or operations costs. Quantitative results are obtained in a normalized and parametric fashion. Sensitivity to the assumed model parameters is also examined.

  17. IXO/XMS Detector Trade-Off Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; deKorte, P.; Smith, S.; Hoevers, H.; vdKuur, J.; Ezoe, Y.; Ullom, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the outcome of the detector trade-off for the XMS instrument on IXO. This trade-off is part of the Cryogenic instrument Phase-A study as proposed to ESA in the Declaration of Interest SRONXMS-PL-2009-003 dated June 6, 2009. The detector consists of two components: a core array for the highest spectral resolution and an outer array to increase the field of view substantially with modest increase in the number of read-out channels. Degraded resolution of the outer array in comparison with the core array is accepted in order to make this scheme possible. The two detector components may be a single unit or separate units. These arrays comprise pixels and the components that allow them to be arrayed. Each pixel comprises a thermometer, an absorber, and the thermal links between them and to the rest of the array. These links may be interfaces or distinct components. The array infrastructure comprises the mechanical structure of the array, the arrangement of the leads, and features added to improve the integrated thermal properties of the array in the focal-plane assembly.

  18. Study of Trade Wind Clouds Using Ground Based Stereo Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J.

    2010-12-01

    We employ ground based stereo cameras to derive the three dimensional position of trade wind clouds features. The process employs both traditional and novel methods. The stereo cameras are calibrated for orientation using the sun as a geo-reference point at several times throughout the day. Spatial correlation is used to detect similar cloud features in both camera images and a simultaneous-differential equation is solved to get the best cloud position for the given rays from the cameras to the cloud feature. Once the positions of the clouds are known in three-dimensional space, then it is also possible to derive upper level wind speed and direction by tracking the position of clouds in space and time. The vector winds can be obtained at many locations and heights in a cone region over the surface site. The accuracy of the measurement depends on the camera separation with a trade-off occurring at different camera separations and cloud ranges. The system design and performance will be discussed along with field observations. This approach provides a new way to study clouds for climate change efforts. It also provides an inexpensive way to measure upper level wind fields in cloudy regions. Ground based stereo cameras are used to derive cloud position in space a time.

  19. Performance Trades Study for Robust Airfoil Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    From time to time, existing aircraft need to be redesigned for new missions with modified operating conditions such as required lift or cruise speed. This research is motivated by the needs of conceptual and preliminary design teams for smooth airfoil shapes that are similar to the baseline design but have improved drag performance over a range of flight conditions. The proposed modified profile optimization method (MPOM) modifies a large number of design variables to search for nonintuitive performance improvements, while avoiding off-design performance degradation. Given a good initial design, the MPOM generates fairly smooth airfoils that are better than the baseline without making drastic shape changes. Moreover, the MPOM allows users to gain valuable information by exploring performance trades over various design conditions. Four simulation cases of airfoil optimization in transonic viscous ow are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the MPOM as a performance trades study tool. Simulation results are obtained by solving fully turbulent Navier-Stokes equations and the corresponding discrete adjoint equations using an unstructured grid computational fluid dynamics code FUN2D.

  20. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  1. The trade-off between wiring cost and network topology in white matter structural networks in health and migraine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jixin; Zhao, Ling; Nan, Jiaofen; Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; von Deneen, Karen M; Gong, Qiyong; Liang, Fanrong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The human brain organization of cortical networks has optimized trade-off architecture for the economical minimization of connection distance and maximizing valuable topological properties; however, whether this network configuration is disrupted in chronic migraine remains unknown. Here, employing the diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory approaches to construct white matter networks in 26 patients with migraine (PM) and 26 gender-matched healthy controls (HC), we investigated relationships between structural connectivity, cortical network architecture and anatomical distance in the two groups separately. Compared with the HC group, the patients showed longer global distance connection in PM, with proportionally less short-distance and more medium-distance; correspondingly, the patients showed abnormal global topology in their structural networks, mainly presented as a higher clustering coefficient. Moreover, the abnormal association between these two network features was also found. Intriguingly, the network measure that combined the nodal anatomical distance and network topology could distinguish PM from HC with high accuracy of 90.4%. We also demonstrated a high reproducibility of our findings across different parcellation schemes. Our results demonstrated that long-term migraine may result in a abnormal optimization of a trade-off between wiring cost and network topology in white matter structural networks and highlights the potential for combining spatial and topological aspects as a network marker, which may provide valuable insights into the understanding of brain network reorganization that could be attributed to the underlying pathophysiology resulting from migraine.

  2. Benefit-cost Trade-offs of Early Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites Amblyseius Swirskii

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Inga C.; Szin, Sandra; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is changed behavior following experience, and ubiquitous in animals including plant-inhabiting predatory mites (Phytoseiidae). Learning has many benefits but also incurs costs, which are only poorly understood. Here, we addressed learning, especially its costs, in the generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii, a biocontrol agent of several herbivores, which can also survive on pollen. The goals of our research were (1) to scrutinize if A. swirskii is able to learn during early life in foraging contexts and, if so, (2) to determine the costs of early learning. In the experiments, we used one difficult-to-grasp prey, i.e., thrips, and one easy-to-grasp prey, i.e., spider mites. Our experiments show that A. swirskii is able to learn during early life. Adult predators attacked prey experienced early in life (i.e., matching prey) more quickly than they attacked unknown (i.e., non-matching) prey. Furthermore, we observed both fitness benefits and operating (physiological) costs of early learning. Predators receiving the matching prey produced the most eggs, whereas predators receiving the non-matching prey produced the least. Thrips-experienced predators needed the longest for juvenile development. Our findings may be used to enhance A. swirskii’s efficacy in biological control, by priming young predators on a specific prey early in life. PMID:27006149

  3. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  4. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B

    2006-01-01

    Background National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. Methods We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes – printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity – accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Results Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities had a surprisingly negative

  5. Alssat Development Status and Its Applications in Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. Y. (Jannivine); Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank F.; Lin, Chin H.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) using Microsoft® Excel was initiated by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 1997 to support the ALS and Exploration Offices in Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and studies. It aids the user in performing detailed sizing of the ECLSS based on suggested default values or user inputs for different combinations of the ALS regenerative system technologies (Ref. 1, 2). This analysis tool will assist the user in performing ECLSS preliminary design and trade studies as well as system optimization efficiently and economically. Since ALSSAT's latest publication in ICES 2001 (Ref. 1) describing the development of ALSSAT with its Air Revitalization Subsystem (ARS), Water Management Subsystem (WMS), and Biomass Subsystem (Biomass) mass balance sheets, ALSSAT has been expanded to include mass balance and sizing models for the remaining three ALS subsystems, namely, the Solid Waste Management Subsystem (SWMS), the Food Management Subsystem (FMS), and the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS). The external interfaces, including the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) and Human Accommodations (HA), were implemented into ALSSAT in 2002. The overall mass balance sheet, which integrates the six ALS subsystems and the external interfaces applicable to the ECLSS, was also developed. In 2003, ALSSAT was upgraded to include the consideration of redundancy and contingency options in the ECLSS, as well as more ALS regenerative technology selections. ALSSAT has been used for the Metric Calculation for FY02 and FY03 (Ref. 3). Several trade studies were conducted in 2003. The analytical results will be presented in this paper.

  6. Cost and performance trade-offs for commercially available linear stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwertz, Katie; Burge, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    The following paper provides the practicing engineer with guidelines on the relationships between cost and various performance factors for different types of linear stages. When multiple precise motions need to be made in a system, stages are typically the solution. A number of factors should be considered before choosing a stage: cost, load capacity, travel range, repeatability, resolution, encoding accuracy, errors in motion, stiffness, stability, velocity of motion, environmental sensitivity, and additional features like over-travel protection and locking mechanisms. There are a variety of different bearing types for linear stages, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents charts that provide relationships between the cost, travel range, angular deviation, and load capacity of various types of manual one-axis linear stages. The stages considered were those that had less than a 2.5" travel range and sold by major optomechanical vendors. The bearing types investigated were dovetail, flexure, ball bearing, double row ball bearing, crossed roller bearing, and gothic arch ball bearing. Using the charts and general guidelines provided in this paper, a more informed decision may be made when selecting a linear stage.

  7. Feasibility study of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydroelectric Project: Feasibility report, executive summary. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This study, conducted by Harza Engineering Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to perform the technical, environmental, economic and financial studies to determine whether or not to proceed with the project. The report covers the preinvestment study that was conducted in 1976 to make comparisons from that period, as well as present and future electrical power demands in order to determine the kinds of equipment and structure needed if the project proceeds. This is the Executive Summary and is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Electric Power Sector; (3) Recommended Project; (4) Reservoir Operations Studies; (5) Construction Cost Estimates; (6) Economic Analysis; (7) Financial Analysis; (8) Expansion Program; (9) Environmental Assessment.

  8. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  9. The multi-disciplinary design study. A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Duran, J. M.; Kauffman, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) is investigated as a comprehensive design criterion for two major interrelated spacecraft subsystems, Controls and Structures. A Multi-Disciplinary Design Tool (MDDT) is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of LCC to subsystem design parameters. Major costs addressed are: non-recurring; launch; ground support; maintenance; expendables; and software. Examples and results from the MDDT are described, including a structural optimization study between different truss designs; a solar array feathering trade for a minimal drag configuration during umbra; and the cost of active control of a flexible structure is compared against the cost of passive damping using visco-elastic material.

  10. Science requirements for a global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, John T.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Science requirements for a global change technology initiative (GCTI) Architecture Trade Study were established by reviewing and synthesizing results from recent studies. A scientific rationale was adopted and used to identify a comprehensive set of measureables and their priorities. Spatial and temporal requirements for a number of measurement parameters were evaluated based on results from several working group studies. Science requirements were defined using these study results in conjunction with the guidelines for investigating global changes over a time scale of decades to centuries. Requirements are given separately for global studies and regional process studies. For global studies, temporal requirements are for sampling every 1 to 12 hours for atmospheric and radiation parameters and 1 day or more for most earth surface measurements. Therefore, the atmospheric measureables provide the most critical drivers for temporal sampling. Spatial sampling requirements vary from 1 km for land and ocean surface characteristics to 50 km for some atmospheric parameters. Thus, the land and ocean surface parameters have the more significant spatial variations and provide the most challenging spatial sampling requirements.

  11. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  12. Concepts and cost trade-offs for land vehicle antennas in satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.

    1948-01-01

    Several antenna design concepts, operating at UHF (821 to 825 MHz transmit and 866 to 870 MHz receive bands), with gain ranging between 6 and 12 dBic, that are suitable for land mobile vehicles are presented. The antennas may be used within CONUS and ALASKA to communicate to and from a geosynchronous satellite. Depending on the type of steering mechanism, the antennas are broken down into three categories; (1) electronically scanned arrays with phase shifters, (2) electronically switched arrays with switchable power dividers/combiners, and (3) mechanically steered arrays. The operating characteristics of two of these design concepts, one a conformal antenna with electronic beam steering and the other a nonconformal design with mechanical steering, were evaluated with regard to two and three satellite system. Cost estimates of various antenna concepts were made and plotted against their overall gain performance.

  13. Development study: Boiler plant and cogeneration. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-29

    This study, conducted by Sebesta Blomberg and Associates, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of PICOP Resources, Inc. The report assesses the feasibility of modernizing the power plant serving the Plywood, Paper, and Wood Products plant located in Bislig, Philippines. The main objectives of the study were to document the general condition of the power plant and the steam and electric infrastructure at the facility, identify cost reduction measures, identify methods to eliminate use of pulp and board quality wood as fuel resources, and to identify a structure of owning and operating the power plant which would reduce the capital required by PICOP. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Letter of Introduction; (2) Table of Contents; (3) Introduction; (4) Scope of Study; (5) Executive Summary; (6) Description of Existing Conditions; (7) Base Economic Model; (8) Description of Alternatives; (9) Conclusion and Recommendations; (10) Appendix.

  14. Testing the Cost Yardstick in Cost-Quality Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, James N.

    1967-01-01

    To discover how costs affect quality, 16 different methods of computing educational costs are developed and correlated with a cluster of "quality related" factors (QRC). Data for the correlation were obtained from 1,055 city school districts in 48 states. The QRC is composed of staffing adequacy variables, measures of teacher quality, and…

  15. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 3: Trade studies, DR-5, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Results of a Space Station Data System Analysis/Architecture Study for the Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. This study, which emphasized a system engineering design for a complete, end-to-end data system, was divided into six tasks: (1); Functional requirements definition; (2) Options development; (3) Trade studies; (4) System definitions; (5) Program plan; and (6) Study maintenance. The Task inter-relationship and documentation flow are described. Information in volume 2 is devoted to Task 3: trade Studies. Trade Studies have been carried out in the following areas: (1) software development test and integration capability; (2) fault tolerant computing; (3) space qualified computers; (4) distributed data base management system; (5) system integration test and verification; (6) crew workstations; (7) mass storage; (8) command and resource management; and (9) space communications. Results are presented for each task.

  16. Evaluation of a Real-Time Monitoring System for River Quality-A Trade-off between Risk Attitudes, Costs, and Uncertainly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varis, Olli; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents one approach to handling the trade-off between reducing uncertainty in environmental assessment and management and additional expenses. Uses the approach in the evaluation of three alternatives for a real time river water quality forecasting system. Analysis of risk attitudes, costs and uncertainty indicated the levels of socioeconomic…

  17. Tricks and Clicks: How Low-Cost Carriers Ply Their Trade Through Self-Service Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Chris; Torres, Ann M.

    Ethics on the Internet has been a widely debated topic in recent years covering issues that range from privacy to security to fraud. Little, however, has been written on more subtle ethical questions, such as the exploitation of web technologies to inhibit or avoid customer service. Increasingly some firms are using websites to create distance between them and their customer base in specific areas of their operations, while simultaneously developing excellence in sales transaction committal via self-service. This chapter takes a magnifying glass with an ethical lens to one sector - the low-cost, web-based, self-service airline industry, specifically in Ireland. It is noted that the teaching of information systems development (ISD) and, for the most part its practice, assumes ethicality. Similarly, marketing courses focus on satisfying customer needs more effectively and efficiently within the confines of an acceptable ethos. This chapter observes that while these business disciplines are central to the success of self-service websites, there is a disconnect between the normative view and the actuality of practice.

  18. Trade Study of Multiple Thruster Options for the Mars Airplane Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Gayle, Steven W.; Hunter, Craig A.; Kenney, Patrick S.; Scola, Salvatore; Paddock, David A.; Wright, Henry S.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    A trade study was performed at NASA Langley Research Center under the Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction (PARR) project (2004-2005) to examine the option of using multiple, smaller thrusters in place of a single large thruster on the Mars airplane concept with the goal to reduce overall cost, schedule, and technical risk. The 5-lbf (22N) thruster is a common reaction control thruster on many satellites. Thousands of these types of thrusters have been built and flown on numerous programs, including MILSTAR and Intelsat VI. This study has examined the use of three 22N thrusters for the Mars airplane propulsion system and compared the results to those of the baseline single thruster system.

  19. Butinge oil terminal project: Design/feasability study final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This study, conducted by Fluor Daniel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ministry of Energy of Lithuania. The purpose of the report is to access the feasibility of expanding the Butinge Oil Terminal so that it may provide export capabilities for Russian Crude, import capabilities for Arab Light and Medium Crudes, and export capabilities for refined products from the Mazeikai Refinery in Lithuania. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Description; (3) Scope of Facilities; (4) Scope of Services; (5) Conceptual Cost Estimate; (6) Study and Review Applicable Tax and Legal Issues; (7) Identify Commercial Funding Requirements; (8) Identify Export Credit Agency and/or Multilateral Agency Requirements for Project Funding; (9) Identify Equity Funding Requirements; (10) Develop Base and Alternative Case Economic Proforma Analysis; (11) Identify the Requirements of Feedstock/Offtake Entities; (12) Economic Evaluation Pipeline; (13) Document Consolidation; (14) Appendices.

  20. Deployable-erectable trade study for space station truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Watson, J. J.; Dean, E. B.; Twigg, L. T.; Rhodes, M. D.; Cooper, P. A.; Dorsey, J. T.; Lake, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a trade study on truss structures for constructing the space station are presented. Although this study was conducted for the reference gravity gradient space station, the results are generally applicable to other configurations. The four truss approaches for constructing the space station considered in this paper were the 9 foot single fold deployable, the 15 foot erectable, the 10 foot double fold tetrahedral, and the 15 foot PACTRUSS. The primary rational for considering a 9 foot single-fold deployable truss (9 foot is the largest uncollapsed cross-section that will fit in the Shuttle cargo bay) is that of ease of initial on-orbit construction and preintegration of utility lines and subsystems. The primary rational for considering the 15 foot erectable truss is that the truss bay size will accommodate Shuttle size payloads and growth of the initial station in any dimension is a simple extension of the initial construction process. The primary rational for considering the double-fold 10 foot tetrahedral truss is that a relatively large amount of truss structure can be deployed from a single Shuttle flight to provide a large number of nodal attachments which present a pegboard for attaching a wide variety of payloads. The 15 foot double-fold PACTRUSS was developed to incorporate the best features of the erectable truss and the tetrahedral truss.

  1. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  2. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 3: Trade studies, DR-5, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of Task 3 is to provide additional analysis and insight necessary to support key design/programmatic decision for options quantification and selection for system definition. This includes: (1) the identification of key trade study topics; (2) the definition of a trade study procedure for each topic (issues to be resolved, key inputs, criteria/weighting, methodology); (3) conduct tradeoff and sensitivity analysis; and (4) the review/verification of results within the context of evolving system design and definition. The trade study topics addressed in this volume include space autonomy and function automation, software transportability, system network topology, communications standardization, onboard local area networking, distributed operating system, software configuration management, and the software development environment facility.

  3. The Twelve College Cost-Quality Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinsey & Co., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Twelve colleges participated in a cost quality study. These colleges were: Allegheny College, Bryn Mawr College, Buchnell University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Chatham College, Dickinson College, Franklin and Marshall College, Gettysburg College, Haverford College, Lafayette College, Lehigh University, and Swarthmore College. The study is an…

  4. Modeling the carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: Mycorrhizal trade-offs and multipath resistance uptake improve predictions of retranslocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostek, Edward R.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Phillips, Richard P.

    2014-08-01

    Accurate projections of the future land carbon (C) sink by terrestrial biosphere models depend on how nutrient constraints on net primary production are represented. While nutrient limitation is nearly universal, current models do not have a C cost for plant nutrient acquisition. Also missing are symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, which can consume up to 20% of net primary production and supply up to 50% of a plant's nitrogen (N) uptake. Here we integrate simultaneous uptake and mycorrhizae into a cutting-edge plant N model—Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN)—that can be coupled into terrestrial biosphere models. The C cost of N acquisition varies as a function of mycorrhizal type, with plants that support arbuscular mycorrhizae benefiting when N is relatively abundant and plants that support ectomycorrhizae benefiting when N is strongly limiting. Across six temperate forested sites (representing arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated stands and 176 site years), including multipath resistance improved the partitioning of N uptake between aboveground and belowground sources. Integrating mycorrhizae led to further improvements in predictions of N uptake from soil (R2 = 0.69 increased to R2 = 0.96) and from senescing leaves (R2 = 0.29 increased to R2 = 0.73) relative to the original model. On average, 5% and 9% of net primary production in arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated forests, respectively, was needed to support mycorrhizal-mediated acquisition of N. To the extent that resource constraints to net primary production are governed by similar trade-offs across all terrestrial ecosystems, integrating these improvements to FUN into terrestrial biosphere models should enhance predictions of the future land C sink.

  5. Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume II contains the Appendix and is divided into the following sections: (1.0) PTT Data; (2.0) Design Criteria; (3.0) Khao Bo Ya Soils Data; (4.0) Khao Bo Ya Oceanographic Data; (5.0) Thailand Seismic Data; (6.0) Risk Assessment; (7.0) Equipment Lists; (8.0) Equipment Data Sheets; (9.0) Drawings; (10.0) Cost Data; (11.0) Calculations; (12.0) Terms of Reference.

  6. Second-generation mobile satellite system. A conceptual design and trade-off study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.; Park, Y. H.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the mobile satellite (MSAT) system, a satellite-based communications system capable of providing integrated voice and data services to a large number of users. To explore the potential of a commercial mobile satellite system (MSS) beyond the horizon of the first generation, using technologies of the 1990's and to assist MSAT-X in directing its efforts, a conceptual design has been performed for a second-generation system to be launched around the mid-1990's. The design goal is to maximize the number of satellite channels and/or minimize the overall life-cycle cost, subject to the constraint of utilizing a commercial satellite bus with minimum modifications. To provide an optimal design, a series of trade-offs are performed, including antenna sizing, feed configurations, and interference analysis. Interference is a serious problem for MSAT and often an overlapping feed design is required to reduce interbeam interference. The trade-off studies will show that a simple non-overlapping feed is sufficient for the second-generation system, thus avoiding the need for the complicated beam-forming network that is associated with the overlapping feed designs. In addition, a system that operates at L-band, an alternative frequency band that is being considered by some for possible MSAT applications, is also presented.

  7. Do females trade copulations for food? An experimental study on kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Valcu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Females of many species copulate more frequently than necessary to fertilize their eggs despite the potential costs. Several studies, particularly on socially monogamous birds, have suggested that females obtain immediate material benefits by trading copulations for nutrients or other resources. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by manipulating the food resources available to prelaying female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). If female kittiwakes trade copulations for courtship feeding because they need the extra resources, well-fed females (experimental group) should be less willing to copulate compared with females that are more food limited (control group). Contrary to our predictions, we found that close to the start of laying experimental females copulated more frequently with their mate than control females. We also observed that males from the experimental group fed their mate at least as often as males from the control group. In experimental pairs, we still observed a positive correlation between the rate of copulation and the rate of courtship feeding. Our results thus refute the immediate material benefits hypothesis. Currently available data are consistent with the hypothesis that prelaying courtship feeding is a form of mating effort. We suggest that the rate of courtship feeding might be a sexually selected trait, on which females base decisions about timing and frequency of copulations, but this remains to be tested. ?? The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  9. Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  10. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Dubin, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of the fuel-conserving alternatives has been investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000.

