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Sample records for cost-effectiveness analysis cea

  1. Multi-arm Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) comparing different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab in early breast cancer, from the English NHS payer perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Rachael M.; Shemilt, Ian; Serra-Sastre, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab improves survival in HER2+ breast cancer patients, with some evidence of adverse cardiac side effects. Current recommendations are to give adjuvant trastuzumab for one year or until recurrence, although trastuzumab treatment for only 9 or 10 weeks has shown similar survival rates to 12-month treatment. We present here a multi-arm joint analysis examining the relative cost-effectiveness of different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab. Methods and findings Network meta-analysis (NMA) was used to examine which trials’ data to include in the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A network using FinHer (9 weeks vs. zero) and BCIRG006 (12 months vs. zero) trials offered the only jointly randomisable network so these trials were used in the CEA. The 3-arm CEA compared costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with zero, 9-week and 12-month adjuvant trastuzumab durations in early breast cancer, using a decision tree followed by a Markov model that extrapolated the results to a lifetime time horizon. Pairwise incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were also calculated for each pair of regimens and used in budget impact analysis, and the Bucher method was used to check face validity of the findings. Addition of the PHARE trial (6 months vs. 12 months) to the network, in order to create a 4-arm CEA including the 6-month regimen, was not possible as late randomisation in this trial resulted in recruitment of a different patient population as evidenced by the NMA findings. The CEA results suggest that 9 weeks’ trastuzumab is cost-saving and leads to more QALYs than 12 months’, i.e. the former dominates the latter. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier (CEAF) favours zero trastuzumab at willingness-to-pay levels below £2,500/QALY and treatment for 9 weeks above this threshold. The combination of the NMA and Bucher investigations suggests that the 9-week duration is as efficacious as the 12-month duration for distant

  2. Multi-arm Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) comparing different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab in early breast cancer, from the English NHS payer perspective.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Caroline S; Hunter, Rachael M; Shemilt, Ian; Serra-Sastre, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Trastuzumab improves survival in HER2+ breast cancer patients, with some evidence of adverse cardiac side effects. Current recommendations are to give adjuvant trastuzumab for one year or until recurrence, although trastuzumab treatment for only 9 or 10 weeks has shown similar survival rates to 12-month treatment. We present here a multi-arm joint analysis examining the relative cost-effectiveness of different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was used to examine which trials' data to include in the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A network using FinHer (9 weeks vs. zero) and BCIRG006 (12 months vs. zero) trials offered the only jointly randomisable network so these trials were used in the CEA. The 3-arm CEA compared costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with zero, 9-week and 12-month adjuvant trastuzumab durations in early breast cancer, using a decision tree followed by a Markov model that extrapolated the results to a lifetime time horizon. Pairwise incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were also calculated for each pair of regimens and used in budget impact analysis, and the Bucher method was used to check face validity of the findings. Addition of the PHARE trial (6 months vs. 12 months) to the network, in order to create a 4-arm CEA including the 6-month regimen, was not possible as late randomisation in this trial resulted in recruitment of a different patient population as evidenced by the NMA findings. The CEA results suggest that 9 weeks' trastuzumab is cost-saving and leads to more QALYs than 12 months', i.e. the former dominates the latter. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier (CEAF) favours zero trastuzumab at willingness-to-pay levels below £2,500/QALY and treatment for 9 weeks above this threshold. The combination of the NMA and Bucher investigations suggests that the 9-week duration is as efficacious as the 12-month duration for distant-disease-free survival and overall survival

  3. [Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) regarding vitamin A in children aged less than 5 years-old in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Quitian, Hoover; Castaño, Natalia; Granados, Claudia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the relative cost-effectiveness of using vitamin A in children aged less than 5-years-old regarding the reduction of events involving diarrhoea, malaria and mortality from the Colombian health-related social security system (CHSSS). A decision tree was constructed, using deaths averted as outcome. Probabilities were taken from the pertinent literature and costs from official sources. The cost-effectiveness threshold was three times greater than the per capita Colombian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were made and cost effectiveness acceptability curves were drawn. Providing a cohort of 100,000 children with vitamin A (as opposed to not doing so) would represent a saving regarding medical attention costs of $ 340,306,917 due to the number of events involving diarrhea (4,268) and malaria (76), having become reduced, as well as cases requiring hospitalization. A saving for the CHSSS was consistently obtained in sensitivity analysis. Providing vitamin supplements for children aged less than 5 years-old would seem to be the least costly and most effective (dominant) strategy for the CHSSS, i.e. compared to not doing so).

  4. Seeing the NICE side of cost-effectiveness analysis: a qualitative investigation of the use of CEA in NICE technology appraisals.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Williams, Iestyn; McIver, Shirley

    2007-02-01

    Resource scarcity is the raison d'être for the discipline of economics. Thus, the primary purpose of economic analysis is to help decision-makers when addressing problems arising due to the scarcity problem. The research reported here was concerned with how cost-effectiveness information is used by the National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE) in national technology coverage decisions in the UK, and how its impact might be increased. The research followed a qualitative case study methodology with semi-structured interviews, supported by observation and analysis of secondary sources. Our research highlights that the technology appraisal function of NICE represents an important progression for the UK health economics community: new cost-effectiveness work is commissioned for each technology and that work directly informs national health policy. However, accountability in policy decisions necessitates that the information upon which decisions are based (including cost-effectiveness analysis, CEA) is accessible. This was found to be a serious problem and represents one of the main ongoing challenges. Other issues highlighted include perceived weaknesses in analysis methods and the poor alignment between the health maximisation objectives assumed in economic analyses and the range of other objectives facing decision-makers in reality. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Understanding Harris' understanding of CEA: is cost effective resource allocation undone?

    PubMed

    Edlin, Richard; McCabe, Christopher; Round, Jeff; Wright, Judy; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark; Cookson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We summarise and evaluate Harris' criticisms of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and the alternative processes he commends to health care decision makers. In contrast to CEA, Harris' asserts that individuals have a right to life-saving treatment that cannot be denied on the basis of their capacity to benefit. We conclude that, whilst Harris' work has challenged the proponents of CEA and quality-adjusted life years to be explicit about the method's indirect discriminatory characteristics, his arguments ignore important questions about what 'lives saved' mean. Harris also attempts to avoid opportunity cost by advocating the same chance of treatment for every person desiring treatment. Using a simple example, we illustrate that an 'equal chances' lottery is not in the interest of any patient, as it reduces the chance of treatment for all patients by leaving some of the health budget unspent.

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis for Nursing Research

    PubMed Central

    Bensink, Mark E.; Eaton, Linda H.; Morrison, Megan L.; Cook, Wendy A.; Curtis, R. Randall; Kundu, Anjana; Gordon, Deborah B.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background With ever increasing pressure to reduce costs and increase quality, nurses are faced with the challenge of producing evidence that their interventions and care provide value. Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a tool that can be used to provide this evidence by comparative evaluation of the costs and consequences of two or more alternatives. Objectives The aim of this article is to introduce the essential components of CEA to nurses and nurse researchers with the protocol of a recently funded cluster randomized controlled trial as an example. Methods This article provides: (a) a description of the main concepts and key steps in CEA, and (b) a summary of the background and objectives of a CEA designed to evaluate a nursing led pain and symptom management intervention in rural communities compared to current usual care. Discussion As the example highlights, incorporating CEA into nursing research studies is feasible. The burden of the additional data collection required is off-set by quantitative evidence of the given intervention's cost and impact using humanistic and economic outcomes. At a time when US health care is moving toward accountable care, the information provided by CEA will be an important additional component of the evidence produced by nursing research. PMID:23817285

  7. Improving value measurement in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ubel, P A; Nord, E; Gold, M; Menzel, P; Prades, J L; Richardson, J

    2000-09-01

    Before cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) can fulfill its promise as a tool to guide health care allocation decisions, the method of incorporating societal values into CEA may need to be improved. The study design was a declarative exposition of potential fallacies in the theoretical underpinnings of CEA. Two values held by many people-preferences for giving priority to severely ill patients and preferences to avoid discrimination against people who have limited treatment potential because of disability or chronic illness-that are not currently incorporated into CEA are discussed. Traditional CEA, through the measurement of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is constrained because of a "QALY trap." If, for example, saving the life of a person with paraplegia is equally valuable as saving the life of a person without paraplegia, then current QALY methods force us to conclude that curing paraplegia brings no benefit. Basing cost-effectiveness measurement on societal values rather than QALYs may allow us to better capture public rationing preferences, thereby escaping the QALY trap. CEA can accommodate a wider range of such societal values about fairness in its measurements by amending its methodology.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis appraisal and application: an emergency medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    April, Michael D; Murray, Brian P

    2017-03-10

    Cost-effectiveness is an important goal for emergency care delivery. The many diagnostic, treatment, and disposition decisions made in the emergency department (ED) have a significant impact upon healthcare resource utilization. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is an analytic tool to optimize these resource allocation decisions through the systematic comparison of costs and effects of alternative healthcare decisions. Yet few emergency medicine leaders and policy-makers have any formal training in CEA methodology. This paper provides an introduction to the interpretation and use of CEA with a focus on application to emergency medicine problems and settings. It applies a previously-published CEA to the hypothetical case of a patient presenting to the ED with chest pain who requires risk stratification. This paper uses a widely-cited checklist to appraise the CEA. This checklist serves as a vehicle for presenting basic CEA terminology and concepts. General topics of focus include measurement of costs and outcomes, incremental analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Integrated throughout the paper are recommendations for good CEA practice with emphasis on the guidelines published by the United States Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Unique challenges for emergency medicine CEAs discussed include the projection of long-term outcomes from emergent interventions, costing ED services, and applying study results to diverse patient populations across various ED settings. The discussion also includes an overview of the limitations inherent in applying CEA results to clinical practice to include the lack of incorporation of non-cost considerations in CEA (e.g., ethics). After reading this article, emergency medicine leaders and researchers will have an enhanced understanding of the basics of CEA critical appraisal and application. The paper concludes with an overview of economic evaluation resources for readers interested in conducting ED-based economic

  9. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  10. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Dao, T D

    1985-04-01

    A model for cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis (CBA-CEA) of pharmaceutical intervention is presented, and CBA-CEA research methods reported in the literature are reviewed. The cost versus benefit and the cost effectiveness of drug therapy can be analyzed in societal as well as private terms. Since CBA measures costs and outcomes in monetary terms, it can be used to compare net benefits of all types of interventions. CEA, however, can be used only in comparing alternative interventions that can produce a similar health outcome. Research activities needed for identification of treatment protocols, alternative therapies and their respective outcomes, and resource use are described. Quantification of benefits and costs is discussed and inherent strengths and weaknesses of CBA-CEA are summarized. For the wide variety of research activities involved in CBA-CEA, the expertise of economists, physicians, clinical pharmacists and pharmacologists, epidemiologists, sociologists, and psychologists is needed. Inherent in CBA-CEA for drug therapy are judgments, either by analysts or by policy decision makers, about how to value life, pain, anxiety, and happiness and how to distribute health-care resources. When results of CBA-CEA are presented and interpreted with care, this analysis can be an important tool for policy decision makers.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  12. [Health technology assessment: II. Cost effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr

    2010-01-01

    New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.

  13. Can delivery systems use cost-effectiveness analysis to reduce healthcare costs and improve value?

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Lucy A.; Savitz, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding costs and ensuring that we demonstrate value in healthcare is a foundational presumption as we transform the way we deliver and pay for healthcare in the U.S. With a focus on population health and payment reforms underway, there is increased pressure to examine cost-effectiveness in healthcare delivery. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic analysis comparing the costs and effects (i.e. health outcomes) of two or more treatment options. The result is expressed as a ratio where the denominator is the gain in health from a measure (e.g. years of life or quality-adjusted years of life) and the numerator is the incremental cost associated with that health gain. For higher cost interventions, the lower the ratio of costs to effects, the higher the value. While CEA is not new, the approach continues to be refined with enhanced statistical techniques and standardized methods. This article describes the CEA approach and also contrasts it to optional approaches, in order for readers to fully appreciate caveats and concerns. CEA as an economic evaluation tool can be easily misused owing to inappropriate assumptions, over reliance, and misapplication. Twelve issues to be considered in using CEA results to drive healthcare delivery decision-making are summarized. Appropriately recognizing both the strengths and the limitations of CEA is necessary for informed resource allocation in achieving the maximum value for healthcare services provided. PMID:27830055

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis using data from multinational trials: The use of bivariate hierarchical modelling

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Andrea; Lambert, Paul C; Sculpher, Mark; Rice, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) often uses individual patient data (IPD) from multinational randomised controlled trials. Although designed to account for between-patient sampling variability in the clinical and economic data, standard analytical approaches to CEA ignore the presence of between-location variability in the study results. This is a restrictive limitation given that countries often differ in factors that could affect the results of CEAs, such as the availability of healthcare resources, their unit costs, clinical practice, and patient case-mix. We advocate the use of Bayesian bivariate hierarchical modelling to analyse multinational cost-effectiveness data. This analytical framework explicitly recognises that patient-level costs and outcomes are nested within countries. Using real life data, we illustrate how the proposed methods can be applied to obtain (a) more appropriate estimates of overall cost-effectiveness and associated measure of sampling uncertainty compared to standard CEA; and (b) country-specific cost-effectiveness estimates which can be used to assess the between-location variability of the study results, while controlling for differences in country-specific and patient-specific characteristics. It is demonstrated that results from standard CEA using IPD from multinational trials display a large degree of variability across the 17 countries included in the analysis, producing potentially misleading results. In contrast, ‘shrinkage estimates’ obtained from the modelling approach proposed here facilitate the appropriate quantification of country-specific cost-effectiveness estimates, while weighting the results based on the level of information available within each country. We suggest that the methods presented here represent a general framework for the analysis of economic data collected from different locations. PMID:17641141

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis in the courts: recent trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, P D; Kanna, M L

    2001-04-01

    This article provides an initial look at how managed care organizations (MCOs) might incorporate cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) into their decision-making process and how the courts might respond. Because so few medical liability cases directly involve CEA, we must look at other areas of the law to assess potential MCO liability for applying CEA. In general negligence cases, courts rely on a risk-benefit test to determine customary practice. Likewise, in product liability cases, courts use a risk-utility calculus to determine liability for product design defects. And in challenges to government regulation, courts examine how agencies use CEA to set regulatory policy. The results have been mixed. In product liability cases, CEA has led to some punitive damage awards against automobile manufacturers. But courts have integrated it in negligence cases without generating juror antipathy, and generally defer to agency expertise in how to incorporate CEA. The article discusses the implications of these cases for MCO use of CEA and outlines various options for setting the standard of care in the managed care era.

  16. Transfer regulations and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Posner, Eric A

    2003-12-01

    Recent scholarship on regulatory oversight has focused on cost-benefit analysis of prescriptive regulations--regulations that restrict behavior such as pollution--and their use to cure market failures, and has overlooked the vast number of transfer regulations. Transfer regulations are regulations that channel funds to beneficiaries. These regulations are authorized by statutes that establish entitlement programs like Medicare and Social Security, pay one-time distributions to victims of misfortunes such as natural disasters and the 9/11 terrorist attack, and fund pork barrel spending. Cost-benefit analysis cannot be used to evaluate transfer regulations because all transfer regulations fail cost-benefit analysis; cost-effectiveness analysis, however, can be used to evaluate transfer regulations. Although executive orders appear to require agencies to use cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate transfer regulations that have a large economic impact, the agencies' record is dismal. Most agencies fail to perform cost-effectiveness analysis, and other agencies perform cost-effectiveness analysis incorrectly. More vigorous Office of Management and Budget and, possibly, judicial review could improve the quality of distributive regulations.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency.

  18. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-05-01

    There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457-1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168-3739 per DALY adverted). This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  19. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Results Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457–1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168–3739 per DALY adverted). Conclusion This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. PMID:26491060

  20. Cost - effectiveness analysis of the antiplatelet treatment administered on ischemic stroke patients using goal programming approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Rasvini; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati; Idris, Badrisyah

    2014-09-01

    There are numerous ways to prevent or treat ischemic stroke and each of these competing alternatives is associated with a different effectiveness and a cost. In circumstances where health funds are budgeted and thus fixed, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) can provide information on how to comprehend the largest health gains with that limited fund as CEA is used to compare different strategies for preventing or treating a single disease. The most common medications for ischemic stroke are the anti-platelet drugs. While some drugs are more effective than others, they are also more expensive. This paper will thus assess the CEA of anti-platelet drug available for ischemic stroke patients using goal programming (GP) approach subject to in-patients days and patients' quality-of-life. GP presents a way of striving towards several objectives simultaneously whereby in this case we will consider minimizing the cost and maximizing the effectiveness.

  1. The "e" in cost-effectiveness analyses. A case study of omalizumab efficacy and effectiveness for cost-effectiveness analysis evidence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jonathan D; McQueen, R Brett; Briggs, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article is a call for increased use of real-world evidence in health technology assessment and related policy and decision making. There is currently a disconnect between evidence used to guide regulatory approval of therapies and evidence used to inform therapeutic coverage and reimbursement decisions. Public and private payers need to understand not only whether an intervention works but also whether it offers good value compared with licensed alternatives (not placebo) as they are used in the real-world practice and population (not in a controlled trial environment). Addressing such concerns requires evidence to be drawn from a wide range of study designs, but with consideration and weighting given to their relative strengths and weaknesses, as well as their position on the pragmatic-explanatory (i.e., effectiveness-efficacy) continuum. The potential impact of using different types of evidence to inform cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is discussed for omalizumab, comparing and contrasting a CEA model informed by an omalizumab efficacy trial to a CEA model drawing primarily on evidence from effectiveness observational studies of omalizumab. There was reasonable agreement between the two omalizumab CEA models, although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio generated by the effectiveness observational study-driven model was more favorable for omalizumab. Health technology assessment bodies and payers must use their judgment to determine which components of efficacy-based and effectiveness-based CEA evidence are most closely aligned with their goals. For each CEA evidence component, perhaps the two E's form bounds of the truth as well as a fuller picture of the uncertainty surrounding the truth.

  2. Analysis of cost effective pipe insulation requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.; Somasundaram, S.

    1997-06-01

    The proposed BRS/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989R contains updated requirements for pipe insulation thicknesses developed on the basis of technical and economic principles. These requirements were determined based on computer simulations of the annual energy flow through the insulation, first cost assumptions for the insulation, and economic assumptions of discount rate and energy escalation rate. In later work, the same tools were used to analyze the sensitivity of the cost-effective insulation level for piping insulation to variations in operating hours, ambient temperature, fluid temperature, and economic assumptions. These analyses were carried out using cost data for pipe insulation averaged across several sources. The results of the sensitivity study showed that system operating hours is a critical parameter in determining the cost-effective pipe insulation thicknesses. Although there is a lack of reliable sources of typical operating hour data for heating systems, anecdotal information suggests that while most smaller, building level systems are operated only during a heating season, many site-wide steam and hot water heating systems are operated year round and insulation levels on these systems should reflect both the pipe size and the different operating schedules. In addition, the analysis showed that because of differences in private and Federal sector economics, the cost-effective pipe insulation levels appropriate for the private sector are often substantially different from those that are appropriate for the Federal sector.

  3. A strategic plan for integrating cost-effectiveness analysis into the US healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter J; Palmer, Jennifer A; Daniels, Norman; Quigley, Karen; Gold, Marthe R; Chao, Schumarry

    2008-04-01

    The Panel on Integrating Cost-Effectiveness Considerations into Health Policy Decisions, composed of medical and pharmacy directors at public and private health plans, was convened to (1) explore the views of health plan purchasers about cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and (2) to develop a strategic plan for policymakers to address obstacles and to integrate CEA into health policy decisions, drawing on stakeholders as part of the solution. Panelists expressed strong support for a greater role for CEA in US health policy decisions, although they also highlighted barriers in the current system and challenges involved in moving forward. The strategic plan involves a series of activities to advance the use of CEA in the United States, including research and demonstration projects to illustrate potential gains from using the technique and ongoing consensus- building steps (eg, workshops, conferences, town meetings) involving a broad coalition of stakeholders. Funding and leadership from policymakers and nonprofit foundations will be needed, as well as the active engagement of legislators and business and consumer groups. Panelists emphasized the importance of the Medicare program taking a lead role, and the need for new "infrastructure," in the form of either a new institute for conducting research or increased funding for existing institutions.

  4. Estimating 'costs' for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Miners, Alec

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal Programme has been charged with producing guidance for the NHS in England and Wales on the appropriate use of new and existing healthcare programmes. Guidance is based on an assessment of a number of factors, including cost effectiveness. The identification, measurement and valuation of costs are important components of any cost-effectiveness analysis. However, working through these steps raises a number of important methodological questions. For example, how should 'future' resource use be estimated, and is there a need to consider all 'future' costs? Given that NICE produces national guidance, should national unit cost data be used to value resources or should local variations in negotiated prices be taken into account? This paper was initially prepared as a briefing paper as part of the process of updating NICE's 2004 Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal for a workshop on 'costs'. It outlines the issues that were raised in the original briefing paper and the subsequent questions that were discussed at the workshop.

  5. Does the use of efficacy or effectiveness evidence in cost-effectiveness analysis matter?

    PubMed

    Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-01-02

    To test the association of clinical evidence type, efficacy-based or effectiveness-based ("E"), versus whether or not asthma interventions' cost-effectiveness findings are favorable. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Tufts CEA registry, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the UK National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database from 2009 to 2014. All cost-effectiveness studies evaluating asthma medication(s) were included. Clinical evidence type, "E," was classified as efficacy-based if the evidence was from an explanatory randomized controlled trial(s) or meta-analysis, while evidence from pragmatic trial(s) or observational study(s) was classified as effectiveness-based. We defined three times the World Health Organization cost-effectiveness willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold or less as a favorable cost-effectiveness finding. Logistic regression tested the likelihood of favorable versus unfavorable cost-effectiveness findings against the type of "E." 25 cost-effectiveness studies were included. Ten (40.0%) studies were effectiveness-based, yet 15 (60.0%) studies were efficacy-based. Of 17 studies using endpoints that could be compared to WTP threshold, 7 out of 8 (87.5%) effectiveness-based studies yielded favorable cost-effectiveness results, whereas 4 out of 9 (44.4%) efficacy-based studies yielded favorable cost-effectiveness results. The adjusted odds ratio was 15.12 (95% confidence interval; 0.59 to 388.75) for effectiveness-based versus efficacy-based achieving favorable cost-effectiveness findings. More asthma cost-effectiveness studies used efficacy-based evidence. Studies using effectiveness-based evidence trended toward being more likely to disseminate favorable cost-effective findings than those using efficacy. Health policy decision makers should pay attention to the type of clinical evidence used in cost-effectiveness studies for accurate interpretation and application.

  6. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Marisa; Stavroulakis, Maria Christina; Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the adoption of the target

  7. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Background Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. Methods We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. Results We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the

  8. Is it really possible to build a bridge between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis?

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Edlin, Richard

    2002-09-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a recognised as the economic evaluation technique that accords most with the underlying principles of standard welfare economic theory. However, due to problems associated with the technique, economists evaluating resources allocation decisions in health care have most often used cost-effective analysis (CEA), in which health benefits are expressed in non-monetary units. As a result, attempts have been made to build a welfare economic bridge between cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). In this paper, we develops these attempts and finds that, while assumptions can be made to facilitate a constant willingness-to-pay per unit of health outcome, these restrictions are highly unrealistic. We develop an impossibility theorem that shows it is not possible to link CBA and CEA if: (i) the axioms of expected utility theory hold; (ii) the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model is valid in a welfare economic sense; and (iii) illness affects the ability to enjoy consumption. We conclude that, within a welfare economic framework, it would be unwise to rely on a link between CBA and CEA in economic evaluations.

  9. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis in melanoma detection: A transition model applied to dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromme, Isabelle; Legrand, Catherine; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leiter, Ulrike; Suciu, Stefan; Eggermont, Alexander; Sacré, Laurine; Baurain, Jean-François; Thomas, Luc; Beutels, Philippe; Speybroeck, Niko

    2016-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to demonstrate how our melanoma disease model (MDM) can be used for cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) in the melanoma detection field. In particular, we used the data of two cohorts of Belgian melanoma patients to investigate the cost-effectiveness of dermoscopy. A MDM, previously constructed to calculate the melanoma burden, was slightly modified to be suitable for CEAs. Two cohorts of patients entered into the model to calculate morbidity, mortality and costs. These cohorts were constituted by melanoma patients diagnosed by dermatologists adequately, or not adequately, trained in dermoscopy. Effectiveness and costs were calculated for each cohort and compared. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), a composite measure depending on melanoma-related morbidity and mortality. Costs included costs of treatment and follow-up as well as costs of detection in non-melanoma patients and costs of excision and pathology of benign lesions excised to rule out melanoma. The result of our analysis concluded that melanoma diagnosis by dermatologists adequately trained in dermoscopy resulted in both a gain of QALYs (less morbidity and/or mortality) and a reduction in costs. This study demonstrates how our MDM can be used in CEAs in the melanoma detection field. The model and the methodology suggested in this paper were applied to two cohorts of Belgian melanoma patients. Their analysis concluded that adequate dermoscopy training is cost-effective. The results should be confirmed by a large-scale randomised study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, D

    1997-02-01

    Most medical cost-effectiveness analyses include future costs only for related illnesses, but this approach is controversial. This paper demonstrates that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with lifetime utility maximization only if it includes all future medical and non-medical expenditures. Estimates of the magnitude of these future costs suggest that they may substantially alter both the absolute and relative cost-effectiveness of medical interventions, particularly when an intervention increases length of life more than quality of life. In older populations, current methods overstate the cost-effectiveness of interventions which extend life compared to interventions which improve the quality of life.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures to reach water safety targets.

    PubMed

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the most suitable risk-reduction measures in drinking water systems requires a thorough analysis of possible alternatives. In addition to the effects on the risk level, also the economic aspects of the risk-reduction alternatives are commonly considered important. Drinking water supplies are complex systems and to avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction measures, the entire system from source to tap needs to be considered. There is a lack of methods for quantification of water supply risk reduction in an economic context for entire drinking water systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for risk assessment in combination with economic analysis to evaluate risk-reduction measures based on a source-to-tap approach. The approach combines a probabilistic and dynamic fault tree method with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). The developed approach comprises the following main parts: (1) quantification of risk reduction of alternatives using a probabilistic fault tree model of the entire system; (2) combination of the modelling results with CEA; and (3) evaluation of the alternatives with respect to the risk reduction, the probability of not reaching water safety targets and the cost-effectiveness. The fault tree method and CEA enable comparison of risk-reduction measures in the same quantitative unit and consider costs and uncertainties. The approach provides a structured and thorough analysis of risk-reduction measures that facilitates transparency and long-term planning of drinking water systems in order to avoid sub-optimisation of available resources for risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vikram K.; Girish, K.; Lakshmi, Pandit; Vijendra, R.; Kumar, Ajay; Harsha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient's perspective and third-party perspective. Results: The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) in patient's perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide. PMID:25097273

  14. Coauthorship and Institutional Collaborations on Cost-Effectiveness Analyses: A Systematic Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Ridao, Manuel; Bolaños, Máxima; García-Altés, Anna; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Peiró, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) has been promoted as an important research methodology for determining the efficiency of healthcare technology and guiding medical decision-making. Our aim was to characterize the collaborative patterns of CEA conducted over the past two decades in Spain. Methods and Findings A systematic analysis was carried out with the information obtained through an updated comprehensive literature review and from reports of health technology assessment agencies. We identified CEAs with outcomes expressed as a time-based summary measure of population health (e.g. quality-adjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years), conducted in Spain and published between 1989 and 2011. Networks of coauthorship and institutional collaboration were produced using PAJEK software. One-hundred and thirty-one papers were analyzed, in which 526 authors and 230 institutions participated. The overall signatures per paper index was 5.4. Six major groups (one with 14 members, three with 7 members and two with 6 members) were identified. The most prolific authors were generally affiliated with the private-for-profit sector (e.g. consulting firms and the pharmaceutical industry). The private-for-profit sector mantains profuse collaborative networks including public hospitals and academia. Collaboration within the public sector (e.g. healthcare administration and primary care) was weak and fragmented. Conclusions This empirical analysis reflects critical practices among collaborative networks that contributed substantially to the production of CEA, raises challenges for redesigning future policies and provides a framework for similar analyses in other regions. PMID:22666435

  15. Costs in Perspective: Understanding Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Detsky

    1996-01-01

    This paper covers five questions: (1) What is cost-effectiveness analysis;quest; (2) How can cost-effectiveness analysis help policymakers allocate scarce resources;quest; (3) What are misconceptions about the cost effectiveness of health care interventions;quest; (4) What is an attractive cost-effectiveness ratio;quest; (5) What is the relevance of cost effectiveness to clinicians? The cost side of the equation includes more than simply the cost of the intervention, but rather the cost of all of the downstream clinical events that occur with either therapeutic alternative. Cost-effectiveness analyses are used to help decisionmakers rank programs competing for scarce resources in order to achieve the following objective: to maximize the net health benefits derived from a fixed budget for a target population. A simple example is shown. Measured cost-effectiveness ratios for selected cardiovascular interventions are displayed. The systematic use of information on effectiveness and cost effectiveness should help those involved in setting policies to have a more rational basis for funding of new programs and discontinuation of funding for old programs. In Canadian health care it is important that we use this information to make room for innovations that are effective and efficient, and to remove funding from programs that are either known to be ineffective and costly or inefficient use of resources. More energy should be put toward generating the information necessary to make these kinds of decisions.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Sten G; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E; Manrique, Javier E; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia R; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this intervention is only meaningful if

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of therapies for chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis: a case for excluding dialysis costs.

    PubMed

    Grima, Daniel T; Bernard, Lisa M; Dunn, Elizabeth S; McFarlane, Philip A; Mendelssohn, David C

    2012-11-01

    In many jurisdictions, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) plays an important role in determining drug coverage and reimbursement and, therefore, has the potential to impact patient access. Health economic guidelines recommend the inclusion of future costs related to the intervention of interest within CEAs but provide little guidance regarding the definition of 'related'. In the case of CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis but do not impact the need for or the intensity of dialysis, the determination of the relatedness of future dialysis costs to the therapy of interest is particularly ambiguous. The uncertainty as to whether dialysis costs are related or unrelated in these circumstances has led to inconsistencies in the conduct of CEAs for such products, with dialysis costs included in some analyses while excluded in others. Due to the magnitude of the cost of dialysis, whether or not dialysis costs are included in CEAs of such therapies has substantial implications for the results of such analyses, often meaning the difference between a therapy being deemed cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are excluded) or not cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are included). This paper explores the issues and implications surrounding the inclusion of dialysis costs in CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of dialysis patients but do not impact the need for dialysis. Relevant case studies clearly demonstrate that, regardless of the clinical benefits of a life-extending intervention for dialysis patients, and due to the high cost of dialysis, the inclusion of dialysis costs in the analysis essentially eliminates the possibility of obtaining a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. This raises the significant risk that dialysis patients may be denied access to interventions that are cost effective in other populations due solely to the high background cost of dialysis itself. Finally, the

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of stroke management under a universal health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Huang, Yu-Ching; Hung, Jen-Wen; Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Chen, Jin-Jong; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2012-12-15

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of stroke management was evaluated in three care models: Neurology/Rehabilitation wards (NW), Neurosurgery wards (NS), and General/miscellaneous wards (GW) under a universal health insurance system. From 1997 to 2002, subjects with first-ever acute stroke were sampled from claims data of a nationally representative cohort in Taiwan, categorized as hemorrhage stroke (HS) including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); or, ischemic stroke (IS), including cerebral infarction (CI), transient ischemic attack/ unspecified stroke (TIA/unspecified); with mild-moderate and severe severity. All-cause readmissions or mortality (AE) and direct medical cost during first-year (FYMC) after stroke were explored. CEA was performed by incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. 2368 first-ever stroke subjects including SAH 3.3%, ICH 17.9%, CI 49.8%, and TIA/unspecified 29.0% were identified with AE 59.0%, 63.0%, 48.6%, 46.8%, respectively. There were 50.8%, 13.5%, 35.6% of stroke patients served by NW, NS and GW with AE 44.9%, 60.6%, 56.0%, and medical costs of US$ 5,031, US$ 8,235, US$ 4,350, respectively. NW was cost-effective for both mild-moderate and severe IS. NS was the dominant care model in mild-moderate HS, while NW appeared to be a cost-minimization model for severe HS. TIA/unspecified stroke carried substantial risk of AE. NS performed better in serving mild-moderate HS, whereas NW was the optimal care model in management of IS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of School Desegregation Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Christine H.

    Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a useful tool for choosing between alternative desegregation plans or justifying one particular plan. Previous analyses of school desegregation effects on white enrollment, which focus only upon costs, have had limited use for policy. Traditional cost-benefit analysis poses problems because of the difficulty of…

  1. The case for stratified cost-effectiveness analysis by baseline health-related QOL: theory and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to argue that systematic data heterogeneity exists when the objective of pharmacotherapy is improved health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), and that the pharmacotherapy's cost effectiveness will vary inversely with the patient's baseline HR-QOL (BHR-QOL), the patient's HR-QOL just prior to treatment. It is argued that when improved HR-QOL is the primary objective of a pharmacotherapy, the magnitude of the HR-QOL response to treatment may be negatively correlated with BHR-QOL and that the net cost of the pharmacotherapy may be positively correlated with BHR-QOL. It is also argued that the value placed on a given increment in HR-QOL declines as BHR-QOL rises. The case for sample stratification by BHR-QOL, and for conducting cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) at the stratum level, is illustrated with numerical examples using hypothetical data and the incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) criterion. Sensitivity analysis is used to explore the response of the INMB at the stratum level to different degrees of data heterogeneity across the BHR-QOL strata. This paper demonstrates that because of cumulative effects, even relatively minor data heterogeneity related to BHR-QOL results in substantial differences in the cost effectiveness of treatments across BHR-QOL strata. CEA stratified by BHR-QOL enables a more efficient and equitable allocation of public healthcare funding than standard cost-effectiveness screening of pharmaceutical drugs based on full-sample averages.

  2. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Literacy Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…

  3. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Literacy Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis and insurance coverage: solving a puzzle.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The conventional model for the use of cost-effectiveness analysis for health programs involves determining whether the cost per unit of effectiveness of the program is lower than some socially determined maximum acceptable cost per unit of effectiveness. If a program is better by this criterion, the policy implication is that it should be implemented by full coverage of its cost by insurance; if not, the program should not be implemented. This paper examines the unanswered question of how cost-effectiveness analysis should be performed and interpreted when insurance coverage may involve cost sharing. It explores the question of how cost sharing should be related to the magnitude of a cost-effectiveness ratio. A common view that cost sharing should vary inversely with program cost-effectiveness is shown to be incorrect. A key issue in correct analysis is whether there is heterogeneity in marginal effectiveness of care that cannot be perceived by the social planner but is known by the demander. It is possible that some programs that would fail the social efficiency test at full coverage will be acceptable with positive cost sharing. Combining individual and social preferences affects both the choice of programs and the extent of cost sharing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Better Informing Decision Making with Multiple Outcomes Cost-Effectiveness Analysis under Uncertainty in Cost-Disutility Space

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Comparing multiple, diverse outcomes with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is important, yet challenging in areas like palliative care where domains are unamenable to integration with survival. Generic multi-attribute utility values exclude important domains and non-health outcomes, while partial analyses—where outcomes are considered separately, with their joint relationship under uncertainty ignored—lead to incorrect inference regarding preferred strategies. Objective The objective of this paper is to consider whether such decision making can be better informed with alternative presentation and summary measures, extending methods previously shown to have advantages in multiple strategy comparison. Methods Multiple outcomes CEA of a home-based palliative care model (PEACH) relative to usual care is undertaken in cost disutility (CDU) space and compared with analysis on the cost-effectiveness plane. Summary measures developed for comparing strategies across potential threshold values for multiple outcomes include: expected net loss (ENL) planes quantifying differences in expected net benefit; the ENL contour identifying preferred strategies minimising ENL and their expected value of perfect information; and cost-effectiveness acceptability planes showing probability of strategies minimising ENL. Results Conventional analysis suggests PEACH is cost-effective when the threshold value per additional day at home (1) exceeds $1,068 or dominated by usual care when only the proportion of home deaths is considered. In contrast, neither alternative dominate in CDU space where cost and outcomes are jointly considered, with the optimal strategy depending on threshold values. For example, PEACH minimises ENL when 1=$2,000 and 2=$2,000 (threshold value for dying at home), with a 51.6% chance of PEACH being cost-effective. Conclusion Comparison in CDU space and associated summary measures have distinct advantages to multiple domain comparisons, aiding

  6. Heart failure disease management programs: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, David C; Heidenreich, Paul A; Weinstein, Milton C; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2008-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) disease management programs have shown impressive reductions in hospitalizations and mortality, but in studies limited to short time frames and high-risk patient populations. Current guidelines thus only recommend disease management targeted to high-risk patients with HF. This study applied a new technique to infer the degree to which clinical trials have targeted patients by risk based on observed rates of hospitalization and death. A Markov model was used to assess the incremental life expectancy and cost of providing disease management for high-risk to low-risk patients. Sensitivity analyses of various long-term scenarios and of reduced effectiveness in low-risk patients were also considered. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending coverage to all patients was $9700 per life-year gained in the base case. In aggregate, universal coverage almost quadrupled life-years saved as compared to coverage of only the highest quintile of risk. A worst case analysis with simultaneous conservative assumptions yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $110,000 per life-year gained. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 99.74% of possible incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were <$50,000 per life-year gained. Heart failure disease management programs are likely cost-effective in the long-term along the whole spectrum of patient risk. Health gains could be extended by enrolling a broader group of patients with HF in disease management.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Morcellation Hysterectomy for Myomas.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Pietro; Einerson, Brett D; Miller, Emily S; Milad, Magdy P

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of eliminating morcellation in the surgical treatment of leiomyomas from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Not applicable. A theoretical cohort of women undergoing hysterectomy for myoma disease large enough to require morcellation. None. None. A decision analysis model was constructed using probabilities, costs, and utility data from published sources. A cost-effectiveness analysis analyzing both quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cases of disseminated cancer was performed to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of eliminating morcellation as a tool in the surgical treatment of leiomyomas. Costs and utilities were discounted using standard methodology. The base case included health care system costs and costs incurred by the patient for surgery-related disability. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of various assumptions. The cost to prevent 1 case of disseminated cancer was $10 540 832. A strategy of nonmorcellation hysterectomy via laparotomy costed more ($30 359.92 vs $20 853.15) and yielded more QALYs (21.284 vs 21.280) relative to morcellation hysterectomy. The ICER for nonmorcellation hysterectomy compared with morcellation hysterectomy was $2 184 172 per QALY. Health care costs (prolonged hospitalizations) and costs to patients of prolonged time away from work were the primary drivers of cost differential between the 2 strategies. Even when the incidence of occult sarcoma in leiomyoma surgery was ranged to twice that reported in the literature (.98%), the ICER for nonmorcellation hysterectomy was $644 393.30. Eliminating morcellation hysterectomy as a treatment for myomas is not cost-effective under a wide variety of probability and cost assumptions. Performing laparotomy for all patients who might otherwise be candidates for morcellation hysterectomy is a costly policy from a societal perspective. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Control Interventions in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Sten G.; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E.; Manrique, Javier E.; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Sepulveda, Cecilia R.; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. Methods We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Results The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this

  9. The Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Teleglaucoma Screening Device

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sera

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and costs the American economy $2.9 billion. Teleglaucoma remotely detects glaucoma improving access to ophthalmic care in rural areas. It helps manage glaucoma more efficiently to preserve vision and reduce healthcare costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using healthcare provider or third-party payer perspective within rural Canada. The study population were patients at-risk of glaucoma which includes those with diabetes and/or hypertension, family history of glaucoma, adults older than 50 years, and concurrent ocular conditions in rural Alberta. Markov modelling was used to model glaucoma health states. Effectiveness was measured in Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and costs were used in Canadian dollars. Using TreeAge Pro 2009, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were developed in dollars per QALYs. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the factors affecting cost-effectiveness. Teleglaucoma had a 20% increase in ophthalmologist-referral rate; it reduced patient travel times by 61 hours and physician wait times by 30% in comparison to in-person examination (standard of care). Teleglaucoma costs $872 per patient screened which was 80% less than in-person examination. Teleglaucoma had a greater incremental effectiveness providing an additional 0.12 QALY per patient examination. It was more sensitive (86.5%) and less specific (78.6%) than in-person examination. Teleglaucoma was more cost-effective than in-person examination with an ICER of-$27,460/QALY. This indicated that teleglaucoma will save $27, 460 for each additional QALY gained. Long term benefits showed teleglaucoma prevents 24% cases of glaucoma blindness after 30 years. Teleglaucoma demonstrated improved health outcomes, as well as, cost benefits. It increases access to ophthalmic care and improves healthcare service efficiency, specifically in rural areas. Teleglaucoma is more cost-effective

  10. Methodological considerations in the analysis of cost effectiveness in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Antczak-Bouckoms, A A; Tulloch, J F; White, B A; Capilouto, E I

    1989-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is a technique applied with increasing frequency to help make rational decisions in health care resource allocation. This article reviews the ten general principles of cost-effectiveness analysis outlined by the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress and describes a model for such analyses used widely in medicine, but only recently applied in dentistry. The imperative for the formulation of the best current information on both the effectiveness of dental practices and their costs is made more urgent because of the now universally recognized belief that resources available to meet the demands for health care are limited. Today's environment requires critical allocation decisions within categorical health problems, across diseases, or relative to other health problems. If important health benefits or cost savings are to be realized, then these analytic approaches must become widely understood, accepted, and appropriately applied by key decision makers in the dental health sector.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a continuing care intervention for cocaine-dependent adults

    PubMed Central

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; McKay, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study conducts a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a continuing care Telephone Monitoring and Counseling (TMC) intervention for adults diagnosed with cocaine dependence. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition of intensive outpatient treatment only (treatment-as-usual, or TAU; N = 108), or to one of two treatment conditions featuring TMC (N = 106) and TMC plus incentives (TMC-plus; N = 107). Follow-up assessments were conducted over a 2-year period. Methods Intervention and client costs were collected with the program and client versions of the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP). Effectiveness was measured as the number of days abstinent during follow-up. Secondary analyses consider alternative measures of effectiveness and the reduced societal costs of physical and mental health problems and criminal justice involvement. Results From the societal perspective, TMC dominates both TAU and TMC-plus as a cost-effective and cost-saving intervention. Results varied by substance-using status, however, with the subgroup of participants in TMC-plus that were using drugs at intake and early in treatment having the greatest number of days of abstinence and generating similar savings during follow-up than the TMC subgroup using drugs at intake. Conclusions Telephone monitoring and counseling appears to be a cost-effective and potentially cost-saving strategy for reducing substance use among chronic substance users. Providing client incentives added to total intervention costs but did not improve overall effectiveness. Clinical trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Number: NCT00685659. PMID:26621551

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a continuing care intervention for cocaine-dependent adults.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; McKay, James R

    2016-01-01

    The study conducts a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a continuing care Telephone Monitoring and Counseling (TMC) intervention for adults diagnosed with cocaine dependence. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition of intensive outpatient treatment only (treatment-as-usual, or TAU; N=108), or to one of two treatment conditions featuring TMC (N=106) and TMC plus incentives (TMC-plus; N=107). Follow-up assessments were conducted over a 2-year period. Intervention and client costs were collected with the program and client versions of the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP). Effectiveness was measured as the number of days abstinent during follow-up. Secondary analyses consider alternative measures of effectiveness and the reduced societal costs of physical and mental health problems and criminal justice involvement. From the societal perspective, TMC dominates both TAU and TMC-plus as a cost-effective and cost-saving intervention. Results varied by substance-using status, however, with the subgroup of participants in TMC-plus that were using drugs at intake and early in treatment having the greatest number of days of abstinence and generating similar savings during follow-up than the TMC subgroup using drugs at intake. Telephone monitoring and counseling appears to be a cost-effective and potentially cost-saving strategy for reducing substance use among chronic substance users. Providing client incentives added to total intervention costs but did not improve overall effectiveness. Clinical Trials.gov Number: NCT00685659. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Power and sample size in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Laska, E M; Meisner, M; Siegel, C

    1999-01-01

    For resource allocation under a constrained budget, optimal decision rules for mutually exclusive programs require that the treatment with the highest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) below a willingness-to-pay (WTP) criterion be funded. This is equivalent to determining the treatment with the smallest net health cost. The designer of a cost-effectiveness study needs to select a sample size so that the power to reject the null hypothesis, the equality of the net health costs of two treatments, is high. A recently published formula derived under normal distribution theory overstates sample-size requirements. Using net health costs, the authors present simple methods for power analysis based on conventional normal and on nonparametric statistical theory.

  14. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  15. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-10-01

    The timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is controversial. An important consideration that is currently missing in the literature is an evaluation of the economic impact of an early tracheostomy strategy vs a late tracheostomy strategy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the early tracheostomy strategy vs the late tracheostomy strategy. This economic analysis was performed using a decision tree model with a 90-day time horizon. The economic perspective was that of the US health care third-party payer. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per tracheostomy avoided. Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Costs were obtained from the published literature and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. A multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to account for uncertainty surrounding mean values used in the reference case. The reference case demonstrated that the cost of the late tracheostomy strategy was $45 943.81 for 0.36 of effectiveness. The cost of the early tracheostomy strategy was $31 979.12 for 0.19 of effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the late tracheostomy strategy compared with the early tracheostomy strategy was $82 145.24 per tracheostomy avoided. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000, the early tracheostomy strategy is cost-effective with 56% certainty. The adaptation of an early vs a late tracheostomy strategy depends on the priorities of the decision-maker. Up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80 000 per tracheostomy avoided, the early tracheostomy strategy has a higher probability of being the more cost-effective intervention.

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of interactive paediatric telecardiology.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; Lehoux, Pascale; Van Doesburg, Nicolaas; Cardinal, Godefroy; Leblanc, Yves

    2004-01-01

    We analysed the cost-effectiveness of a teleconsultation service after five years of operation. The service provides diagnostic consultation at a distance for children suffering from cardiac pathologies. A retrospective study was performed with all 78 infants who had received a paediatric cardiology teleconsultation over a four-year period from January 1998. The cost-effectiveness of telecardiology was compared with that of the conventional means of providing services. Teleconsultation proved to be an effective and reliable method of enhancing access to tertiary care. The number of patient journeys (both emergency transfers and semi-urgent or elective visits to the tertiary care centre) was reduced by 42%. However, the cost analysis demonstrated that teleconsultation did not result in overall cost savings: the total cost of telecardiology was C dollars 272,327 and the total cost of conventional care would have been C dollars 157,212. There were direct savings for patients but not for the health-care system, because of the high cost of the equipment and telecommunication fees. Telemedicine therefore represented a supplementary cost of C dollars 1500 per patient. In summary, telemedicine added to cost but increased effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of teleconsultation was estimated to C dollars 3488 per patient journey avoided.