  11. Costs and cost containment in nursing homes.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H L; Fottler, M D

    1981-01-01

    The study examines the impact of structural and process variables on the cost of nursing home care and the utilization of various cost containment methods in 43 california nursing homes. Several predictors were statistically significant in their relation to cost per patient day. A diverse range of cost containment techniques was discovered along with strong predictors of the utilization of these techniques by nursing home administrators. The trade-off between quality of care and cost of care is discussed. PMID:7228713

  12. A Nomographic Methodology for Use in Performance Trade-Off Studies of Parabolic Dish Solar Power Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    A simple graphical method was developed to undertake technical design trade-off studies for individual parabolic dish models comprising a two-axis tracking parabolic dish with a cavity receiver and power conversion assembly at the focal point. The results of these technical studies are then used in performing the techno-economic analyses required for determining appropriate subsystem sizing. Selected graphs that characterize the performance of subsystems within the module were arranged in the form of a nomogram that would enable an investigator to carry out several design trade-off studies. Key performance parameters encompassed in the nomogram include receiver losses, intercept factor, engine rating, and engine efficiency. Design and operation parameters such as concentrator size, receiver type (open or windowed aperture), receiver aperture size, operating temperature of the receiver and engine, engine partial load characteristics, concentrator slope error, and the type of reflector surface, are also included in the graphical solution. Cost considerations are not included.

  13. [Hospital costs: results of empirical studies].

    PubMed

    Delande, G; Negre, M

    1992-01-01

    The DRG hospital payment system will be introduced in France in 1993-94 under the name of GHM ("groupes homogènes de malades"). However the method for evaluating costs is mainly based on past trends and, as a matter of fact, they exclude innovative care behavior from the doctors. Three new methods are therefore experimented: (i) standardized operation protocols; (ii) observation of consumed products and time of health personnel; (iii) observation of the costs resulting from the tariffs of the Social Security administration. The empirical studies were carried out in Montpellier and Nantes, two middle size cities of France.

  14. Structures performance, benefit, cost-study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, O. G.; Salemme, C.; Stearns, E.; Oritz, P.; Roberts, M. L.; Baughman, J. L.; Johnston, R. P.; Demel, H. F.; Stabrylla, R. G.; Coffinberry, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    New technology concepts and structural analysis development needs which could lead to improved life cycle cost for future high-bypass turbofans were studied. The NASA-GE energy efficient engine technology is used as a base to assess the concept benefits. Recommended programs are identified for attaining these generic structural and other beneficial technologies.

  15. Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

  16. International Trade. U.S. Metric Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gerald F.

    In order to evaluate the potential effects of U.S. conversion to SI (Systems International) units on U.S. foreign trade, 188 export product classes and 155 import product classes were selected from 1,166 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) product classes and questionnaires were mailed to a total of 510 firms, utilizing separate forms for…

  17. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  18. Trade Study of Five In-Situ Propellant Production System for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. T.; Deffenbaugh, D. M.; Miller, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA''s HEDS enterprise is to establish a long-term human presence on Mars at a fraction of the cost of employing today''s technology. The most direct method of reducing mission cost is to reduce the launch mass of the spacecraft. If the propellants for the return phase of the mission are produced on Mars, the total spacecraft mass could be reduced significantly. An interim goal is a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, which is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of in-situ propellant production (ISPP). Five candidate ISPP systems for producing two fuels and oxygen from the Martian atmosphere are considered in this design trade-off study:(1) Zirconia cell with methanol synthesis, (2) Reverse water gas shift (RWGS) with water electrolysis and methanol synthesis, (3) Sabatier process for methane production with water electrolysis, (4) Sabatier process with water electrolysis and partial methane pyrolysis, and (5) Sabatier/RWGS combination with water electrolysis. These systems have been the subject of numerous previous analytical studies and laboratory demonstrations. In this investigation, the systems are objectively compared on the basis of thermochemical performance models using a commonly used chemical plant analysis software package. The realistic effects of incomplete chemical conversion and gas phase separator performance are included in these models. This study focuses on the chemical processing and product separation subsystems. The CO2 compression upstream of the chemical plane and the liquefaction/storage components are not included here.

  19. Space Tug avionics definition study. Volume 4: Supporting trade studies and analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Analyses and trade studies were performed for the evaluation of the most desirable solutions to space tug subsystem requirements. These were accomplished at system, subsystem, and at component levels. The criteria, the candidate options evaluated, the selection process, and the recommended solutions that have been integrated together in the configuration descriptions are reported.

  20. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 3, book 2: Appendix: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Backup or supporting data for the design analyses and trade studies which defined the astronomy sortie missions are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) configuration of space shuttle orbiter, (2) electronic subsystems, (3) electric power requirements, and (4) payload requirements. Mathematical models are developed to illustrate the orbital rendezvous capabilities.

  1. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  2. Trade Study for 9 kW Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Ungar, Gene; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Sublimators have been proposed and used in spacecraft for heat rejection. Sublimators are desirable heat rejection devices for short duration use because they can transfer large amounts of heat using little mass and are self-regulating devices. Sublimators reject heat into space by freezing water inside a porous substrate, allowing it to sublimate into vapor, and finally venting it into space. The state of the art thermal control system in orbiting spacecraft is a two loop, two fluid system. The external coolant loop typically uses a toxic single phase fluid that acquires heat from the spacecraft and rejects most of it via a radiator. The sublimator functions as a transient topper for orbiting spacecraft during day pass periods when radiator efficiency decreases. The sublimator interfaces with the internal loop through a built in heat exchanger. The internal loop fluid is non-toxic and is typically a propylene glycol and water solution with inhibitors to prevent corrosion with aluminum fins of the heat exchangers. Feedwater is supplied from a separate line to the sublimator to maintain temperature control of the cabin and vehicle hardware. Water membrane evaporators have been developed for spacecraft and spacesuits. They function similar to a sublimator but require a backpressure valve which could be actuated for this application with a simple fully open or fully closed modes. This technology would be applied to orbital thermal control (lunar or planetary). This paper details a trade study showing that evaporators would greatly reduce the consumable that is used, effectively wasted, by sublimators during start up and shut down during the topping phases of each orbit. State of the art for 9 kW sublimators reject about 870 W per kilogram of mass and 1150 W per liter of volume. If water with corrosion inhibitors is used the evaporators would be about 80% of the mass and volume of the equivalent system. The size and mass increases to about 110% if the internal fluid is

  3. Low Cost Space Experiments. Study Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Air Force Phillips Laboratory with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory . The goals of ALTAIR...Cs<- &l. LOW COST SPACE EXPERIMENTS STUDY REPORT 6 December 1991 19980302 059 Phillips Laboratory /SXL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-6008 TVPTT" OTT...Report Corporate Author or Publisher: Phillips Laboratory /SXL, Kirtland AFB,NM 87117-6008 Publication Date: Dec 06, 1991 Pages: 176 Comments

  4. Optimization Shield Materials Trade Study for Lunar/Gateway Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Anderson, B. M.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2002-01-01

    The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in many deep space missions. For this enabling technology, we are developing tools for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of various space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Preliminary studies of deep space missions indicate that for long duration space missions, improved shield materials will be required. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed. This study will provide a vital tool for evaluating Gateway designs in their usage context. Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is one of the challenges to the Gateway infrastructure designs. We will use the mission optimization software to scope the impact of Gateway operations on human exposures and the effectiveness of alternate shielding materials on Gateway infrastructure designs. It is being proposed to use Moon and the Lagrange points as the hub for deep space missions. This study will provide a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation to more detailed geometry studies in progress.

  5. Cycle O(CY1991) NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 2, part 2: Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, R.; Werner, M.; Bonson, S.; Spring, R.; Houston, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the propulsion system tasks performed in support of the National Launch System (NLS) Cycle O preliminary design activities. The report includes trades and analyses covering the following subjects: (1) Maximum Tank Stretch Study; (2) No LOX Bleed Performance Analysis; (3) LOX Bleed Trade Study; (4) LO2 Tank Pressure Limits; (5) LOX Tank Pressurization System Using Helium; (6) Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) Heat Exchanger Performance; (7) LH2 Passive Recirculation Performance Analysis; (8) LH2 Bleed/Recirculation Study; (9) LH2 Tank Pressure Limits; and (10) LH2 Pressurization System. For each trade study an executive summary and a detailed trade study are provided. For the convenience of the reader, a separate section containing a compilation of only the executive summaries is also provided.

  6. Strapdown cost trend study and forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberlein, A. J.; Savage, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The potential cost advantages offered by advanced strapdown inertial technology in future commercial short-haul aircraft are summarized. The initial procurement cost and six year cost-of-ownership, which includes spares and direct maintenance cost were calculated for kinematic and inertial navigation systems such that traditional and strapdown mechanization costs could be compared. Cost results for the inertial navigation systems showed that initial costs and the cost of ownership for traditional triple redundant gimbaled inertial navigators are three times the cost of the equivalent skewed redundant strapdown inertial navigator. The net cost advantage for the strapdown kinematic system is directly attributable to the reduction in sensor count for strapdown. The strapdown kinematic system has the added advantage of providing a fail-operational inertial navigation capability for no additional cost due to the use of inertial grade sensors and attitude reference computers.

  7. Casing buckling studies lower cementing costs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.; Perkins, T.K.; Striegler, J.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fluid withdrawal, permafrost thaw, or large changes in pipe temperature can induce severe axial stresses on a well's casing, which often results in buckling. To minimize the cost of stabilizing the casing via cementing, engineers have developed new design criteria for preventing buckling; even for severe conditions, the resulting formulations cost less to use than those derived from previous criteria. Theoretical studies suggest that for a laterally supported pipe, the axial buckling force approaches a minimum asymptotic limit as the pipe length increases; thus the buckling equation for an infinitely long pipe can serve as a simple yet conservative design criterion for avoiding elastic axial buckling of any laterally supported casing. According to calculations, axial buckling can be prevented, even in a very long pipe, by surrounding the pipe with an elastic medium having a sufficiently high modulus.

  8. Space Transfer Vehicle Concepts and Requirements Study. Volume 2, Book 2: System and Program Requirements Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Gary A.; Richards, Bill; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard; Hosking, Craig; Dishman, George; Furlong, Mike

    1991-01-01

    During the 90-day study, support was provided to NASA in defining a point-of-departure space transfer vehicle (STV). The resulting STV concept was performance optimized with a two-stage LTV/LEV configuration. Appendix A reports on the effort during this period of the study. From the end of the 90-day study until the March Interim Review, effort was placed on optimizing the two-stage vehicle approach identified in the 90-day effort. After the March Interim Review, the effort was expanded to perform a full architectural trade study with the intent of developing a decision database to support STV system decisions in response to changing SEI infrastructure concepts. Several of the architecture trade studies were combined in a System Architecture Trade Study. In addition to this trade, system optimization/definition trades and analyses were completed and some special topics were addressed. Program- and system-level trade study and analyses methodologies and results are presented in this section. Trades and analyses covered in this section are: (1) a system architecture trade study; (2) evolution; (3) safety and abort considerations; (4) STV as a launch vehicle upper stage; and (5) optimum crew and cargo split.

  9. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 2: System and program requirements trade studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Gary A.; Richards, Bill; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard; Hosking, Craig; Dishman, George; Furlong, Mike

    1991-04-01

    During the 90-day study, support was provided to NASA in defining a point-of-departure space transfer vehicle (STV). The resulting STV concept was performance optimized with a two-stage LTV/LEV configuration. Appendix A reports on the effort during this period of the study. From the end of the 90-day study until the March Interim Review, effort was placed on optimizing the two-stage vehicle approach identified in the 90-day effort. After the March Interim Review, the effort was expanded to perform a full architectural trade study with the intent of developing a decision database to support STV system decisions in response to changing SEI infrastructure concepts. Several of the architecture trade studies were combined in a System Architecture Trade Study. In addition to this trade, system optimization/definition trades and analyses were completed and some special topics were addressed. Program- and system-level trade study and analyses methodologies and results are presented in this section. Trades and analyses covered in this section are: (1) a system architecture trade study; (2) evolution; (3) safety and abort considerations; (4) STV as a launch vehicle upper stage; and (5) optimum crew and cargo split.

  10. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha -1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha -1–$332.50 ha -1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha -1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision. PMID:25285202

  11. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; Mody, P.; Pertuze, J. A.; Sato, S.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Tan, C. S.; Hollman, J. S.; Duda, J. E.; Fitzgerald, N.; Houghton, J.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kiwada, G. F.; Kordonowy, D.; Parrish, J. C.; Tylko, J.; Wen, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  12. Structural arrangement trade study. Volume 3: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the third of a 3 volume set that addresses the structural trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Tank System (GCPS) composite materials for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. Vehicle resizing charts, selection criteria and back-up charts, parametric costing approach and the finite element method analysis are discussed.

  13. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  14. Trade Policy and Health: Adding Retrospective Studies to the Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies of the potential health consequences of trade and investment treaties, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are critical. These studies can make visible to trade policy-makers the potential negative impacts associated to such treaties and can influence the outcomes of such negotiations. However, few researchers have examined retrospectively the consequences of trade agreements. With more than 400 trade agreements and more than 2000 investment treaties currently in force, researchers have a large corpus of agreements to analyse in order to assess not only their potential impacts on health system and population health, but also their actual impacts. This comment suggests some research questions that would benefit from retrospective inquiry.

  15. A Cost-Benefit Study of Doing Astrophysics On The Cloud: Production of Image Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Good, J. C. Deelman, E.; Singh, G. Livny, M.

    2009-09-01

    Utility grids such as the Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3 clouds offer computational and storage resources that can be used on-demand for a fee by compute- and data-intensive applications. The cost of running an application on such a cloud depends on the compute, storage and communication resources it will provision and consume. Different execution plans of the same application may result in significantly different costs. We studied via simulation the cost performance trade-offs of different execution and resource provisioning plans by creating, under the Amazon cloud fee structure, mosaics with the Montage image mosaic engine, a widely used data- and compute-intensive application. Specifically, we studied the cost of building mosaics of 2MASS data that have sizes of 1, 2 and 4 square degrees, and a 2MASS all-sky mosaic. These are examples of mosaics commonly generated by astronomers. We also study these trade-offs in the context of the storage and communication fees of Amazon S3 when used for long-term application data archiving. Our results show that by provisioning the right amount of storage and compute resources cost can be significantly reduced with no significant impact on application performance.

  16. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 2, appendix B: Trade and design definition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    System trades, evaluations, and selection were organized under the appropriate manned remote work station roles and subsystems. Those trades/evaluations that have an impact on simulator fidelity were given emphasis in terms of identifying alternate concepts, making a selection, and defining the system approach. Those trades that do not impact simulator fidelity have the issues delineated and future study requirements identified.

  17. Cost Models: A Study in Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauley, Franz E.

    1975-01-01

    The article defines the major elements (fundamental questions, basic assumptions, anticipated costs, projected savings, and return on investment) of a cost model, discusses the function and importance of each of these elements, and illustrates the development and construction of a cost model through an analysis of a hypothetical speed reading…

  18. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  19. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  20. Trade-off study on the power capacity of a prototype SFR in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Bae, I. H.

    2012-07-01

    The major roles of a prototype SFR are to provide irradiation test capability for the fuel and structure materials, and to obtain operational experiences of systems. Due to a compromise between the irradiation capability and construction costs, the power level should be properly determined. In this paper, a trade-off study on the power level of the prototype SFR was performed from a neutronics viewpoint. To select candidate cores, the parametric study of pin diameters was estimated using 20 wt.% uranium fuel. The candidate cores of different power levels, 125 MWt, 250 MWt, 400 MWt, and 500 MWt, were compared with the 1500 MWt reference core. The resulting core performance and economic efficiency indices became insensitive to the power at about 400-500 MWt and sharply deteriorated at about 125-250 MWt with decreasing core sizes. Fuel management scheme, TRU core performance comparing with uranium core, and sodium void reactivity were also evaluated with increasing power levels. It is found that increasing the number of batches showed higher burnup performance and economic efficiency. However, increasing the cycle length showed the trends in lower economic efficiency. Irradiation performance of TRU and enriched TRU cores was improved about 20 % and 50 %, respectively. The maximum sodium void reactivity of 5.2$ was confirmed less than the design limit of 7.5$. As a result, the power capacity of the prototype SFR should not be less than 250 MWt and would be appropriate at {approx} 500 MWt considering the performance and economic efficiency. (authors)

  1. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of the COMBINE Study for Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zarkin, Gary A.; Bray, Jeremy W.; Aldridge, Arnie; Mitra, Debanjali; Couper, David J.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2011-01-01

    Context The COMBINE clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of medications, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. The costs and cost-effectiveness of these combinations are unknown and of interest to clinicians and policy makers. Objective To evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of the COMBINE interventions at the end of 16 weeks of treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants A prospective cost and cost-effectiveness study of patients in COMBINE, a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) involving 1383 patients with diagnoses of primary alcohol dependence across 11 US clinical sites. Interventions Nine treatment arms, with 4 arms receiving medical management with 16 weeks of naltrexone (100 mg/d) or acamprosate (3 g/d), both, and/or placebo; 4 arms receiving the same options as above but delivered with combined behavioral intervention (CBI); and 1 arm receiving CBI only. Main Outcomes Measures Incremental cost per percentage point increase in percent days abstinent (PDA), incremental cost per patient of avoiding heavy drinking, and incremental cost per patient of achieving a good clinical outcome. Results Based on the mean values of cost and effectiveness, 3 interventions are cost-effective options relative to the other interventions for all three outcomes: medical management (MM) with placebo ($409 cost per patient), MM + naltrexone ($671 cost per patient), and MM + naltrexone + acamprosate ($1003 cost per patient). Conclusions This is only the second prospective RCT-designed cost-effectiveness study that has been performed for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Focusing just on effectiveness, MM + naltrexone + acamprosate is not significantly better than MM + naltrexone. However, looking at cost and effectiveness, MM + naltrexone + acamprosate may be a cost-effective choice, depending on whether the cost of the incremental increase in effectiveness is worth it to the decision maker. PMID

  2. Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.

  3. TRADING STUDIES OF A VERY LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO,A.G.

    1996-11-04

    The authors have shown that the design of the ELOISATRON can be approached in five separate steps. In this report they deal with the two major issues of the collider: the size and the strength of the superconducting magnets. The reference design of the SSC calls for a collider circumference of 86 km. It represents the largest size that until recently was judged feasible. The reference design of the LHC requires a bending field of 9 Tesla, that industries are presently determined to demonstrate. Clearly the large size of the project presents problem with magnet tolerances, and collider operation and management. The high field of the superconducting magnets needs to be demonstrated, and the high-field option in excess of 9 Tesla requires extensive research and development. It is obvious from the start that, if the ELOISATRON has to allow large beam energies, the circumference has also to be larger than that of the SSC, probably of few hundred kilometers. On the other end, Tevatron, RHIC and SSC type of superconducting magnets have been built and demonstrated on a large scale and proven to be cost effective and reliable. Their field, nevertheless, hardly can exceed a value of 7.5 Tesla, without major modifications that need to be studied. The LHC type of magnets may be capable of 9 Tesla, but they are being investigated presently by the European industries. It is desired that if one wants to keep the size of the ring under reasonable limits, a somewhat higher bending field is required for the ELOISATRON, especially if one wants also to take advantage of the synchrotron radiation effects. A field value of 13 Tesla, twice the value of the SSC superconducting magnets, has recently been proposed, but it clearly needs a robust program of research and development. This magnet will not probably be of the RHIC/SSC type and not even of the LHC type. It will have to be designed and conceived anew. In the following they examine two possible approaches. In the first approach

  4. Methodological considerations in cost of illness studies on Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cost-of-illness studies (COI) can identify and measure all the costs of a particular disease, including the direct, indirect and intangible dimensions. They are intended to provide estimates about the economic impact of costly disease. Alzheimer disease (AD) is a relevant example to review cost of illness studies because of its costliness.The aim of this study was to review relevant published cost studies of AD to analyze the method used and to identify which dimension had to be improved from a methodological perspective. First, we described the key points of cost study methodology. Secondly, cost studies relating to AD were systematically reviewed, focussing on an analysis of the different methods used. The methodological choices of the studies were analysed using an analytical grid which contains the main methodological items of COI studies. Seventeen articles were retained. Depending on the studies, annual total costs per patient vary from $2,935 to $52, 954. The methods, data sources, and estimated cost categories in each study varied widely. The review showed that cost studies adopted different approaches to estimate costs of AD, reflecting a lack of consensus on the methodology of cost studies. To increase its credibility, closer agreement among researchers on the methodological principles of cost studies would be desirable. PMID:22963680

  5. An economic inquisition of water quality trading programs, with a case study of Jordan Lake, NC.

    PubMed

    Motallebi, Marzieh; Hoag, Dana L; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak; Osmond, Deanna L

    2017-05-15

    A water quality trading (WQT) program was promulgated in North Carolina to address water quality issues related to nutrients in the highly urbanizing Jordan Lake Watershed. Although WQT programs are appealing in theory, the concept has not proved feasible in several attempts between point and nonpoint polluters in the United States. Many application hurdles that create wedges between success and failure have been evaluated in the literature. Most programs, however, face multiple hurdles; eliminating one may not clear a pathway to success. Therefore, we identify and evaluate the combined impact of four different wedges including baseline, transaction cost, trading ratio, and trading cost in the Jordan Lake Watershed program. Unfortunately, when applied to the Jordan Lake program, the analysis clearly shows that a traditional WQT program will not be feasible or address nutrient management needs in a meaningful way. The hurdles individually would be difficult to overcome, but together they appear to be unsurmountable. This analysis shows that there is enough information to pre-identify potential hurdles that could inform policy makers where, and how, the concept might work. It would have saved time, energy, and financial resources if North Carolina had done so before embarking to implement their program in the Jordan Lake Watershed.

  6. Study of Traces of Tritium at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, T M; Hafner, S R; Parekh, P P; Wozniak, G J; Haines, D K; Husain, L; Rabun, R L; Williams, P G

    2002-10-01

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at the World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.164 {+-} 0.074 (2 {sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 {+-} 0.17 and 2.83 {+-} 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. These results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from sites outside ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Kensico and Croton Reservoirs. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. Tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. It was determined that the two Boeing 767 aircraft that hit the Twin Towers contained a combined 34 Ci of tritium at the time of impact in their emergency exit signs. There is also evidence that many weapons from law enforcement were present and destroyed at WTC. Such weaponry contains by design tritium sights. The fate and removal of tritium from ground zero were investigated, taking into consideration tritium chemistry and water flow originating from the fire fighting, rain, as well as leaks from the Hudson River and broken mains. A box model was developed to describe the above scenario. The model is consistent with instantaneous oxidation of the airplane tritium in the jet-fuel explosion, deposition of a small fraction of HTO at ground zero, and water-flow controlled removal of HTO from the debris. The model also suggests that tritium from the weapons would be released and oxidized to HTO at a much slower rate in the lingering fires at ground zero.