  17. Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fractures: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karl, John W; Swart, Eric; Strauch, Robert J

    2015-11-18

    Scaphoid fractures are common but may be missed on initial radiographs. Advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have improved diagnostic accuracy, but at an increased initial cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of immediate advanced imaging for suspected occult scaphoid fractures. A decision analysis model was created to evaluate three diagnostic strategies for patients with concerning history and examination but negative radiographs: (1) empiric cast immobilization with orthopaedic follow-up and repeat radiography at two weeks post-injury, (2) immediate CT scanning, or (3) immediate MRI. Prevalence of occult scaphoid fracture, sensitivity and specificity of CT and MRI, and risks and outcomes of a missed fracture were derived from published clinical trials. Costs of imaging, lost worker productivity, and surgical costs of nonunion surgery were estimated on the basis of the literature. Advanced imaging was dominant over empiric cast immobilization; advanced imaging had lower costs and its health outcomes were projected to be better than those of empiric cast immobilization. MRI was slightly more cost-effective than CT on the basis of the mean published diagnostic performance, but was highly sensitive to test performance characteristics. Advanced imaging would have to increase in cost to more than $2000 or decrease in sensitivity to <25% for CT or <32% for MRI for empiric cast immobilization to be cost-effective. Given its relatively low cost and high diagnostic accuracy, advanced imaging for suspected scaphoid fractures in the setting of negative radiographs represents a cost-effective strategy for reducing both costs and morbidity. The decision to use CT compared with MRI is a function of individual institutional costs and local test performance characteristics. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urueña, Analía; Pippo, Tomás; Betelu, María Sol; Virgilio, Federico; Hernández, Laura; Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Ángela; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5. In Argentina, the most affected regions are the Northeast and Northwest, where hospitalizations and deaths are more frequent. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of adding either of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines to the routine immunization schedule. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (Version 2.0) was used to assess health benefits, costs savings, life-years gained (LYGs), DALYs averted, and cost/DALY averted of vaccinating 10 successive cohorts, from the health care system and societal perspectives. Two doses of monovalent (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and three doses of pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccine were each compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The price/dose was US$ 7.50 and US$ 5.15 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. We ran both a national and sub-national analysis, discounting all costs and benefits 3% annually. Our base case results were compared to a range of alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios. The number of LYGs was 5962 and 6440 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. The cost/DALY averted when compared to no vaccination from the health care system and societal perspective was: US$ 3870 and US$ 1802 for RV1, and US$ 2414 and US$ 358 for RV5, respectively. Equivalent figures for the Northeast were US$ 1470 and US$ 636 for RV1, and US$ 913 and US$ 80 for RV5. Therefore, rotavirus vaccination was more cost-effective in the Northeast compared to the whole country; and, in the Northwest, health service's costs saved outweighed the cost of introducing the vaccine. Vaccination with either vaccine compared to no vaccination was highly cost-effective based on WHO guidelines and Argentina's 2011 per capita GDP of US$ 9090. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, annual loss of efficacy, relative coverage of deaths, vaccine price, and discount rate. Compared to no

  19. Cost effectiveness analysis of hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mather, Richard C; Watters, Tyler S; Orlando, Lori A; Bolognesi, Michael P; Moorman, Claude T

    2010-04-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) are two viable surgical treatment options for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Recent systematic reviews and randomized trials suggest that TSA, while more costly initially, may have superior outcomes with regard to pain, function and quality of life with lower revision rates. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of TSA with HA. A Markov decision model was constructed for a cost-utility analysis of TSA compared to HA in a cohort of 64-year-old patients. Outcome probabilities and effectiveness were derived from the literature. Costs were estimated from the societal perspective using the national average Medicare reimbursement for the procedures in 2008 US dollars. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Principal outcome measures were average incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, incremental QALYs, and net health benefits. In the base case, HA resulted in a lower number of average QALYs gained at a higher average cost to society and was, therefore, dominated by the TSA strategy for the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. The cost effectiveness ratio for TSA and HA were $957/QALY and $1,194/QALY respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that if the utility of TSA is equal to, or revision rate lower than HA, TSA continues to be a dominant strategy. Total shoulder arthroplasty with a cemented glenoid is a cost-effective procedure, resulting in greater utility for the patient at a lower overall cost to the payer. These findings suggest that TSA is the preferred treatment for certain populations from both a patient and payer perspective. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of quadrivalent influenza vaccine in Spain.

    PubMed

    García, Amos; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Reina, Jordi; Callejo, Daniel; Cuervo, Jesús; Morano Larragueta, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Influenza has a major impact on healthcare systems and society, but can be prevented using vaccination. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that influenza vaccines should include at least two virus A and one virus B lineage (trivalent vaccine; TIV). A new quadrivalent vaccine (QIV), which includes an additional B virus strain, received regulatory approval and is now recommended by several countries. The present study estimates the cost-effectiveness of replacing TIVs with QIV for risk groups and elderly population in Spain. A static, lifetime, multi-cohort Markov model with a one-year cycle time was adapted to assess the costs and health outcomes associated with a switch from TIV to QIV. The model followed a cohort vaccinated each year according to health authority recommendations, for the duration of their lives. National epidemiological data allowed the determination of whether the B strain included in TIVs matched the circulating one. Societal perspective was considered, costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% and one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Compared to TIVs, QIV reduced more influenza cases and influenza-related complications and deaths during periods of B-mismatch strains in the TIV. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 8,748€/quality-adjusted life year (QALY). One-way sensitivity analysis showed mismatch with the B lineage included in the TIV was the main driver for ICER. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows ICER below 30,000€/QALY in 96% of simulations. Replacing TIVs with QIV in Spain could improve influenza prevention by avoiding B virus mismatch and provide a cost-effective healthcare intervention.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  2. The Value of Heterogeneity for Cost-Effectiveness Subgroup Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Andrea; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a general framework to guide the use of subgroup cost-effectiveness analysis for decision making in a collectively funded health system. In doing so, it addresses 2 key policy questions, namely, the identification and selection of subgroups, while distinguishing 2 sources of potential value associated with heterogeneity. These are 1) the value of revealing the factors associated with heterogeneity in costs and outcomes using existing evidence (static value) and 2) the value of acquiring further subgroup-related evidence to resolve the uncertainty given the current understanding of heterogeneity (dynamic value). Consideration of these 2 sources of value can guide subgroup-specific treatment decisions and inform whether further research should be conducted to resolve uncertainty to explain variability in costs and outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to a cost-effectiveness analysis for the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study presents the expected net benefits under current and perfect information when subgroups are defined based on the use and combination of 6 binary covariates. The results of the case study confirm the theoretical expectations. As more subgroups are considered, the marginal net benefit gains obtained under the current information show diminishing marginal returns, and the expected value of perfect information shows a decreasing trend. We present a suggested algorithm that synthesizes the results to guide policy. PMID:24944196

  3. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness/utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Busch, Michael; Walderhaug, Mark; Custer, Brian; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Reddy, Ravi; McDonough, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Decision-makers at all levels of public health and transfusion medicine have always assessed the risks and benefits of their decisions. Decisions are usually guided by immediately available information and a significant amount of experience and judgment. For decisions concerning familiar situations and common problems, judgment and experience may work quite well, but this type of decision process can lack clarity and accountability. Public health challenges are changing as emerging diseases and expensive technologies complicate the decision-makers' task, confronting the decision-maker with new problems that include multiple potential solutions. Decisions regarding policies and adoption of technologies are particularly complex in transfusion medicine due to the scope of the field, implications for public health, and legal, regulatory and public expectations regarding blood safety. To assist decision-makers, quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis are now being more widely applied. This set of articles will introduce risk assessment and cost-effectiveness methodologies and discuss recent applications of these methods in transfusion medicine.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of effluent standards and limitations for the metal finishing industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The report summarizes the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis of the metal finishing industry. The analysis considers the cost-effectiveness of the final metal finishing regulations for direct and indirect dischargers.

  5. IntegoTM Infusion System: cost effectiveness analysis focusing on dosimetry, sterility and management.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Federica; Solinas, Laura; Turri, Valentina; Donati, Caterina; D'Errico, Vincenzo; Moretti, Andrea; Bianchini, David; Paganelli, Giovanni; Gallegati, Davide; Altini, Mattia

    2016-07-07

    Healthcare providers across Europe are facing an ever-growing demand in clinical PET referrals. Currently, it is estimated that the administration of the PET tracer accounts for approximately 40% of the unitary PET procedure reimbursement (uPETr). Although the cost of PET/CT is highly dependant on the radiopharmaceutical cost itself, little is known about the economical impact of the utilized administration method and the repercussions on staff radiation exposure. Our objective was to evaluate the cost- effectiveness of automatic injection/fractionation system IntegoTM (Bayer HealthCare, MEDRAD Europe, Netherlands) for istaff radiation exposure reduction and to validate its use with 18F-choline (FCH). In order to validate IntegoTM use with FCH we analyzed sterility, radioactivity fractionation accuracy and radiation protection for staff . We analyzed IntegoTM impact on examination costs and its impact on organization efficiency. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was estimated as the incremental cost to reduce staff radiation exposure. According to our data, IntegoTM ensures both sterility and accuracy of FCH doses' activity , reducing, at the same time, the exposure to radiation either whole body and at the extremities (94% and 75% respectively for the technicians and complete reduction for physicians). IntegoTM's variable unit costs are higher than the SA (respectively 1,8% and 0.4% of PET reimbursement), while staff costs are significantly higher with SA (respectively 0.27% and 1.57% of unitary PET reimbursement [uPETr]). In our simulation, based on a 2,450 PET yearly output, the differential costs were slightly higher by using IntegoTMTM (+ 14%). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was equal to 1.1, i.e. the healthcare provider pays an additional cost of 0.38% of uPETr to obtain a significant reduction of staff radiation exposure (-4.5 μS). IntegoTM, for its favorable results in terms of cost effectiveness, could be a useful tool in a nuclear

  6. A Critical Survey of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Human Service Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzino, Jim

    The paper examines issues related to analysis of cost effectiveness in human service research. Distinctions are made between cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis. A review of research focuses on 214 cost effectiveness studies in three human service program areas: early intervention for handicapped children, mental health programs,…

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis for imaging techniques with a focus on cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the need for healthcare cost-containment, increased scrutiny will be placed on new medical therapeutic or diagnostic technologies. Several challenges exist for a new diagnostic test to demonstrate cost-effectiveness. New diagnostic tests differ from therapeutic procedures due to the fact that diagnostic tests do not generally directly affect long-term patient outcomes. Instead, the results of diagnostic tests can influence management decisions for patients and by this route, diagnostic tests indirectly affect long-term outcomes. The benefits from a specific diagnostic technology depend therefore not only on its performance characteristics, but also on other factors such as prevalence of disease, and effectiveness of existing treatments for the disease of interest. We review the concepts and theories of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) as they apply to diagnostic tests in general. The limitations of CEA across different study designs and geographic regions are discussed, and we also examine the strengths and weakness of the existing publications where CMR was the focus of CEA compared to other diagnostic options. PMID:23767423

  8. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal vaccination in Spain].

    PubMed

    Morano, Raúl; Pérez, Ferrán; Brosa, Max; Pérez Escolano, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of pediatric pneumococcal vaccination in Spain. A deterministic population-based model in the form of a decision-tree with a 1-year time horizon was used to estimate the impact of vaccination with Synflorix® or Prevenar13® in children aged less than 2 years in Spain from the perspective of the National Health System. Epidemiological data were obtained from the hospital discharge minimum data set (MDS) and the literature. Data on costs were obtained from national health costs databases. The main outcomes measured were the number of cases avoided of invasive pneumococcal disease, acute otitis media (AOM) and myringotomies, and hospital admissions for pneumonia. All costs were expressed in 2010 euros. Effectiveness was measured as the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. The efficacy of Synflorix® in preventing episodes of AOM caused by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae could lead to additional prevention of 41,513 episodes of AOM, 36,324 antibiotic prescriptions and 382 myringotomy procedures and 143 QALYs gained compared with Prevenar13®. The total vaccination cost with Synflorix® would result in savings of 22 million euros. Pneumococcal vaccination with Synflorix® in comparison with Prevenar13® in children aged less than 2 years old in Spain could achieve a higher number of QALYs and a substantial cost offset. Vaccination with Synflorix® would be a dominant strategy in terms of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Surveillance for isocyanate asthma: a model based cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wild, D; Redlich, C; Paltiel, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: Because logistical and financial obstacles impede using large prospective cohort studies, surveillance decisions in occupational settings must often be made without evidence of relative benefits and costs. Using the example of isocyanate induced asthma, the most commonly reported immune mediated occupational asthma, the authors developed a model based approach to evaluate the costs and benefits of surveillance from both an employer and a societal perspective. Methods: The authors used a mathematical simulation model of isocyanate asthma to compare annual surveillance to passive case finding. Outcome measures included symptom free days (SFD), quality adjusted life years (QALY), direct costs, productivity losses, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio (CER), measured from the employer and the societal perspectives. Input data were obtained from a variety of published sources. Results: For 100 000 exposed workers, surveillance resulted in 683 fewer cases of disability over 10 years. Surveillance conferred benefits at an incremental cost of $24,000/QALY (employer perspective; $13.33/SFD) and was cost saving from the societal perspective. Results were sensitive to assumptions about sensitisation rate, removal rates, and time to diagnosis, but not to assumptions about therapy costs and disability rates. Conclusions: Baseline results placed the CER for surveillance for isocyanate asthma within the acceptable range. Costs from the societal and employer perspective differed substantially with a more attractive CER from the societal perspective, suggesting opportunities for employer/societal cost sharing. The analysis demonstrates the value of a model based approach to evaluate the cost effectiveness of surveillance programmes for isocyanate asthma, and to inform shared decision making among clinicians, patients, employers, and society. Such a modeling approach may be applicable to surveillance programmes for other work related conditions. PMID:16234399

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antipsychotics in reducing schizophrenia relapses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental illness which is associated with significant and long-lasting health, social and financial burdens. The aim of this project is to assess the efficiency of the antipsychotics used in Spain in reducing schizophrenia relapses under the Spanish Health System perspective. Material and methods A decision-analytic model was developed to explore the relative cost-effectiveness of five antipsychotic medications, amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone Extended-Release (ER) and risperidone, compared to haloperidol, over a 1-year treatment period among people living in Spain with schizophrenia. The transition probabilities for assessed therapies were obtained from the systemic review and meta-analysis performed by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Results Paliperidone ER was the option that yielded more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained per patient (0.7573). In addition, paliperidone ER was the least costly strategy (€3,062), followed by risperidone (€3,194), haloperidol (€3,322), olanzapine (€3,893), amisulpride (€4,247) and aripiprazole (€4,712). In the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) analysis of the assessed antipsychotics compared to haloperidol, paliperidone ER and risperidone were dominant options. ICE ratios for other medications were €23,621/QALY gained, €91,584/QALY gained and €94,558/QALY gained for olanzapine, amisulpride and aripiprazole, respectively. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that risperidone is always dominant when compared to haloperidol. Paliperidone ER is also dominant apart from the exception of the scenario with a 20% decrease in the probability of relapses. Conclusions Our findings may be of interest to clinicians and others interested in outcomes and cost of mental health services among patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone ER and risperidone were shown to be dominant therapies compared to haloperidol in Spain

  11. [Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis on strategy for preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus].

    PubMed

    Cai, Y L; Zhang, S X; Yang, P C; Lin, Y

    2016-06-01

    Through cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and quantitative optimization analysis to understand the economic benefit and outcomes of strategy regarding preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) on hepatitis B virus. Based on the principle of Hepatitis B immunization decision analytic-Markov model, strategies on PMTCT and universal vaccination were compared. Related parameters of Shenzhen were introduced to the model, a birth cohort was set up as the study population in 2013. The net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and the differences between CBA and CEA were compared. A decision tree was built as the decision analysis model for hepatitis B immunization. Three kinds of Markov models were used to simulate the outcomes after the implementation of vaccination program. The PMTCT strategy of Shenzhen showed a net-gain as 38 097.51 Yuan/per person in 2013, with BCR as 14.37. The universal vaccination strategy showed a net-gain as 37 083.03 Yuan/per person, with BCR as 12.07. Data showed that the PMTCT strategy was better than the universal vaccination one and would end with gaining more economic benefit. When comparing with the universal vaccination program, the PMTCT strategy would save 85 100.00 Yuan more on QALY gains for every person. The PMTCT strategy seemed more cost-effective compared with the one under universal vaccination program. In the CBA and CEA hepatitis B immunization programs, the immunization coverage rate and costs of hepatitis B related diseases were the most important influencing factors. Outcomes of joint-changes of all the parameters in CEA showed that PMTCT strategy was a more cost-effective. The PMTCT strategy gained more economic benefit and effects on health. However, the cost of PMTCT strategy was more than the universal vaccination program, thus it is important to pay attention to the process of PMTCT strategy and the universal

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Practice: Interventions to Improve High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Practice: Interventions to Improve High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Infrapopliteal Drug-Eluting Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris

    2013-02-15

    IntroductionThere are no cost-utility data about below-the-knee placement of drug-eluting stents. The authors determined the cost-effectiveness of infrapopliteal drug-eluting stents for critical limb ischemia (CLI) treatment. The event-free individual survival outcomes defined by the absence of any major events, including death, major amputation, and target limb repeat procedures, were reconstructed on the basis of two published infrapopliteal series. The first included spot Bail-out use of Sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare metal stents after suboptimal balloon angioplasty (Bail-out SES).The second was full-lesion Primary Everolimus-eluting stenting versus plain balloon angioplasty and bail-out bare metal stenting as necessary (primary EES). The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to avoid one major event and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for a 3-year postprocedural period for both strategies. Overall event-free survival was significantly improved in both strategies (hazard ratio (HR) [confidence interval (CI)]: 0.68 [0.41-1.12] in Bail-out SES and HR [CI]: 0.53 [0.29-0.99] in Primary EES). Event-free survival gain per patient was 0.89 (range, 0.11-3.0) years in Bail-out SES with an NNT of 4.6 (CI: 2.5-25.6) and a corresponding ICER of 6,518 Euro-Sign (range 1,685-10,112 Euro-Sign ). Survival gain was 0.91 (range 0.25-3.0) years in Primary EES with an NNT of 2.7 (CI: 1.7-5.8) and an ICER of 11,581 Euro-Sign (range, 4,945-21,428 Euro-Sign ) per event-free life-year gained. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that stented lesion length >10 cm and/or DES list price >1000 Euro-Sign were associated with the least economically favorable scenario in both strategies. Both strategies of bail-out SES and primary EES placement in the infrapopliteal arteries for CLI treatment exhibit single-digit NNT and relatively low corresponding ICERs.

  15. Scintigraphic detection of carcinoid tumors with a cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitris; Xynopoulos, Dimitris; Tsamakidis, Klisthenis; Paraskevas, Emmanouel; Zisimopoulos, Athanassios; Andriotis, Efthymios; Fotopoulou, Ekaterini; Kontis, Marios; Paraskevas, Ioannis

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy and the cost-effectiveness of this technique in the detection of gastroenteropancreatic carcinoid tumors and their metastases in comparison with conventional imaging methods. METHODS: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) was performed in 24 patients with confirmed carcinoids and 7 under investigation. The results were compared with those of conventional imaging methods (chest X-ray, upper abdominal ultrasound, chest CT, upper and lower abdominal CT). Also a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing the cost in Euro of several combinations of SRS with conventional imaging modalities. RESULTS: SRS visualized primary or metastatic sites in 71.0% of cases and 61.3% of conventional imagings. The diagnostic sensitivity of the method was higher in patients with suspected lesions (85.7% vs 57.1%). SRS was less sensitive in the detection of metastatic sites (78.9% vs 84.2%). The undetectable lesions by SRS metastatic sites were all in the liver. Between several imaging combinations, the combinations of chest X-ray/upper abdominal CT/SRS and chest CT/upper abdominal CT/SRS showed the highest sensitivity (88.75%) in terms of the number of detected lesions. The combinations of chest X-ray/upper abdominal US/SRS and chest CT/upper abdominal ultrasound/SRS yielded also a quite similar sensitivity (82%). Compared to the cost of the four sensitive combinations the combination of chest X-ray/upper abdominal ultrasound/SRS presented the lower cost, 1183.99 Euro vs 1251.75 Euro for chest CT/upper abdominal ultrasound/SRS, 1294.93 Euro for chest X/ray/upper abdominal CT/SRS and 1362.75 Euro for chest CT/upper abdominal CT/SRS. CONCLUSION: SRS imaging is a very sensitive method for the detection of gastroenteropancreatic carcinoids but is less sensitive than ultrasound and CT in the detection of liver metastases. Between several imaging combinations, the combination of chest X-ray/upper abdominal CT/SRS shows the

  16. Hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth J; Ness, Roberta B; Roberts, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    Nulliparous women are frequently hospitalized for treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The goal of this study was to determine the economic feasibility of hospitalizing adolescents and young women for PID. The authors conducted a Markov decision model, estimating the cost-effectiveness of hospitalization compared with outpatient therapy for mild to moderate PID for adolescents and young women, calculating costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained under various assumptions about hospitalization effects on complications. If hospitalization decreases PID complications by 10%, 20%, or 30%, the cost/QALY gained is 145,000 dollars, 67,400 dollars, or 42,400 dollars, respectively, compared with outpatient therapy. Assumptions about hospitalization effects on the development of chronic pelvic pain heavily weight the analysis; costs/QALY gained by hospitalization increase considerably if chronic pain is unaffected. Hospitalization for PID treatment to possibly preserve fertility in nulliparous young women and adolescents is unlikely to be economically reasonable even if substantial improvements in PID complication rates are assumed.

  17. Assembly and analysis of cosmid contigs in the CEA-gene family region of human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Tynan, K; Olsen, A; Trask, B; de Jong, P; Thompson, J; Zimmermann, W; Carrano, A; Mohrenweiser, H

    1992-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like genes are members of a large gene family which is part of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The CEA family is divided into two major subgroups, the CEA-subgroup and the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG)-subgroup. In the course of an effort to develop a set of overlapping cosmids spanning human chromosome 19, we identified 245 cosmids in a human chromosome 19 cosmid library (6-7X redundant) by hybridization with an IgC-like domain fragment of the CEA gene. A fluorescence-based restriction enzyme digest fingerprinting strategy was used to assemble 212 probe-positive cosmids, along with 115 additional cosmids from a collection of approximately 8,000 randomly selected cosmids, into five contigs. Two of the contigs contain CEA-subgroup genes while the remaining three contigs contain PSG-subgroup genes. These five contigs range in size from 100 kb to over 300 kb and span an estimated 1 Mb. The CEA-like gene family was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization to map in the q13.1-q13.2 region of human chromosome 19. Analysis of the two CEA-subgroup contigs provided verification of the contig assembly strategy and insight into the organization of 9 CEA-subgroup genes. PMID:1579453

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Rendas-Baum, Regina; Yang, Min; Gricar, Joseph; Wallenstein, Gene V

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is reported to affect between 13% and 31% of women. Between 3% and 8% of women are reported to meet criteria for the more severe form of PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Although PMDD has received increased attention in recent years, the cost effectiveness of treatments for PMDD remains unknown. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of the four medications with a US FDA-approved indication for PMDD: fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and drospirenone plus ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE). A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate both direct costs (medication and physician visits) and clinical outcomes (treatment success, failure and discontinuation). Medication costs were based on average wholesale prices of branded products; physician visit costs were obtained from a claims database study of PMDD patients and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Clinical outcome probabilities were derived from published clinical trials in PMDD. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated using the difference in costs and percentage of successfully treated patients at 6 months. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the impact of uncertainty in parameter estimates. Threshold values where a change in the cost-effective strategy occurred were identified using a net benefit framework. Starting therapy with DRSP/EE dominated both sertraline and paroxetine, but not fluoxetine. The estimated ICER of initiating treatment with fluoxetine relative to DRSP/EE was $US4385 per treatment success (year 2007 values). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves revealed that for ceiling ratios>or=$US3450 per treatment success, fluoxetine had the highest probability (>or=0.37) of being the most cost-effective treatment, relative to the other options. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier further indicated that DRSP/EE remained the option with the highest expected net monetary benefit for

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed dose antihypertensive drugs].

    PubMed

    García Ruiz, A J; Divisón Garrote, J A; García-Agua Soler, N; Morata García de la Puerta, F; Montesinos Gálvez, A C; Avila Lachica, L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of different fixed-dose combinations of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers and calcium channel blockers, to use it as a guide to assist the rational prescribing in antihypertensive therapy. The efficacy of each drug was obtained from intervention studies randomized, double-blind, made with these combinations and a utility-cost modeling from the model proposed and used by NICE. The perspective of our analysis is the National Health System and the time horizon is long enough to achieve therapeutic goals. Cost per mmHg reduction in BP, percentage of reduction necessary to achieve the therapeutic goals for hypertension control and cost, and finally quantity and quality of life gained with these treatments in patients with hypertension, diabetes. We studied three fixed-dose combinations: amlodipine/olmesartán, amlodipine/valsartan and manidipine/delapril. The cost per mmHg systolic BP ranged from 24.93 to 12.34 €/mmHg, and diastolic BP ranged from 34.24 to 18.76 €/mmHg, depending on the drug used. For an initial value of 165mmHg systolic BP the most efficient treatment to achieve the therapeutic goal of hypertension control (<140mmHg) is manidipine/delapril with a cost of 67.76 €. The use of these drugs to control diabetic and hypertensive patients resulted in all cases being cost-effective (more effective and lower cost compared to "no treatment"). Manidipine/delapril showed the best relation cost-utility (1,970 €/QALY (quality-adjusted life year)) followed by amlodipine/olmesartan and amlodipine/valsartan (2,087 and 2,237 €/QALY, respectively). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.

  20. Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baylon, David

    1990-05-17

    In 1988 and 1989, 150 manufactured homes were built to comply with Super Good Cents (SGC) specifications adapted from the existing specifications for site-built homes under the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP). Engineering calculations and computer simulations were used to estimate the effects of the SGC specifications on the thermal performance of the homes. These results were compared with consumer costs to establish the cost-effectiveness of individual measures. Heat loss U-factors for windows, walls, floors and ceilings were established using the standard ASHRAE parallel heat flow method. Adjustments resulted in higher U-factors for ceilings and floors than assumed at the time the homes were approved as meeting the SGC specifications. Except for those homes which included heat pumps, most of the homes did not meet the SGC compliance standards. Nonetheless these homes achieved substantial reductions in overall heat loss rate (UA) compared to UAs estimated for the same homes using the standard insulation packages provided by the manufacturers in the absence of the RCDP program. Homes with conventional electric furnaces showed a 35% reduction in total UA while homes with heat pumps had a 25% reduction. A regression analysis showed no significant relationship between climate zone, manufacturer and UA. A modified version of SUNDAY building simulation program which simulates duct and heat pump performance was used to model the thermal performance of each RCDP home as built and the same home as it would have been built without SGC specifications (base case). Standard assumptions were used for thermostat setpoint, thermal mass, internal gains and infiltration rates. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Antimalarials during pregnancy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, L. J.; Steketee, R. W.; Chitsulo, L.; Wirima, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Antenatal clinics (ANC) provide an avenue for interventions that promote maternal and infant health. In areas hyperendemic for Plasmodium falciparum, malaria infection during pregnancy contributes to low birth weight (LBW), which is the greatest risk factor for neonatal mortality. Using current data and costs from studies in Malawi, a decision-analysis model was constructed to predict the number of LBW cases prevented by three antimalarial regimens, in an area with a high prevalence of chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria. Factors considered included local costs of antimalarials, number of ANC visits, compliance with dispensed antimalarials, prevalence of placental malaria, and LBW incidence. For a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 women in their first or second pregnancy, a regimen consisting of one dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in the second trimester followed by a second dose at the beginning of the third trimester would prevent 205 cases of LBW at a cost of US$ 9.66 per case of LBW prevented. A regimen using a treatment dose of SP followed by CQ 300 mg (base) weekly would prevent 59 cases of LBW at a cost of $62 per case prevented, compared with only 30 cases of LBW prevented at a cost of $113 per case when the regimen involves initial treatment with CQ (25 mg/kg) followed by CQ 300 mg (base) weekly. In areas hyperendemic for CQ-resistant P. falciparum, a two-dose SP regimen is a cost-effective intervention to reduce LBW incidence and it should be included as part of the antenatal care package. PMID:7743592

  2. Cost-Effects Analysis of Year-Round Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David; And Others

    This feasibility study was designed to gather and analyze data to determine the potential cost-effectiveness of year-round education (YRE) compared to traditional-schedule education in California. An expanded version of the Stanford Research Institute's cost model was used to fit a broad conceptualization that enabled school districts with…

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Two Methods of Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Cindy G.; Nijhof, Wim J.

    A three-phase study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of two methods for determining job profiles in the publishing business and book trade--the task inventory and the Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process. In phases 1 and 2, the task inventory and DACUM approaches were used to identify future changes in the technology used in the…

  4. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    PubMed

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Ahmad, Bilal B.; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H.; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. PMID:26304904

  6. The Mexican Telesecundaria: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John K.; And Others

    "Telesecundaria" has for the past six years attempted to provide secondary education (grades 7-9) by television to those students who would normally not be able to continue their education beyond the primary level. The study reported here aimed to evaluate the system, especially its cost-effectiveness, suggest strategies for improvement,…

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. Cost effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator: a preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Bernie J; Buxton, Martin J; Rushby, Julia A

    1992-01-01

    Background—An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be effective in reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death. The high cost of ICD treatment, however, compared with alternatives raises the question of whether this new technology is an efficient use of scarce health care resources. Objective—To estimate the incremental cost effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator compared with drug treatment with amiodarone in the management of patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. Design—A cost effectiveness model was constructed from data already published and other secondary sources. Differences in patient survival were calculated from life tables for comparable ICD and amiodarone patient series. Costs were based on typical patient management protocols derived from current United Kingdom practice and interviews with physicians. Main outcome measures—Cost effectiveness of ICD treatment was computed over 20 years; all future costs and effects were discounted at 6% per year. Results—Estimated life expectancy was 11·1 and 6·7 years with ICD and amiodarone respectively; the discounted 20 year difference lies in the range 1·7 to 3·7 years. Discounted 20 year treatment costs were £28 400 for the ICD and £2300 for amiodarone. Cost effectiveness of ICD treatment lies in the range of £15 400 to £8200 per life-year gained. Conclusions—Cost effectiveness of ICD treatment is similar to some existing cardiac programmes funded under the NHS but uncertainty exists due to limitations of the data. Costs of ICD treatment may fall in the future as the life of the device increases and less invasive implantation methods are needed. The effectivess of ICD compared with amiodarone is currently being studied by a randomised controlled trial. PMID:1389748

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Presented is the instructor's manual for a one-hour presentation on cost-effectiveness analysis. Topics covered are the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis, basic assessment procedures, and the role of citizens in the analysis of alternatives. A supplementary audiovisual program is available. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Various Methods of Instruction in Developmental Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Robert A.

    This paper examined in a critical fashion the existing applications of cost-effectiveness analysis in education, particularly the study of instructional effectiveness in the community college. Various schemes for measuring costs of instruction such as cost benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and planning programming budgeting systems…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Presented is the instructor's manual for a one-hour presentation on cost-effectiveness analysis. Topics covered are the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis, basic assessment procedures, and the role of citizens in the analysis of alternatives. A supplementary audiovisual program is available. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis for health communication programs.

    PubMed

    Guilkey, David K; Hutchinson, Paul; Lance, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes methods for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of health communication programs, focusing in particular on estimating program effectiveness with econometric methods that address experimental and quasi-experimental designs (and their absence), national or subnational program coverage, and endogenously targeting of programs. Experimental designs provide a gold standard for assessing effectiveness but are seldom feasible for large-scale health communication programs. Even in the absence of such designs, however, fairly simple methods can be used to examine intermediate objectives, such as program reach, which in turn can be linked to program costs to estimate cost effectiveness. When moving beyond program reach to behavioral or other outcome measures, such as contraceptive use or fertility, or when faced with full-coverage national programs, more elaborate data and methods are required. We discuss data requirements and assumptions necessary in each case, focusing on single-equation multiple regression models, structural equations models, and fixed effects estimators for use with longitudinal data, and then describing how cost information can be incorporated into econometric models so as to get measures of the cost-effectiveness of communication interventions.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis in relation to budgetary constraints and reallocative restrictions.

    PubMed

    Adang, Eddy; Voordijk, Leo; Jan van der Wilt, Gert; Ament, André

    2005-10-01

    Present cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide not all information necessary for decision-making. One of the factors that hamper decision-making is the difficulty in reallocating resources to new technologies. In a CEA, the incremental costs and incremental benefits of a new technology are calculated. In this article we focus on the incremental cost side. The underlying assumption in socio-economic evaluation is that resources from the substituted alternatives can be used to finance the new technology. In practice, however, not all resources are becoming available to introduce the alternative. The budgets in health care are rather fixed and shifting from one alternative to another or from one sector to another is often impossible. Even within a budget, the personnel and material resources are usually not entirely usable for the new technology, and sometimes not at all. Therefore, the present CEA outcomes might overestimate the cost-effectiveness in practice, which might influence implementation of a new technology. To optimise the usefulness of economic evaluation for health care decision-making by correcting the incremental costs of a new technology for the possible limitations in reallocating resources and adjusting budgets in health care. Case Research. Literature, data from two completed CEAs and interviews with decision makers in the hospital setting. Case 1: The combined outpatient and home-treatment of psoriasis--In a CEA it was calculated that the new technology lead to much lower cost, given the same effects. The direct costs of this technology comprise personnel, material and capacity costs. Personnel and capacity are inflexible with regard to reallocation, at least in the short term. Considering these reallocative restrictions results show that the cost-savings of the combined treatment are in the short run significantly smaller than in the long run: 694 versus 6.058, respectively. Therefore, the anticipated savings, estimated are not realistic for

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  16. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analysis of screening interventions for assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism in women considering combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ademi, Zanfina; Sutherland, C Simone; Van Stiphout, Joris; Michaud, Jöelle; Tanackovic, Goranka; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2017-09-16

    Use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) by women increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which can have a major impact on an individuals' quality of life. VTE is also associated with an increase in healthcare costs. Our aim was to systematically review cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) considering any screening for risk of VTE in women using COCs. The quality of reporting in each study was assessed, a summary of results was prepared, and the key drivers of cost effectiveness in each of the eligible CEAs were identified. A search strategy using MeSH terms was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, the Centre for Review and Dissemination (CRD) database including the Economic Evaluation Database from the UK National Health Service, and Cochrane reviews. Two reviewers independently screened and determined the final articles, and a third reviewer resolved any discrepancies. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards was used to assess the quality of reporting in terms of perspective, effectiveness measures, model structure, cost, time-horizon and discounting. Four publications (three from Europe, one from the United States) were eligible for inclusion in the review. According to current criteria, relevant elements were sometimes not captured and the sources of epidemiological and effectiveness data used in the CEAs were of limited quality. The studies varied in terms of type of costs assessed, country settings, model assumptions and uncertainty around input parameters. Key drivers of CEAs were sensitivity and specificity of the test, incidence rate of VTE, relative risk of prophylaxis, and costs of the test. The reviewed studies were too dissimilar to draw a firm conclusion on cost-effectiveness analysis about universal and selective screening in high-risk groups. The new emerging diagnostic tools for identifying women at risk of developing VTE, that are more predictive and less costly, highlight the need for more studies that apply the latest

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Percutaneous Sclerotherapy for Venous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yusuke; Osuga, Keigo; Takura, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Masahisa; Shibamoto, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Akira; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Mimura, Hidefumi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2016-06-01

    To assess cost-effectiveness of sclerotherapy for venous malformations (VMs) to improve patient quality of life (QOL). This prospective study enrolled 28 patients with symptomatic VMs who underwent sclerotherapy. EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey were used to measure health-related QOL. Questionnaires were collected before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after sclerotherapy. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using EQ-5D score as a measure of health utility. Medical costs obtained from the hospital accounting system and other costs of staff, drugs, materials, and angiographic equipment were calculated for each procedure. Cost-effectiveness was analyzed using incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as the medical cost/gain of QALYs. Median EQ-5D scores improved from 0.768 (range, 0.705-1) to 1 (range, 0.768-1) after 6 months (P = .023) and 1 (range, 0.768-1) after 12 months (P = .063). The gain of QALYs at 12 months was 0.043. The mean medical cost was ¥281,228 ($2,337). The pain group (baseline bodily pain scale of SF-36 score < 70) showed greater improvement in median EQ-5D score, from 0.705 (range, 0.661-0.768) to 0.768 (range, 0.705-1) after 6 months (P = .041) and 0.768 (range, 0.768-1) after 12 months (P = .049). ICER at 12 months was ¥6,600,483 ($54,840) in the overall group and decreased to ¥3,998,113 ($33,218) in the pain group, < ¥6,000,000 ($49,850), threshold for acceptance of a public health benefit in Japan, even accounting for 50% increase in costs. Sclerotherapy was cost-effective for improving QOL for symptomatic VMs, especially for patients with moderate to severe pain. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuels for urban transit buses: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua T; Hammitt, James K; Levy, Jonathan I

    2003-04-15

    Public transit agencies have begun to adopt alternative propulsion technologies to reduce urban transit bus emissions associated with conventional diesel (CD) engines. Among the most popular alternatives are emission controlled diesel buses (ECD), defined here to be buses with continuously regenerating diesel particle filters burning low-sulfur diesel fuel, and buses burning compressed natural gas (CNG). This study uses a series of simplifying assumptions to arrive at first-order estimates for the incremental cost-effectiveness (CE) of ECD and CNG relative to CD. The CE ratio numerator reflects acquisition and operating costs. The denominator reflects health losses (mortality and morbidity) due to primary particulate matter (PM), secondary PM, and ozone exposure, measured as quality adjusted life years (QALYs). We find that CNG provides larger health benefits than does ECD (nine vs six QALYs annually per 1000 buses) but that ECD is more cost-effective than CNG (dollar 270 000 per QALY for ECD vs dollar 1.7 million to dollar 2.4 million for CNG). These estimates are subject to much uncertainty. We identify assumptions that contribute most to this uncertainty and propose potential research directions to refine our estimates.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on colorectal cancer screening program].

    PubMed

    Huang, Q C; Ye, D; Jiang, X Y; Li, Q L; Yao, K Y; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Chen, K

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening program in different age groups from the view of health economics. Methods: The screening compliance rates, detection rates in different age groups were calculated by using the data from colorectal cancer screening program in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province. The differences in indicator among age groups were analyzed with χ(2) test or trend χ(2) test. The ratios of cost to the number of case were calculated according to cost statistics. Results: The detection rates of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) positivity, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer and early stage cancer increased with age, while the early diagnosis rates were negatively associated with age. After exclusion the younger counterpart, the cost-effectiveness of individuals aged >50 years could be reduced by 15%-30%. Conclusion: From health economic perspective, it is beneficial to start colorectal cancer screening at age of 50 years to improve the efficiency of the screening.

  20. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  1. Implementing a Cost Effectiveness Analyzer for Web-Supported Academic Instruction: A Campus Wide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a quantitative cost effectiveness analyzer for Web-supported academic instruction that was developed in Tel Aviv University during a long term study. The paper presents the cost effectiveness analysis of Tel Aviv University campus. Cost and benefit of 3,453 courses were analyzed, exemplifying campus-wide…

  2. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

  3. General methodology: Costing, budgeting, and techniques for benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stretchberry, D. M.; Hein, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    The general concepts of costing, budgeting, and benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis are discussed. The three common methods of costing are presented. Budgeting distributions are discussed. The use of discounting procedures is outlined. The benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis is defined and their current application to NASA planning is pointed out. Specific practices and techniques are discussed, and actual costing and budgeting procedures are outlined. The recommended method of calculating benefit-cost ratios is described. A standardized method of cost-effectiveness analysis and long-range planning are also discussed.

  4. Time preference for health in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, J

    1989-03-01

    In program evaluation, should a predicted health status gain of 1 quality-adjusted life year (QALY) occurring 10 years from now be valued the same as a 1-QALY increase realizable 5 years from now? Or 1 year from now? If not, how should these future gains (or losses) be evaluated from a present-time perspective? Such questions arise frequently in cost-effectiveness analyses of disease prevention-health promotion programs. This report argues there are actually two distinct interpretations of time preference jointly relevant in many multiperiod program evaluations. 1) In ongoing programs where both present and future population cohorts are, in effect, vying for resources, decision makers must establish a relative social weighting of cohorts by specifying (now) the dollar worth of any unit QALY gain achievable in each. This is a problem of intergenerational equity in the resource allocation process. 2) Individuals, in any cohort, may possess a time preference for the sequence of events comprising their own multiperiod health outcomes. Current models, typically discounting future health gains to present value at some constant rate (r), can well accommodate the first interpretation but not (simultaneously) the second. In response, this report introduces a two-step evaluation procedure featuring the "scenario strategy," a holistic multiattribute preference approach to evaluating multiperiod health outcomes. It allows one to isolate statistically time preference effects at the individual or group level and to incorporate them naturally into the overall evaluation of multiperiod outcomes. A survey-based example and an appendix illustrate the main points.

  5. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside clinical trials II-An ISPOR Good Research Practices Task Force report.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Scott D; Willke, Richard J; Glick, Henry; Reed, Shelby D; Augustovski, Federico; Jonsson, Bengt; Briggs, Andrew; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-03-01

    Clinical trials evaluating medicines, medical devices, and procedures now commonly assess the economic value of these interventions. The growing number of prospective clinical/economic trials reflects both widespread interest in economic information for new technologies and the regulatory and reimbursement requirements of many countries that now consider evidence of economic value along with clinical efficacy. As decision makers increasingly demand evidence of economic value for health care interventions, conducting high-quality economic analyses alongside clinical studies is desirable because they broaden the scope of information available on a particular intervention, and can efficiently provide timely information with high internal and, when designed and analyzed properly, reasonable external validity. In 2005, ISPOR published the Good Research Practices for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Alongside Clinical Trials: The ISPOR RCT-CEA Task Force report. ISPOR initiated an update of the report in 2014 to include the methodological developments over the last 9 years. This report provides updated recommendations reflecting advances in several areas related to trial design, selecting data elements, database design and management, analysis, and reporting of results. Task force members note that trials should be designed to evaluate effectiveness (rather than efficacy) when possible, should include clinical outcome measures, and should obtain health resource use and health state utilities directly from study subjects. Collection of economic data should be fully integrated into the study. An incremental analysis should be conducted with an intention-to-treat approach, complemented by relevant subgroup analyses. Uncertainty should be characterized. Articles should adhere to established standards for reporting results of cost-effectiveness analyses. Economic studies alongside trials are complementary to other evaluations (e.g., modeling studies) as information for decision

  7. Cost effective analysis of recall methods for cervical cancer screening in Selangor--results from a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rima Marhayu Abdul; Ramli, Sophia; John, Jennifer; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.

  8. Decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis for comparative effectiveness research--a primer.

    PubMed

    Sher, David J; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2014-01-01

    Although the analysis of real-world data is the foundation of comparative effectiveness analysis, not all clinical questions are easily approached with patient-derived information. Decision analysis is a set of modeling and analytic tools that simulate treatment and disease processes, including the incorporation of patient preferences, thus generating optimal treatment strategies for varying patient, disease, and treatment conditions. Although decision analysis is informed by evidence-derived outcomes, its ability to test treatment strategies under different conditions that are realistic but not necessarily reported in the literature makes it a useful and complementary technique to more standard data analysis. Similarly, cost-effectiveness analysis is a discipline in which the relative costs and benefits of treatment alternatives are rigorously compared. With the well-recognized increase in highly technical, costly radiation therapy technologies, the cost-effectiveness of these different treatments would come under progressively more scrutiny. In this review, we discuss the theoretical and practical aspects of decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis, providing examples that highlight their methodology and utility.