  7. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  8. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Blanco, Raul A.; Watson, Richard D.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) space suit and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) architecture trade study and the current state of the work to mature the requirements and products to the mission concept review level. The mission requirements and the resulting concept of operations will be discussed. A historical context will be presented as to present the similarities and differences from previous NASA missions. That will set the stage for the trade study where all options for both pressure garment and life support were considered. The rationale for the architecture decisions will then be presented. Since the trade study did identity risks, the subsequent tests and analyses that mitigated the risks will be discussed. Lastly, the current state of the effort will be provided.

  9. Selection process for trade study: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration option for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable RHCTS is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of a scale test article to be subjected to life cycle testing. The selection process for this TA 1 trade study is the same as that for the TA 2 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within in this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  10. Cost study of solar cell space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Historical costs for solar cell space power systems were evaluated. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization reduce costs.

  11. Space Tug Docking Study. Volume 5: Cost Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The cost methodology, summary cost data, resulting cost estimates by Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), technical characteristics data, program funding schedules and the WBS for the costing are discussed. Cost estimates for two tasks of the study are reported. The first, developed cost estimates for design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) and theoretical first unit (TFU) at the component level (Level 7) for all items reported in the data base. Task B developed total subsystem DDT&E costs and funding schedules for the three candidate Rendezvous and Docking Systems: manual, autonomous, and hybrid.

  12. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

  13. A microscopic study of the fitness-dependent topology of the world trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, K.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the world-trade network belongs to the class of static hidden variable models. In this article we investigate the microscopic structure of the world trade network, that is the hidden variable correlation matrix of the network. The hidden variable is defined as a rank ordering of gross domestic products. This choice significantly reduces the noise in the statistical analysis found in previous studies. The hidden variable correlation matrix, that expresses the probability that a trade relationship between two countries of given fitness exists, suggests an attachment kernel that at least partially favours trading pairs or dissimilar fitness rather than the purely multiplicative one found previously. Additionally, we provide an in-depth look at the data source and reveal that first-order results, such as the degree distribution, exhibit significant qualitative differences depending on the data provider. Furthermore, we shed light on the intertemporal activity of international trade and point out that fluctuations occur mostly between countries with strong dissimilarities of fitness and connectivity.

  14. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST)

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E.; Dam, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  15. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST).

    PubMed

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E; Dam, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed.

  16. Druzhba feasibility study: Barsukov and Tarasov fields, 1995. Barsukov and Tarasov production histories western equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-03

    The study, conducted by NEFT, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the rehabilitation of oil wells in Baruskov and Tarasov fields. The objectives of the study include a plan for improving well and waterflood performance, and to determine materials and equipment needed. The report also covers capital and operating costs, as well as an evaluation of project economics based on Russian law. This is Volume 2 of the study containing Production Histories-Western Equipment. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Job Descriptions; (2) Barsukov Histories/Logs; (3) Tarasov Histories/Logs; (4) Taxes Paid by PNG; (5) Vendors Literature; (6) Rigs; (7) Liners; (8) Directional Drilling; (9) Mechanical Perforating; (10) Camps; (11) Pumps; (12) Fishing; (13) Downhole Oil/Water Separator; (14) Plastic.

  17. Feasibility study of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility report. Volume 1 of 4. Main report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This study, conducted by Harza Engineering Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to perform the technical, environmental, economic and financial studies to determine whether or not to proceed with the project. The report covers the preinvestment study that was conducted in 1976 to make comparisons from that period, as well as present and future electrical power demands in order to determine the kinds of equipment and structure needed if the project proceeds. This is Volume I of IV containing the Main Report. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Setting; (3) Project Description; (4) Construction Schedule and Cost Estimate; (5) Economic and Financial Evaluation; (6) Environmental Assessment.

  18. Library Materials Cost Studies in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynden, Frederick C.

    Replacing a January 1980 publication of the same title, this collection of cost tables and other documentation from library materials cost studies conducted by members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) or by library vendors contains excerpts from: (1) local cost studies conducted at Colorado State University, Indiana University, Iowa…

  19. South Bangkok combined cycle plant technical feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The report, written by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand. It establishes the conceptual design for the installation of a 300 MW combined cycle unit at the South Bangkok Plant. It is divided into the following sections: Gas/Oil Resource Assessment; Water Resources Assessment; Bases of Design; Site Arrangement; Generation Plant Arrangement; Conceptual Design; Transmission System Integration; Capital and Operating Cost Estimate; and Project Implementation.

  20. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  1. NASA Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate Mission and Trade Study Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell; Guynn, Mark; Hahn, Andrew; Lepsch, Roger; Mazanek, Dan; Dollyhigh, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Mission analysis, as practiced by the NASA Langley Research Center's Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD), consists of activities used to define, assess, and evaluate a wide spectrum of aerospace systems for given requirements. The missions for these systems encompass a broad range from aviation to space exploration. The customer, who is usually another NASA organization or another government agency, often predefines the mission. Once a mission is defined, the goals and objectives that the system will need to meet are delineated and quantified. A number of alternative systems are then typically developed and assessed relative to these goals and objectives. This is done in order to determine the most favorable design approaches for further refinement. Trade studies are performed in order to understand the impact of a requirement on each system and to select among competing design options. Items varied in trade studies typically include: design variables or design constraints; technology and subsystem options; and operational approaches. The results of trade studies are often used to refine the mission and system requirements. SACD studies have been integral to the decision processes of many organizations for decades. Many recent examples of SACD mission and trade study analyses illustrate their excellence and influence. The SACD-led, Agency-wide effort to analyze a broad range of future human lunar exploration scenarios for NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Mars airplane design study in support of the Aerial Regional-scale Environment Survey of Mars (ARES) mission are two such examples. This paper describes SACD's mission and trade study analysis activities in general and presents the lunar exploration and Mars airplane studies as examples of type of work performed by the SACD.

  2. Economic costs of obesity in Thailand: a retrospective cost-of-illness study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in Thailand has been rising rapidly and consistently. Estimating the cost of obesity to society is an essential step in setting priorities for research and resource use and helping improve public awareness of the negative economic impacts of obesity. This prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study aims to estimate the economic costs of obesity in Thailand. Methods The estimated costs in this study included health care cost, cost of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and cost of productivity loss due to hospital-related absenteeism. The Obesity-Attributable Fraction (OAF) was used to estimate the extent to which the co-morbidities were attributable to obesity. The health care cost of obesity was further estimated by multiplying the number of patients in each disease category attributable to obesity by the unit cost of treatment. The cost of productivity loss was calculated using the human capital approach. Results The health care cost attributable to obesity was estimated at 5,584 million baht or 1.5% of national health expenditure. The cost of productivity loss attributable to obesity was estimated at 6,558 million baht - accounting for 54% of the total cost of obesity. The cost of hospital-related absenteeism was estimated at 694 million baht, while the cost of premature mortality was estimated at 5,864 million baht. The total cost of obesity was then estimated at 12,142 million baht (725.3 million US$PPP, 16.74 baht =1 US$PPP accounting for 0.13% of Thailand’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusions Obesity imposes a substantial economic burden on Thai society especially in term of health care costs. Large-scale comprehensive interventions focused on improving public awareness of the cost of and problems associated with obesity and promoting a healthy lifestyle should be regarded as a public health priority. PMID:24690106

  3. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  4. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska…

  5. Estimating Teacher Turnover Costs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.

    2012-01-01

    High teacher turnover in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of turnover costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in turnover costs…

  6. Welder's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on being a welder's helper. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as welders' helpers. Contents include a sample progress…

  7. Lathe Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a lathe. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as lathe operators. Contents include a sample progress chart,…

  8. Cost study of solar cell space power systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study of historical costs for solar cell space power systems was made by a NASA ad hoc study group. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross-section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization would reduce costs.

  9. Design the Cost Approach in Trade-Off's for Structural Components, Illustrated on the Baseline Selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appolloni, L.; Juhls, A.; Rieck, U.

    2002-01-01

    upper stages, along with modifications to the main cryogenic stage and solid boosters, will increase performance and meet demands of a changing market. A two-steps approach was decided for future developments of the launcher upper stage, in order to increase the payload lift capability of Ariane 5. The first step ESC-A is scheduled for first launch in 2002. As later step ESC-B shall grow up to 12 tons in GTO orbit, with multiple restart capability, i.e. re-ignitable engine. Ariane 5 ESC-B first flight is targeted for 2006. It will be loaded with 28 metric tons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and powered by a new expander cycle engine "Vinci". The Vinci engine will be connected to the tanks of the ESC-B stage via the structure named from the designers ETF, or Engine Thrust Frame. In order to develop a design concept for the ETF component a trade off was performed, based on the most modern system engineering methodologies. This paper will describe the basis of the system engineering approach in the design to cost process, and illustrate such approach as it has been applied during the trade off for the baseline selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B.

  10. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Peter J.; Thorat, Teja; Zhong, Yue; Anderson, Jordan; Farquhar, Megan; Salem, Mark; Sandberg, Eileen; Saret, Cayla J.; Wilkinson, Colby; Cohen, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. Methods We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases “disability-adjusted” or “DALY”. Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000–2009 and 2010–2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high), and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions. Results We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%), followed by non-communicable diseases (28%). A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%). Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32%) followed by immunizations (28%). Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied

  11. Consortium Purchases: Case Study for a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library cooperation and academic library consortia and presents a case study of a Canadian consortia that conducted a cost-benefit analysis for purchasing an electronic resource. Reports on member library subscription costs, external economic factors, value of patron time saved, costs and benefits for patrons, and net savings. (LRW)

  12. DACC program cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated 201 configuration of the dedicated Aft Cargo Carrier (DACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the DACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the DACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/DACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering an orbital transfer vehicle to a 120 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  13. Accounting for the Full Cost of Research. A Study of Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiches, James J.; Vallely, Rebecca

    Faculty and administrative concern over the rising indirect cost rates at Cornell University (New York) precipitated this study, focusing on research funding and the expenses not easily identifiable with specific projects. Some of the questions addressed include: what are the costs, who pays for them, and which arrangements, policies,…

  14. Building America Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  15. The virulence–transmission trade-off in vector-borne plant viruses: a review of (non-)existing studies

    PubMed Central

    Froissart, R.; Doumayrou, J.; Vuillaume, F.; Alizon, S.; Michalakis, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive hypothesis invoked to explain why parasites harm their hosts is known as the trade-off hypothesis, which states that increased parasite transmission comes at the cost of shorter infection duration. This correlation arises because both transmission and disease-induced mortality (i.e. virulence) are increasing functions of parasite within-host density. There is, however, a glaring lack of empirical data to support this hypothesis. Here, we review empirical investigations reporting to what extent within-host viral accumulation determines the transmission rate and the virulence of vector-borne plant viruses. Studies suggest that the correlation between within-plant viral accumulation and transmission rate of natural isolates is positive. Unfortunately, results on the correlation between viral accumulation and virulence are very scarce. We found only very few appropriate studies testing such a correlation, themselves limited by the fact that they use symptoms as a proxy for virulence and are based on very few viral genotypes. Overall, the available evidence does not allow us to confirm or refute the existence of a transmission–virulence trade-off for vector-borne plant viruses. We discuss the type of data that should be collected and how theoretical models can help us refine testable predictions of virulence evolution. PMID:20478886

  16. A KBE-enabled design framework for cost/weight optimization study of aircraft composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; La Rocca, G.; van Tooren, M. J. L.

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally, minimum weight is the objective when optimizing airframe structures. This optimization, however, does not consider the manufacturing cost which actually determines the profit of the airframe manufacturer. To this purpose, a design framework has been developed able to perform cost/weight multi-objective optimization of an aircraft component, including large topology variations of the structural configuration. The key element of the proposed framework is a dedicated knowledge based engineering (KBE) application, called multi-model generator, which enables modelling very different product configurations and variants and extract all data required to feed the weight and cost estimation modules, in a fully automated fashion. The weight estimation method developed in this research work uses Finite Element Analysis to calculate the internal stresses of the structural elements and an analytical composite plate sizing method to determine their minimum required thicknesses. The manufacturing cost estimation module was developed on the basis of a cost model available in literature. The capability of the framework was successfully demonstrated by designing and optimizing the composite structure of a business jet rudder. The study case indicates the design framework is able to find the Pareto optimal set for minimum structural weight and manufacturing costin a very quick way. Based on the Pareto set, the rudder manufacturer is in conditions to conduct both internal trade-off studies between minimum weight and minimum cost solutions, as well as to offer the OEM a full set of optimized options to choose, rather than one feasible design.

  17. Reusable Launch Vehicle Tank/Intertank Sizing Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.

    2000-01-01

    A tank and intertank sizing tool that includes effects of major design drivers, and which allows parametric studies to be performed, has been developed and calibrated against independent representative results. Although additional design features, such as bulkheads and field joints, are not currently included in the process, the improved level of fidelity has allowed parametric studies to be performed which have resulted in understanding of key tank and intertank design drivers, design sensitivities, and definition of preferred design spaces. The sizing results demonstrated that there were many interactions between the configuration parameters of internal/external payload, vehicle fineness ratio (half body angle), fuel arrangement (LOX-forward/LOX-aft), number of tanks, and tank shape/arrangement (number of lobes).

  18. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  19. NALNET book system: Cost benefit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewath, N. V.; Palmour, V. E.; Foley, J. R.; Henderson, M. M.; Shockley, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The goals of the NASA's library network system, NALNET, the functions of the current book system, the products and services of a book system required by NASA Center libraries, and the characteristics of a system that would best supply those products and services were assessed. Emphasis was placed on determining the most cost effective means of meeting NASA's requirements for an automated book system. Various operating modes were examined including the current STIMS file, the PUBFILE, developing software improvements for products as appropriate to the Center needs, and obtaining cataloging and products from the bibliographic utilities including at least OCLC, RLIN, BNA, and STIF. It is recommended that NALNET operate under the STIMS file mode and obtain cataloging and products from the bibliographic utilities. The recommendations are based on the premise that given the current state of the art in library automation it is not cost effective for NASA to maintain a full range of cataloging services on its own system. The bibliographic utilities can support higher quality systems with a greater range of services at a lower total cost.

  20. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  1. Power System Trade Studies for the Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa, L.

    2008-01-01

    A Lunar Lander Preparatory Study (LLPS) was undertaken for NASA's Lunar Lander Pre-Project in 2006 to explore a wide breadth of conceptual lunar lander designs. Civil servant teams from nearly every NASA center responded with dozens of innovative designs that addressed one or more specific lander technical challenges. Although none of the conceptual lander designs sought to solve every technical design issue, each added significantly to the technical database available to the Lunar Lander Project Office as it began operations in 2007. As part of the LLPS, a first order analysis was performed to identify candidate power systems for the ascent and descent stages of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A power profile by mission phase was established based on LSAM subsystem power requirements. Using this power profile, battery and fuel cell systems were modeled to determine overall mass and volume. Fuel cell systems were chosen for both the descent and ascent stages due to their low mass. While fuel cells looked promising based on these initial results, several areas have been identified for further investigation in subsequent studies, including the identification and incorporation of peak power requirements into the analysis, refinement of the fuel cell models to improve fidelity and incorporate ongoing technology developments, and broadening the study to include solar power.

  2. Impacts of metformin and aspirin on life history features and longevity of crickets: trade-offs versus cost-free life extension?

    PubMed

    Hans, Harvir; Lone, Asad; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impacts of aspirin and metformin on the life history of the cricket Acheta domesticus (growth rate, maturation time, mature body size, survivorship, and maximal longevity). Both drugs significantly increased survivorship and maximal life span. Maximal longevity was 136 days for controls, 188 days (138 % of controls) for metformin, and 194 days (143 % of controls) for aspirin. Metformin and aspirin in combination extended longevity to a lesser degree (163 days, 120 % of controls). Increases in general survivorship were even more pronounced, with low-dose aspirin yielding mean longevity 234 % of controls (i.e., health span). Metformin strongly reduced growth rates of both genders (<60 % of controls), whereas aspirin only slightly reduced the growth rate of females and slightly increased that of males. Both drugs delayed maturation age relative to controls, but metformin had a much greater impact (>140 % of controls) than aspirin (~118 % of controls). Crickets maturing on low aspirin showed no evidence of a trade-off between maturation mass and life extension. Remarkably, by 100 days of age, aspirin-treated females were significantly larger than controls (largely reflecting egg complement). Unlike the reigning dietary restriction paradigm, low aspirin conformed to a paradigm of "eat more, live longer." In contrast, metformin-treated females were only ~67 % of the mass of controls. Our results suggest that hormetic agents like metformin may derive significant trade-offs with life extension, whereas health and longevity benefits may be obtained with less cost by agents like aspirin that regulate geroprotective pathways.

  3. Trade Secrets in the Legal Studies Curriculum--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Trade secrets can be a valuable company asset because of their potential to last forever. Unfortunately, along with such a significant benefit, there is also a significant risk--the risk that the trade secret can be lost in an instant if it is not sufficiently protected. Companies must be vigilant in protecting these secrets. However, the law is…

  4. Cooperative Conflict Avoidance Sensor Trade Study Report, Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This study develops evaluation criteria for systems and technologies against the Cooperative Conflict Avoidance (CCA) requirements for unmanned flight at and above FL430 as part of Step 1 of the Access-5 program. These evaluation criteria are then applied to both current and future technologies to identify those which might be used to provide an Equivalent Level of Safety (ELOS) for CCA. This document provides the results of this analysis of various systems and technologies intended for evaluation as part of the CCA work package.

  5. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  6. Conceptual Framework for Conducting Cost Benefit Studies in Wisconsin VTAE and Cost Benefit Studies--VTAE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Robert I.; And Others

    The step-by-step cost benefit study, confined to measuring and comparing economic costs with economic benefits, is based on the 1971, 1972, and 1973 classes graduating from the Agribusiness-Machinery Partsman-Salesman Program at District One Technical Institute in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Numerous tables throughout the report contain cost benefit…

  7. Trade-off between immunocompetence and growth in magpies: an experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Juan José; de Neve, Liesbeth; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Manuel; Sorci, Gabriele

    2003-01-01

    A trade-off between immunity and growth has repeatedly been suggested, mainly based on laboratory and poultry science, but also from experiments where parasitism intensity was manipulated in field bird populations. However, as resource allocation to different activities (or organs) during growth is difficult to manipulate, this trade-off has only been experimentally tested by studying the effects of non-pathogenic antigens. By providing some nestling magpies (Pica pica) with methionine, a sulphur amino acid that specifically enhances T-cell immune response in chickens, we investigated this trade-off by directly affecting allocation of limited resources during growth. Results were in accordance with the hypothetical trade-off because nestlings fed with methionine showed a lower growth rate during the four days of methionine administration, but a larger response when fledglings were challenged with phytohaemagglutinin (a measure of the intensity of T-lymphocyte-mediated immune responsiveness) than control nestlings. Surprisingly, we found that control and experimental nestlings fledged with similar body mass, size and condition, but experimental nestlings suffered less from blood parasites (Haemoproteus) and had fewer lymphocytes (a widely used measure of health status) than control nestlings, suggesting a negative effect of blood parasites or other pathogens on nestling growth. PMID:12614572

  8. Conformal Cryogenic Tank Trade Study for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles may be lifting bodies with non-circular cross section like the proposed Lockheed-Martin VentureStar(tm). Current designs for the cryogenic tanks of these vehicles are dual-lobed and quad-lobed tanks which are packaged more efficiently than circular tanks, but still have low packaging efficiencies with large gaps existing between the vehicle outer mold line and the outer surfaces of the tanks. In this study, tanks that conform to the outer mold line of a non-circular vehicle were investigated. Four structural concepts for conformal cryogenic tanks and a quad-lobed tank concept were optimized for minimum weight designs. The conformal tank concepts included a sandwich tank stiffened with axial tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with transverse tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with rings and tension ties, and a sandwich tank stiffened with orthogrid stiffeners and tension ties. For each concept, geometric parameters (such as ring frame spacing, the number and spacing of tension ties or webs, and tank corner radius) and internal pressure loads were varied and the structure was optimized using a finite-element-based optimization procedure. Theoretical volumetric weights were calculated by dividing the weight of the barrel section of the tank concept and its associated frames, webs and tension ties by the volume it circumscribes. This paper describes the four conformal tank concepts and the design assumptions utilized in their optimization. The conformal tank optimization results included theoretical weights, trends and comparisons between the concepts, are also presented, along with results from the optimization of a quad-lobed tank. Also, the effects of minimum gauge values and non-optimum weights on the weight of the optimized structure are described in this paper.

  9. Measurement of costs and scales for outcome evaluation in health economic studies of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dodel, Richard; Jönsson, Bengt; Reese, Jens Peter; Winter, Yaroslav; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Holloway, Robert; Sampaio, Cristina; Růžička, Evžen; Hawthorne, Graeme; Oertel, Wolfgang; Poewe, Werner; Stebbins, Glenn; Rascol, Oliver; Goetz, Christopher G; Schrag, Anette

    2014-02-01

    Health economic studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) have become increasingly common in recent years. Because several methodologies and instruments have been used to assess cost and outcomes in PD, the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a Task Force to assess their properties and make recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of those instruments in PD and to determine which should be selected for this review. We assessed approaches to evaluate cost of illness (COI), cost effectiveness, and cost utilities, which include the use of direct (standard gamble, time trade-off. and visual analogue scales) and indirect instruments to measure health status and utilities. No validated instruments/models were identified for the evaluation of COI or cost-effectiveness in patients with PD; therefore, no instruments in this group are recommended. Among utility instruments, only a few of these outcome instruments have been used in the PD population, and only limited psychometric data are available for these instruments with respect to PD. Because psychometric data for further utility instruments in conditions other than PD already exist, the standard gamble and time trade-off methods and the EQ-5D (a European quality-of-life health states instrument) and Health Utility Index instruments met the criteria for scales that are "recommended (with limitations)," but only the EQ-5D has been assessed in detail in PD patients. The MDS Task Force recommends further study of these instruments in the PD population to establish core psychometric properties. For the assessment of COI, the Task Force considers the development of a COI instrument specifically for PD, like that available for Alzheimer's disease.