  9. Medicare's use of cost-effectiveness analysis for prevention (but not for treatment).

    PubMed

    Chambers, James D; Cangelosi, Michael J; Neumann, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Medicare currently pays for 23 preventive services in its benefits package, the majority of which were added since 2005. In the past decade, the program has transformed from one essentially administering treatment claims, to one increasingly focused on health promotion and maintenance. What is largely unappreciated is the role cost-effectiveness analysis has played in the coverage of preventive services. We review the role of cost-effectiveness analysis in Medicare coverage of preventive services and contrast it to the lack of such consideration in the coverage of treatments. While not considered for coverage of treatment, cost-effectiveness analysis played a role in the coverage of nine preventive services, and was evaluated in a number of instances when the service was not added. Pneumococcal vaccine, the first preventive service added to the benefit (1981), followed a Congressionally requested cost-effectiveness analysis, which showed it to be cost-saving. More recently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) reviewed cost-effectiveness evidence when covering preventive services such as HIV screening (2010) and screening and behavioral counseling for alcohol misuse (2011) (studies reported cost-effectiveness ratios of $55,440 per QALY, and $1755 per QALY, respectively). Cost-effectiveness analysis has played a longstanding role in informing the addition of preventive services to Medicare. It offers Medicare officials information they can use to help ensure health gains are achieved at reasonable cost. However, limiting cost-effectiveness evidence to prevention and not treatment is inconsistent and potentially inefficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Can a costly intervention be cost-effective?: An analysis of violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael; Jones, Damon

    2006-11-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention, a multi-year, multi-component intervention designed to reduce violence among at-risk children. A previous report documented the favorable effect of intervention on the highest-risk group of ninth-graders diagnosed with conduct disorder, as well as self-reported delinquency. The current report addressed the cost-effectiveness of the intervention for these measures of program impact. Costs of the intervention were estimated using program budgets. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed to determine the cost per unit of improvement in the 3 outcomes measured in the 10th year of the study. Examination of the total sample showed that the intervention was not cost-effective at likely levels of policymakers' willingness to pay for the key outcomes. Subsequent analysis of those most at risk, however, showed that the intervention likely was cost-effective given specified willingness-to-pay criteria. Results indicate that the intervention is cost-effective for the children at highest risk. From a policy standpoint, this finding is encouraging because such children are likely to generate higher costs for society over their lifetimes. However, substantial barriers to cost-effectiveness remain, such as the ability to effectively identify and recruit such higher-risk children in future implementations.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neurocognitive-sparing treatments for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Savitz, Samuel T; Chen, Ronald C; Sher, David J

    2015-12-01

    Decisions regarding how to treat patients who have 1 to 3 brain metastases require important tradeoffs between controlling recurrences, side effects, and costs. In this analysis, the authors compared novel treatments versus usual care to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio from a payer's (Medicare) perspective. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated using a microsimulation of a Markov model for 60 one-month cycles. The model used 4 simulated cohorts of patients aged 65 years with 1 to 3 brain metastases. The 4 cohorts had a median survival of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months to test the sensitivity of the model to different prognoses. The treatment alternatives evaluated included stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with 3 variants of salvage after recurrence (whole-brain radiotherapy [WBRT], hippocampal avoidance WBRT [HA-WBRT], SRS plus WBRT, and SRS plus HA-WBRT). The findings were tested for robustness using probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses. Traditional radiation therapies remained cost-effective for patients in the 3-month and 6-month cohorts. In the cohorts with longer median survival, HA-WBRT and SRS plus HA-WBRT became cost-effective relative to traditional treatments. When the treatments that involved HA-WBRT were excluded, either SRS alone or SRS plus WBRT was cost-effective relative to WBRT alone. The deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. HA-WBRT and SRS plus HA-WBRT were cost-effective for 2 of the 4 cohorts, demonstrating the value of controlling late brain toxicity with this novel therapy. Cost-effectiveness depended on patient life expectancy. SRS was cost-effective in the cohorts with short prognoses (3 and 6 months), whereas HA-WBRT and SRS plus HA-WBRT were cost-effective in the cohorts with longer prognoses (12 and 24 months). © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Costs, effects and cost-effectiveness analysis of a mobile maternal health care service in West Kiang, The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Fox-Rushby, J A; Foord, F

    1996-02-01

    The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of a new mobile maternal care service offered in The Gambia at a government-run health centre in Karantaba were compared with the usual pattern of maternal care offered (at Ngayen Sanjal). Routinely collected data were supplemented by research on time allocation of staff by activity, use of drugs, medical consumables and vehicles, out-of-pocket payments by patients and a range of effectiveness indicators. To account for a differential effect on hospital referrals, maternity care at the main referral hospital was assessed. In 1991, the annual total cost of maternity care at Karantaba was US$64 800 compared with US$25 300 at Ngayen Sanjal. The largest proportion of this difference was attributed to training. Whilst average cost/attendance was higher at Karantaba, the marginal cost of expanding the service to other villages was lower than the marginal cost at Ngayen Sanjal. Incremental cost-effectiveness of the mobile service at Karantaba was calculated according to best and worst case scenarios which showed that the extra cost/extra death averted per year ranged between US$459 and US$2134. Using discounted life years gained reduced the figures to US$42.9 and US$206.3. Various suggestions are offered for reducing the cost of the new service, and a number of methodological points are raised for discussion.

  13. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    PubMed

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bayesian Variable Selection in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Negrín, Miguel A.; Vázquez-Polo, Francisco J.; Martel, María; Moreno, Elías; Girón, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    Linear regression models are often used to represent the cost and effectiveness of medical treatment. The covariates used may include sociodemographic variables, such as age, gender or race; clinical variables, such as initial health status, years of treatment or the existence of concomitant illnesses; and a binary variable indicating the treatment received. However, most studies estimate only one model, which usually includes all the covariates. This procedure ignores the question of uncertainty in model selection. In this paper, we examine four alternative Bayesian variable selection methods that have been proposed. In this analysis, we estimate the inclusion probability of each covariate in the real model conditional on the data. Variable selection can be useful for estimating incremental effectiveness and incremental cost, through Bayesian model averaging, as well as for subgroup analysis. PMID:20617047

  15. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus

    PubMed Central

    Ulfsdotter, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. Results The cost was €326.3 per parent, of which €53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and €272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of €47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from €41 739 to €55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of €55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Conclusion Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation. PMID:26681349

  16. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus.

    PubMed

    Ulfsdotter, Malin; Lindberg, Lene; Månsdotter, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. The cost was € 326.3 per parent, of which € 53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and € 272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of € 47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from € 41 739 to € 55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of € 55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation.

  17. To sling or not to sling at time of abdominal sacrocolpopexy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Monica L; Elliott, Christopher S; Shaw, Jonathan G; Comiter, Craig V; Chen, Bertha; Sokol, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    We compare the cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for the use of a mid urethral sling to prevent occult stress urinary incontinence in patients undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Using decision analysis modeling we compared cost-effectiveness during a 1-year postoperative period of 3 treatment approaches including 1) abdominal sacrocolpopexy alone with deferred option for mid urethral sling, 2) abdominal sacrocolpopexy with universal concomitant mid urethral sling and 3) preoperative urodynamic study for selective mid urethral sling. Using published data we modeled probabilities of stress urinary incontinence after abdominal sacrocolpopexy with or without mid urethral sling, the predictive value of urodynamic study to detect occult stress urinary incontinence and the likelihood of complications after mid urethral sling. Costs were derived from Medicare 2010 reimbursement rates. The main outcome modeled was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality adjusted life-years gained. In addition to base case analysis, 1-way sensitivity analyses were performed. In our model, universally performing mid urethral sling at abdominal sacrocolpopexy was the most cost-effective approach with an incremental cost per quality adjusted life-year gained of $2,867 compared to abdominal sacrocolpopexy alone. Preoperative urodynamic study was more costly and less effective than universally performing intraoperative mid urethral sling. The cost-effectiveness of abdominal sacrocolpopexy plus mid urethral sling was robust to sensitivity analysis with a cost-effectiveness ratio consistently below $20,000 per quality adjusted life-year. Universal concomitant mid urethral sling is the most cost-effective prophylaxis strategy for occult stress urinary incontinence in women undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy. The use of preoperative urodynamic study to guide mid urethral sling placement at abdominal sacrocolpopexy is not cost-effective. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association

  18. Challenges from Variation across Regions in Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Multi-Regional Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yunbo; Dai, Luyan; Qi, Sheng; Smith, Matthew Lee; Huang, Hui; Li, Yang; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in the form of cost-effectiveness analysis has become a popular means to inform decisions in healthcare. With multi-regional clinical trials in a global development program becoming a new venue for drug efficacy testing in recent decades, questions in methods for cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials setting also emerge. This paper addresses some challenges from variation across regions in cost effectiveness analysis in multi-regional clinical trials. Several discussion points are raised for further attention and a multi-regional clinical trial example is presented to illustrate the implications in industrial application. A general message is delivered to call for a depth discussion by all stakeholders to reach an agreement on a good practice in cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials. Meanwhile, we recommend an additional consideration of cost-effectiveness analysis results based on the clinical evidence from a certain homogeneous population as sensitivity or scenario analysis upon data availability. PMID:27840606

  19. Nonintravenous rescue medications for pediatric status epilepticus: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Gaínza-Lein, Marina; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the cost-effectiveness of rescue medications for pediatric status epilepticus: rectal diazepam, nasal midazolam, buccal midazolam, intramuscular midazolam, and nasal lorazepam. Decision analysis model populated with effectiveness data from the literature and cost data from publicly available market prices. The primary outcome was cost per seizure stopped ($/SS). One-way sensitivity analyses and second-order Monte Carlo simulations evaluated the robustness of the results across wide variations of the input parameters. The most cost-effective rescue medication was buccal midazolam (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ([ICER]: $13.16/SS) followed by nasal midazolam (ICER: $38.19/SS). Nasal lorazepam (ICER: -$3.8/SS), intramuscular midazolam (ICER: -$64/SS), and rectal diazepam (ICER: -$2,246.21/SS) are never more cost-effective than the other options at any willingness to pay. One-way sensitivity analysis showed the following: (1) at its current effectiveness, rectal diazepam would become the most cost-effective option only if its cost was $6 or less, and (2) at its current cost, rectal diazepam would become the most cost-effective option only if effectiveness was higher than 0.89 (and only with very high willingness to pay of $2,859/SS to $31,447/SS). Second-order Monte Carlo simulations showed the following: (1) nasal midazolam and intramuscular midazolam were the more effective options; (2) the more cost-effective option was buccal midazolam for a willingness to pay from $14/SS to $41/SS and nasal midazolam for a willingness to pay above $41/SS; (3) cost-effectiveness overlapped for buccal midazolam, nasal lorazepam, intramuscular midazolam, and nasal midazolam; and (4) rectal diazepam was not cost-effective at any willingness to pay, and this conclusion remained extremely robust to wide variations of the input parameters. For pediatric status epilepticus, buccal midazolam and nasal midazolam are the most cost-effective nonintravenous rescue

  20. The analysis of cost-effectiveness of implant and conventional fixed dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chun, June Sang; Har, Alix; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study conducted an analysis of cost-effectiveness of the implant and conventional fixed dental prosthesis (CFDP) from a single treatment perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Markov model for cost-effectiveness analysis of the implant and CFDP was carried out over maximum 50 years. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed by the 10,000 Monte-Carlo simulations, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEAC) were also presented. The results from meta-analysis studies were used to determine the survival rates and complication rates of the implant and CFDP. Data regarding the cost of each treatment method were collected from University Dental Hospital and Statistics Korea for 2013. Using the results of the patient satisfaction survey study, quality-adjusted prosthesis year (QAPY) of the implant and CFDP strategy was evaluated with annual discount rate. RESULTS When only the direct cost was considered, implants were more cost-effective when the willingness to pay (WTP) was more than 10,000 won at 10th year after the treatment, and more cost-effective regardless of the WTP from 20th year after the prosthodontic treatment. When the indirect cost was added to the direct cost, implants were more cost-effective only when the WTP was more than 75,000 won at the 10th year after the prosthodontic treatment, more than 35,000 won at the 20th year after prosthodontic treatment. CONCLUSION The CFDP was more cost-effective unless the WTP was more than 75,000 won at the 10th year after prosthodontic treatment. But the cost-effectivenss tendency changed from CFDP to implant as time passed. PMID:26949488

  1. Cost-effectiveness of new-generation oral cholera vaccines: a multisite analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeuland, Marc; Cook, Joseph; Poulos, Christine; Clemens, John; Whittington, Dale

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a low-cost cholera vaccine licensed and used in Vietnam, using recently collected data from four developing countries where cholera is endemic. Our analysis incorporated new findings on vaccine herd protective effects. Using data from Matlab, Bangladesh, Kolkata, India, North Jakarta, Indonesia, and Beira, Mozambique, we calculated the net public cost per disability-adjusted life year avoided for three immunization strategies: 1) school-based vaccination of children 5 to 14 years of age; 2) school-based vaccination of school children plus use of the schools to vaccinate children aged 1 to 4 years; and 3) community-based vaccination of persons aged 1 year and older. We determined cost-effectiveness when vaccine herd protection was or was not considered, and compared this with commonly accepted cutoffs of gross domestic product (GDP) per person to classify interventions as cost-effective or very-cost effective. Without including herd protective effects, deployment of this vaccine would be cost-effective only in school-based programs in Kolkata and Beira. In contrast, after considering vaccine herd protection, all three programs were judged very cost-effective in Kolkata and Beira. Because these cost-effectiveness calculations include herd protection, the results are dependent on assumed vaccination coverage rates. Ignoring the indirect effects of cholera vaccination has led to underestimation of the cost-effectiveness of vaccination programs with oral cholera vaccines. Once these effects are included, use of the oral killed whole cell vaccine in programs to control endemic cholera meets the per capita GDP criterion in several developing country settings.

  2. Assessing the value of mepolizumab for severe eosinophilic asthma: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Melanie D; McQueen, R Brett; Ollendorf, Daniel A; Tice, Jeffrey A; Chapman, Richard H; Pearson, Steven D; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    Adding mepolizumab to standard treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and controller medications could decrease asthma exacerbations and use of long-term oral steroids in patients with severe disease and increased eosinophils; however, mepolizumab is costly and its cost effectiveness is unknown. To estimate the cost effectiveness of mepolizumab. A Markov model was used to determine the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for mepolizumab plus standard of care (SoC) and for SoC alone. The population, adults with severe eosinophilic asthma, was modeled for a lifetime time horizon. A responder scenario analysis was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness for a cohort able to achieve and maintain asthma control. Over a lifetime treatment horizon, 23.96 exacerbations were averted per patient receiving mepolizumab plus SoC. Avoidance of exacerbations and decrease in long-term oral steroid use resulted in more than $18,000 in cost offsets among those receiving mepolizumab, but treatment costs increased by more than $600,000. Treatment with mepolizumab plus SoC vs SoC alone resulted in a cost-effectiveness estimate of $386,000 per QALY. To achieve cost effectiveness of approximately $150,000 per QALY, mepolizumab would require a more than 60% price discount. At current pricing, treating a responder cohort yielded cost-effectiveness estimates near $160,000 per QALY. The estimated cost effectiveness of mepolizumab exceeds value thresholds. Achieving these thresholds would require significant discounts from the current list price. Alternatively, treatment limited to responders improves the cost effectiveness toward, but remains still slightly above, these thresholds. Payers interested in improving the efficiency of health care resources should consider negotiations of the mepolizumab price and ways to predict and assess the response to mepolizumab. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies for hepatitis C screening in French blood recipients.

    PubMed

    Jusot, J F; Colin, C

    2001-12-01

    In a context of scarce health resources and varied medical practices, the aim of this study was to compare cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies for hepatitis C virus among blood recipients. A cost-effectiveness model was used to test nine screening strategies in three survival categories. Three Markov models were used for three methods of follow-up. The marginal cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to compare the screening strategies. Hepatitis C virus serology by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmation by detection of the virus RNA was proved to be the dominant strategy. The marginal cost-effectiveness ratios were for subjects under 40 and low-volume transfusion patients, 776,474 and 2,636,500 French Francs-1996 (about USD 111,000 and 376,650) per life-year gained, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the marginal cost-effectiveness ratio was influenced by the prevalence and the survival rates. The lower marginal cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at 690,221 French Francs-1996 per life-year gained. This study showed high costs and few life-years gained for the dominant strategy even for the more favourable risk group. New studies may be carried out for new screening and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis and policy choices: investing in health systems.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Kreuser, J.; Whang, W.

    1994-01-01

    The role of health systems infrastructure in studies of cost-effectiveness analysis and health resource allocation is discussed, and previous health sector cost-effectiveness analyses are cited. Two substantial difficulties concerning the nature of health system costs and the policy choices are presented. First, the issue of health system infrastructure can be addressed by use of computer models such as the Health Resource Allocation Model (HRAM) developed at Harvard, which integrates cost-effectiveness and burden of disease data. It was found that a model which allows for expansion in health infrastructure yields nearly 40% more total DALYs for a hypothetical sub-Saharan African country than a model which neglects infrastructure expansion. Widespread use of cost-effectiveness databases for resource allocations in the health sector will require the cost-effectiveness analyses shift from reporting costs to reporting production functions. Second, three distinct policy questions can be treated using these tools, each necessitating its own inputs and constraints: allocations when given a fixed budget and health infrastructure, or when given resources for marginal expansion, or when given a politically constrained situation of expanding resources. Confusion concerning which question is being addressed must be avoided through development of a consistent and rigorous approach to using cost-effectiveness data for informing resource allocations. PMID:7923545

  5. A cost effectiveness analysis of community water fluoridation in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Caroline; Borman, Barry; Scott, Guy; Birks, Stuart

    2015-12-18

    The aim of the study was to use recent data to determine whether Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) remains a cost effective public health intervention in New Zealand, given a reduction in dental caries in all communities over time. Local authorities that fluoridated their water supplies were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding fixed and variable costs incurred from CWF. Cost savings were calculated using data from the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey. The cost effectiveness of CWF in conjunction with treatment per dmft/DMFT averted was compared to an alternative of treatment alone. Calculations were made for communities with populations of less than 5,000, 5,000 to 10,000, 10,001 to 50,000 and greater than 50,000. CWF was cost effective in all communities at base case. CWF remained cost effective for communities over 5,000 under all scenarios when sensitivity analysis was conducted. For communities under 5,000 the there was a positive net cost for CWF under certain scenarios. In this study, CWF was a cost effective public health intervention in New Zealand. For smaller communities cost effectiveness would be more dependent upon the population risk profile of the community.

  6. Can Robot-Assisted Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Be Cost-Effective? A Markov Decision Analysis.

    PubMed

    Moschetti, Wayne E; Konopka, Joseph F; Rubash, Harry E; Genuario, James W

    2016-04-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a treatment option for single-compartment knee osteoarthritis. Robotic assistance may improve survival rates of UKA, but the cost-effectiveness of robot-assisted UKA is unknown. The purpose of this study was to delineate the revision rate, hospital volume, and robotic system costs for which this technology would be cost-effective. We created a Markov decision analysis to evaluate the costs, outcomes, and incremental cost-effectiveness of robot-assisted UKA in 64-year-old patients with end-stage unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. Robot-assisted UKA was more costly than traditional UKA, but offered a slightly better outcome with 0.06 additional quality-adjusted life-years at an incremental cost of $47,180 per quality-adjusted life-years, given a case volume of 100 cases annually. The system was cost-effective when case volume exceeded 94 cases per year, 2-year failure rates were below 1.2%, and total system costs were <$1.426 million. Robot-assisted UKA is cost-effective compared with traditional UKA when annual case volume exceeds 94 cases per year. It is not cost-effective at low-volume or medium-volume arthroplasty centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of palivizumab in premature infants without chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Nahed O; Sorbero, Melony E S; Hall, Caroline B; Stevens, Timothy P; Dick, Andrew W

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab as respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in premature infants without chronic lung disease and to evaluate the impact on cost-effectiveness of a potential reduction in risk of asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection among infants receiving palivizumab. Two decision analytic models were designed, one with and the other without accounting for increased risk of asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection. A hypothetical community or university hospital. Hypothetical cohorts of infants without chronic lung disease born at 26 to 32 weeks' gestation. Palivizumab prophylaxis vs no prophylaxis. Expected costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year. The expected costs were higher for palivizumab prophylaxis as compared with no prophylaxis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were high for all gestations and are not considered cost-effective by today's standards (<$200 000 per quality-adjusted life-year). Both models were sensitive to variation in the cost of palivizumab. The model that included asthma was sensitive to variation in quality of life for children with asthma. In instances where asthma was considered severe with profound worsening in quality of life compared with life without asthma, some infants had an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year that was less than $200 000. Our model supports implementing more restrictive guidelines for palivizumab prophylaxis. Palivizumab was cost-effective for some infants in an analysis that accounted for increased risk of severe asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Second-Line Chemotherapy Agents for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lam, Simon W; Wai, Maya; Lau, Jessica E; McNamara, Michael; Earl, Marc; Udeh, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Chemotherapy options for patients who fail first-line treatment are limited. Thus the objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of second-line treatment options for patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer. Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model to compare the cost-effectiveness of six possible second-line treatment options for patients with advanced gastric cancer who have failed previous chemotherapy: irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, ramucirumab, paclitaxel plus ramucirumab, and palliative care. The model was performed from a third-party payer's perspective to compare lifetime costs and health benefits associated with studied second-line therapies. Costs included only relevant direct medical costs. The model assumed chemotherapy cycle lengths of 30 days and a maximum number of 24 cycles. Systematic review of literature was performed to identify clinical data sources and utility and cost data. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. The primary outcome measure for this analysis was the ICER between different therapies, where the incremental cost was divided by the number of QALYs saved. The ICER was compared with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold that was set at $50,000/QALY gained, and an exploratory analysis using $160,000/QALY gained was also used. The model's robustness was tested by using 1-way sensitivity analyses and a 10,000 Monte Carlo simulation probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). Irinotecan had the lowest lifetime cost and was associated with a QALY gain of 0.35 year. Docetaxel, ramucirumab alone, and palliative care were dominated strategies. Paclitaxel and the combination of paclitaxel plus ramucirumab led to higher QALYs gained, at an incremental cost of $86,815 and $1,056,125 per QALY gained, respectively. Based on our prespecified

  9. [Cost-effectiveness analysis and diet quality index applied to the WHO Global Strategy].

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Simões, Arlete Naresse

    2008-02-01

    To test the use of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision making tool in the production of meals for the inclusion of the recommendations published in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy. Five alternative options for breakfast menu were assessed previously to their adoption in a food service at a university in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Costs of the different options were based on market prices of food items (direct cost). Health benefits were estimated based on adaptation of the Diet Quality Index (DQI). Cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated by dividing benefits by costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated as cost differential per unit of additional benefit. The meal choice was based on health benefit units associated to direct production cost as well as incremental effectiveness per unit of differential cost. The analysis showed the most simple option with the addition of a fruit (DQI = 64 / cost = R$ 1.58) as the best alternative. Higher effectiveness was seen in the options with a fruit portion (DQI1=64 / DQI3=58 / DQI5=72) compared to the others (DQI2=48 / DQI4=58). The estimate of cost-effectiveness ratio allowed to identifying the best breakfast option based on cost-effectiveness analysis and Diet Quality Index. These instruments allow easy application easiness and objective evaluation which are key to the process of inclusion of public or private institutions under the Global Strategy directives.

  10. Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies. PMID:22098703

  11. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients With Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Sebastian E; Hunink, Myriam G; Schöberl, Florian; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Petersen, Steffen E; Dichgans, Martin; Janssen, Hendrik; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian F; Sommer, Wieland H

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging, nonenhanced CT, or duplex ultrasound with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis being administered after positive findings. The analysis was performed from the societal perspective based on US recommendations. Input parameters were derived from the literature. Costs were obtained from United States costing sources and published literature. Outcomes were lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefits, with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY. The strategy with the highest net monetary benefit was considered the most cost-effective. Extensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the effect of varying parameter values. In the reference case analysis, CTA dominated all other imaging strategies. CTA yielded 0.02 QALYs more than magnetic resonance imaging and 0.04 QALYs more than duplex ultrasound followed by CTA. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY, CTA yielded the highest net monetary benefits. The probability that CTA is cost-effective was 96% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that duplex ultrasound was cost-effective only for a prior probability of ≤0.02 and that these results were only minimally influenced by duplex ultrasound sensitivity and specificity. Nonenhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging never became the most cost-effective strategy. Our results suggest that CTA in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion is cost-effective. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antiviral treatment in liver transplant recipients with HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Logge, Christoph; Vettorazzi, Eik; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Sterneck, Martina

    2013-05-01

    Within 5-10 years, 20-40% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected liver transplant recipients can be expected to develop cirrhosis. Here, cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy was assessed. A Markov model was developed to simulate disease progression and calculate outcome and costs of treatment. In the baseline analysis, Peg-IFN/RBV treatment prevented organ loss/death, gained quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and undercut the limit of cost-effectiveness of €50 000/QALY with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately €40 400/QALY and €21 000/QALY for HCV genotype 1 and 2/3 patients, respectively. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis testing modified model parameters according to extreme data described in the literature confirmed cost-effectiveness for a lower or higher rate of fibrosis progression, increased non-HCV-related mortality, lower limits of utilities, a time horizon of 30 years, and additional costs in the year of death. On the other hand, cost-effectiveness was lost for patients with genotype 1 in case of doubled antiviral or life-time costs or an increased discount rate of 7%. New treatment strategies for HCV genotype 1 infected patients remained on the same level cost-effective, if additional costs did not exceed €10 774 per 10% sustained virologic response gain. We conclude that Peg-IFN/RBV treatment is cost-effective post transplant. This may support treatment decision in individual cases. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of osteoporosis screening and treatment strategy for postmenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, M; Moriwaki, K; Noto, S; Takiguchi, T

    2017-02-01

    Although an osteoporosis screening program has been implemented as a health promotion project in Japan, its cost-effectiveness has yet to be elucidated fully. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis and found that osteoporosis screening and treatment would be cost-effective for Japanese women over 60 years.

  14. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Background A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC) method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT). Methods Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013–2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB), cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention. Outcomes Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment), treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130) per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134) in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 < 5) during both 2013 and 2014 and an additional 35% and 33% had achieved partial remission in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At follow-up, 42% were in full remission

  15. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression.

    PubMed

    El Alaoui, Samir; Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC) method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT). Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013-2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB), cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention. Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment), treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130) per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134) in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 < 5) during both 2013 and 2014 and an additional 35% and 33% had achieved partial remission in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At follow-up, 42% were in full remission after treatment during both 2013

  16. A Cost-Effectiveness/Benefit Analysis Model for Postsecondary Vocational Programs. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin Eun

    A cost-effectiveness/benefit analysis is defined as a technique for measuring the outputs of existing and new programs in relation to their specified program objectives, against the costs of those programs. In terms of its specific use, the technique is conceptualized as a systems analysis method, an evaluation method, and a planning tool for…

  17. Stool DNA Analysis is Cost-Effective for Colorectal Cancer Surveillance in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, John B; Konijeti, Gauree G; Piscitello, Andrew J; Chandra, Tarun; Goss, Thomas F; Ahlquist, David A; Farraye, Francis A; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2016-12-01

    Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis are at increased risk for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). Surveillance by white-light endoscopy (WLE) or chromoendoscopy may reduce risk of CRN, but these strategies are underused. Analysis of DNA from stool samples (sDNA) can detect CRN with high levels of sensitivity, but it is not clear if this approach is cost-effective. We simulated these strategies for CRN detection to determine which approach is most cost-effective. We adapted a previously published Markov model to simulate the clinical course of chronic ulcerative colitis, the incidence of cancer or dysplasia, and costs and benefits of care with 4 surveillance strategies: (1) analysis of sDNA and diagnostic chromoendoscopy for patients with positive results, (2) analysis of sDNA with diagnostic WLE for patients with positive results, (3) chromoendoscopy with targeted collection of biopsies, or (4) WLE with random collection of biopsies. Costs were based on 2014 Medicare reimbursement. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (incremental cost/incremental difference in quality-adjusted life-years) compared with no surveillance and a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000. All strategies fell below the willingness-to-pay threshold at 2-year intervals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $16,362 per quality-adjusted life-year for sDNA analysis with diagnostic chromoendoscopy; $18,643 per quality-adjusted life-year for sDNA analysis with diagnostic WLE; $23,830 per quality-adjusted life-year for chromoendoscopy alone; and $27,907 per quality-adjusted life-year for WLE alone. In sensitivity analyses, sDNA analysis with diagnostic chromoendoscopy was more cost-effective than chromoendoscopy alone, up to a cost of $1135 per sDNA test. sDNA analysis remained cost-effective at all rates of compliance; when combined with diagnostic chromoendoscopy, this approach was preferred over chromoendoscopy alone, when the specificity of the sDNA test for CRN

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in preventing pneumonia in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Bolaños-Díaz, Rafael; Fiestas, Víctor; Sanabria, César; Gutiérrez-Aguado, Alfonso; Fiestas, Fabián; Suárez, Víctor J; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Hernández, Adrián V

    2014-12-15

    Pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) has a high burden of morbimortality in children. Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is an effective preventive measure. After PCV 7-valent (PCV7) withdrawal, PCV 10-valent (PCV10) and PCV 13-valent (PCV13) are the alternatives in Peru. This study aimed to evaluate cost effectiveness of these vaccines in preventing PP in Peruvian children <5 years-old. A cost-effectiveness analysis was developed in three phases: a systematic evidence search for calculating effectiveness; a cost analysis for vaccine strategies and outcome management; and an economic model based on decision tree analysis, including deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using acceptability curves, tornado diagram, and Monte Carlo simulation. A hypothetic 100 vaccinated children/vaccine cohort was built. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. The isolation probability for all serotypes in each vaccine was estimated: 38% for PCV7, 41% PCV10, and 17% PCV13. Avoided hospitalization was found to be the best effectiveness model measure. Estimated costs for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 cohorts were USD13,761, 11,895, and 12,499, respectively. Costs per avoided hospitalization were USD718 for PCV7, USD333 for PCV10, and USD 162 for PCV13. At ICER, PCV7 was dominated by the other PCVs. Eliminating PCV7, PCV13 was more cost effective than PCV10 (confirmed in sensitivity analysis). PCV10 and PCV13 are more cost effective than PCV7 in prevention of pneumonia in children <5 years-old in Peru. PCV13 prevents more hospitalizations and is more cost-effective than PCV10. These results should be considered when making decisions about the Peruvian National Inmunizations Schedule.

  19. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  20. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; ...

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore » 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  1. Economic methods for valuing the outcomes of genetic testing: beyond cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Wordsworth, Sarah; Payne, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Genetic testing in health care can provide information to help with disease prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Assessing the clinical utility of genetic testing requires a process to value and weight different outcomes. This article discusses the relative merits of different economic measures and methods to inform recommendations relative to genetic testing for risk of disease, including cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis. Cost-effectiveness analyses refer to analyses that calculate the incremental cost per unit of health outcomes, such as deaths prevented or life-years saved because of some intervention. Cost-effectiveness analyses that use preference-based measures of health state utility such as quality-adjusted life-years to define outcomes are referred to as cost-utility analyses. Cost-effectiveness analyses presume that health policy decision makers seek to maximize health subject to resource constraints. Cost-benefit analyses can incorporate monetary estimates of willingness-to-pay for genetic testing, including the perceived value of information independent of health outcomes. These estimates can be derived from contingent valuation or discrete choice experiments. Because important outcomes of genetic testing do not fit easily within traditional measures of health, cost-effectiveness analyses do not necessarily capture the full range of outcomes of genetic testing that are important to decision makers and consumers. We recommend that health policy decision makers consider the value to consumers of information and other nonhealth attributes of genetic testing strategies.

  2. Simultaneous Bilateral Versus Staged Bilateral Carpal Tunnel Release: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kevin W; Boyer, Martin I; Gelberman, Richard H; Calfee, Ryan P; Stepan, Jeffrey G; Osei, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if simultaneous bilateral carpal tunnel release (CTR) is a cost-effective strategy compared with bilateral staged CTR for the treatment of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A decision analytic model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of three strategies (ie, bilateral simultaneous CTR, bilateral staged CTR, and no treatment). Direct medical costs were estimated from 2013 Medicare reimbursement rates and wholesale drug costs in US dollars. Indirect costs were derived from consecutive patients undergoing unilateral or simultaneous bilateral CTR at our institution and from national average wages for 2013. Health state utility values were derived from a general population of volunteers using the Short Form-6 dimensions (SF-6D) health questionnaire. Both surgical strategies were cost effective compared with the no-treatment strategy. Bilateral simultaneous CTR had lower total costs and higher total effectiveness than bilateral staged CTR, and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $921 per quality-adjusted life year compared with the no-treatment strategy. The conclusions of the analysis remained unchanged though all sensitivity analyses, displaying robustness against parameter uncertainty. Surgical management is cost effective for the treatment of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Bilateral simultaneous CTR, however, has lower total costs and higher total effectiveness compared with bilateral staged CTR. Economic and Decision Analysis I.

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a residential radon remediation programme in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, C A; Gray, A M; Denman, A R; Phillips, P S

    1999-01-01

    As residential radon programmes of identification and remediation have proceeded, so questions have been raised about their costs and benefits. This study presents a generalizable model for estimating the cost-effectiveness of a radon mitigation programme using the methodological framework now considered appropriate in the economic evaluation of health interventions. Its use will help to inform future discussion of radon remediation and lung cancer prevention programmes. Data from Northamptonshire were analysed, resulting in a societal cost-effectiveness ratio of £13250 per life-year gained in 1997. The percentage of houses found to be over the action level, and the percentage of householders who decide to remediate are shown to be important parameters for the cost-effectiveness analysis. Questions are raised about the particular importance of perspective in this type of analysis and suggestions are made for future research directions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10584889

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Endovascular Stroke Therapy: A Patient Subgroup Analysis From a US Healthcare Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Wolfgang G; Hunink, M G Myriam; Sommer, Wieland H; Beyer, Sebastian E; Meinel, Felix G; Dorn, Franziska; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian F; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Thierfelder, Kolja M

    2016-11-01

    Endovascular therapy in addition to standard care (EVT+SC) has been demonstrated to be more effective than SC in acute ischemic large vessel occlusion stroke. Our aim was to determine the cost-effectiveness of EVT+SC depending on patients' initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, time from symptom onset, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), and occlusion location. A decision model based on Markov simulations estimated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with both strategies applied in a US setting. Model input parameters were obtained from the literature, including recently pooled outcome data of 5 randomized controlled trials (ESCAPE [Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke], EXTEND-IA [Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial], MR CLEAN [Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands], REVASCAT [Randomized Trial of Revascularization With Solitaire FR Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Stroke Due to Anterior Circulation Large Vessel Occlusion Presenting Within 8 Hours of Symptom Onset], and SWIFT PRIME [Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment]). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate uncertainty of the model results. Net monetary benefits, incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were derived from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The willingness-to-pay was set to $50 000/QALY. Overall, EVT+SC was cost-effective compared with SC (incremental cost: $4938, incremental effectiveness: 1.59 QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: $3110/QALY) in 100% of simulations. In all patient subgroups, EVT+SC led to gained QALYs (range: 0.47-2.12), and mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were considered cost-effective

  5. Comparing five alternative methods of breast reconstruction surgery: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Grover, Ritwik; Padula, William V; Van Vliet, Michael; Ridgway, Emily B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of five standardized procedures for breast reconstruction to delineate the best reconstructive approach in postmastectomy patients in the settings of nonirradiated and irradiated chest walls. A decision tree was used to model five breast reconstruction procedures from the provider perspective to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Procedures included autologous flaps with pedicled tissue, autologous flaps with free tissue, latissimus dorsi flaps with breast implants, expanders with implant exchange, and immediate implant placement. All methods were compared with a "do-nothing" alternative. Data for model parameters were collected through a systematic review, and patient health utilities were calculated from an ad hoc survey of reconstructive surgeons. Results were measured in cost (2011 U.S. dollars) per quality-adjusted life-year. Univariate sensitivity analyses and Bayesian multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted. Pedicled autologous tissue and free autologous tissue reconstruction were cost-effective compared with the do-nothing alternative. Pedicled autologous tissue was the slightly more cost-effective of the two. The other procedures were not found to be cost-effective. The results were robust to a number of sensitivity analyses, although the margin between pedicled and free autologous tissue reconstruction is small and affected by some parameter values. Autologous pedicled tissue was slightly more cost-effective than free tissue reconstruction in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Implant-based techniques were not cost-effective. This is in agreement with the growing trend at academic institutions to encourage autologous tissue reconstruction because of its natural recreation of the breast contour, suppleness, and resiliency in the setting of irradiated recipient beds.

  6. The Cost Effectiveness of Pandemic Influenza Interventions: A Pandemic Severity Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milne, George J.; Halder, Nilimesh; Kelso, Joel K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of a newly emerged influenza pandemic will depend on its transmissibility and severity. Understanding how these pandemic features impact on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies is important for pandemic planning. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies intended to mitigate a future pandemic was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ∼30,000 in Australia. Six pandemic severity categories were defined based on case fatality ratio (CFR), using data from the 2009/2010 pandemic to relate hospitalisation rates to CFR. Results Intervention strategies combining school closure with antiviral treatment and prophylaxis are the most cost effective strategies in terms of cost per life year saved (LYS) for all severity categories. The cost component in the cost per LYS ratio varies depending on pandemic severity: for a severe pandemic (CFR of 2.5%) the cost is ∼$9 k per LYS; for a low severity pandemic (CFR of 0.1%) this strategy costs ∼$58 k per LYS; for a pandemic with very low severity similar to the 2009 pandemic (CFR of 0.03%) the cost is ∼$155 per LYS. With high severity pandemics (CFR >0.75%) the most effective attack rate reduction strategies are also the most cost effective. During low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, while for high severity pandemics costs are dominated by hospitalisation costs and productivity losses due to death. Conclusions The most cost effective strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic involve combining sustained social distancing with the use of antiviral agents. For low severity pandemics the most cost effective strategies involve antiviral treatment, prophylaxis and short durations of school closure; while these are cost effective they are less effective than other strategies in reducing the

  7. The cost effectiveness of pandemic influenza interventions: a pandemic severity based analysis.

    PubMed

    Milne, George J; Halder, Nilimesh; Kelso, Joel K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a newly emerged influenza pandemic will depend on its transmissibility and severity. Understanding how these pandemic features impact on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies is important for pandemic planning. A cost effectiveness analysis of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies intended to mitigate a future pandemic was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ∼30,000 in Australia. Six pandemic severity categories were defined based on case fatality ratio (CFR), using data from the 2009/2010 pandemic to relate hospitalisation rates to CFR. Intervention strategies combining school closure with antiviral treatment and prophylaxis are the most cost effective strategies in terms of cost per life year saved (LYS) for all severity categories. The cost component in the cost per LYS ratio varies depending on pandemic severity: for a severe pandemic (CFR of 2.5%) the cost is ∼$9 k per LYS; for a low severity pandemic (CFR of 0.1%) this strategy costs ∼$58 k per LYS; for a pandemic with very low severity similar to the 2009 pandemic (CFR of 0.03%) the cost is ∼$155 per LYS. With high severity pandemics (CFR >0.75%) the most effective attack rate reduction strategies are also the most cost effective. During low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, while for high severity pandemics costs are dominated by hospitalisation costs and productivity losses due to death. The most cost effective strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic involve combining sustained social distancing with the use of antiviral agents. For low severity pandemics the most cost effective strategies involve antiviral treatment, prophylaxis and short durations of school closure; while these are cost effective they are less effective than other strategies in reducing the infection rate.

  8. Is reconstruction nailing of all femoral shaft fractures cost effective? A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Scott C; Collinge, Cory A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2012-11-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are usually treated with anterograde or retrograde nails that typically do not provide femoral neck fixation. Ipsilateral femoral neck fractures occur with 2.5%-10% of femoral shaft fractures; 19%-55% of associated femoral neck fractures are missed with plain films and 5%-22% with computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to determine if routine reconstruction nailing of all femoral shaft fractures with or without occult femoral neck fractures is cost effective. A decision tree model examined the cost effectiveness of reconstruction nailing over standard intramedullary nailing for all femoral shaft fractures in which an associated femoral neck fracture was not identified on plain radiographs. As a base model, we assumed that 5% of shaft fractures had an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture, and 37% were missed and required further surgery. We assigned a small morbidity and additional cost ($680) for the use of a reconstruction nail and 2 screws. Model inputs including costs, clinical outcome probabilities, and health utilities were derived from the literature, estimated from institutional data, or assumed by the authors. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of the rate of associated femoral neck fracture, the rate of missed femoral neck fracture, the complication rate of reconstruction screws, the cost of the extra reconstruction screws, and the utilities of each outcome on the incremental cost effectiveness (ICER) of both strategies. Current practice in cost-effectiveness analysis uses a threshold of $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained as cost effective. A secondary analysis of the use CT scans to reduce missed femoral neck fractures was also performed. The base model showed that the placement of reconstruction nails in all isolated femur fractures was not cost effective. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the ICER was most sensitive to the cost of the reconstruction nail, hemiarthroplasty, and a missed femoral

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Morimoto, R; Seiji, K; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Satoh, F; Ito, S; Ishibashi, T; Takase, K

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 10% of cases of hypertension in Japan are caused by primary aldosteronism (PA), amounting to about 4 million patients in total. Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is potentially curable by adrenalectomy. The clinical benefits of identifying and treating PA have been reported internationally, but its cost-effectiveness is unclear. We examined whether diagnosing and treating hidden PA in hypertensive population was cost-effective compared with suboptimal treatment. Our hypothetical patient was a 50-year-old man diagnosed with stage I-III hypertension. We established a Markov decision model based on plausible clinical pathways and prognoses of PA. We applied cost-effectiveness analysis comparing a comprehensive diagnostic strategy for PA (measurement of plasma aldosterone/renin ratio, 2 loading tests, imaging, and selective adrenal venous sampling) with a suboptimal strategy to manage hypertension by medication unless the typical signs of PA or other complication were manifest. Outcome measures were expected costs, expected effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The robustness of the findings was established by one-way and scenario sensitivity analyses. The comprehensive PA diagnostic strategy increased the expected costs by 64 004 JPY and expected life-years by 0.013 compared with standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the diagnosis of PA was 4 923 385 JPY per year. Our findings were sensitive to the outcomes of screening and treatment, and the costs of continuous or periodic medication for hypertension and the treatment of stroke and its complications.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Mar, Javier; O'Leary, Aisling; Adams, Róisín; San Miguel, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a cost-effectiveness analysis of therapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infected patients in Spain. A Markov model was designed to simulate the progression in a cohort of patients aged 50 years over a lifetime horizon. Sofosbuvir (SOF) plus peginterferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks was a cost-effective option when compared to standard of care (SoC) in the treatment of both 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were €35,276/QALY and €18,374/QALY respectively. ICERs for SOF plus daclatasvir (DCV) regimens versus SoC were over the threshold limit considered, at €56,178/QALY and €77,378/QALY for 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients respectively. Addition of SOF to IFN-based regimens for genotype 3 was cost-effective for both 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients. IFN-free options including SOF and DCV association required price reductions lower than the list prices to be considered cost-effective.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide media campaign to promote adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael; Chandlee, Margaret; Abraham, Avron

    2008-10-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide social marketing campaign was performed using a statewide surveillance survey distributed to 6th through 12th graders, media production and placement costs, and 2000 census data. Exposure to all three advertisements had the highest impact on both intent and behavior with 65.6% of the respondents considering becoming more active and 58.3% reporting becoming more active. Average cost of the entire campaign was $4.01 per person to see an ad, $7.35 per person to consider being more active, and $8.87 per person to actually become more active, with billboards yielding the most positive cost-effectiveness. Findings highlight market research as an essential part of social marketing campaigns and the importance of using multiple marketing modalities to enhance cost-effectiveness and impact.

  12. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Screening Strategies in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin Yu; Finkelstein, Eric A; Ng, Mor Jack; Yap, Fabian; Yeo, George S H; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Tan, Kok Hian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective in Singapore of 3 gestational diabetes mellitus screening strategies: universal, targeted, or no screening. A decision tree model assessed the primary outcome: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Probabilities, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study, and the KK Women's and Children's Hospital's database. Relative to targeted screening using risk factors, universal screening generates an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $USD10,630/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses show that disease prevalence rates and intervention effectiveness of glycemic management have the biggest impacts on the ICERs. Based on the model and best available data, universal screening is a cost-effective approach for reducing the complications of gestational diabetes mellitus in Singapore as compared with the targeted screening approach or no screening.

  13. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Tolla, Mieraf Taddesse; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Abdisa, Senbeta Guteta; Ababulgu, Awel; Jerene, Degu; Bertram, Melanie; Strand, Kirsten; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-01-01

    The coverage of prevention and treatment strategies for ischemic heart disease and stroke is very low in Ethiopia. In view of Ethiopia's meager healthcare budget, it is important to identify the most cost-effective interventions for further scale-up. This paper's objective is to assess cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in an Ethiopian setting. Fifteen single interventions and sixteen intervention packages were assessed from a healthcare provider perspective. The World Health Organization's Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective model for cardiovascular disease was updated with available country-specific inputs, including demography, mortality and price of traded and non-traded goods. Costs and health benefits were discounted at 3 % per year. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are reported in US$ per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess robustness of our results. Combination drug treatment for individuals having >35 % absolute risk of a CVD event in the next 10 years is the most cost-effective intervention. This intervention costs US$67 per DALY averted and about US$7 million annually. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (costing US$1000-US$7530 per DALY averted) and secondary prevention of IHD and stroke (costing US$1060-US$10,340 per DALY averted) become more efficient when delivered in integrated packages. At an annual willingness-to-pay (WTP) level of about US$3 million, a package consisting of aspirin, streptokinase, ACE-inhibitor and beta-blocker for AMI has the highest probability of being most cost-effective, whereas as WTP increases to > US$7 million, combination drug treatment to individuals having >35 % absolute risk stands out as the most cost-effective strategy. Cost-effectiveness ratios were relatively more sensitive to halving the effectiveness estimates as compared with doubling the price of drugs and laboratory

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of prostaglandin E2 gel for the induction of labour at term.