  10. "Nothing Is Free": A Qualitative Study of Sex Trading Among Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Kimani, Stephen M; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-05-01

    South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention.

  11. SAMICS support study. Volume 1: Cost account catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is examining the feasibility of a new industry to produce photovoltaic solar energy collectors similar to those used on spacecraft. To do this, a standardized costing procedure was developed. The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) support study supplies the following information: (1) SAMICS critique; (2) Standard data base--cost account structure, expense item costs, inflation rates, indirect requirements relationships, and standard financial parameter values; (3) Facilities capital cost estimating relationships; (4) Conceptual plant designs; (5) Construction lead times; (6) Production start-up times; (7) Manufacturing price estimates.

  12. A Trade Study of Two Membrane-Aerated Biological Water Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Ram; Lange, Kevin; Vega. Leticia; Roberts, Michael S.; Jackson, Andrew; Anderson, Molly; Pickering, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Biologically based systems are under evaluation as primary water processors for next generation life support systems due to their low power requirements and their inherent regenerative nature. This paper will summarize the results of two recent studies involving membrane aerated biological water processors and present results of a trade study comparing the two systems with regards to waste stream composition, nutrient loading and system design. Results of optimal configurations will be presented.

  13. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  14. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  15. Trade Studies for a Manned High-Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael; Hull, Patrick V.; Irwin, Ryan W.; TInker, Michael L.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate vehicles must be identified through trade studies for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combines analysis codes for NEP subsystems with genetic algorithm-based optimization. Trade studies for a NEP reference mission to the asteroids were conducted to identify important trends, and to determine the effects of various technologies and subsystems on vehicle performance. It was found that the electric thruster type and thruster performance have a major impact on the achievable system performance, and that significant effort in thruster research and development is merited.

  16. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 4: Design modularity and commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The relative cost impacts (up or down) of developing Space Biology hardware using design modularity and commonality is studied. Recommendations for how the hardware development should be accomplished to meet optimum design modularity requirements for Life Science investigation hardware will be provided. In addition, the relative cost impacts of implementing commonality of hardware for all Space Biology hardware are defined. Cost analysis and supporting recommendations for levels of modularity and commonality are presented. A mathematical or statistical cost analysis method with the capability to support development of production design modularity and commonality impacts to parametric cost analysis is provided.

  17. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings

  18. OSD Cost of Corrosion Study Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    CH-47D $1,782.2 $352.0 413 19.8% 2 K32293 Aviation HELICOPTER UTILITY: UH -60A $1,706.8 $335.3 903 19.6% 3 H32361 Aviation HELICOPTER UTILITY: UH - 60L ...cost per Item ($ thousands) 1 H30517 Aviation HELICOPTER CARGO TRANSPORT: CH-47D 413 $352,009 $852 2 H32361 Aviation HELICOPTER UTILITY: UH - 60L 544... 60L $447 $243,037 2 3 5 3 K32293 Helicopter utility - UH -60A $371 $335,336 4 2 6 4 H48918 Helicopter attack - AH-64D $400 $171,449 3 4 7 5 A21633

  19. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  20. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember's health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, real-time EVA.

  1. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember s health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, realtime EVA.

  2. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  3. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  4. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis. PMID:25548737

  5. Modeling climate change impacts on water trading.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Maqsood, Imran; Gong, Yazhen

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method of evaluating the impacts of climate change on the long-term performance of water trading programs, through designing an indicator to measure the mean of periodic water volume that can be released by trading through a water-use system. The indicator is computed with a stochastic optimization model which can reflect the random uncertainty of water availability. The developed method was demonstrated in the Swift Current Creek watershed of Prairie Canada under two future scenarios simulated by a Canadian Regional Climate Model, in which total water availabilities under future scenarios were estimated using a monthly water balance model. Frequency analysis was performed to obtain the best probability distributions for both observed and simulated water quantity data. Results from the case study indicate that the performance of a trading system is highly scenario-dependent in future climate, with trading effectiveness highly optimistic or undesirable under different future scenarios. Trading effectiveness also largely depends on trading costs, with high costs resulting in failure of the trading program.

  6. Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

  7. Study to establish cost projections for production of Redox chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, J. F.; Greco, C. C.; Rusinko, R. N.; Wadsworth, A. L., III

    1982-01-01

    A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

  8. Studying the Cost Effects of The Shrinking Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    89) Prescrbed by AIM St. Z39-IS 290-102 STUDYING THE COST EFFECTS OF THE SHRINKING INDUSTRIAL BASE Downsizing the Army has the effect of reducing the...dicesarr@tacom.emhl.army.mil INTRODUCTION For cost analysts, one of the most puzzling aspects of the downsizing of the military is the effect of...changes in the size of the defense industrial base on cost. It is common knowledge that the downsizing is having an effect on unit vehicle cost, but there

  9. Oriented strand board feasibility study for Venezuelan production. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Wallace Industrial Constructors, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study done as a joint venture with Delfino Group to design, build and operate and market a 300 million square foot Oriented Strand Board facility. The report covers the technical process of making the product, as well as enviromental considerations and impact. The study id divided into the following sections: Introduction and Executive Summary: (1) Schenck/Drawings; (2) Sensitivites; (3)Historical Summary A; (4) Historical Summary B; (5) Guss Report 5/94; (6) Stoddard Report; (7) WA State Study; (8) Waferboard Pricing.

  10. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly…

  11. Feasibility study of the Ambodiroka Hydroelectric Project. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The study, conducted by Harza Engineering Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ministry of Industry, Energy, and Mines, of Madagascar. The main purpose of the report is to assess the feasibility of developing a reduced-scaled hydroelectric installation at Ambodiroka, taking into account new electricity demand forecasts and other factors. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) The Ambodiroka Hydroelectric Project; (2) Electric Power Demand and Supply; (3) Economic Justification; (4) Financial Analysis; (5) Project Implementation; (6) Studies Leading to the Selected Project; (7) Appendices. This is volume 1 of 2.

  12. Feasibility study of the Ambodiroka Hydroelectric Project. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The study, conducted by Harza Engineering Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ministry of Industry, Energy, and Mines, of Madagascar. The main purpose of the report is to assess the feasibility of developing a reduced-scaled hydroelectric installation at Ambodiroka, taking into account new electricity demand forecasts and other factors. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) The Ambodiroka Hydroelectric Project; (2) Electric Power Demand and Supply; (3) Economic Justification; (4) Financial Analysis; (5) Project Implementation; (6) Studies Leading to the Selected Project; (7) Appendices. This is volume 2 of 2- it contains the appendices.

  13. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

  14. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies.

  15. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  16. Technology commercialization cost model and component case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb & Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb & company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

  17. Technology commercialization cost model and component case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb & Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, the DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb & company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

  18. Technology commercialization cost model and component case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, the DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

  19. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  20. C-130 Advanced Technology Center wing box conceptual design/cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, R. S.; Foreman, C. R.; Silva, K.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed by Northrop/LTV for an advanced C-130 Center Wing Box (CWB) which could meet the severe mission requirements of the SOF C-130 aircraft. The goals for the advanced technology CWB relative to the current C-130H CWB were: (1) the same acquisition cost; (2) lower operating support costs; (3) equal or lower weight; (4) a 30,000 hour service life for the SOF mission; and (5) minimum impact on the current maintenance concept. Initially, the structural arrangement, weight, external and internal loads, fatigue spectrum, flutter envelope and design criteria for the SOF C-130 aircraft CWB were developed. An advanced materials assessment was then conducted to determine the suitability of advanced materials for a 1994 production availability and detailed trade studies were performed on candidate CWB conceptual designs. Finally, a life-cycle cost analysis was performed on the advanced CWB. The study results showed that a hybrid composite/metallic CWB could meet the severe SOF design requirements, reduce the CWB weight by 14 pct., and was cost effective relative to an all metal beefed up C-130H CWB.

  1. Light-rail-transit capital-cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, D.C.; Amodei, R.M.; Ferreri, M.G.

    1991-04-05

    The Fixed Guideway Capital Cost Study is an attempt to develop a capital cost data base of actual unit costs to construct and procure the various assets necessary to operate mass transit busway and rail systems. The report documents the initial effort at the overall objective by concentrating on the light rail mode of passenger rail systems. The term light rail refers more to the mode's relative simplicity and operational flexibility rather than actual vehicle weight or cost. With an overhead power supply source, light rail systems can operate in mixed traffic and various alignment configurations. Service can be operated in single or multi-unit trains of standards and articulated vehicle fleets that permit close service level design in line with passenger demand. Seven light rail systems that were developed over the past ten years, were the focus of the project. However, only five of the system operating agencies responded with pertinent capital cost information that formed the basis of the study.

  2. The Optional VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Vena Cava Filter: Experimental Study in Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanche, Alain F.; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Bonneau, Michel; Reynaud, Philippe

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Retrieval of optional caval filters may be impaired by filter tilting, migration, fracture, or embedding in the IVC wall. The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate a new optional filter, convertible by unlocking and removing the filter head. Methods: Forty-nine Pre-Alp sheep (average weight, 55 kg) were anesthetized. IVC was catheterized via the right femoral vein (n = 46) or via the internal jugular vein (n = 3) with a 12.9-F sheath. VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} IVC filters were inserted as either permanent filters (n = 14) or as filters to be converted. Conversion was immediately after deployment (n = 19) or delayed after 1, 3, or 6 months (n = 20). Filter delivery, deployment, and conversion with measurement of migration and tilting were evaluated by cavography. Incorporation of the filter's stabilizers and arms in the IVC wall was assessed by gross anatomy. Results: Delivery system insertion, filter release, and immediate conversion were successful in all cases. Delayed conversion was completed in all but one sheep, due to insufficient snare tension. Complimentary balloon-catheter inflation was required in 12 of 20 delayed conversions to achieve filter opening. In all 49 sheep, no thrombosis, migration, or significant tilting occurred. Within 4 weeks of conversion, the filter's stabilizers and arms were incorporated into the IVC wall. Upon removal, the filter head was free of intimal growth. Conclusions: The VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} optional IVC filter was successfully implanted in all sheep with no migration or tilting. Conversion at various dates by filter head removal was feasible in all but one case.

  3. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  4. Archive and records management-Fiscal year 2010 offline archive media trade study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodoh, Tom; Boettcher, Ken; Gacke, Ken; Greenhagen, Cheryl; Engelbrecht, Al

    2010-01-01

    This document is a trade study comparing offline digital archive storage technologies. The document compares and assesses several technologies and recommends which technologies could be deployed as the next generation standard for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Archives must regularly migrate to the next generation of digital archive technology, and the technology selected must maintain data integrity until the next migration. This document is the fiscal year 2010 (FY10) revision of a study completed in FY01 and revised in FY03, FY04, FY06, and FY08.

  5. Inception report: Training and technology transfer feasibility study for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-29

    The study, conducted by General Physics Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report recommends strategies and specific actions for Tenaga Nasional Berhad`s training and technology transfer needs. The study covers the assessments made by teams of generation, transmission, distribution, management engineers and training specialists over a 4-month period. The Inception Report is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Objectives; (2) General Physics Background; (3) Project Description; (4) Project Organization; (5) Detailed Scope of Work; (6) Project Schedule; (Appendix A) Personnel Resumes; (Appendix B) General Physics Brochures.

  6. Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

  7. The Cost and Impact of Scaling Up Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Borquez, Annick; Case, Kelsey K.; Wheelock, Ana; Vassall, Anna; Hankins, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness studies inform resource allocation, strategy, and policy development. However, due to their complexity, dependence on assumptions made, and inherent uncertainty, synthesising, and generalising the results can be difficult. We assess cost-effectiveness models evaluating expected health gains and costs of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) interventions. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review comparing epidemiological and economic assumptions of cost-effectiveness studies using various modelling approaches. The following databases were searched (until January 2013): PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, EconLIT, and region-specific databases. We included modelling studies reporting both cost and expected impact of a PrEP roll-out. We explored five issues: prioritisation strategies, adherence, behaviour change, toxicity, and resistance. Of 961 studies retrieved, 13 were included. Studies modelled populations (heterosexual couples, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs) in generalised and concentrated epidemics from Southern Africa (including South Africa), Ukraine, USA, and Peru. PrEP was found to have the potential to be a cost-effective addition to HIV prevention programmes in specific settings. The extent of the impact of PrEP depended upon assumptions made concerning cost, epidemic context, programme coverage, prioritisation strategies, and individual-level adherence. Delivery of PrEP to key populations at highest risk of HIV exposure appears the most cost-effective strategy. Limitations of this review include the partial geographical coverage, our inability to perform a meta-analysis, and the paucity of information available exploring trade-offs between early treatment and PrEP. Conclusions Our review identifies the main considerations to address in assessing cost-effectiveness analyses of a PrEP intervention—cost, epidemic context, individual adherence

  8. Longevity and aging in insects: Is reproduction costly; cheap; beneficial or irrelevant? A critical evaluation of the "trade-off" concept.

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The most prevalent hypothesis concerning the relationship between reproduction and longevity predicts that reproduction is costly, particularly in females. Specifically, egg production and sexual harassment of females by males reduce female longevity. This may apply to some short-lived species such as Drosophila, but not to some long-lived species such as the queens of ants and bees. Bee queens lay up to 2000 eggs a day for several years, but they nevertheless live at least 20 times longer than their sisters, the sterile workers. This discrepancy necessitates a critical reevaluation of the validity of both the trade-off concept as such, and of the current theories of aging. The widely accepted oxidative stress theory of aging with its links to metabolism and the insulin/IGF-I system has been disproven in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, but not in Drosophila, necessitating other approaches. The recent spermidine/mitophagy theory is gaining momentum. Two major mechanisms may have been largely overlooked, namely epigenetic control of longevity by imprinting through DNA methylation as suggested by recent data in the honey bee, and especially, a mechanism of which the principles are outlined here, the progressive weakening of the "electrical dimension" of cells up to the point of total collapse, namely death.

  9. Estimating the Latent Number of Types in Growing Corpora with Reduced Cost-Accuracy Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    The number of unique words in children's speech is one of most basic statistics indicating their language development. We may, however, face difficulties when trying to accurately evaluate the number of unique words in a child's growing corpus over time with a limited sample size. This study proposes a novel technique to estimate the latent number…

  10. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  11. Coherence and health care cost--RCA actuarial study: a cost-effectiveness cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Woody; Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most costly health problems in terms of direct health costs, absenteeism, disability, and performance standards. The Reformed Church in America (RCA) identified stress among its clergy as a major cause of higher-than-average health claims and implemented HeartMath (HM) to help its participants manage stress and increase physiological resilience. The 6-week HM program Revitalize You! was selected for the intervention including the emWave Personal Stress Reliever technology. From 2006 to 2007, completion of a health risk assessment (HRA) provided eligible clergy with the opportunity to participate in the HM program or a lifestyle management program (LSM). Outcomes for that year were assessed with the Stress and Well-being Survey. Of 313 participants who completed the survey, 149 completed the Revitalize You! Program, and 164 completed the LSM. Well-being, stress management, resilience, and emotional vitality were significantly improved in the HM group as compared to the LSM group. In an analysis of the claims costs data for 2007 and 2008, 144 pastors who had participated in the HM program were compared to 343 non-participants (control group). Adjusted medical costs were reduced by 3.8% for HM participants in comparison with an increase of 9.0% for the control group. For the adjusted pharmacy costs, an increase of 7.9% was found compared with an increase of 13.3% for the control group. Total 2008 savings as a result of the HM program are estimated at $585 per participant, yielding a return on investment of 1.95:1. These findings show that HM stress-reduction and coherence-building techniques can reduce health care costs.

  12. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  13. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further significant mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by managing the location of the liquid and the solid in the heat sink to eliminate the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively, while also accommodating the high structural loads expected on future manned launch vehicles.

  14. Vega roll and attitude control system algorithms trade-off study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, N.; Cuciniello, G.; Cruciani, I.; Corraro, F.; Spallotta, D.; Nebula, F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the trade-off study for the selection of the most suitable algorithms for the Roll and Attitude Control System (RACS) within the FPS-A program, aimed at developing the new Flight Program Software of VEGA Launcher. Two algorithms were analyzed: Switching Lines (SL) and Quaternion Feedback Regulation. Using a development simulation tool that models two critical flight phases (Long Coasting Phase (LCP) and Payload Release (PLR) Phase), both algorithms were assessed with Monte Carlo batch simulations for both of the phases. The statistical outcomes of the results demonstrate a 100 percent success rate for Quaternion Feedback Regulation, and support the choice of this method.

  15. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  16. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane; Secunda, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  17. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane T.; Secunda, Mark S.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  18. Methodological issues in the social cost of gambling studies.

    PubMed

    Walker, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    The appropriate way to classify and measure the "social costs" of gambling is a very important, unresolved methodological issue that has been addressed by Collins and Lapsley (2000); Thompson, Gazel, and Rickman (1999); and Walker and Barnett (1999), among others. What should be included and excluded from social cost studies continues to be a controversial issue, as illustrated in the literature and recent conferences. This paper is an attempt to explain the "economics" conception of social costs in accessible language. By using a simple economic model and everyday examples, it shows that the economics methodology is better than the other methodologies currently available. There are four specific goals of the paper: (1) Discuss the importance of the social cost methodological debate and the state of research in the area; (2) Explain the Walker-Barnett definition of social cost in the context of a simple production possibilities frontier and indifference curve model; (3) Use simple illustrative examples to show why many of the alleged social costs should not be classified as such; and (4) Suggest a new method for analyzing the social costs and effects attributable to pathological gambling.

  19. Proof of Concept Study of Trade Space Configuration Tool for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glidden, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft design is a very difficult and time consuming process because requirements and criteria are often changed or modified as the design is refined. Accounting for these adjustments in the design constraints plays a significant role in furthering the overall progress. There are numerous aspects and variables that hold significant influence on various characteristics of the design. This can be especially frustrating when attempting to conduct rapid trade space analysis on system configurations. Currently, the data and designs considered for trade space evaluations can only be displayed by using the traditional interfaces of Excel spreadsheets or CAD (Computer Aided Design) models. While helpful, these methods of analyzing the data from a systems engineering approach can be rather complicated and overwhelming. As a result, a proof of concept was conducted on a dynamic data visualization software called Thinkmap SDK (Software Developer Kit) to allow for better organization and understanding of the relationships between the various aspects that make up an entire design. The Orion Crew Module Aft Bay Subsystem was used as the test case for this study because the design and layout of many of the subsystem components will be significant in ensuring the overall center of gravity of the capsule is correct. A simplified model of this subsystem was created and programmed using Thinkmap SDK to create a preliminary prototype application of a Trade Space Configuration Tool. The completed application ensures that the core requirements for the Tool can be met. Further development is strongly suggested to produce a full prototype application to allow final evaluations and recommendations of the software capabilities.

  20. Mahreb power-plant-project assessment of TOR for feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.D.; Ahimaz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The study endorses the proposed terms of reference for the feasibility study of the Mahreb Power Generation Project in Yemen. It is a reasonable and practical approach to meet the immediate need for additional power in the country. The outline for the feasibility study also seeks a long term solution for an economic and technically sound power generating system to meet future power needs. U.S. firms have been competitive in international tenders for supplying the type of services and equipment needed for the Mahreb Power Project. Because it is a gas turbine power generation project and the opportunities it offers US equipment manufacturers and contractors, the study recommends that the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) fund the feasibility study.

  1. Testing the competition-colonization trade-off with a 32-year study of a saxicolous lichen community.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A I; Prather, C M; Gornish, E S; Ryan, W H; Ellis, R D; Milleri, T E

    2014-02-01

    Competition-colonization trade-offs are theorized to be a mechanism of coexistence in communities structured by environmental fluctuations. But many studies that have tested for the trade-off have failed to detect it, likely because a spatiotemporally structured environment and many species assemblages are needed to adequately test for a competition-colonization trade-off. Here, we present a unique 32-year study of rock-dwelling lichens in New Mexico, USA, in which photographs were used to quantify lichen life history traits and interactions through time. These data allowed us to determine whether there were any trade-offs between traits associated with colonization and competition, as well as the relationship between diversity and disturbance in the community. We did not find evidence for a trade-off between competitive ability and colonization rate or any related life history traits. Interestingly, we did find a peak in all measures of species diversity at intermediate levels of disturbance, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis pattern. We suggest that the coexistence of the dominant species in this system is regulated by differences in persistence and growth rate mediating overgrowth competition rather than a competition-colonization trade-off.

  2. A System Trade Study of Remote Infrared Imaging for Space Shuttle Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Ross, Martin N.; Baize, Rosemary; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Krasa, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    A trade study reviewing the primary operational parameters concerning the deployment of imaging assets in support of the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project was undertaken. The objective was to determine key variables and constraints for obtaining thermal images of the Space Shuttle orbiter during reentry. The trade study investigated the performance characteristics and operating environment of optical instrumentation that may be deployed during a HYTHIRM data collection mission, and specified contributions to the Point Spread Function. It also investigated the constraints that have to be considered in order to optimize deployment through the use of mission planning tools. These tools simulate the radiance modeling of the vehicle as well as the expected spatial resolution based on the Orbiter trajectory and placement of land based or airborne optical sensors for given Mach numbers. Lastly, this report focused on the tools and methodology that have to be in place for real-time mission planning in order to handle the myriad of variables such as trajectory ground track, weather, and instrumentation availability that may only be known in the hours prior to landing.

  3. Cost-cutting for offshore sulfur recovery processes studied

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, M.P.; Echterhoff, L.W.; Leppin, D.; Meyer, H.S.

    1997-07-21

    An increasing portion of future US gas supply is likely to come from offshore, primarily Gulf of Mexico. Because this gas can be sour, the industry has sought lower cost H{sub 2}S-removal/recovery processes for treating it. Usually the gas contains < 5 tons/day (tpd) of sulfur. A study to compare several emerging sulfur-removal/recovery processes against a baseline Amine/LO-CAT II process has indicated that some emerging processes, though not yet commercialized, show considerable potential for reducing costs. Specifically, the major findings were that Double Loop and CrystaSulf, developed by Radian International LLC, Austin, were the least expensive capital-cost processes by a significant margin and that Marathon Oil Co.`s Hysulf`s cost has the potential to compete with Double Loop and CrystaSulf.