    PubMed

    Petrou, S; Taher, Se; Abangma, G; Eddama, O; Bennett, P

    2011-05-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) vaginal gel for the induction of labour at term from the perspective of the UK's National Health Service. Economic evaluation conducted as part of a randomised controlled trial. Maternity department at a major teaching hospital in London, UK. A cohort of 165 pregnant women presenting as cephalic between 36(+⁶) and 41(+⁶) weeks of gestation, for whom induction of labour was deemed necessary. Either 3-mg Prostin E2 vaginal tablets or 1- or 2-mg Prostin E2 vaginal gel were administered at 6-hourly intervals. Incremental cost per hour prevented between induction and delivery. The nonparametric bootstrap method was used to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and estimate net benefits at alternative cost-effectiveness thresholds. Women receiving the gel accrued nonsignificantly higher costs (incremental cost £630; bootstrap 95% CI -£353, £2320; P = 0.43), and experienced a significantly reduced interval between induction and delivery (median of 1400 versus 1780 minutes; mean of 1711 versus 2765 minutes; P = 0.03). The incremental cost per hour prevented from induction of labour to delivery was estimated at £36. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of £100 per hour of care prevented, the probability that the gel is cost-effective was estimated at 0.83, and the mean net benefit to the health services was estimated at £1121 (bootstrap 95% CI -£1133, £3379). The results were sensitive to the inclusion of neonatal costs in the analysis and the value of the cost-effectiveness threshold. Notably, excluding neonatal costs increased the probability that the gel is cost-effective at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £100 per hour of care prevented to 0.99. This study suggests that prostaglandin E2 gel is probably more cost-effective than prostaglandin E2 tablets for the induction of labour at term. Given that the results are applicable to the general obstetric population requiring

  15. Should endocervical curettage routinely be performed at the time of colposcopy? A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Guido, Richard; Lowder, Jerry L

    2014-04-01

    Endocervical curettage (ECC) has been used with colposcopy-directed biopsy to increase diagnostic sensitivity for detecting cellular abnormality. Our objective was to determine if routine ECC was cost-effective compared with colposcopy alone in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cervical cytology, who are older and younger than 50 years. We generated a cost-effectiveness model using outcomes from cervical screening including repeat Pap smears, colposcopy, and loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Cervical cancer costs, survival, as well as incidence and complications after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (preterm birth, cervical stenosis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and infertility) were modeled. Cost and probability values were obtained from published literature and Medicare databases. Direct medical costs were analyzed in 2011 US dollars. Effectiveness outcomes were cervical cancer deaths and incident cases of cancer prevented. Model robustness was evaluated using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. For women older than 50 years, routine ECC is the dominant strategy (less expensive and more effective at reducing cervical cancer deaths/incidence). For women younger than 50 years, routine ECC costs $96,737 more per cervical cancer death prevented. Cost per incident cancer case prevented ranged from $21,894 (local spread or greater) to $235,873 (distal spread). Sensitivity analysis confirmed these conclusions. In women older than 50 years, routine ECC was always the most likely cost-effective choice. In women younger than 50, routine ECC was most likely cost-effective for all willingness-to-pay thresholds greater than $80,000 to prevent 1 cancer death. In women older than 50 years, routine ECC is favored over colposcopy alone because this strategy is cost saving and reduces the number of cancer deaths and incident cancer cases. For women younger than 50 years, cost-effectiveness is

  16. Application of Bayesian Approach to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Antiviral Treatments in Chronic Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Huo, Mingdong; Chao, Jianqian; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major problem for public health; timely antiviral treatment can significantly prevent the progression of liver damage from HBV by slowing down or stopping the virus from reproducing. In the study we applied Bayesian approach to cost-effectiveness analysis, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation methods for the relevant evidence input into the model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LVD) therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Jiangsu, China, thus providing information to the public health system in the CHB therapy. Eight-stage Markov model was developed, a hypothetical cohort of 35-year-old HBeAg-positive patients with CHB was entered into the model. Treatment regimens were LVD100mg daily and ETV 0.5 mg daily. The transition parameters were derived either from systematic reviews of the literature or from previous economic studies. The outcome measures were life-years, quality-adjusted lifeyears (QALYs), and expected costs associated with the treatments and disease progression. For the Bayesian models all the analysis was implemented by using WinBUGS version 1.4. Expected cost, life expectancy, QALYs decreased with age. Cost-effectiveness increased with age. Expected cost of ETV was less than LVD, while life expectancy and QALYs were higher than that of LVD, ETV strategy was more cost-effective. Costs and benefits of the Monte Carlo simulation were very close to the results of exact form among the group, but standard deviation of each group indicated there was a big difference between individual patients. Compared with lamivudine, entecavir is the more cost-effective option. CHB patients should accept antiviral treatment as soon as possible as the lower age the more cost-effective. Monte Carlo simulation obtained costs and effectiveness distribution, indicate our Markov model is of good robustness.

  17. Guiding the Development and Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is rarely used in education. When it is used, it often fails to meet methodological standards, especially with regard to cost measurement. Although there are occasional criticisms of these failings, we believe that it is useful to provide a listing of the more common concerns and how they might be addressed. Based upon…

  18. Guiding the Development and Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is rarely used in education. When it is used, it often fails to meet methodological standards, especially with regard to cost measurement. Although there are occasional criticisms of these failings, we believe that it is useful to provide a listing of the more common concerns and how they might be addressed. Based upon…

  19. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Vocational Education Program in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    To assist decision makers in appropriating funds wisely for vocational school programs, this study was undertaken to: (1) conduct a cost effectiveness analysis of vocational programs administered by the Department of Education, (2) determine variations in unit costs of programs and curricula, (3) identify factors contributing to variations in unit…

  20. Oseltamivir Treatment for Children with Influenza-Like Illness in China: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kunling; Xiong, Tengbin; Tan, Seng Chuen; Wu, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza is a common viral respiratory infection that causes epidemics and pandemics in the human population. Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor—a new class of antiviral therapy for influenza. Although its efficacy and safety have been established, there is uncertainty regarding whether influenza-like illness (ILI) in children is best managed by oseltamivir at the onset of illness, and its cost-effectiveness in children has not been studied in China. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of post rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) treatment with oseltamivir and empiric treatment with oseltamivir comparing with no antiviral therapy against influenza for children with ILI. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model based on previously published evidence to simulate and evaluate 1-year potential clinical and economic outcomes associated with three managing strategies for children presenting with symptoms of influenza. Model inputs were derived from literature and expert opinion of clinical practice and research in China. Outcome measures included costs and quality-adjusted life year (QALY). All the interventions were compared with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Results In base case analysis, empiric treatment with oseltamivir consistently produced the greatest gains in QALY. When compared with no antiviral therapy, the empiric treatment with oseltamivir strategy is very cost effective with an ICER of RMB 4,438. When compared with the post RIDT treatment with oseltamivir, the empiric treatment with oseltamivir strategy is dominant. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis projected that there is a 100% probability that empiric oseltamivir treatment would be considered as a very cost-effective strategy compared to the no antiviral therapy, according to the WHO recommendations for cost-effectiveness thresholds. The same was concluded with 99% probability for empiric oseltamivir treatment being a very cost-effective strategy

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Genetic Testing Strategies for Lynch Syndrome in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Erh; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers. Genetic screening for LS among patients with newly diagnosed CRC aims to identify mutations in the disease-causing genes (i.e., the DNA mismatch repair genes) in the patients, to offer genetic testing for relatives of the patients with the mutations, and then to provide early prevention for the relatives with the mutations. Several genetic tests are available for LS, such as DNA sequencing for MMR genes and tumor testing using microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical analyses. Cost-effectiveness analyses of different genetic testing strategies for LS have been performed in several studies from different countries such as the US and Germany. However, a cost-effectiveness analysis for the testing has not yet been performed in Taiwan. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four genetic testing strategies for LS described in previous studies, while population-specific parameters, such as the mutation rates of the DNA mismatch repair genes and treatment costs for CRC in Taiwan, were used. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios based on discounted life years gained due to genetic screening were calculated for the strategies relative to no screening and to the previous strategy. Using the World Health Organization standard, which was defined based on Taiwan's Gross Domestic Product per capita, the strategy based on immunohistochemistry as a genetic test followed by BRAF mutation testing was considered to be highly cost-effective relative to no screening. Our probabilistic sensitivity analysis results also suggest that the strategy has a probability of 0.939 of being cost-effective relative to no screening based on the commonly used threshold of $50,000 to determine cost-effectiveness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluating different genetic testing strategies for LS in

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a National Newborn Screening Program for Biotinidase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Castilla, Iván; Couce, María L; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Martín-Hernández, Elena; Pineda, Mercé; Campistol, Jaume; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Morris, Stephen; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    There are conflicting views as to whether testing for biotinidase deficiency (BD) ought to be incorporated into universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding BD to the panel of conditions currently screened under the national NBS program in Spain. We used information from the regional NBS program for BD that has been in place in the Spanish region of Galicia since 1987. These data, along with other sources, were used to develop a cost-effectiveness decision model that compared lifetime costs and health outcomes of a national birth cohort of newborns with and without an early detection program. The analysis took the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service. Effectiveness was measured in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We undertook extensive sensitivity analyses around the main model assumptions, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. In the base case analysis, NBS for BD led to higher QALYs and higher health care costs, with an estimated incremental cost per QALY gained of $24,677. Lower costs per QALY gained were found when conservative assumptions were relaxed, yielding cost savings in some scenarios. The probability that BD screening was cost-effective was estimated to be >70% in the base case at a standard threshold value. This study indicates that NBS for BD is likely to be a cost-effective use of resources. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Comparative efficiency research (COMER): meta-analysis of cost-effectiveness studies.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Carlos; Monleon, Antonio; Díaz, Walter; Ríos, Martín

    2014-12-22

    The aim of this study was to create a new meta-analysis method for cost-effectiveness studies using comparative efficiency research (COMER). We built a new score named total incremental net benefit (TINB), with inverse variance weighting of incremental net benefits (INB). This permits determination of whether an alternative is cost-effective, given a specific threshold (TINB > 0 test). Before validation of the model, the structure of dependence between costs and quality-adjusted life years (QoL) was analysed using copula distributions. The goodness-of-fit of a Spanish prospective observational study (n = 498) was analysed using the Independent, Gaussian, T, Gumbel, Clayton, Frank and Placket copulas. Validation was carried out by simulating a copula distribution with log-normal distribution for costs and gamma distribution for disutilities. Hypothetical cohorts were created by varying the sample size (n: 15-500) and assuming three scenarios (1-cost-effective; 2-non-cost-effective; 3-dominant). The COMER result was compared to the theoretical result according to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and the INB, assuming a margin of error of 2,000 and 500 monetary units, respectively. The Frank copula with positive dependence (-0.4279) showed a goodness-of-fit sufficient to represent costs and QoL (p-values 0.524 and 0.808). The theoretical INB was within the 95% confidence interval of the TINB, based on 15 individuals with a probability > 80% for scenarios 1 and 2, and > 90% for scenario 3. The TINB > 0 test with 15 individuals showed p-values of 0.0105 (SD: 0.0411) for scenario 1, 0.613 (SD: 0.265) for scenario 2 and < 0.0001 for scenario 3. COMER is a valid tool for combining cost-effectiveness studies and may be of use to health decision makers.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ultrasonography screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in metabolic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Supakankunti, Siripen; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Charoensak, Aphinya; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be diagnosed early by noninvasive ultrasonography; however, the cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography screening with intensive weight reduction program in metabolic syndrome patients is not clear. This study aims to estimate economic and clinical outcomes of ultrasonography in Thailand. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis used decision tree and Markov models to estimate lifetime costs and health benefits from societal perspective, based on a cohort of 509 metabolic syndrome patients in Thailand. Data were obtained from published literatures and Thai database. Results were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in 2014 US dollars (USD) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained with discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of parameter uncertainty on the results. Results: The ICER of ultrasonography screening of 50-year-old metabolic syndrome patients with intensive weight reduction program was 958 USD/QALY gained when compared with no screening. The probability of being cost-effective was 67% using willingness-to-pay threshold in Thailand (4848 USD/QALY gained). Screening before 45 years was cost saving while screening at 45 to 64 years was cost-effective. Conclusions: For patients with metabolic syndromes, ultrasonography screening for NAFLD with intensive weight reduction program is a cost-effective program in Thailand. Study can be used as part of evidence-informed decision making. Translational Impacts: Findings could contribute to changes of NAFLD diagnosis practice in settings where economic evidence is used as part of decision-making process. Furthermore, study design, model structure, and input parameters could also be used for future research addressing similar questions. PMID:28445256

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinical smoking cessation interventions in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tosanguan, Jiraboon; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-02-01

    Clinical smoking cessation interventions have been found typically to be highly cost-effective in many high-income countries. There is a need to extend this to low- and middle-income countries and undertake comparative analyses. This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a range of clinical smoking cessation interventions available in Thailand. Using a Markov model, cost-effectiveness, in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, from a range of interventions was estimated from a societal perspective for males and females aged 40 years who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Interventions considered were: counselling in hospital, phone counselling (Quitline) and counselling plus nicotine gum, nicotine patch, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline. An annual discounting rate of 3% was used. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) plotted. Comparisons between interventions were conducted involving application of a 'decision rule' process. Counselling with varenicline and counselling with nortriptyline were found to be cost-effective. Hospital counselling only, nicotine patch and bupropion were dominated by Quitline, nortriptyline and varenicline, respectively, according to the decision rule. When compared with unassisted cessation, probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that all interventions have very high probabilities (95%) of being cost-saving except for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch (74%). In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options for supporting smokers to quit. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ultrasonography screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Supakankunti, Siripen; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Charoensak, Aphinya; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be diagnosed early by noninvasive ultrasonography; however, the cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography screening with intensive weight reduction program in metabolic syndrome patients is not clear. This study aims to estimate economic and clinical outcomes of ultrasonography in Thailand. Cost-effectiveness analysis used decision tree and Markov models to estimate lifetime costs and health benefits from societal perspective, based on a cohort of 509 metabolic syndrome patients in Thailand. Data were obtained from published literatures and Thai database. Results were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in 2014 US dollars (USD) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained with discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of parameter uncertainty on the results. The ICER of ultrasonography screening of 50-year-old metabolic syndrome patients with intensive weight reduction program was 958 USD/QALY gained when compared with no screening. The probability of being cost-effective was 67% using willingness-to-pay threshold in Thailand (4848 USD/QALY gained). Screening before 45 years was cost saving while screening at 45 to 64 years was cost-effective. For patients with metabolic syndromes, ultrasonography screening for NAFLD with intensive weight reduction program is a cost-effective program in Thailand. Study can be used as part of evidence-informed decision making. Findings could contribute to changes of NAFLD diagnosis practice in settings where economic evidence is used as part of decision-making process. Furthermore, study design, model structure, and input parameters could also be used for future research addressing similar questions.

  7. A lesson in business: cost-effectiveness analysis of a novel financial incentive intervention for increasing physical activity in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently both the UK and US governments have advocated the use of financial incentives to encourage healthier lifestyle choices but evidence for the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking. Our aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a quasi-experimental trial, exploring the use of financial incentives to increase employee physical activity levels, from a healthcare and employer’s perspective. Methods Employees used a 'loyalty card’ to objectively monitor their physical activity at work over 12 weeks. The Incentive Group (n=199) collected points and received rewards for minutes of physical activity completed. The No Incentive Group (n=207) self-monitored their physical activity only. Quality of life (QOL) and absenteeism were assessed at baseline and 6 months follow-up. QOL scores were also converted into productivity estimates using a validated algorithm. The additional costs of the Incentive Group were divided by the additional quality adjusted life years (QALYs) or productivity gained to calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and population expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was used to characterize and value the uncertainty in our estimates. Results The Incentive Group performed more physical activity over 12 weeks and by 6 months had achieved greater gains in QOL and productivity, although these mean differences were not statistically significant. The ICERs were £2,900/QALY and £2,700 per percentage increase in overall employee productivity. Whilst the confidence intervals surrounding these ICERs were wide, CEACs showed a high chance of the intervention being cost-effective at low willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. Conclusions The Physical Activity Loyalty card (PAL) scheme is potentially cost-effective from both a healthcare and employer’s perspective but further research is warranted to reduce uncertainty in our results. It is based

  8. A lesson in business: cost-effectiveness analysis of a novel financial incentive intervention for increasing physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Dallat, Mary Anne T; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Cairns, Karen J; Kee, Frank

    2013-10-10

    Recently both the UK and US governments have advocated the use of financial incentives to encourage healthier lifestyle choices but evidence for the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking. Our aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a quasi-experimental trial, exploring the use of financial incentives to increase employee physical activity levels, from a healthcare and employer's perspective. Employees used a 'loyalty card' to objectively monitor their physical activity at work over 12 weeks. The Incentive Group (n=199) collected points and received rewards for minutes of physical activity completed. The No Incentive Group (n=207) self-monitored their physical activity only. Quality of life (QOL) and absenteeism were assessed at baseline and 6 months follow-up. QOL scores were also converted into productivity estimates using a validated algorithm. The additional costs of the Incentive Group were divided by the additional quality adjusted life years (QALYs) or productivity gained to calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and population expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was used to characterize and value the uncertainty in our estimates. The Incentive Group performed more physical activity over 12 weeks and by 6 months had achieved greater gains in QOL and productivity, although these mean differences were not statistically significant. The ICERs were £2,900/QALY and £2,700 per percentage increase in overall employee productivity. Whilst the confidence intervals surrounding these ICERs were wide, CEACs showed a high chance of the intervention being cost-effective at low willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. The Physical Activity Loyalty card (PAL) scheme is potentially cost-effective from both a healthcare and employer's perspective but further research is warranted to reduce uncertainty in our results. It is based on a sustainable "business model" which

  9. The clinical and cost effectiveness of group art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Uttley, Lesley; Stevenson, Matt; Scope, Alison; Rawdin, Andrew; Sutton, Anthea

    2015-07-07

    The majority of mental health problems are non-psychotic (e.g., depression, anxiety, and phobias). For some people, art therapy may be a more acceptable alternative form of psychological therapy than standard forms of treatment, such as talking therapies. This study was part of a health technology assessment commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research, UK and aimed to systematically appraise the clinical and cost-effective evidence for art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders. Comprehensive literature searches for studies examining art therapy in populations with non-psychotic mental health disorders were performed in May 2013. A quantitative systematic review of clinical effectiveness and a systematic review of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of group art therapy were conducted. Eleven randomised controlled trials were included (533 patients). Meta-analysis was not possible due to clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. The control groups varied between studies but included: no treatment/wait-list, attention placebo controls and psychological therapy comparators. Art therapy was associated with significant positive changes relative to the control group in mental health symptoms in 7 of the 11 studies. A de novo model was constructed and populated with data identified from the clinical review. Scenario analyses were conducted allowing comparisons of group art therapy with wait-list control and group art therapy with group verbal therapy. Group art-therapy appeared cost-effective compared with wait-list control with high certainty although generalisability to the target population was unclear; group verbal therapy appeared more cost-effective than art therapy but there was considerable uncertainty and a sizeable probability that art therapy was more cost effective. From the limited available evidence art therapy was associated with positive effects compared with

  10. Strengthening cost-effectiveness analysis in Thailand through the establishment of the health intervention and technology assessment program.

    PubMed

    Tantivess, Sripen; Teerawattananon, Yot; Mills, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Capacity is limited in the developing world to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of health interventions. In Thailand, there have been concerted efforts to promote evidence-based policy making, including the introduction of economic appraisals within health technology assessment (HTA). This paper reviews the experience of this lower middle-income country, with an emphasis on the creation of the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP), including its mission, management structures and activities. Over the past 3 decades, several HTA programmes were implemented in Thailand but not sustained or developed further into a national institute. As a response to increasing demands for HTA evidence including CEA information, the HITAP was created in 2007 as an affiliate unit of a semi-autonomous research arm of the Ministry of Public Health. An advantage of this HTA programme over previous initiatives was that it was hosted by a research institute with long-term experience in conducting health systems and policy research and capacity building of its research staff, and excellent research and policy networks. To deal with existing impediments to conducting health economics research, the main strategies of the HITAP were carefully devised to include not only capacity strengthening of its researchers and administrative staff, but also the development of essential elements for the country's health economic evaluation methodology. These included, for example, methodological guidelines, standard protocols and benchmarks for resource allocation, many of which have been adopted by national policy-making bodies including the three major public health insurance plans. Networks and collaborations with domestic and foreign institutes have been sought as a means of resource mobilization and exchange. Although the HITAP is well financed by a number of government agencies and international organizations, the programme is vulnerable to shortages of qualified

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Takuro; Ohde, Sachiko; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2017-01-01

    Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG). Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg), bacterial culture (BC), and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb) were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb), rapid urease test (RUT), and urea breath test (UBT). Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER) of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%. PMID:28337217

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of thermotherapy versus pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio; López-Carvajal, Liliana; Tamayo Plata, Mery Patricia; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is toxic, has contraindications, and a high cost. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of thermotherapy versus pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Effectiveness was the proportion of healing and safety with the adverse effects; these parameters were estimated from a controlled clinical trial and a meta-analysis. A standard costing was conducted. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated. The uncertainty regarding effectiveness, safety, and costs was determined through sensitivity analyses. The total costs were $66,807 with Glucantime and $14,079 with thermotherapy. The therapeutic effectiveness rates were 64.2% for thermotherapy and 85.1% for Glucantime. The average cost-effectiveness ratios ranged between $721 and $1275 for Glucantime and between $187 and $390 for thermotherapy. Based on the meta-analysis, thermotherapy may be a dominant strategy. The excellent cost-effectiveness ratio of thermotherapy shows the relevance of its inclusion in guidelines for the treatment. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Kieninger, Martha Peña; Caballero, Edgar Giménez; Sosa, Antonio Arbo; Amarilla, Carlos Torres; Jáuregui, Bárbara; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew David; Castellanos, Raúl Montesano

    2015-05-07

    To describe a cost-effectiveness analysis of 10- or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 or 13) introduction in Paraguay compared to no vaccination. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model (version 2.0) jointly developed by the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine was applied from the government and societal perspectives to estimate the cost-effectiveness (CE) of PCV introduction during 2010 and 2011. The cost-effectiveness ratios of PCV10 and PCV13 were separately compared to non-vaccination. The model calculated health and economic benefits of vaccination for 10 birth cohorts of children <5 years of age. A base case scenario with two primary doses at 2 and 4 months and a booster dose at 12 months (2+1 schedule) and alternate scenarios with varying parameters were considered. With PCV10 introduction, the incremental costs of the vaccination program would be approximately US$ 67 million to vaccinate all 10 cohorts of children; with PCV13, US$ 87 million. Health services costs avoided by the government with PCV10 would be US$ 19.5 million; with PCV 13, US$ 17.7 million. From the societal perspective, savings were much greater: with PCV10, US$ 43 million; with PCV13, US$ 35 million. For the higher priced PCV13, the average cost-effectiveness ratio was better than for PCV10 when compared to no vaccination, but regardless both were cost effective for government and society based on a threshold of 3× GDP per capita in Paraguay (2009 US$ 2516). The number of averted meningitis and all-cause pneumonia cases and deaths was greater with PCV13 than with PCV10 when compared to no vaccination. The introduction of either PCV10 or PCV13 would be cost effective when compared to no vaccination, and in some scenarios, highly cost effective in Paraguay. The outcomes of these analyses demonstrate that a pneumococcal vaccine could substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in

  14. Timing of elective delivery in gastroschisis: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Harper, L M; Goetzinger, K R; Biggio, J R; Macones, G A