  4. Parameter solicitation for planning cost effectiveness studies with dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, M; Ramsey, S; Berry, K; Urban, N

    2001-01-01

    When economic endpoints are included alongside clinical effectiveness measures in randomized clinical trials (RCT), they are summarized together by the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Adding economic endpoints to an RCT complicates the planning of experiments because investigators must now solicit their beliefs about costs, but even more challenging, they must also specify their association with effectiveness. Solicitation of correlations between costs and effects can be unintuitive, and so potentially highly inaccurate. This is unfortunate because power is highly sensitive to the association between costs and effects. Mis-specification in this association may lead to substantially underpowered or overpowered studies. We show that when clinical effectiveness measures are dichotomous, specification of the correlation between costs and effects can be avoided by instead describing their association with a mixture model. This representation leads to simple and highly intuitive parameter specifications. It may also be used to generate realistic raw data that can be used to evaluate experiment power with simulation. We give particular attention to evaluating and interpreting power when Fieller's theorem method (FTM) is used to calculate confidence for, and test hypotheses about, the ICER. Data from a previously published clinical trial are used to demonstrate the use of this new method to calculate sample size for a cost effectiveness study.

  5. Structures, performance, benefit, cost study. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft engine structures were studied to identify the advanced structural technologies that would provide the most benefits to future aircraft operations. A series of studies identified engine systems with the greatest potential for improvements. Based on these studies, six advanced generic structural concepts were selected and conceptually designed. The benefits of each concept were quantitatively assessed in terms of thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, cost, maintenance cost, fuel burned and direct operating cost plus interest. The probability of success of each concept was also determined. The concepts were ranked and the three most promising were selected for further study which consisted of identifying and comprehensively outlining the advanced technologies required to develop these concepts for aircraft engine application. Analytic, fabrication, and test technology developments are required. The technology programs outlined emphasize the need to provide basic, fundamental understanding of technology to obtain the benefit goals.

  6. Missile and Space Systems Reliability versus Cost Trade-Off Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    account for nonlinearities and the readiness requirement scored as (1) for present or (0) for not present. 53 0’ 11- TABLE 3-12 -PROGRAM/SYSTEM...implementing an acceptable reliability progam . While only 10% felt that improper tailoring was at fault, an equally divided response of 37Z each felt the...account for a strong nonlinear influence due to program phase. A more rigorous investigation would use a phase-by-phase analysis of the data, but the

  7. Egg size-number trade-off and a decline in oviposition site choice quality: female Pararge aegeria butterflies pay a cost of having males present at oviposition.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, M; Lace, L A; Jones, M J; Moore, A J

    2005-12-06

    Once mated, the optimal strategy for females of the monandrous butterfly, Pararge aegeria, is to avoid male contact and devote as much time as possible to ovipositing, as there is little advantage for females to engage in multiple matings. In other butterfly species the presence of males during egg laying has been shown to affect aspects of oviposition behavior and it has been suggested that repeated interference from males has the potential to reduce reproductive output. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of male presence during oviposition on reproductive output and behavior of a population of P. aegeria obtained from Madeira Island, Portugal, and maintained in the laboratory. Two experiments were performed where females were housed individually in small cages. Experiment 1 examined how social factors influenced the egg laying behavior of females. To do this the presence or absence of males was manipulated and egg size and number was measured over the first 14 days of oviposition. It was observed that when males were present during oviposition females made a trade-off between egg size and number. Experiment 2 examined how social factors affected oviposition site choice. Again, male presence/absence was manipulated, but in this experiment where the female laid her egg in relation to host quality was scored, and the size of the egg laid was measured. In the absence of males females selectively positioned their larger eggs on good quality host plants. However, selective oviposition was no longer observed when females were in the presence of males. We suggest that P. aegeria females from the Madeira Island population are adapted for a flexible oviposition strategy, governed by external cues, allowing a trade-off between egg size and number when the time available for egg laying is limiting.

  8. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-Space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50kWe to one half of the ion thrusters and science modules but is capable of supplying the total power re3quirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  9. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-02-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft, which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz) and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels, and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50 kWe to one-half of the ion thrusters and science modules, but is capable of supplying the total power requirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  10. Trade-offs in experimental designs for estimating post-release mortality in containment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Mark W.; Barbour, Andrew B; Wilson, Kyle L

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of post-release mortality (PRM) facilitate accounting for unintended deaths from fishery activities and contribute to development of fishery regulations and harvest quotas. The most popular method for estimating PRM employs containers for comparing control and treatment fish, yet guidance for experimental design of PRM studies with containers is lacking. We used simulations to evaluate trade-offs in the number of containers (replicates) employed versus the number of fish-per container when estimating tagging mortality. We also investigated effects of control fish survival and how among container variation in survival affects the ability to detect additive mortality. Simulations revealed that high experimental effort was required when: (1) additive treatment mortality was small, (2) control fish mortality was non-negligible, and (3) among container variability in control fish mortality exceeded 10% of the mean. We provided programming code to allow investigators to compare alternative designs for their individual scenarios and expose trade-offs among experimental design options. Results from our simulations and simulation code will help investigators develop efficient PRM experimental designs for precise mortality assessment.

  11. Life Cycle Cost Growth Study for the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Gilbert, Paul; Newhouse, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The D&NF Program Office LCC Management Study provides a detailed look at the drivers underlying cost overruns and schedule delays for five D&NF missions. While none of the findings are new, the study underlines the importance of continued emphasis on sound project management techniques: a clean project management structure with a clear definition of roles and responsibilities across the various partners in a project, an understanding of institutional standards and procedures and any differences among the partners, and the critical need for a comprehensive IMS that can be used easily and routinely to identify potential threats to the critical path. The study also highlights the continuing need for realistic estimates of the total LCC. Sufficient time and resources must be allocated early in a project to ensure that the appropriate trade studies and analyses are performed across all aspects of a mission: spacecraft, ground system, operations concept, and fault management, to ensure that proposed and confirmed costs truly reflect the resource requirements over the entire mission life cycle. These studies need to include a realistic review of the assumptions underlying the use of new technologies, the integration of heritage and new hardware and software into the total mission environment, and any development and test savings based on heritage technology and lessons learned. Finally, the LCC Management Study stresses the need to listen to, carefully consider, and take positive action regarding the issues raised during reviews by the expert review teams.

  12. Cost/variance optimization for human exposure assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Roy W; Pellizzari, Edo D; Zelon, Harvey S; Michael, Larry C; Quackenboss, James J

    2005-11-01

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) field study in EPA Region V (one of three NHEXAS field studies) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of 249 residents of the Great Lakes states. Concentration data were obtained for both metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from multiple environmental media and from human biomarkers. A variance model for the logarithms of concentration measurements is used to define intraclass correlations between observations within primary sampling units (PSUs) (nominally counties) and within secondary sampling units (SSUs) (nominally Census blocks). A model for the total cost of the study is developed in terms of fixed costs and variable costs per PSU, SSU, and participant. Intraclass correlations are estimated for media and analytes with sufficient sample sizes. We demonstrate how the intraclass correlations and variable cost components can be used to determine the sample allocation that minimizes cost while achieving pre-specified precision constraints for future studies that monitor environmental concentrations and human exposures for metals and VOCs.

  13. An Architecture Trade Study for Passive 10-km Soil Moisture Measurements from Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando; ONeill, P.; Dod, L.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 NASA HQ, as a result of an internal NASA study on potential Earth Science Enterprise Post-2002 Missions, directed the hydrology community to focus on achieving a 10-km spatial resolution global soil moisture mission. This type of resolution represents a significant technological challenge for an L-band radiometer in sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. An engineering trade study has been completed to determine alternative system configurations that could achieve the science requirements and to identify the most appropriate technology investments and development path for NASA to pursue in order to bring about such a mission. The results of the study are presented here together with a short discussion of future efforts.

  14. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  15. Texas Public University Cost Study, FY 2002 and FY 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2004

    2004-01-01

    More than two years ago, the Coordinating Board directed its University Formula Advisory Committee to renew efforts to conduct a cost study to validate the relative weights contained in the matrix. This report provides a summary of the results of the study. The methodology was developed and presented to the Texas Higher Education Coordinating…

  16. Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Potential Employment Effects: Analysis of Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    do not make any assumptions concerning potential changes in the exchange rate of the dollar as a result of a trade agreement. In addition, the...of a comprehensive multilateral agreement. In addition, such models do not account for changes in exchange rates , since such effects were considered...to be neutral in a large multi-country trade agreement. Movements in exchange rates , however, could have an important impact on trade patterns that

  17. Outline of cost-benefit analysis and a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellizy, A.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of cost-benefit analysis is reviewed and a case study involving solar cell technology is presented. Emphasis is placed on simplifying the technique in order to permit a technical person not trained in economics to undertake a cost-benefit study comparing alternative approaches to a given problem. The role of economic analysis in management decision making is discussed. In simplifying the methodology it was necessary to restrict the scope and applicability of this report. Additional considerations and constraints are outlined. Examples are worked out to demonstrate the principles. A computer program which performs the computational aspects appears in the appendix.

  18. Component Cost Reduction by Value Engineering: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, Vinayak; Kodali, Rambabu

    2016-06-01

    The concept value engineering (VE) acts to increase the value of a product through the improvement in existent functions without increasing their costs. In other words, VE is a function oriented, systematic team approach study to provide value in a product, system or service. The authors systematically explore VE through the six step framework proposed by SAVE and a case study is presented to address the concern of reduction in cost without compromising the function of a hydraulic steering cylinder through the aforementioned VE framework.

  19. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  20. Preliminary Structural Sizing and Alternative Material Trade Study of CEV Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steve M.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary structural sizing and alternate material trade study for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM). This critical CEV component will house the astronauts during ascent, docking with the International Space Station, reentry, and landing. The alternate material design study considers three materials beyond the standard metallic (aluminum alloy) design that resulted from an earlier NASA Smart Buyer Team analysis. These materials are graphite/epoxy composite laminates, discontinuously reinforced SiC/Al (DRA) composites, and a novel integrated panel material/concept known as WebCore. Using the HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation) structural sizing software and NASTRAN finite element analysis code, a comparison is made among these materials for the three composite CM concepts considered by the 2006 NASA Engineering and Safety Center Composite Crew Module project.

  1. A Long-Term Experimental Study Demonstrates the Costs of Begging That Were Not Found over the Short Term

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Carra, Laura G.; Medina-Molina, Eloy; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Martín-Gálvez, David

    2014-01-01

    Parent–offspring conflict theory predicts that begging behaviour could escalate continuously over evolutionary time if it is not prevented by costliness of begging displays. Three main potential physiological costs have been proposed: growth, immunological and metabolic costs. However, empirical evidence on this subject remains elusive because published results are often contradictory. In this study, we test for the existence of these three potential physiological costs of begging in house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings by stimulating a group of nestlings to beg for longer and another group for shorter periods than in natural conditions. All nestlings were fed with the same quantity of food. Our study involves a long-term experimental treatment for begging studies (five consecutive days). Long-term studies frequently provide clearer results than short-term studies and, sometimes, relevant information not reported by the latter ones. Our long-term experiment shows (i) a clear effect on the immune response even since the first measurement (6 hours), but it was higher during the second (long-term) than during the first (short-term) test; (ii) evidence of a growth cost of begging in house sparrow nestlings not previously found by other studies; (iii) body condition was affected by our experimental manipulation only after 48 hour; (iv) a metabolic cost of begging never previously shown in any species, and (v) for the first time, it has shown a simultaneous effect of the three potential physiological costs of begging: immunocompetence, growth, and metabolism. This implies first, that a multilevel trade-off can occur between begging and all physiological costs and, second, that a lack of support in a short-term experiment for the existence of a tested cost of begging does not mean absence of that cost, because it can be found in a long-term experiment. PMID:25372280

  2. Evaluations that Consider the Cost of Educational Programs: The Contribution of High-Quality Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Barkaoui, Khaled; Scott, Garth

    2007-01-01

    Cost studies are program evaluations that judge program worth by relating program costs to program benefits. There are three sets of strategies: cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analysis, although the last appears infrequently. The authors searched relevant databases to identify 103 cost studies in education and then reduced the…

  3. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  4. Measuring the dissimilarity of multiplex networks: An empirical study of international trade networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Cui, Huiyuan; Zhu, Ji; Du, Yu; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenhua

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, multiplex networks are becoming a research focus in the domain of complex networks. Discovering significant correlations between layers in multiplex networks can provide an insight to their structures. In this study, we propose some methods to measure the dissimilarities of different layers in directed and weighted multiplex networks. The dissimilarity is defined on two levels: node level and layer level. The node dissimilarity is computed based on the distance of the probability distribution of its link weights vectors in different layers; and the layer-level dissimilarity is the weighted sum of the nodes' dissimilarities. Furthermore, the dissimilarity is disintegrated into the connection-based dissimilarity and the weight-based dissimilarity, which represent the topological structure changes and the link weight changes, respectively. The proposed methods are applied to international trade networks.

  5. High Temperature Heat Rejection System for Large Heat Loads; Architecture and Trade Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilitkin, Michael N.; Allen, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate space nuclear reactor technologies, NASA has awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The effort described in this paper was performed under one of those contracts (the Brayton NRA) . Like all power conversion systems, nuclear power conversion systems operate at efficiencies less than 100% resulting in the need to reject waste heat to space. Several different HRSs (Heat Rejection Systems) potential designs have been identified for rejecting NEP (Nuclear Electric Power) waste heat and several of them for a CBC (Closed Brayton Cycle) power conversion system are described herein and the results of their initial analyses presented. The analyses presented were performed as part of an initial trade study to recommend a promising HRS for advancement of its TRL.

  6. A study of rotor and platform design trade-offs for large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, D. Todd; Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew J.; Fowler, Matthew J.; Bull, Diana; Owens, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines are receiving significant attention for offshore siting. In general, offshore wind offers proximity to large populations centers, a vast & more consistent wind resource, and a scale-up opportunity, to name a few beneficial characteristics. On the other hand, offshore wind suffers from high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and in particular high balance of system (BoS) costs owing to accessibility challenges and limited project experience. To address these challenges associated with offshore wind, Sandia National Laboratories is researching large-scale (MW class) offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The motivation for this work is that floating VAWTs are a potential transformative technology solution to reduce offshore wind LCOE in deep-water locations. This paper explores performance and cost trade-offs within the design space for floating VAWTs between the configurations for the rotor and platform.

  7. Conceptual Study of a Low Cost Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    problem at the moment is the lack of long-mission reliability of small piston engines , originally designed for low-cost civil applications such as "Go...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natio5nal Technical Information Service AD-A025 652 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF A LOW COST TURBOJET ENGINE AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF...Turbojet 6. Thesis Engine s. ,.I. G ORG. REPORT NUMER AUTHOR(..) ’ I.’-NTKACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) Tommy J. Kent Captain, USAF I. PERPIORMING ORGANIZATION

  8. Trade & Industrial Education. Preparing Today for Tomorrow's Workforce. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1996, No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This guide, which is intended for classroom teachers, supervisors, and administrators throughout Alabama, contains the minimum required content (core program) for public school instruction in trade and industrial education in grades 7-12. Presented first are the following: introduction examining the objectives and delivery of trade and industrial…

  9. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  10. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Despite the worst economic environment in generations, spending by K-12 institutions on maintenance and operations (M&O) held its own--defying historical trends that have shown M&O spending among the most affected in times of budget tightening. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for…

  11. Valuing Older Workers: A Study of Costs and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A comparative analysis of 12 case studies examined the work performance and employment costs and benefits of older employees relative to younger workers at 12 companies spanning a diversity of industries, locations, and sizes. Each company provided quantitative information on a written questionnaire on work force demographics and direct and…

  12. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.

    2008-12-01

    This study is being performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy and Xcel Energy's Wind-to-Hydrogen Project (Wind2H2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The general aim of the project is to identify areas for improving the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. These areas include both technical development and cost analysis of systems that convert renewable energy to hydrogen via water electrolysis. Increased efficiency and reduced cost will bring about greater market penetration for hydrogen production and application. There are different issues for isolated versus grid-connected systems, however, and these issues must be considered. The manner in which hydrogen production is integrated in the larger energy system will determine its cost feasibility and energy efficiency.

  13. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Structural Arrangement Trade Study. Volume 1: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the first of a three volume set that discusses the structural arrangement trade study plan that will identify the most suitable configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Primary Structures most suitable for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. This executive summary presents the trade study process, the selection process, requirements used, analysis performed and data generated. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  15. A study on macroeconomic cost of CCS in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Whan; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2015-04-01

    CCS is an important measure for mitigating the problem of World Climate Change and already several projects are entered the step of commercialization. The benefits of CCS implementation ultimately depends on the alleviation level of CO2 on earth because it is caused by the mitigation of the World Climate Change problem. Thus it is possible not to coincide at same time between starting the CCS and getting the benefits. Considering the high costs of CCS, the time mismatch between imposing the costs and getting the benefits is apt to impose some heavy burden on the individual national economy. For this reason, at the political decision-making, the policy makers should consider the macroeconomic effects. Meanwhile, Korean electricity market's supply side is comprised of competitive production and a sole distributor(public enterprise) and then electricity is supplied by a single price structure(administered pricing). Under this condition, if CCS is introduced to power setor, electric charges must be increased and production costs will go high. High production costs will have unfavourable effects on disposable income, price level, purchasing power and so on. In order to minimize these effects, policy makers have to consider the economic effects of introducing CCS. This study estimates the microscopic cost of CCS using ICCSEM 2.0 methodology made by CO2CRC and after that, the macroeconomic effects of introducing CCS is estimated on the basis of microscopic cost estimating results. The macroeconomic effects of CCS applied to Power Generation sector are estimated using macroeconometrics model and Input-Output analysis. A macroeconometrics model is an analytical tool designed to describe the operation of the national economy. This model is usually applied to examine the dynamics of aggregate quantities such as the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, the level of prices and so forth. Introducing

  16. Science requirements for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, John T.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Science requirements for a Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) Architecture Trade Study were established by reviewing and synthesizing results from recent studies. A scientific rationale was adopted and used to identify a comprehensive set of measurables and their priorities. Spatial and temporal requirements for a number of measurement parameters were evaluated based on results from several working group studies. Science requirements were defined using these study results in conjunction with guidelines for investigating global changes over a time scale of decades to centuries. Requirements are given separately for global studies and regional process studies. For global studies, temporal requirements are for sampling every 1 to 12 hours for atmospheric and radiation parameters and 1 day or more for most Earth surface measurements. Therefore, the atmospheric measurables provide the most critical drivers for temporal sampling. Spatial sampling requirements vary from 1 km for land and ocean surface characteristics to 50 km for some atmospheric parameters. Thus, the land and ocean surface parameters have the more significant spatial variations and provide the most challenging spatial sampling requirements.

  17. Feasibility study of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility report. Volume 3 of 4. Appendices C through F. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This study, conducted by Harza Engineering Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to perform the technical, environmental, economic and financial studies to determine whether or not to proceed with the project. The report covers the preinvestment study that was conducted in 1976 to make comparisons from that period, as well as present and future electrical power demands in order to determine the kinds of equipment and structure needed if the project proceeds. This is Volume III of IV containing Appendices C through F. It is divided as follows: (C) Zambia Energy Sector; (D) Historical and Future Electricity Demand; (E) Alternative Project Developments; (F) Cost Estimates.

  18. The Effect of Trades and Industry, a Career and Technical Education Curriculum, on Student Achievement: A Propensity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegrist, Michael Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether students who participated in the trades and industry curriculum did better than their counterparts on standardized tests. Data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) High School Transcript Study (HSTS) were used. A nationally represented sample of over 37,000 public and private school students were…

  19. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 2, part A: SASP special emphasis trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to define an approach to provide a simple and cost effective solution to the problem of long duration space flight. This approach involves a Space Platform in low Earth orbit, which can be tended by the Space Shuttle and which will provide, for extended periods of time, stability, utilities and access for a variety of replaceable payloads. The feasibility of an evolutionary space system which would cost effectively support unmanned payloads in groups, using a Space Platform which provides centralized basic subsystems is addressed.

  20. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  1. Costs of shoulder pain and resource use in primary health care: a cost-of-illness study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Painful shoulders pose a substantial socioeconomic burden. A prospective cost-of-illness study was performed to assess the costs associated with healthcare use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain in primary health care in Sweden. Methods The study was performed in western Sweden, in a region with 24 000 inhabitants. Data were collected during six months from electronic patient records at three primary healthcare centres in two municipalities. All patients between 20 and 64 years of age who presented with shoulder pain to a general practitioner or a physiotherapist were included. Diagnostic codes were used for selection, and the cases were manually controlled. The cost for sick leave was calculated according to the human capital approach. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty in various factors used in the model. Results 204 (103 women) patients, mean age 48 (SD 11) years, were registered. Half of the cases were closed within six weeks, whereas 32 patients (16%) remained in the system for more than six months. A fifth of the patients were responsible for 91% of the total costs, and for 44% of the healthcare costs. The mean healthcare cost per patient was €326 (SD 389) during six months. Physiotherapy treatments accounted for 60%. The costs for sick leave contributed to 84% of the total costs. The mean annual total cost was €4139 per patient. Estimated costs for secondary care increased the total costs by one third. Conclusions The model applied in this study provides valuable information that can be used in cost evaluations. Costs for secondary care and particularly for sick leave have a major influence on total costs and interventions that can reduce long periods of sick leave are warranted. PMID:22325050

  2. Cost and Cost-Effective Studies in Libraries. 1. A Working Model. 2. Cost Analysis of the Preparations Division at VPI & SU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrock, Brice G.; And Others

    Following an explanation of cost-effective studies and the need for them in libraries, part one of this report provides step-by-step instructions, with examples, to enable librarians to conduct such studies in their own setting. Part two provides an example of the use of the model, presenting the results of the cost analysis of monographic…

  3. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  4. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. IV - Mars expedition technology trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Seshan, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results of trading processing technologies in a closed-loop configuration, in terms of power and weight for the Mars Expedition Mission, are presented. The technologies were traded and compared to a baseline set for functional elements that include CO2 removal, H2O electrolysis, potable H2O cleanup, and hygiene H2O cleanup. These technologies were selected from those being considered for Space Station Freedom and represent only chemical/physical technologies. Attention is given to the technology trade calculation scheme, technology data and selection, the generic modular flow schematic, and life support system specifications.

  5. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  6. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  7. Engineering Feasibility and Trade Studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelkhalik, Ossama O.; Nairouz, Bassem; Weaver, Timothy; Newman, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of airborne CO concentrations is critical for accurate scientific prediction of global scale atmospheric behavior. MicroMaps is an existing NASA owned gas filter radiometer instrument designed for space-based measurement of atmospheric CO vertical profiles. Due to programmatic changes, the instrument does not have access to the space environment and is in storage. MicroMaps hardware has significant potential for filling a critical scientific need, thus motivating concept studies for new and innovative scientific spaceflight missions that would leverage the MicroMaps heritage and investment, and contribute to new CO distribution data. This report describes engineering feasibility and trade studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission. Conceptual studies encompass: 1) overall mission analysis and synthesis methodology, 2) major subsystem studies and detailed requirements development for an orbital platform option consisting of a small, single purpose spacecraft, 3) assessment of orbital platform option consisting of the International Space Station, and 4) survey of potential launch opportunities for gaining assess to orbit. Investigations are of a preliminary first-order nature. Results and recommendations from these activities are envisioned to support future MicroMaps Mission design decisions regarding program down select options leading to more advanced and mature phases.

  8. Definitional-mission report: I-shaped power-interconnection study in Thailand. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, V.K.; Sandell, D.H.

    1992-06-01

    The Government of Thailand is implementing a Southern Seaboard Development Project. The developing of the project will increase demand for all utility and infrastructure systems and services. The distribution of electric power in the new area falls within the responsibility of the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) funded a Definitional Mission to evaluate the prospects of TDP funding a feasibility study for an I-Shaped power interconnection study for supplying electricity to the 15 provinces in Southern Thailand. The mission concluded that TDP should provide a grant to PEA to select a U.S. firm to carry out the proposed I-Shaped Interconnection study for power distribution in southern Thailand. The overall potential for exports resulting from the project is conservatively estimated at $120 million, not including any follow-on work and spare parts inventory, typical of such projects. TDP's program in Thailand has enjoyed enviable success in exports and TDP's support of the proposed feasibility study will clearly maintain and very likely add to that momentum.

  9. Northern Adriatic LNG receiving terminal: Pre-feasibility study. Part 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-19

    The study evaluated 2 potential sites as the location for a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) receiving terminal. The study assumed that the LNG will be obtained in Algeria and transported, via liquefied gas carriers, to either Koper or Omisalj, located on the Northern Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. The proposed terminal will provide natural gas, via pipeline, to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia. The goal of the study was to determine specific transportation and processing costs, per cubic meter of gas, at each delivery station in Yugoslavia and at the respective custody transfer points. Consideration has been given to the overall costs for construction, maintenance and operation, as well as marine transport for the gas and capital equipment of the system.

  10. Test Case Study: Estimating the Cost of Ada Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    selected Navy data were used to develop the SASEr model (HEA89]. SASET is meant to be used to estimate development in Assembly, Ada, or any HOL. However...3-6 3.4 Criteria For Ratings Selection ........ 3-10 3.4.1 Normalization ..... ................. .. 3-11 3.4.2 Cunparison of Model Results...costing issues. The guiding principle for model selection for inclusion in the study was the availability of models to the AF=, USACEAC, and IITRI

  11. Study for identification of Beneficial Uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 5: Study methods and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A glossary of terms, a work breakdown structure, and work element descriptions, resource needs, and costs are introduced. The generic work breakdown structure was utilized to organize specific structures for each product under study; each structure containing both space and ground elements arrived at via mutual interaction. Concept definition and assessment, provided the study team and the participants visibility of the limits, and the organization of the efforts provided by both groups spelling out where such efforts fit into the generation of processing concepts.

  12. Toward the Successful Implementation of the North American Free-Trade Agreement: The Integration of Language and Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    This paper examines the need for the integration of language and business studies to enhance successful implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. For college and university graduates to deal effectively with French-Canadian and Mexican business people and consumers, they must be exposed to their languages and their cultures. This…

  13. An Empirical Study on the Curriculum Construction of Business English for International Trade Based on the Case of GDUFS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Cheng, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Business English education concern is of great significance. Business English for International Trade in Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (GDUFS) is widely acclaimed, and it is also a popular major. GDUFS has adopted the slogan "Learn from East and West, moral integrity and direct behavior". It is a famous cradle of learning,…

  14. Configuration trade and code validation study on a conical hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covell, Peter F.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Walker, Ira J.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been conducted on a generic wing-cone transatmospheric vehicle at Mach numbers form 2.5 to 4.5. The objectives of the study were to experimentally define the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle and evaluate several computational aerodynamic prediction methods through comparison with the experimental results. The baseline wing-cone configuration fuselage consisted of a 5 deg half-angle cone forebody, cylindrical midbody, and 9 deg truncated cone afterbody. The 4-percent-thick diamond airfoil wing had an aspect ratio of 1. Several configuration variables were investigated to provide trade information on canard, wing-position and incidence, vertical tail, and nose bluntness effects. Results of the study show that wing-position and wing-incidence effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics can be significantly influenced by wing-body interference. The use of positive wing incidence to provide favorable forebody orientation for possible inlet performance improvement is accompanied by trim drag and lift-drag ratio penalties. The lateral-directional stability characteristics were strongly influenced by the location of the vertical tails. The higher-order full-potential method provided better estimates of the aerodynamic characteristics than either the linearized supersonic potential method or the tangent-cone/tangent-wedge/shock-expansion on method.

  15. Trade Studies Relating to a Long Range Mach 2.6 Supercruiser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, W. E., Jr.; Sorrells, R. B., III

    1978-01-01

    A systems study was conducted on an aircraft concept, representative of a supersonic-cruise military aircraft (supercruiser). The study results indicate that supersonic ranges in excess of 4000 n.mi. at a Mach number of 2.62 are possible with a 500 lbf class aircraft. Trade studies, to determine the sensitivity of supersonic range to parameters which would improve maneuverability, indicate that thrust-weight ratios of as much as 0.5 can be used without significantly decreasing supersonic range; however, increasing the thrust-weight ratio to 1.0 decreases the range capability by about 1100 n.mi. The range penalty for increasing the aircraft limit load-factor from 4.0 to 9.0 is about 500 n.mi. The increased fuel volume of several configurations improved the supersonic range capability by about 1200 n.mi. but, due to associated losses in supersonic L/D, had an insignificant effect on the range at a Mach number of 2.62.

  16. Costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV community services: quantity and quality of studies published 1986-2011.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eduard J; Fasawe, Olufunke; Ongpin, Patricia; Ghys, Peter; Avilla, Carlos; De Lay, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Community services comprise an important part of a country's HIV response. English language cost and cost-effectiveness studies of HIV community services published between 1986 and 2011 were reviewed but only 74 suitable studies were identified, 66% of which were performed in five countries. Mean study scores by continent varied from 42 to 69% of the maximum score, reflecting variation in topics covered and the quality of coverage: 38% of studies covered key and 11% other vulnerable populations - a country's response is most effective and efficient if these populations are identified given they are key to a successful response. Unit costs were estimated using different costing methods and outcomes. Community services will need to routinely collect and analyze information on their use, cost, outcome and impact using standardized costing methods and outcomes. Cost estimates need to be disaggregated into relevant cost items and stratified by severity and existing comorbidities. Expenditure tracking and costing of services are complementary aspects of the health sector 'resource cycle' that feed into a country's investment framework and the development and implementation of national strategic plans.

  17. "Why Wait Years to Become Something?" Low-Income African American Youth and the Costly Career Search in For-Profit Trade Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Megan M.; DeLuca, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of low-income and minority youth are now pursuing shorter-duration sub-baccalaureate credentials at for-profit trade and technical schools. However, many students drop out of these schools, leaving with large debts and few job prospects. Despite these dismal outcomes, we know very little about students' experiences in for-profit…

  18. The World Trade Center residents' respiratory health study: new-onset respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Reibman, Joan; Lin, Shao; Hwang, Syni-An A; Gulati, Mridu; Bowers, James A; Rogers, Linda; Berger, Kenneth I; Hoerning, Anne; Gomez, Marta; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2005-04-01

    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 in New York City resulted in the massive release of pulverized dust and combustion products. The dust and smoke settled in the surrounding area, which encompassed a large residential community. We hypothesized that previously normal residents in the community surrounding the former WTC would have an increased incidence of persistent respiratory symptoms and abnormalities in screening spirometry. A hybrid cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study using a symptom-based questionnaire and onsite screening spirometry in residents in an exposed area and in a control area was performed 12 +/- 4 months after the collapse. Surveys were analyzed from 2,812 residents. New-onset respiratory symptoms were described by 55.8% of residents in the exposed area, compared with 20.1% in the control area after the event. Persistent new-onset symptoms were identified in 26.4 versus 7.5% of residents in the exposed area versus control area, respectively. No differences in screening spirometry between the groups were detected. A small pilot study suggested the possibility of an increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness in exposed participants with persistent symptoms. The data demonstrate an increased rate of new-onset and persistent respiratory health effects in residents near the former WTC compared with a control population.

  19. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  20. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  1. Parametric study of transport aircraft systems cost and weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Trapp, D. L.; Kimoto, B. W.; Marsh, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a NASA study to develop production cost estimating relationships (CERs) and weight estimating relationships (WERs) for commercial and military transport aircraft at the system level are presented. The systems considered correspond to the standard weight groups defined in Military Standard 1374 and are listed. These systems make up a complete aircraft exclusive of engines. The CER for each system (or CERs in several cases) utilize weight as the key parameter. Weights may be determined from detailed weight statements, if available, or by using the WERs developed, which are based on technical and performance characteristics generally available during preliminary design. The CERs that were developed provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the production cost of an aircraft. Likewise, the WERs provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the weight of aircraft based on conceptual design information.

  2. Characterizing Wheel-Soil Interaction Loads Using Meshfree Finite Element Methods: A Sensitivity Analysis for Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Bojanowski, Cezary; Kulakx, Ronald F.

    2013-01-01

    A wheel experiencing sinkage and slippage events poses a high risk to planetary rover missions as evidenced by the mobility challenges endured by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. Current wheel design practice utilizes loads derived from a series of events in the life cycle of the rover which do not include (1) failure metrics related to wheel sinkage and slippage and (2) performance trade-offs based on grouser placement/orientation. Wheel designs are rigorously tested experimentally through a variety of drive scenarios and simulated soil environments; however, a robust simulation capability is still in development due to myriad of complex interaction phenomena that contribute to wheel sinkage and slippage conditions such as soil composition, large deformation soil behavior, wheel geometry, nonlinear contact forces, terrain irregularity, etc. For the purposes of modeling wheel sinkage and slippage at an engineering scale, meshfree nite element approaches enable simulations that capture su cient detail of wheel-soil interaction while remaining computationally feasible. This study implements the JPL wheel-soil benchmark problem in the commercial code environment utilizing the large deformation modeling capability of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) meshfree methods. The nominal, benchmark wheel-soil interaction model that produces numerically stable and physically realistic results is presented and simulations are shown for both wheel traverse and wheel sinkage cases. A sensitivity analysis developing the capability and framework for future ight applications is conducted to illustrate the importance of perturbations to critical material properties and parameters. Implementation of the proposed soil-wheel interaction simulation capability and associated sensitivity framework has the potential to reduce experimentation cost and improve the early stage wheel design proce

  3. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  4. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  5. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  6. A Launch Requirements Trade Study for Active Space Radiation Shielding for Long Duration Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Bollweg, Ken; Martin, Trent; Westover, Shayne; Battiston, Roberto; Burger, William J.; Meinke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A trade study for an active shielding concept based on magnetic fields in a solenoid configuration versus mass based shielding was developed. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the radiation exposure for two values of the magnetic field strength and the mass of the magnetic shield configuration. For each field strength, results were reported for the magnetic region shielding (end caps ignored) and total region shielding (end caps included but no magnetic field protection) configurations. A value of 15 cSv was chosen to be the maximum exposure for an astronaut. The radiation dose estimate over the total shield region configuration cannot be used at this time without a better understanding of the material and mass present in the end cap regions through a detailed vehicle design. The magnetic shield region configuration, assuming the end cap regions contribute zero exposure, can be launched on a single Space Launch System rocket and up to a two year mission can be supported. The magnetic shield region configuration results in two versus nine launches for a comparable mass based shielding configuration. The active shielding approach is clearly more mass efficient because of the reduced number of launches than the mass based shielding for long duration missions.

  7. PTSD and alcohol use after the World Trade Center attacks: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Kirchner, H Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E

    2011-10-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased alcohol use, but the findings have not been consistent. We assessed alcohol use, binge drinking, and psychotropic medication use longitudinally in 1,681 New York City adults, representative of the 2000 census, 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks. We found that, with the exception of a modified CAGE Questionnaire index for alcohol, alcohol use showed a modest increase over time and was related to PTSD symptoms, with an increase of about 1 more drink per month for those with PTSD, even though overall levels appeared to be within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's safe range. Psychotropic medication use followed a similar trend; those with PTSD used psychotropics about 20 more days over the past year than those without. Because the study analyses adjusted for key psychosocial variables and confounders, it is not clear if the increased alcohol use following trauma exposure is associated with self-medication of PTSD symptoms, whether increased alcohol use prior to exposure is a risk for delayed-onset PTSD, or whether a third unmeasured variable is involved. Further research is warranted.

  8. PTSD and Alcohol Use After the World Trade Center Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N.; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased alcohol use, but the findings have not been consistent. We assessed alcohol use, binge drinking, and psychotropic medication use longitudinally in 1,681 New York City adults, representative of the 2000 census, 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks. We found that, with the exception of a modified CAGE Questionnaire index for alcohol, alcohol use showed a modest increase over time and was related to PTSD symptoms, with an increase of about 1 more drink per month for those with PTSD, even though overall levels appeared to be within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s safe range. Psychotropic medication use followed a similar trend; those with PTSD used psychotropics about 20 more days over the past year than those without. Because the study analyses adjusted for key psychosocial variables and confounders, it is not clear if the increased alcohol use following trauma exposure is associated with self-medication of PTSD symptoms, whether increased alcohol use prior to exposure is a risk for delayed-onset PTSD, or whether a third unmeasured variable is involved. Further research is warranted. PMID:21882246

  9. Controlling Pharmaceutical Costs: A Study to Identify Physician Prescribing Patterns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    potential to cause marked increases in pharmacy expenditures. Furthermore, Nold (1991) contends that cost containment, cost avoidance, and cost...care system, the cost of pharmaceuticals is not a major cause of the current problem with health care costs. Its estimates indicate that prescription...and misstatements. Others in the industry contend that any additional interference by government will cause the pharmaceutical industry to suffer the

  10. Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-Illness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n=118) to costs of families from the general population…

  11. Measuring the Cost of a College Degree: A Case Study of a SUNY Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Richard M.; Losinger, Regina; Millard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by a white paper produced by the Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity, and Accountability, this study uses different measures of calculating the cost of a college degree at an upstate community college in New York. Departmental cost per credit hour, direct instructional costs, and full costs are all explained. A…

  12. Project trades model for complex space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girerd, Andre R.; Shishko, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A Project Trades Model (PTM) is a collection of tools/simulations linked together to rapidly perform integrated system trade studies of performance, cost, risk, and mission effectiveness. An operating PTM captures the interactions between various targeted systems and subsystems through an exchange of computed variables of the constituent models. Selection and implementation of the order, method of interaction, model type, and envisioned operation of the ensemble of tools rpresents the key system engineering challenge of the approach. This paper describes an approach to building a PTM and using it to perform top-level system trades for a complex space mission. In particular, the PTM discussed here is for a future Mars mission involving a large rover.

  13. Mortality in the British printing industry: a historical cohort study of trade union members in Manchester.

    PubMed Central

    Leon, D A

    1994-01-01

    A historical cohort study of the printing industry was established after an anecdotal report of a cluster of cases of bladder cancer in a newspaper factory in Manchester. The cohort comprised some 9500 men who were members of one or other of two trade unions (the NGA and NATSOPA) in the Manchester area between 1949 and 1963. During the follow up period (1949-83) 3482 deaths occurred among men born in 1890 or later; follow up was 97% complete. The results of the study do not support the hypothesis of an occupational risk of bladder cancer in the printing industry. The NGA have a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 31-113) and NATSOPA an SMR of 113 (95% CI 67-178) based on 11 and 18 deaths from bladder cancer, respectively. Men involved in newspaper letterpress printing have a high mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 179, 95% CI 144-218) that is consistent with the findings of previous studies. Increased mortality from cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx was found for NATSOPA workers in the newspaper industry; editorial workers had an SMR of 1053 (95% CI 128-3803) and clerical workers had an SMR of 638 (95% CI 132-1864). This is consistent with a review of published studies, which strongly suggest that workers in the printing industry have an increased risk of mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx. Socioeconomic differences in union composition, rather than occupational factors, may account for the lower mortality in the NGA compared with NATSOPA. The NGA, a craft union, had an all causes SMR of 92 (95% CI 88-97), whereas NATSOPA covered a broader span of occupations and skill levels, and had an all causes SMR of 112 (95% CI 106-117); the NATSOPA and NGA all causes rate ratio was 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1,29). PMID:8111468

  14. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  15. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity.

  16. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 2: Technical and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, E. R.; Deats, C. L.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Kyrias, G. M.; Snodgrass, M. R.; Sosnay, R. D.; Spencer, R. A.; Wudell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orbital maintenance concepts were examined in an effort to determine a cost effective orbital maintenance system compatible with the space transportation system. An on-orbit servicer maintenance system is recommended as the most cost effective system. A pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared. It is indicated that orbital maintenance does not have any significant impact on the space transportation system.

  17. The burden of pediatric diarrhea: a cross-sectional study of incurred costs and perceptions of cost among Bolivian families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis represents an enormous public health threat to children under five years of age, causing one billion episodes and 1.9 to 3.2 million deaths per year. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, an estimated 15% of under-five deaths are caused by diarrhea. Bolivian caregiver expenses related to diarrhea are believed to be minimal, as citizens benefit from universal health insurance for children under five. The goals of this report were to describe total incurred costs and cost burden associated with caregivers seeking treatment for pediatric gastroenteritis, and to quantify relationships among costs, cost burden, treatment setting, and perceptions of costs. Methods From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n=1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years of age) seeking treatment for diarrhea in sentinel hospitals participating in Bolivia’s diarrheal surveillance program across three main geographic regions. Data collected included demographics, clinical symptoms, direct costs (e.g. medication, consult fees) and indirect costs (e.g. lost wages). Results Patient populations were similar across cities in terms of gender, duration of illness, and age, but familial income varied significantly (p<0.05) when stratified on appointment type. Direct, indirect, and total costs to families were significantly higher for inpatients as compared to outpatients of urban (p<0.001) and rural (p<0.05) residence. Consult fees and indirect costs made up a large proportion of total costs. Forty-five percent of patients’ families paid ≥1% of their annual household income for this single diarrheal episode. The perception that cost was affecting family finances was more frequent among those with higher actual cost burden. Conclusions This study demonstrated that indirect costs due to acute pediatric diarrhea were a large component of total incurred familial costs. Additionally, familial costs associated with a single

  18. Design study of a low cost civil aviation GPS receiver system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R.; Gilbert, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost Navstar receiver system for civil aviation applications was defined. User objectives and constraints were established. Alternative navigation processing design trades were evaluated. Receiver hardware was synthesized by comparing technology projections with various candidate system designs. A control display unit design was recommended as the result of field test experience with Phase I GPS sets and a review of special human factors for general aviation users. Areas requiring technology development to ensure a low cost Navstar Set in the 1985 timeframe were identified.

  19. Recent design and cost studies for air blown gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Welford, G.B.; Otter, N.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) (formerly known as the British Coal Topping Cycle) is a high efficiency low cost system for producing power with excellent environmental performance. High efficiency is achieved without the complexity associated with other advanced cycles and the technology can be introduced in a modular fashion. Being a simple air blown fluid bed gasifier and combustor combination it is capable of using a wide range of fuels and is particularly suited for dealing with high ash melting point fuels found in areas of the world short of natural gas. An extensive program of pilot plant testing of a variety of fuels is now being completed on the test facility at the Coal Technology Development Division (CTDD) of British Coal as part of a UK program to develop the Air Blown Gasification Cycle. This program is supplying data to produce a design specification for a Prototype Integrated Plant (PIP) of around 90 MWe, and is managed by a consortium, the Clean Coal Power Generation Group. The paper summarizes recent results and operating experience for the pilot plant including fuel behavior studies, research in hot gas cleaning (particulate and gaseous contaminants), and gas combustion experience. The various cost studies undertaken on the ABGC are outlined and compared, including recent studies by EPRI.

  20. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume IV. Design analysis and trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    Detailed reference designs developed for optimally sized photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) systems are presented for three selected applications. The results of trade-off analyses to determine the effects of load variations, new components, changes in location, and variations in array cost are also discussed.

  1. Trade Studies of Space Launch Architectures using Modular Probabilistic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Go, Susie

    2006-01-01

    A top-down risk assessment in the early phases of space exploration architecture development can provide understanding and intuition of the potential risks associated with new designs and technologies. In this approach, risk analysts draw from their past experience and the heritage of similar existing systems as a source for reliability data. This top-down approach captures the complex interactions of the risk driving parts of the integrated system without requiring detailed knowledge of the parts themselves, which is often unavailable in the early design stages. Traditional probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) technologies, however, suffer several drawbacks that limit their timely application to complex technology development programs. The most restrictive of these is a dependence on static planning scenarios, expressed through fault and event trees. Fault trees incorporating comprehensive mission scenarios are routinely constructed for complex space systems, and several commercial software products are available for evaluating fault statistics. These static representations cannot capture the dynamic behavior of system failures without substantial modification of the initial tree. Consequently, the development of dynamic models using fault tree analysis has been an active area of research in recent years. This paper discusses the implementation and demonstration of dynamic, modular scenario modeling for integration of subsystem fault evaluation modules using the Space Architecture Failure Evaluation (SAFE) tool. SAFE is a C++ code that was originally developed to support NASA s Space Launch Initiative. It provides a flexible framework for system architecture definition and trade studies. SAFE supports extensible modeling of dynamic, time-dependent risk drivers of the system and functions at the level of fidelity for which design and failure data exists. The approach is scalable, allowing inclusion of additional information as detailed data becomes available. The tool

  2. Neutronics and shielding results of the U.S. ITER blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.; El-Guebaly, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The first formal phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project was the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) which was conducted from May 1988 until December 1990. The CDA blanket utilized Li{sub 2}O solid breeder, beryllium neutron multiplier, 316 SS structure and low temperature water coolant. The ITER project embarked on a new phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket design options have been considered since the start of the EDA. The US ITER home team started a blanket option trade-off-study (BOTS) in May 1993. The options considered included a self-cooled Li/V option, ferritic steel designs with helium cooled first wall and liquid metal (Li or LiPb) cooled blanket, the CDA design option, and a water cooled 316/SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed neutronics and shielding analysis have been performed for the different ITER blanket design options considered in this study. The shielding performance was determined for these options and inboard shielding space requirements were compared. Peak first wall (FW) nuclear performance parameters were calculated in addition to power density distribution in the blanket required for the thermal hydraulics calculations. Peak vacuum vessel (VV) nuclear performance parameters have also been determined. The overall tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was determined for each of the design options. A double wall Inconel 625 VV is used with water cooled 316 SS balls. For the design options with liquid metal in the blanket, the use of tungsten carbide balls cooled by NaK is considered. The minimum total thickness of FW/B/S/W is maintained at 1 m in the inboard region.

  3. Report Tunneling Cost Reduction Study prepared for Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-16

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratories has a need to review the costs of constructing the very long tunnels which would be required for housing the equipment for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) project. Current tunneling costs are high, and the identification of potential means of significantly reducing them, and thereby helping to keep overall project costs within an acceptable budget, has assumed great importance. Fermilab has contracted with The Robbins Company to provide an up-to-date appraisal of tunneling technology, and to review the potential for substantially improving currently the state-of-practice performance and construction costs in particular. The Robbins Company was chosen for this task because of its long and successful experience in hard rock mechanical tunnel boring. In the past 40 years, Robbins has manufactured over 250 tunneling machines, the vast majority for hard rock applications. In addition to also supplying back-up equipment, Robbins has recently established a division dedicated to the manufacture of continuous conveying equipment for the efficient support of tunneling operations. The study extends beyond the tunnel boring machine (TBM) itself, and into the critical area of the logistics of the support of the machine as it advances, including manpower. It is restricted to proven methods using conventional technology, and its potential for incremental but meaningful improvement, rather than examining exotic and undeveloped means of rock excavation that have been proposed from time to time by the technical community. This is the first phase of what is expected to be a number of studies in increasing depth of technical detail, and as such has been restricted to the issues connected with the initial 34 kilometer circumference booster tunnel, and not the proposed 500 kilometer circumference tunnel housing the VLHC itself. The booster tunnel is entirely sited within low to medium strength limestone and dolomite formations

  4. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  5. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3, book 1: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peffley, Al F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study cost estimate and program planning analysis is presented. The cost estimating technique used to support STV system, subsystem, and component cost analysis is a mixture of parametric cost estimating and selective cost analogy approaches. The parametric cost analysis is aimed at developing cost-effective aerobrake, crew module, tank module, and lander designs with the parametric cost estimates data. This is accomplished using cost as a design parameter in an iterative process with conceptual design input information. The parametric estimating approach segregates costs by major program life cycle phase (development, production, integration, and launch support). These phases are further broken out into major hardware subsystems, software functions, and tasks according to the STV preliminary program work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS is defined to a low enough level of detail by the study team to highlight STV system cost drivers. This level of cost visibility provided the basis for cost sensitivity analysis against various design approaches aimed at achieving a cost-effective design. The cost approach, methodology, and rationale are described. A chronological record of the interim review material relating to cost analysis is included along with a brief summary of the study contract tasks accomplished during that period of review and the key conclusions or observations identified that relate to STV program cost estimates. The STV life cycle costs are estimated on the proprietary parametric cost model (PCM) with inputs organized by a project WBS. Preliminary life cycle schedules are also included.

  6. Disaster warning system study summary. [cost estimates using NOAA satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. F.; Maloy, J. E.; Braley, R. C.; Provencher, C. E.; Schumaker, H. A.; Valgora, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual satellite system to replace or complement NOAA's data collection, internal communications, and public information dissemination systems for the mid-1980's was defined. Program cost and cost sensitivity to variations in communications functions are analyzed.

  7. Allocation of Operations and Support Cost Targets Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    Logistics Technology Dept P.O. Box 225907, Dallas TX 75265 Sa. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING ORGANIZATION AF Business Research Mgt Center AFBRMC/RDCB Sb...REPORT (Yr., Mo.. Day) 84 Apr 5 15. PAGE COUNT 42 COSAT1 CODES FIELD 05 GROUP 01 SUB. GR. 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if...necessary and identify by block number) Allocation of 0&S Cost Targets, Guarantees Life Cycle Cost, Costs, Cost Targets 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  8. A Review of Trade Books in Social Studies Dealing with Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Virginia A.

    Fifty-five trade books that will help second graders increase their understanding and knowledge of the concept of communities are cited in this annotated bibliography. Dates of publication range from the 1940's to the present. The bibliography is organized by three major categories: local communities, national communities, and international…

  9. The Importance of Workplace Learning for Trade Unions: A Study of the Steel Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Dean; Fairbrother, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between trade unions and learning in the workplace, particularly in relation to the enhancement of worker employability profiles. With the restructuring and modernising of the European steel industry as its context, this paper argues that the organisational and structural features of a sector have a…

  10. Does the Study of Business Reduce the Likelihood of Committing Insider Trading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kent T.

    2002-01-01

    Students from two Christian liberal arts colleges and a state university (n=347) completed a survey after viewing a clip from the film "Wall Street." Seniors and Christian school students thought they were less likely to commit insider trading. Christian school students were more likely to think that business education would decrease the…

  11. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  12. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  13. Studies in Software Cost Model Behavior: Do We Really Understand Cost Model Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Karen; Hihn, Jairus; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    While there exists extensive literature on software cost estimation techniques, industry practice continues to rely upon standard regression-based algorithms. These software effort models are typically calibrated or tuned to local conditions using local data. This paper cautions that current approaches to model calibration often produce sub-optimal models because of the large variance problem inherent in cost data and by including far more effort multipliers than the data supports. Building optimal models requires that a wider range of models be considered while correctly calibrating these models requires rejection rules that prune variables and records and use multiple criteria for evaluating model performance. The main contribution of this paper is to document a standard method that integrates formal model identification, estimation, and validation. It also documents what we call the large variance problem that is a leading cause of cost model brittleness or instability.

  14. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  15. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce; Sompyrac, Robert; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2008-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  17. The costs of anti-herbivore defense traits in agricultural crop plants: a case study involving leafhoppers and trichomes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ian; Dively, Galen P; Denno, Robert F

    2009-06-01

    The expression of plant defenses is thought to entail costs (e.g., the allocation of resources away from growth or reproduction) that constrain the evolution of plant genotypes maximally defended against herbivores. Although central to the ecological theory underlying plant-insect interactions at large, the concept of defense costs is particularly evident in agricultural crops where plants may be under simultaneous selection for enhanced growth and/or reproduction (i.e., yield) and anti-herbivore resistance traits that deter pests. In this study we investigate the role of trichomes as a resistance mechanism against a sap-feeding insect (the leafhopper, Empoasca fabae) on potato. Natural variation in trichome density among 17 potato cultivars was used to test for the role of trichomes as a putative defense against leafhoppers, and evidence of costs in trichome expression. Two different types of costs were explored: (1) allocation costs (i.e., the relationship between trichomes and yield), and (2) costs involving trade-offs with alternative defense strategies (e.g., tolerance). Although leafhopper abundance did not decrease as trichome density increased, leafhopper injury to potato plants (foliar necrosis) was negatively correlated with trichome density. As a result, the per capita effect of leafhopper adults and nymphs on foliar damage was lower on plants with high trichome densities. We found no evidence, however, for costs of expressing this resistance trait; trichomes were not correlated with either potato yield or tolerance to herbivory. Thus, selection for multiple plant defenses to alleviate the impact of pests in agronomic crops may indeed be possible without inherent losses in plant yield.

  18. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  19. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 3, book 1: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study to define the astronomy sortie missions was conducted. The design analyses and tradeoff studies conducted for candidate concepts are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) system and subsystem requirements, (2) space shuttle interfaces, (3) infrared telescope development, and (4) experiments to be conducted during the mission.

  20. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. Design A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. Results In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. Conclusions The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. PMID:27044579

  1. Trading patients. Lessons from Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Botten, Grete; Grepperud, Sverre; Nerland, Sölve Mikal

    2004-09-01

    The next few decades will bring about more trade in services, among them health care. This paper describes a recent project on cross-border trading of patients initiated by the Norwegian parliament (The Patient Bridge). This health policy reform met some resistance among hospital physicians. However, patients were willing to participate if being properly informed and supported by local health care workers. The Patient Bridge turned out to be a relatively expensive project partly because of the transaction costs involved (transportation and escort) and partly because of high treatment costs. Excessive treatment costs were a result of insufficient cost-consciousness in the purchasing organization. The Patient Bridge revealed large price differentials not only between Norwegian and foreign hospitals, but also between hospitals abroad, even within the same country. This finding points to the possibilities of reaching mutual gains from trading patients across borders.

  2. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Characteristics And Sensitivity Trades For NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes Phase I and II analysis results from NASA's recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which re-examined mission, payload and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system over chemical/aerobrake because of its higher specific impulse (I(sub sp)) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) which is important for reducing the number of Ares-V heavy lift launches and overall mission cost. DRA 5.0 features a long surface stay (approximately 500 days) split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles (MTVs). All vehicles utilize a common core propulsion stage with three 25 klbf composite fuel NERVA-derived NTR engines (T(sub ex) approximately 2650 - 2700 K, p(sub ch) approximately 1000 psia, epsilon approximately 300:1, I(sub sp) approximately 900 - 910 s, engine thrust-toweight ratio approximately 3.43) to perform all primary mission maneuvers. Two cargo flights, utilizing 1-way minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crewed MTV during the next mission opportunity (approximately 26 months later). The cargo payload elements aerocapture (AC) into Mars orbit and are enclosed within a large triconicshaped aeroshell which functions as payload shroud during launch, then as an aerobrake and thermal protection system during Mars orbit capture and subsequent entry, descent and landing (EDL) on Mars. The all propulsive crewed MTV is a 0-gE vehicle design that utilizes a fast conjunction trajectory that allows approximately 6-7 month 1-way transit times to and from Mars. Four 12.5 kW(sub e) per 125 square meter rectangular photovoltaic arrays provide the crewed MTV with

  3. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  4. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Navy's maintenance and materials management data base was used in a study to determine the feasibility of predicting unscheduled maintenance costs for the dynamic systems of military rotary wing aircraft. The major operational and design variables were identified and the direct maintenance man hours per flight hour were obtained by step-wise multiple regression analysis. Five nonmilitary helicopter users were contacted to supply data on which variables were important factors in civil applications. These uses included offshore oil exploration and support, police and fire department rescue and enforcement, logging and heavy equipment movement, and U.S. Army military operations. The equations developed were highly effective in predicting unscheduled direct maintenance man hours per flying hours for military aircraft, but less effective for commercial or public service helicopters, probably because of the longer mission durations and the much higher utilization of civil users.

  5. Orbit transfer vehicle engine study. Volume 3: Program costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Budgetary and planning cost estimates are presented that were prepared for the development, production and operation and flight support phases for each of the engines proposed for OTV propulsion. The major features of each category engine are described. The development program estimates were structured to the preliminary program Work Breakdown Structures (WBS). Program costs are provided within the applicable WBS elements to Level 4 for each category engine. The production program cost estimates assume a first production lot of 50 units produced at a rate of two units per month. Cumulative average unit costs assume a 90% learning capability. The operations and flight support cost estimates are based on 15, 30 and 45 missions per year for the period 1988 through 1999. Estimated funding requirements were developed for each category and program phase. All cost estimates and funding data are presented in 1979 dollars. The assumptions and ground rules for these estimates are summarized.

  6. 77 FR 35355 - User Fee Schedule for Trade Promotion Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration RIN 0625-XA17 User Fee Schedule for Trade Promotion Services AGENCY: U.S... Trade Administration (ITA) publishes this notice to announce its intent to adjust user fees in light of... its costs for providing trade promotion services under the current fee structure. ITA provides a...

  7. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportion System (STS) systems study. Appendix D: Trade study summary for the liquid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Trade studies plans for a number of elements in the Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) component of the Space Transportation System (STS) are given in viewgraph form. Some of the elements covered include: avionics/flight control; avionics architecture; thrust vector control studies; engine control electronics; liquid rocket propellants; propellant pressurization systems; recoverable spacecraft; cryogenic tanks; and spacecraft construction materials.

  8. Simbol-X Background Minimization: Mirror Spacecraft Passive Shielding Trade-off Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Ferri, A.; Attinà, P.

    2009-05-01

    The present work shows a quantitative trade-off analysis of the Simbol-X Mirror Spacecraft (MSC) passive shielding, in the phase space of the various parameters: mass budget, dimension, geometry and composition. A simplified physical (and geometrical) model of the sky screen, implemented by means of a GEANT4 simulation, has been developed to perform a performance-driven mass optimization and evaluate the residual background level on Simbol-X focal plane.

  9. The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade: A Review of Modeling Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Meal Palm Oil Oilseed Production Oilseed Crush Oilseed Oil Consumption Oilseed Meal Consumption Argentina 6.0 6.5 1.4 9.8 1.0 -3.2 -2.0 -0.2...Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. B The Cairns Group is a coalition of...Indonesia, Malaysia , New Zealand, Paraguay, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay. B The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was

  10. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes.

  11. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Coxson, Pamela G.; Rasmussen, Petra W.; Huang, Chen; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Tzong, Keane Y.; Xiong, Juyang; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Dong; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    hypertensive adults with prior cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention was projected to be cost saving in the main simulation and 100% of probabilistic simulation results. Treating all hypertension for primary and secondary prevention would prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6 to 1.0 million) and was borderline cost-effective incremental to treating only cardiovascular disease and stage two patients (2015 Int$13,000 per QALY gained [95% uncertainty interval, Int$10,000 to Int$18,000]). Of all one-way sensitivity analyses, assuming adherence to taking medications as low as 25%, high Shanghai drug costs, or low medication efficacy led to the most unfavorable results (treating all hypertension, about Int$47,000, Int$37,000, and Int$27,000 per QALY were gained, respectively). The strengths of this study were the use of a recent Chinese national health survey, vital statistics, health care costs, and cohort study outcomes data as model inputs and reliance on clinical-trial-based estimates of coronary heart disease and stroke risk reduction due to antihypertensive medication treatment. The limitations of the study were the use of several sources of data, limited clinical trial evidence for medication effectiveness and harms in the youngest and oldest age groups, lack of information about geographic and ethnic subgroups, lack of specific information about indirect costs borne by patients, and uncertainty about the future epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in China. Conclusions Expanded hypertension treatment has the potential to prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually and be borderline cost-effective in China, provided low-cost essential antihypertensive medicines programs can be implemented. PMID:26241895

  12. Tools to study trends in community structure: application to fish and livestock trading networks.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren Michael; Werkman, Marleen; Munro, Lorna Ann; Kao, Rowland Raymond; Kiss, István Zoltán; Danon, Leon

    2011-05-01

    Partitioning of contact networks into communities allows groupings of epidemiologically related nodes to be derived, that could inform the design of disease surveillance and control strategies, e.g. contact tracing or design of 'firebreaks' for disease spread. However, these are only of merit if they persist longer than the timescale of interventions. Here, we apply different methods to identify concordance between network partitions across time for two animal trading networks, those of salmon in Scotland (2002-2004) and livestock in Great Britain (2003-2004). Both trading networks are similar in that they moderately agree over time in terms of their community structures, but this concordance is higher--and therefore community structure is more consistent--when only the 'core' network of nodes involved in trading over the whole time series is considered. In neither case was higher agreement found between partitions close together in time. These measures differ in their absolute values unless appropriate standardisation is applied. Once standardised, the measures gave similar values for both network types.

  13. The economics of parallel trade.

    PubMed

    Danzon, P M

    1998-03-01

    The potential for parallel trade in the European Union (EU) has grown with the accession of low price countries and the harmonisation of registration requirements. Parallel trade implies a conflict between the principle of autonomy of member states to set their own pharmaceutical prices, the principle of free trade and the industrial policy goal of promoting innovative research and development (R&D). Parallel trade in pharmaceuticals does not yield the normal efficiency gains from trade because countries achieve low pharmaceutical prices by aggressive regulation, not through superior efficiency. In fact, parallel trade reduces economic welfare by undermining price differentials between markets. Pharmaceutical R&D is a global joint cost of serving all consumers worldwide; it accounts for roughly 30% of total costs. Optimal (welfare maximising) pricing to cover joint costs (Ramsey pricing) requires setting different prices in different markets, based on inverse demand elasticities. By contrast, parallel trade and regulation based on international price comparisons tend to force price convergence across markets. In response, manufacturers attempt to set a uniform 'euro' price. The primary losers from 'euro' pricing will be consumers in low income countries who will face higher prices or loss of access to new drugs. In the long run, even higher income countries are likely to be worse off with uniform prices, because fewer drugs will be developed. One policy option to preserve price differentials is to exempt on-patent products from parallel trade. An alternative is confidential contracting between individual manufacturers and governments to provide country-specific ex post discounts from the single 'euro' wholesale price, similar to rebates used by managed care in the US. This would preserve differentials in transactions prices even if parallel trade forces convergence of wholesale prices.

  14. Cost of Instruction. Study of Independent Higher Education in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellema, William W.; Olliver, James

    Uses of discipline and program cost data by Indiana private colleges and universities are discussed, and cost data are presented. Attention is directed to the immediate and longer range uses of the data, the applicability of the methods to smaller institutions, reliability of the data, and the future of this analysis. The findings were used for…

  15. Trade-off Mechanisms Shaping the Diversity of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ferenci, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Strain-to-strain variations in bacterial biofilm formation, metabolism, motility, virulence, evolvability, DNA repair and resistance (to phage, antibiotics, or environmental stresses) each contribute to bacterial diversity. Microbiologists should be aware that all of these traits are subject to constraints imposed by trade-offs, so adaptations improving one trait may be at the cost of another. A deeper appreciation of trade-offs is thus crucial for assessing the mechanistic limits on important bacterial characteristics. Studies of the negative correlations between various traits have revealed three molecular mechanisms, namely, trade-offs involving resource allocation, design constraint, and information processing. This review further discusses why these trade-off mechanisms are important in the establishment of models capable of predicting bacterial competition, coexistence, and sources of diversity.

  16. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  17. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  18. Bayesian modeling of cost-effectiveness studies with unmeasured confounding: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Stamey, James D; Beavers, Daniel P; Faries, Douglas; Price, Karen L; Seaman, John W

    2014-01-01

    Unmeasured confounding is a common problem in observational studies. Failing to account for unmeasured confounding can result in biased point estimators and poor performance of hypothesis tests and interval estimators. We provide examples of the impacts of unmeasured confounding on cost-effectiveness analyses using observational data along with a Bayesian approach to correct estimation. Assuming validation data are available, we propose a Bayesian approach to correct cost-effectiveness studies for unmeasured confounding. We consider the cases where both cost and effectiveness are assumed to have a normal distribution and when costs are gamma distributed and effectiveness is normally distributed. Simulation studies were conducted to determine the impact of ignoring the unmeasured confounder and to determine the size of the validation data required to obtain valid inferences.

  19. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  20. Impact of Screening on Behavior During Storage and Cost of Ground Small-Diameter Pine Trees: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Brad D Blackwelder; Mark E Delwiche; Allison E Ray; Kevin L Kenney

    2011-10-01

    Whole comminuted trees are known to self-heat and undergo quality changes during storage. Trommel screening after grinding is a process that removes fines from the screened material and removes a large proportion of high-ash, high-nutrient material. In this study, the trade-off between an increase in preprocessing cost from trommel screening and an increase in quality of the screened material was examined. Fresh lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was comminuted using a drum grinder with a 10-cm screen, and the resulting material was distributed into separate fines and overs piles. A third pile of unscreened material, the unsorted pile, was also examined. The three piles exhibited different characteristics during a 6-week storage period. The overs pile was much slower to heat. The overs pile reached a maximum temperature of 56.88 degrees C, which was lower than the maximum reached by the other two piles (65.98 degrees C and 63.48 degrees C for the unsorted and fines, respectively). The overs also cooled faster and dried to a more uniform moisture content and had a lower ash content than the other two piles. Both piles of sorted material exhibited improved airflow and more drying than the unsorted material. Looking at supply system costs from preprocessing through in-feed into thermochemical conversion, this study found that trommel screening reduced system costs by over $3.50 per dry matter ton and stabilized material during storage.

  1. Study of turboprop systems reliability and maintenance costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The overall reliability and maintenance costs (R&MC's) of past and current turboprop systems were examined. Maintenance cost drivers were found to be scheduled overhaul (40%), lack of modularity particularly in the propeller and reduction gearbox, and lack of inherent durability (reliability) of some parts. Comparisons were made between the 501-D13/54H60 turboprop system and the widely used JT8D turbofan. It was found that the total maintenance cost per flight hour of the turboprop was 75% higher than that of the JT8D turbofan. Part of this difference was due to propeller and gearbox costs being higher than those of the fan and reverser, but most of the difference was in the engine core where the older technology turboprop core maintenance costs were nearly 70 percent higher than for the turbofan. The estimated maintenance cost of both the advanced turboprop and advanced turbofan were less than the JT8D. The conclusion was that an advanced turboprop and an advanced turbofan, using similar cores, will have very competitive maintenance costs per flight hour.

  2. Spacelab cost reduction alternatives study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Alternative approaches to payload operations planning and control and flight crew training are defined for spacelab payloads with the goal of: lowering FY77 and FY 78 costs for new starts; lowering costs to achieve Spacelab operational capability; and minimizing the cost per Spacelab flight. These alternatives attempt to minimize duplication of hardware, software, and personnel, and the investment in supporting facility and equipment. Of particular importance is the possible reduction of equipment, software, and manpower resources such as comtational systems, trainers, and simulators.

  3. 47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National and study area average unseparated...-Cost Loop Support Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment § 36.622 National and study area... provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this is equal to the sum of the Loop Costs for each study...

  4. 47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National and study area average unseparated...-Cost Loop Support Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment § 36.622 National and study area... provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this is equal to the sum of the Loop Costs for each study...

  5. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  6. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  7. Environmental trade-offs of tunnels vs cut-and-cover subways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heavy construction projects in cities entail two kinds of cost - internal cost, which can be defined in terms of payments from one set of parties to another, and external cost, which is the cost borne by the community at large as the result of disutilities entailed in construction and operation. Environmental trade-offs involve external costs, which are commonly difficult to measure. Cut-and-cover subway construction probably entails higher external and internal cost than deep tunnel construction in many urban geological environments, but uncertainty concerning the costs and environmental trade-offs of tunneling leads to limited and timid use of tunneling by American designers. Thus uncertainty becomes a major trade-off which works against tunneling. The reverse is true in Sweden after nearly 30 years of subway construction. Econometric methods for measuring external costs exist in principle, but are limited in application. Economic theory based on market pressure does not address the real problem of urban environmental trade-offs. Nevertheless, the problem of uncertainty can be addressed by comparative studies of estimated and as-built costs of cut-and-cover vs tunnel projects and a review of environmental issues associated with such construction. Such a study would benefit the underground construction industry and the design of transportation systems. It would also help solve an aspect of the urban problem. ?? 1978.

  8. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The key issues in the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program which are subject to configuration study and tradeoff are identified. The issue of a combined operational and research and development program is considered. It is stated that cost and spacecraft weight are the key design variables and design options are proposed in terms of these parameters. A cost analysis of the EOS program is provided. Diagrams of the satellite configuration and subsystem components are included.

  9. Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-illness Study

    PubMed Central

    Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8–18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n = 118) to costs of families from the general population (n = 41). To examine the convergent validity, bottom-up acquired costs derived from cost diaries were compared to top-down acquired costs obtained from national registrations. Bottom-up acquired costs measured by means of cost diaries amounted to €2,748 per family of a clinically referred anxious child per annum. Societal costs of families with clinically anxious children were almost 21 times as high compared to families from the general population. With respect to convergent validity, total health care costs using the bottom-up approach from clinically anxious children were quite comparable to those of top-down data of anxious children, although costs within the subcategories differed considerably. Clinical anxiety disorders in childhood cost the Dutch society more than 20 million euros a year. Based on results of discriminate and convergent validity, the cost diary seems a valid method in establishing cost-of-illness in childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:18214667

  10. Societal burden of clinically anxious youth referred for treatment: a cost-of-illness study.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2008-05-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n = 118) to costs of families from the general population (n = 41). To examine the convergent validity, bottom-up acquired costs derived from cost diaries were compared to top-down acquired costs obtained from national registrations. Bottom-up acquired costs measured by means of cost diaries amounted to Euro 2,748 per family of a clinically referred anxious child per annum. Societal costs of families with clinically anxious children were almost 21 times as high compared to families from the general population. With respect to convergent validity, total health care costs using the bottom-up approach from clinically anxious children were quite comparable to those of top-down data of anxious children, although costs within the subcategories differed considerably. Clinical anxiety disorders in childhood cost the Dutch society more than 20 million euros a year. Based on results of discriminate and convergent validity, the cost diary seems a valid method in establishing cost-of-illness in childhood anxiety disorders.

  11. Initial Costs vs. Operational Costs. A Study of Building Improvement Projects in Fourteen Schools in the School District of Greenville County, South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    To determine whether initial facility improvement costs were paid back by the reduced operational costs resulting from the improvement projects, this study examined the relationship between initial costs and operational costs of fourteen school buildings improved during the 1978-79 school year in Greenville County, South Carolina. With energy…

  12. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 2. Unit RL-10 boiler condition assessment report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the second of three volumes and it includes the following section: (1) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 Boiler.

  13. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  14. LANDSAT/MMS propulsion module design. Volume 1: Task 4.3, trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. M.; Etheridge, F. G.; Indrikis, J.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of alternative LANDSAT follow-on launch configurations to derive the propulsion requirements for the multimission modular spacecraft (MMS). Two basic types were analyzed including use of conventional launch vehicles and shuttle-supported missions. It was concluded that two sizes of modular hydrazine propulsion modules would provide the most cost-effective combination for future missions of this spacecraft. Conceptual designs of the selected propulsion modules were performed to the depth permitting determination of mass properties and estimated costs.

  15. Agribusiness opportunity costs and environmental legal protection: investigating trade-off on hotspot preservation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km(2) covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  16. Agribusiness Opportunity Costs and Environmental Legal Protection: Investigating Trade-Off on Hotspot Preservation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km2 covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  17. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  18. The effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on crop-related green and blue water footprints and inter-regional virtual water trade: A study for China (1978-2008).

    PubMed

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies into the relation between human consumption and indirect water resources use have unveiled the remote connections in virtual water (VW) trade networks, which show how communities externalize their water footprint (WF) to places far beyond their own region, but little has been done to understand variability in time. This study quantifies the effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on WF and VW trade, using China over the period 1978-2008 as a case study. Evapotranspiration, crop yields and green and blue WFs of crops are estimated at a 5 × 5 arc-minute resolution for 22 crops, for each year in the study period, thus accounting for climate variability. The results show that crop yield improvements during the study period helped to reduce the national average WF of crop consumption per capita by 23%, with a decreasing contribution to the total from cereals and increasing contribution from oil crops. The total consumptive WFs of national crop consumption and crop production, however, grew by 6% and 7%, respectively. By 2008, 28% of total water consumption in crop fields in China served the production of crops for export to other regions and, on average, 35% of the crop-related WF of a Chinese consumer was outside its own province. Historically, the net VW within China was from the water-rich South to the water-scarce North, but intensifying North-to-South crop trade reversed the net VW flow since 2000, which amounted 6% of North's WF of crop production in 2008. South China thus gradually became dependent on food supply from the water-scarce North. Besides, during the whole study period, China's domestic inter-regional VW flows went dominantly from areas with a relatively large to areas with a relatively small blue WF per unit of crop, which in 2008 resulted in a trade-related blue water loss of 7% of the national total blue WF of crop production. The case of China shows that domestic trade, as governed by

  19. Maritime Archaeology and Trans-Oceanic Trade: A Case Study of the Oranjemund Shipwreck Cargo, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Sinamai, Ashton; Goagoses, Esther; Mubusisi, Marina; Ndoro, W.

    2010-10-01

    Routine sand dredging for alluvial diamonds at Oranjemund on the southern coast of Namibia exposed remnants of a long forgotten Portuguese merchant ship believed to have wrecked in the 1530s. The rescue excavations yielded over 40 tons of cargo consisting of thousands of gold and silver coins, tons of copper and lead ingots, and large quantities of ivory together with food refuse, part of personal possessions and the superstructure of the ship. This paper discusses the cargo from the shipwreck. The varying provenances show that overland inter-and intra-regional networks fed into the maritime trade between Europe and the Indian sub-continent. As such, the wreck is a lens through which we can view what was happening on the seas as well as on land. Finally we consider wider issues raised by this discovery relating to the protection and management of such material wherever it may be found in future.

  20. The pros and cons of trading water: A case study in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-11-01

    Water is a commodity, and water rights can be freely traded in an open market. Proponents of the free market approach argue that it leads to the most efficient allocation of water resources, as it would for any other commodity. However, unlike some commodities, water is critical for human life, for many human activities, and as an environmental resource. When such an essential commodity becomes scarce, as frequently happens in Australia, which is prone to sudden and dramatic droughts, severe problems can occur quickly. In Australia's Murray Darling Basin, the country's largest agricultural region, the government had historically controlled the distribution of water rights. However, under these controls, a selected few controlled a large share of the water. To resolve this problem of overallocation, a free market approach was put in place in the early 1990s.

  1. Study on RLS trade-off resist upgrade for production ready EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghyung; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Seunguk; Lim, Mijung; Koo, Sunyoung; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is the most promising technology as substitute for multiple patterning based on ArF immersion lithography. If enough productivity can be accomplished, EUV will take main role in the chip manufacturing. Since the introduction of NXE3300, many significant results have been achieved in source power and availability, but lots of improvements are still required in various aspects for the implementation of EUV lithography on high volume manufacturing. Among them, it is especially important to attain high sensitivity resist without degrading other resolution performance. In this paper, performances of various resists were evaluated with real device patterns on NXE3300 scanner and technical progress of up-to-date EUV resists will be shown by comparing with the performance of their predecessors. Finally the prospect of overcoming the triangular trade-off between sensitivity, resolution, line edge roughness (LER) and achieving high volume manufacturing will be discussed.

  2. Reversing the picture superiority effect: a speed-accuracy trade-off study of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Boldini, Angela; Russo, Riccardo; Punia, Sahiba; Avons, S E

    2007-01-01

    Speed-accuracy trade-off methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. With these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and required to make recognition decisions under various time constraints. In three experiments, we presented words and pictures to be intentionally learned; test stimuli were always visually presented words. At test, we manipulated the interval between the presentation of each test stimulus and that of a response signal, thus controlling the amount of time available to retrieve target information. The standard picture superiority effect was significant in long response deadline conditions (i.e., > or = 2,000 msec). Conversely, a significant reverse picture superiority effect emerged at short response-signal deadlines (< 200 msec). The results are congruent with views suggesting that both fast familiarity and slower recollection processes contribute to recognition memory. Alternative accounts are also discussed.

  3. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  4. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  5. Selective Archiving of Web Resources: A Study of Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Mirna; Buzina, Tanja; Holub, Karolina; Zajec, Jasenka; Milinovic, Miroslav; Topolscak, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess costs in the National and University Library of Croatia for processing Croatian web resources and the maintenance and development of the service, and to analyse the present organisation and workflow of their processing, and to propose improvements. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment period…

  6. Airport Pavement Test Machine Design and Cost Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    3-3 Total Initial Costs ......................................... 3-4 First Year Operational...assist the FAA in determining the full-scale testing needed to develop and verify the new design procedures The first planning meeting of the working...Douglas Aircraft Company The major conclusion from the first meeting was that full-scale test data must be generated for development and verification

  7. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  8. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  9. Policy design and performance of emissions trading markets: an adaptive agent-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Bing, Zhang; Qinqin, Yu; Jun, Bi

    2010-08-01

    Emissions trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the pilot emissions trading programs in China have failed to bring remarkable success in the campaign for pollution control. The policy design of an emissions trading program is found to have a decisive impact on its performance. In this study, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading applying the agent-based model was constructed. The performance of the Jiangsu SO2 emissions trading market under different policy design scenario was also examined. Results show that the market efficiency of emissions trading is significantly affected by policy design and existing policies. China's coal-electricity price system is the principal factor influencing the performance of the SO2 emissions trading market. Transaction costs would also reduce market efficiency. In addition, current-level emissions discharge fee/tax and banking mechanisms do not distinctly affect policy performance. Thus, applying emissions trading in emission control in China should consider policy design and interaction with other existing policies.

  10. Analysis of commercial equipment and instrumentation for Spacelab payloads. Volume 3: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of each selected equipment item, and suitability and cost analyses were documented by equipment item. Tradeoffs of alternative specification requirements are presented which include possible relaxation of vibration, material control, fungus and corrosion requirements for experiment equipment. An additional tradeoff was performed to determine whether it is cost effective to modify experiment equipment to be compatible with a 28-volt dc power source rather than the conventional 110-volt ac source. Programmatic analysis data are given which were used as the basis for the extension of results from the analyses of specific equipment items to the entire spacelab experiment program.

  11. The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Comprehensive Intervention Study on Childhood Obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Liping; Xu, Haiquan; Liu, Ailing; van Raaij, Joop; Bemelmans, Wanda; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Fang, Hongyun; Ma, Jun; Xu, Guifa; Li, Ying; Guo, Hongwei; Du, Lin; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. Methods And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its’ control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, ‘nutrition and health classes’ were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m2 (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its’ control group (0.82±0.09 for BMI, 0.10±0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its’ control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. Conclusions The school-based integrated obesity intervention program

  12. A uniform time trade off method for states better and worse than dead: feasibility study of the 'lead time' approach.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Nancy J; Tsuchiya, Aki; Buckingham, Ken; Tilling, Carl

    2011-03-01

    The way time trade off (TTO) values are elicited for states of health considered 'worse than being dead' has important implications for the mean values used in economic evaluation. Conventional approaches to TTO, as used in the UK's 'MVH' value set, are problematic because they require fundamentally different trade-offs tasks for the valuation of states better and worse than dead. This study aims to refine and test the feasibility of a new approach described by Robinson and Spencer (2006. Health Economics 15: 393-402), and to explore the characteristics of the valuation data it generates. The approach introduces a 'lead time' into the TTO, producing a uniform procedure for generating values either >0 or<0. We used this lead time TTO to value 10 moderate to severe EQ-5D states using a sample of the general public (n=109). We conclude that the approach is feasible for use in valuation studies and appears to overcome the discontinuity in values around 0 evident in conventional methods. However, further research is required to resolve the issue of how to handle participants who 'use up' all lead time; to develop ways of controlling for individual time preferences; and to better understand the implications for valuations of states better than dead.

  13. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1980-01-01

    Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Moderate Physical Activity: A Study in Nine UK Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Cooke, Carlton; Gilson, Nicholas; Marsh, Kevin; McKenna, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: With growing concerns to establish the value for returns on public health investment, there is a need to identify cost-effective physical activity interventions. This study measured change in moderate physical activity (MPA) in seven community-based intervention types, costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and possible…

  15. Perception of Benefits and Costs during SARS Outbreak: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Cecilia; Wong, Wai-man; Tsang, Kenneth W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined perceived benefits and costs of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mixed accounts of benefits and costs, rather than exclusive accounts of only benefits or costs, were proposed to be characterized by nondefensiveness and enduring changes in psychosocial resources. Participants were 70 SARS…

  16. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contracts or revisions to existing contracts, and an analysis of the effects on power costs; (4) Use of... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Power cost studies-power supply borrowers. 1710.303... AND GUARANTEES Long-Range Financial Forecasts § 1710.303 Power cost studies—power supply borrowers....

  17. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contracts or revisions to existing contracts, and an analysis of the effects on power costs; (4) Use of... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Power cost studies-power supply borrowers. 1710.303... AND GUARANTEES Long-Range Financial Forecasts § 1710.303 Power cost studies—power supply borrowers....

  18. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contracts or revisions to existing contracts, and an analysis of the effects on power costs; (4) Use of... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Power cost studies-power supply borrowers. 1710.303... AND GUARANTEES Long-Range Financial Forecasts § 1710.303 Power cost studies—power supply borrowers....

  19. Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method - Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor, Catalyst Technologies Published April 30, 2016 Approved for public...Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method—Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO Bruce Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor... Catalyst Technologies Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems Ricardo Valerdi, Professor, University of

  20. Using Videos and Multimodal Discourse Analysis to Study How Students Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    The use of video to assist with ethnographical-based research is not a new phenomenon. Recent advances in technology have reduced the costs and technical expertise required to use videos for gathering research data. Audio-visual records of learning activities as they take place, allow for many non-vocal and inter-personal communication…

  1. Hungary refinery rehabilitation study. Volume 2, Sections 1-14 (final report). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The output reports of all of the REFOP runs conducted for MOL RT are included in the Volume. The format of these output reports are as follows: Title Page, Investment Summary Report; Economic Summary Report; Operating Cost Summary; Input-Output Summary; Unit Operating Summary; Excess Streams; Utility Summary; Specification Blending Report; and Units.

  2. Wind Shear Systems Implementation Plan, Benefit/Cost Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    pilot is projected to cnst S75-1)OK exclh i,, V ,t the cost of certification . e. Safe Flight Instrument Corporation Wind Shear System. (1) Description The... Ielt Asilliistraied in Figure 4-4, 1-h- hoi/nnL.’nti ;nm~i;ire ; trar t jg inort l ac~I riLI i rom ;aiee;: r~itie . ir:p’e < Il lr i ; I IStIU1C l l...cost of InstalLng a head-up display for one pilot in the DC-9-hC, is estimated to be $75-100 K exclusive of certification . Source: Jac k McDonae 1, 213

  3. Systematic review of cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Politiek, Klaziena; Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2016-08-01

    The individual burden of disease in hand eczema patients is considerable. However, little is known about the socio-economic impact of this disease. The aims of this review were to evaluate the literature on cost-of-illness in hand eczema, and to compose a checklist for future use. The literature was retrieved from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2015. Quality evaluation was based on seven relevant items in cost-of-illness studies. Cost data (direct and indirect) were extracted and converted into euros (2014 price level) by use of the Dutch Consumer Price Index. Six articles were included. The mean annual total cost per patient ranged from €1712 to €9792 (direct cost per patient, €521 to €3829; and indirect cost per patient, €100 to €6846). Occupational hand eczema patients showed indirect costs up to 70% of total costs, mainly because of absenteeism. A large diversity in hand eczema severity was found between studies. The socio-economic burden of hand eczema is considerable, especially for more severe and/or occupational hand eczema. Absenteeism from paid work leads to a high total cost-of-illness, although disregard of presenteeism often leads to underestimation of indirect costs. Differences in included cost components, the occupational status of patients and hand eczema severity make international comparison difficult. A checklist was added to standardize the approach to cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

  4. Parametric study of helicopter aircraft systems costs and weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    Weight estimating relationships (WERs) and recurring production cost estimating relationships (CERs) were developed for helicopters at the system level. The WERs estimate system level weight based on performance or design characteristics which are available during concept formulation or the preliminary design phase. The CER (or CERs in some cases) for each system utilize weight (either actual or estimated using the appropriate WER) and production quantity as the key parameters.

  5. Low-Cost Aircraft Structural Repair and Maintenance Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    associated with the research and development of a military aircraft system are those required to design, fabricate, test , and evaluate the air...vehicle system . For aircraft structures, this would include the costs for conducting research and evaluation testing of new materials, processes, and...unlimited. Document partially illegible. Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov’t. agencies only; Test and Evaluation; MAR 1977. Other requests shall be

  6. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  7. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  8. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  9. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  10. Entry, Descent, and Landing Technology Concept Trade Study for Increasing Payload Mass to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Powell, Richard W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Tolson, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    A trade study was conducted that compared various entry, descent, and landing technologies and concepts for placing an 1,800 kg payload on the surface of Mars. The purpose of this trade study was to provide data, and make recommendations, that could be used in making decisions regarding which new technologies and concepts should be pursued. Five concepts were investigated, each using a different combination of new technologies: 1) a Baseline concept using the least new technologies, 2) Aerocapture and Entry from Orbit, 3) Inflatable Aeroshell, 4) Mid L/D Aeroshell-A (high ballistic coefficient), and 5) Mid L/D Aeroshell-B (low ballistic coefficient). All concepts were optimized to minimize entry mass subject to a common set of key requirements. These key requirements were: A) landing a payload mass of 1,800 kg, B) landing at an altitude 2.5 km above the MOLA areoid, C) landing with a descent rate of 2.5 m/s, and D) using a single launch vehicle available within the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Contract without resorting to in-space assembly. Additional constraints were implemented, some common to all concepts and others specific to the new technologies used. Among the findings of this study are the following observations. Concepts using blunt-body aeroshells (1, 2, and 3 above) had entry masses between 4,028 kg and 4,123 kg. Concepts using mid L/D aeroshells (4 and 5 above) were significantly heavier with entry masses of 5,292 kg (concept 4) and 4,812 kg (concept 5). This increased weight was mainly due to the aeroshell. Based on a comparison of the concepts it was recommended that: 1) re-qualified and/or improved TPS materials be developed, 2) large subsonic parachutes be qualified. Aerocapture was identified as a promising concept, but system issues beyond the scope of this study need to be investigated. Inflatable aeroshells were identified as a promising new technology, but they require additional technology maturation work. For the class of missions

  11. A Trade-off Study of Tilt Rotor Aircraft versus Helicopters Using VASCOMP 2 and HESCOMP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Accessibility to Alaska’s natural resources (offshore oil , minerals, timber, fish, etc.) could be greatly enhanced using V/SrOL aircraft with the...Offshore oil exploration and production H. EXCESSIVE INITIAL COST Although tilt rotor aircraft have advantaaes which may never be matched bv conventional...objective in conducting this experiment was to aanalyze the differences in aircraft canabi ]it’es for civet! values of mission radius. SP3 D. EXPERIMENT

  12. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  13. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 3: Subsystem trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, Glen J.

    1987-01-01

    The technical trade studies and analyses reported in this book represent the accumulated work of the technical staff for the contract period. The general disciplines covered are as follows: (1) Guidance, Navigation, and Control; (2) Avionics Hardware; (3) Aeroassist Technology; (4) Propulsion; (5) Structure and Materials; and (6) Thermal Control Technology. The objectives in each of these areas were to develop the latest data, information, and analyses in support of the vehicle design effort.

  14. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  15. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  16. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  19. Reducing Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Corporate Sector, a Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    The study is titled "Reducing energy cost and GreenHouse Gas emission in the corporate sector, A Delphi Study". The study applied the Delphi methodology and focused on the Green IT solutions that can help the modern corporate organizations with less than 1000 employees to decrease their energy costs and GHG emissions. The study presents…

  20. The Application of a Trade Study Methodology to Determine Which Capabilities to Implement in a Test Facility Data Acquisition System Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, Kristopher J.

    2008-01-01

    More and more test programs are requiring high frequency measurements. Marshall Space Flight Center s Cold Flow Test Facility has an interest in acquiring such data. The acquisition of this data requires special hardware and capabilities. This document provides a structured trade study approach for determining which additional capabilities of a VXI-based data acquisition system should be utilized to meet the test facility objectives. The paper is focused on the trade study approach detailing and demonstrating the methodology. A case is presented in which a trade study was initially performed to provide a recommendation for the data system capabilities. Implementation details of the recommended alternative are briefly provided as well as the system s performance during a subsequent test program. The paper then addresses revisiting the trade study with modified alternatives and attributes to address issues that arose during the subsequent test program. Although the model does not identify a single best alternative for all sensitivities, the trade study process does provide a much better understanding. This better understanding makes it possible to confidently recommend Alternative 3 as the preferred alternative.