    2015-08-01

    To determine the most cost-effective timing of delivery in pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis, using a decision-analytic model. We created a decision-analytic model to compare planned delivery at 35, 36, 37, 38 and 39 weeks' gestation. Outcomes considered were stillbirth, death within 1 year of birth and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Probability estimates of events (stillbirth, complex gastroschisis and RDS for each gestational age at delivery and risk of death with simple and complex gastroschisis), utilities and costs assigned to the outcomes were obtained from the published literature. Cost analysis was assessed from a societal perspective, using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per surviving infant. Outcomes and costs were considered throughout 1 year of postnatal life. Multiway sensitivity analysis was performed to address uncertainties in baseline assumptions. In the base-case analysis, delivery at 38 weeks' gestation was the most cost-effective strategy. Planned delivery at 35 weeks was associated with the fewest stillbirths and deaths within 1 year of delivery, owing largely to a lower ongoing risk of stillbirth. In Monte Carlo simulation when every variable was varied over its entire range, delivery at 38 weeks was cost-effective compared to delivery at 39 weeks in 76% of trials and delivery at 37 weeks was cost-effective in 69% of trials. Delivery at 38 weeks resulted in three additional cases of RDS for every 100 stillbirths or deaths within 1 year that were prevented. For pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis, the most cost-effective timing of delivery is at 38 weeks. Few additional cases of RDS are caused for every one stillbirth or death within 1 year that was prevented with delivery at 37-38 weeks compared with at 39 weeks. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of acute kidney injury biomarkers in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Stanislava; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana; Peco-Antic, Amira; Vulicevic, Irena; Ivanisevic, Ivana; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is significant problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) who undergo cardiac surgery. The economic impact of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy for AKI in pediatric populations undergoing CHD surgery is unknown. The aim of this study was to perform the cost effectiveness analysis of using serum cystatin C (sCysC), urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and urine liver fatty acid-binding protein (uL-FABP) for the diagnosis of AKI in children after cardiac surgery compared with current diagnostic method (monitoring of serum creatinine (sCr) level). We developed a decision analytical model to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness of different biomarker-based diagnostic strategies compared to current diagnostic strategy. The Markov model was created to compare the lifetime cost associated with using of sCysC, uNGAL, uL-FABP with monitoring of sCr level for the diagnosis of AKI. The utility measurement included in the analysis was quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The results of the analysis are presented as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Analysed biomarker-based diagnostic strategies for AKI were cost-effective compared to current diagnostic method. However, uNGAL and sCys C strategies yielded higher costs and lower effectiveness compared to uL-FABP strategy. uL-FABP added 1.43 QALY compared to current diagnostic method at an additional cost of $8521.87 per patient. Therefore, ICER for uL-FABP compared to sCr was $5959.35/QALY. Our results suggest that the use of uL-FABP would represent cost effective strategy for early diagnosis of AKI in children after cardiac surgery.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of an Automated Medication System Implemented in a Danish Hospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an automated medication system (AMS) implemented in a Danish hospital setting. An economic evaluation was performed alongside a controlled before-and-after effectiveness study with one control ward and one intervention ward. The primary outcome measure was the number of errors in the medication administration process observed prospectively before and after implementation. To determine the difference in proportion of errors after implementation of the AMS, logistic regression was applied with the presence of error(s) as the dependent variable. Time, group, and interaction between time and group were the independent variables. The cost analysis used the hospital perspective with a short-term incremental costing approach. The total 6-month costs with and without the AMS were calculated as well as the incremental costs. The number of avoided administration errors was related to the incremental costs to obtain the cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as the cost per avoided administration error. The AMS resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of errors in the intervention ward compared with the control ward. The cost analysis showed that the AMS increased the ward's 6-month cost by €16,843. The cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at €2.01 per avoided administration error, €2.91 per avoided procedural error, and €19.38 per avoided clinical error. The AMS was effective in reducing errors in the medication administration process at a higher overall cost. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the AMS was associated with affordable cost-effectiveness rates. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cardiotocography plus ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram compared with cardiotocography only.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Westerhuis, Michelle E M H; Opmeer, Brent C; Visser, Gerard H A; Moons, Karl G M; Porath, Martina M; Oei, Guid S; Van Geijn, Herman P; Bolte, Antoinette C; Willekes, Christine; Nijhuis, Jan G; Van Beek, Erik; Graziosi, Giuseppe C M; Schuitemaker, Nico W E; Van Lith, Jan M M; Van Den Akker, Eline S A; Drogtrop, Addy P; Van Dessel, Hendrikus J H M; Rijnders, Robbert J P; Oosterbaan, Herman P; Mol, Ben Willem J; Kwee, Anneke

    2011-07-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of addition of ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG; STAN) to cardiotocography (CTG) for fetal surveillance during labor compared with CTG only. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a randomized clinical trial on ST analysis of the fetal ECG. Obstetric departments of three academic and six general hospitals in The Netherlands. Population. Laboring women with a singleton high-risk pregnancy, a fetus in cephalic presentation, a gestational age >36 weeks and an indication for internal electronic fetal monitoring. A trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a health-care provider perspective. Primary health outcome was the incidence of metabolic acidosis measured in the umbilical artery. Direct medical costs were estimated from start of labor to childbirth. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as costs to prevent one case of metabolic acidosis. The incidence of metabolic acidosis was 0.7% in the ST-analysis group and 1.0% in the CTG-only group (relative risk 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.38-1.28). Per delivery, the mean costs per patient of CTG plus ST analysis (n= 2 827) were €1,345 vs. €1,316 for CTG only (n= 2 840), with a mean difference of €29 (95% confidence interval -€9 to €77) until childbirth. The incremental costs of ST analysis to prevent one case of metabolic acidosis were €9 667. The additional costs of monitoring by ST analysis of the fetal ECG are very limited when compared with monitoring by CTG only and very low compared with the total costs of delivery. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Probabilistic Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccination for Mild or Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies on the immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have increasingly gained attention since 1990s. However, there are pros (preventing of AD) and cons (incurred cost and side effects) regarding the administration of immunotherapy. Up to date, there has been lacking of economic evaluation for immunotherapy of AD. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccination for AD. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials after systemic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine. A Markov decision model was constructed and applied to a 120,000-Taiwanese cohort aged ≥65 years. Person years and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were computed between the vaccinated group and the the unvaccinated group. Economic evaluation was performed to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). Results: Vaccinated group gained an additional 0.84 life years and 0.56 QALYs over 10-years and an additional 0.35 life years and 0.282 QALYs over 5-years of follow-up. The vaccinated group dominated the unvaccinated group by ICER over 5-years of follow-up. The ICERs of 10-year follow-up for the vaccinated group against the unvaccinated group were $13,850 per QALY and $9,038 per life year gained. Given the threshold of $20,000 of willingness to pay (WTP), the CEAC showed the probability of being cost-effective for vaccination with QALY was 70.7% and 92% for life years gained after 10-years of follow-up. The corresponding figures were 87.3% for QALY and 93.5% for life years gained over 5-years follow-up. Conclusion: The vaccination for AD was cost-effective in gaining QALY and life years compared with no vaccination, under the condition of a reasonable threshold of WTP. PMID:26825097

  19. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Cetuximab in Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Iranian Pharmaceutical Market.

    PubMed

    Davari, Majid; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Maracy, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Abolfazl; Tabatabaei, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody which acts against the epidermal growth-factor receptor. Randomized controlled trials show that the addition of cetuximab to folinic acid, 5-flourouracil, irinotecan (FOLFIRI), folinic acid, 5-flourouracil, oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) and capecitabin + oxaliplatin (CAPOX) regimens, as the first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), increases the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared to FOLFIRI, FOLFOX and CAPOX regimens alone. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of different treatment programs for managing metastatic CRC with and without cetuximab in the first-line treatment of unresectable metastatic CRC in Iran. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases and Cochrane Library to assess the effectiveness of the drug in the context of PFS, OS and the adverse events. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of each treatment program was calculated. An extensive sensitivity analysis was conducted on the results regarding the effectiveness. The addition of cetuximab to FOLFIRI, FOLFOX and CAPOX programs increased PFS by 0.1, 0.042 and 0.042 years, respectively. Similarly, the addition of cetuximab to FOLFIRI, FOLFOX and CAPOX increased OS by 0.325, 0.442 and 0.442 years and also cost $212825, $202484 and $204198 individually. Whereas, based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) suggested threshold for cost-effectiveness analysis, even FOLFOX + cetuximab was very higher than the threshold in Iran (37.4 times higher). The FOLFOX regimen + cetuximab provides lower costs per additional life years gained (more cost-effective) compared with its alternatives in the treatment of patients with unresectable metastatic CRC. However, according to the WHO indicator, none of the cetuximab regimens could be considered as cost effective for the Iranian health care market.

  20. Timing of Elective Delivery in Gastroschisis: A Decision and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Goetzinger, Katherine R.; Biggio, Joseph R.; Macones, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the most cost-effective delivery timing in pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis using a decision-analytic model. Methods We created a decision analytic model to compare planned delivery at 35, 36, 37, 38, & 39 weeks. Outcomes considered were stillbirth, death within 1 year of life, & respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Probability estimates of events (stillbirth, complex gastroschisis, and RDS at each gestational age, and risk of death in simple and complex gastroschisis), utilities, & costs assigned to the outcomes were obtained from published literature. Cost analysis was from a societal perspective using a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000 per surviving infant. Outcomes and costs were considered through 1 year of life. Multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainties in baseline assumptions. Results In the base case analysis, delivery at 38 weeks is the most cost-effective strategy. Planned delivery at 35 weeks was associated with the fewest stillbirths and deaths within 1 year, due largely to a difference in ongoing risk of stillbirth. In Monte Carlo simulation when every variable was varied over its entire range, delivery at 38 weeks is cost-effective compared to 39 weeks in 76% of trials and delivery at 37 weeks is cost-effective in 69% of trials. Delivery at 38 weeks resulted in 3 additional cases of RDS for every 100 stillbirths or deaths within 1 year prevented. Conclusions In pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis, the most cost-effective timing of delivery is 38 weeks. Few additional cases of RDS are caused for every 1 stillbirth or death within 1 year prevented with delivery at 37–38 weeks. PMID:25377308

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Isavuconazole vs. Voriconazole as First-Line Treatment for Invasive Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Rachel; Lee, Edward; Yang, Hongbo; Wei, Jin; Messali, Andrew; Azie, Nkechi; Wu, Eric Q; Spalding, James

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The phase III SECURE trial demonstrated non-inferiority in clinical efficacy between isavuconazole and voriconazole. No studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole compared to voriconazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole for the first-line treatment of IA from the US hospital perspective. An economic model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole in hospitalized patients with IA. The time horizon was the duration of hospitalization. Length of stay for the initial admission, incidence of readmission, clinical response, overall survival rates, and experience of adverse events (AEs) came from the SECURE trial. Unit costs were from the literature. Total costs per patient were estimated, composed of drug costs, costs of AEs, and costs of hospitalizations. Incremental costs per death avoided and per additional clinical responders were reported. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA and PSA) were conducted. Base case analysis showed that isavuconazole was associated with a $7418 lower total cost per patient than voriconazole. In both incremental costs per death avoided and incremental costs per additional clinical responder, isavuconazole dominated voriconazole. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis. Isavuconazole was cost saving and dominant vs. voriconazole in most DSA. In PSA, isavuconazole was cost saving in 80.2% of the simulations and cost-effective in 82.0% of the simulations at the $50,000 willingness to pay threshold per additional outcome. Isavuconazole is a cost-effective option for the treatment of IA among hospitalized patients. Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc.

  2. Incorporated antivirals for chronic hepatitis B in Brazil: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gustavo Laine Araújo de; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Silva, Anderson Lourenço da; Brandão, Cristina Mariano Ruas; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different drug therapies for chronic hepatitis B in adult patients. Using a Markov model, a hypothetical cohort of 40 years for HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative patients was constructed. Adefovir, entecavir, tenofovir and lamivudine (with rescue therapy in cases of viral resistance) were compared for treating adult patients with chronic hepatitis B undergoing treatment for the first time, with high levels of alanine aminotransferase, no evidence of cirrhosis and without HIV co-infection. Values for cost and effect were obtained from the literature, and expressed in effect on life years (LY). A discount rate of 5% was applied. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess model uncertainties. Initial treatment with entecavir or tenofovir showed better clinical outcomes. The lowest cost-effectiveness ratio was for entecavir in HBeAg-positive patients (R$ 4,010.84/LY) and lamivudine for HBeAg-negative patients (R$ 6,205.08/LY). For HBeAg-negative patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of entecavir (R$ 14,101.05/LY) is below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization. Sensitivity analysis showed that variation in the cost of drugs may make tenofovir a cost-effective alternative for both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. Entecavir is the recommended alternative to start treating patients with chronic hepatitis B in Brazil. However, if there is a reduction in the cost of tenofovir, it can become a cost-effective alternative.

  3. Probabilistic Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccination for Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have increasingly gained attention since 1990s. However, there are pros (preventing of AD) and cons (incurred cost and side effects) regarding the administration of immunotherapy. Up to date, there has been lacking of economic evaluation for immunotherapy of AD. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccination for AD. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials after systemic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine. A Markov decision model was constructed and applied to a 120,000-Taiwanese cohort aged ≥65 years. Person years and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were computed between the vaccinated group and the the unvaccinated group. Economic evaluation was performed to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). Vaccinated group gained an additional 0.84 life years and 0.56 QALYs over 10-years and an additional 0.35 life years and 0.282 QALYs over 5-years of follow-up. The vaccinated group dominated the unvaccinated group by ICER over 5-years of follow-up. The ICERs of 10-year follow-up for the vaccinated group against the unvaccinated group were $13,850 per QALY and $9,038 per life year gained. Given the threshold of $20,000 of willingness to pay (WTP), the CEAC showed the probability of being cost-effective for vaccination with QALY was 70.7% and 92% for life years gained after 10-years of follow-up. The corresponding figures were 87.3% for QALY and 93.5% for life years gained over 5-years follow-up. The vaccination for AD was cost-effective in gaining QALY and life years compared with no vaccination, under the condition of a reasonable threshold of WTP.

  4. Tuberculosis screening for long-term care: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verma, G; Chuck, A W; Jacobs, P

    2013-09-01

    Long-term care facilities in Canada, a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence country. To compare the impact and cost-effectiveness of three screening strategies for TB on entry to long-term care: no screening, screening for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or screening for active disease with a chest X-ray. Cost effectiveness analysis. With the LTBI screening strategy, the number needed to screen to prevent one active case was 1410 and the cost per case averted was Canadian $109 913. The number needed to screen to prevent one case using the active screening strategy was 1266, and the cost per case averted was $672 298. Our findings suggest that TB screening strategies on entry to long-term care are costly, with large numbers needed to screen. Screening with TST was more cost-effective than chest X-ray screening. Higher risk of reactivation of LTBI is associated with improved cost-effectiveness of screening. Short time horizons and test performance characteristics place limitations on screening programmes in this setting. Future considerations include the changing demographics of the institutionalised elderly.

  5. A cost-effectiveness analysis of India's 2008 prohibition of smoking in public places in Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Waters, Hugh R; Arora, Monika; Varghese, Beena; Dave, Paresh; Modi, Bhavesh

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India's Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a low-dose contraceptive levonorgestrel intrauterine system in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nathaniel; Hawes, Charlie; Lowin, Julia; Lekander, Ingrid; Filonenko, Anna; Kallner, Helena K

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a novel intrauterine system, levonorgestrel intrauterine system 13.5 mg vs. oral contraception, in women at risk of unintended pregnancy. Cost-effectiveness model using efficacy and discontinuation data from published articles. Societal perspective including direct and indirect costs. Women at risk of unintended pregnancy using reversible contraception. An economic analysis was conducted by modeling the different health states of women using contraception over a 3-year period. Typical use efficacy rates from published articles were used to determine unintended pregnancy events. Discontinuation rates were used to account for method switching. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of the incremental cost per unintended pregnancy avoided. In addition, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system 13.5 mg generated costs savings of € 311,000 in a cohort of 1000 women aged 15-44 years. In addition, there were fewer unintended pregnancies (55 vs. 294) compared with women using oral contraception. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system 13.5 mg is a cost-effective method when compared with oral contraception. A shift in contraceptive use from oral contraception to long-acting reversible contraception methods could result in fewer unintended pregnancies, quality-adjusted life-year gains, as well as cost savings. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  7. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF HERPES ZOSTER VACCINATION IN ITALIAN ELDERLY PERSONS.

    PubMed

    Coretti, Silvia; Codella, Paola; Romano, Federica; Ruggeri, Matteo; Cicchetti, Americo

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is characterized by a painful skin rash. Its main complication is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), pain persisting or occurring after the rash onset. HZ treatment aims to reduce acute pain, impede the onset complications, and disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination compared with no vaccination strategy, within the Italian context. The natural history of HZ and PHN was mapped through a Markov model with lifetime horizon. A population of patients aged between 60 and 79 years was hypothesized. Third party payer (Italian National Health Service, I-NHS) and societal perspectives were adopted. Data were derived from literature. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the vaccination equaled EUR 11,943 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) under the I-NHS perspective and EUR 11,248 per QALY under the societal perspective. Considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of EUR 30,000/QALY, the multi-way sensitivity analysis showed that vaccination is cost-effective regardless of the perspective adopted, in 99 percent of simulations.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of genetic testing for familial long QT syndrome in symptomatic index cases.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Ackerman, Michael J; Sakowski, Julie; Berul, Charles I

    2005-12-01

    Genetic testing for long QT syndrome (LQTS) has been available in a research setting for the past decade, and a commercial test has recently become available. However, the costs and effectiveness of genetic testing have not been estimated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of genetic testing in the management of patients who have or are suspected to have familial LQTS. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of genetic testing compared with no genetic testing for symptomatic index cases and how this varied according to changes in assumptions and data inputs. Data were obtained from the published literature and a clinical cohort. We found that genetic testing is more cost-effective than not testing for symptomatic index cases at an estimated cost of 2,500 US dollar per year of life saved. These results were generally robust, although they were sensitive to some data inputs such as the cost of testing and the mortality rate among untreated individuals with LQTS. A genetic test for familial LQTS is cost-effective relative to no testing, given our assumptions about the population to be tested and the relevant probabilities and costs. The primary benefit of testing is to more accurately diagnose and treat individuals based on a combination of clinical scores and test results. Future economic analyses of testing for familial LQTS should consider the potential benefits of genetic testing of broader populations, including family members.

  9. Recommendations for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevention in Adult ICUs: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Melanie D; Atherly, Adam J; Curtis, Donna J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Bradley, Cathy J; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Patients in the ICU are at the greatest risk of contracting healthcare-associated infections like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This study calculates the cost-effectiveness of methicillin-resistant S aureus prevention strategies and recommends specific strategies based on screening test implementation. A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model from the hospital perspective was conducted to determine if the implementation costs of methicillin-resistant S aureus prevention strategies are justified by associated reductions in methicillin-resistant S aureus infections and improvements in quality-adjusted life years. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses determined the influence of input variation on the cost-effectiveness. ICU. Hypothetical cohort of adults admitted to the ICU. Three prevention strategies were evaluated, including universal decolonization, targeted decolonization, and screening and isolation. Because prevention strategies have a screening component, the screening test in the model was varied to reflect commonly used screening test categories, including conventional culture, chromogenic agar, and polymerase chain reaction. Universal and targeted decolonization are less costly and more effective than screening and isolation. This is consistent for all screening tests. When compared with targeted decolonization, universal decolonization is cost-saving to cost-effective, with maximum cost savings occurring when a hospital uses more expensive screening tests like polymerase chain reaction. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. As compared with screening and isolation, the current standard practice in ICUs, targeted decolonization, and universal decolonization are less costly and more effective. This supports updating the standard practice to a decolonization approach.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezenduka, Charles; Post, Erik; John, Steven; Suraj, Abdulkarim; Namadi, Abdulahi; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. Results The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the

  11. Clinical pharmacokinetics, toxicity and cost effectiveness analysis of aminoglycosides and aminoglycoside dosing services.

    PubMed

    Mathews, A; Bailie, G R

    1987-10-01

    This article reviews the clinical pharmacokinetics, clinical toxicity and cost-effectiveness analysis of aminoglycosides and of dosing services for aminoglycosides. The reader is referred elsewhere for a review of the pharmacology, antimicrobial spectrum of activity and clinical use of these drugs. A critique of the more commonly used methods of aminoglycoside dosage determinations is included, based on the inter-individual variation in aminoglycoside disposition parameters. The advantages and disadvantages of arbitrary, predictive, and pharmacokinetic methods of dosing determination are summarized. Justification for the routine determination of serum aminoglycoside concentrations is reviewed. We review the lack of standardization of definitions for aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity in published studies, and studies which illustrate these differences are highlighted. Evidence for the association between serum aminoglycoside concentrations and nephrotoxicity is examined. Ototoxicity is similarly reviewed. The concept of cost-effectiveness analysis is examined extensively in this review. We discuss the literature concerning the cost benefit analysis of drug dosing services.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Guided Self-Help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating…

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Guided Self-Help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating…

  14. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for migraine in four low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Linde, Mattias; Steiner, Timothy J; Chisholm, Dan

    2015-02-18

    Evidence of the cost and effects of interventions for reducing the global burden of migraine remains scarce. Our objective was to estimate the population-level cost-effectiveness of evidence-based migraine interventions and their contributions towards reducing current burden in low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard WHO approach to cost-effectiveness analysis (CHOICE), we modelled core set intervention strategies for migraine, taking account of coverage and efficacy as well as non-adherence. The setting was primary health care including pharmacies. We modelled 26 intervention strategies implemented during 10 years. These included first-line acute and prophylactic drugs, and the expected consequences of adding consumer-education and provider-training. Total population-level costs and effectiveness (healthy life years [HLY] gained) were combined to form average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We executed runs of the model for the general populations of China, India, Russia and Zambia. Of the strategies considered, acute treatment of attacks with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was by far the most cost-effective and generated a HLY for less than US$ 100. Adding educational actions increased annual costs by 1-2 US cents per capita of the population. Cost-effectiveness ratios then became slightly less favourable but still less than US$ 100 per HLY gained for ASA. An incremental cost of > US$ 10,000 would have to be paid per extra HLY by adding a triptan in a stepped-care treatment paradigm. For prophylaxis, amitriptyline was more cost-effective than propranolol or topiramate. Self-management with simple analgesics was by far the most cost-effective strategy for migraine treatment in low- and middle-income countries and represents a highly efficient use of health resources. Consumer education and provider training are expected to accelerate progress towards desired levels of coverage and adherence, cost relatively little to implement, and can

  16. Delivering Diabetes Education through Nurse-Led Telecoaching. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Odnoletkova, Irina; Ramaekers, Dirk; Nobels, Frank; Goderis, Geert; Aertgeerts, Bert; Annemans, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    People with diabetes have a high risk of developing micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diminished life expectancy and elevated treatment costs. Patient education programs can improve diabetes control in the short term, but their cost-effectiveness is uncertain. Our study aimed to analyze the lifelong cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led telecoaching program compared to usual care in people with type 2 diabetes from the perspective of the Belgian healthcare system. The UKPDS Outcomes Model was populated with patient-level data from an 18-month randomized clinical trial in the Belgian primary care sector involving 574 participants; trial data were extrapolated to 40 years; Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), treatment costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) were calculated for the entire cohort and the subgroup with poor glycemic control at baseline ("elevated HbA1c subgroup") and the associated uncertainty was explored. The cumulative mean QALY (95% CI) gain was 0.21 (0.13; 0.28) overall and 0.56 (0.43; 0.68) in elevated HbA1c subgroup; the respective incremental costs were €1,147 (188; 2,107) and €2,565 (654; 4,474) and the respective ICERs €5,569 (€677; €15,679) and €4,615 (1,207; 9,969) per QALY. In the scenario analysis, repeating the intervention for lifetime had the greatest impact on the cost-effectiveness and resulted in the mean ICERs of €13,034 in the entire cohort and €7,858 in the elevated HbA1c subgroup. Taking into account reimbursement thresholds applied in West-European countries, nurse-led telecoaching of people with type 2 diabetes may be considered highly cost-effective within the Belgian healthcare system. NCT01612520.

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of screening urine dipsticks in well-child care.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Wang, Li; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Widome, Mark D; Paul, Ian M

    2010-04-01

    Despite data suggesting that routine urine screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) has low diagnostic yield and the American Academy of Pediatrics 2007 recommendation to discontinue this screening, pediatricians may not have recognized this change. Because the new recommendation marks a major alteration in the practice guidelines, we sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of dipstick urinalysis for detection of CKD from the primary care practitioner's perspective. Decision analysis was used to model a screening dipstick urinalysis strategy relative to a no-screening strategy. Data on the incidence of hematuria and proteinuria in children were derived from published reports of large cohorts of school-aged children. Direct costs were estimated from the perspective of the primary care practitioner. The measure of effectiveness was the rate of diagnoses of CKD. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Expected costs and effectiveness for the no-screening strategy were 0 dollars because no resources were used and no cases of CKD were diagnosed. The screening strategy involved a cost per dipstick of 3.05 dollars. Accounting for both true-positive and false-positive initial screens, 14.2% of the patients required a second dipstick as per typical clinical care, bringing the expected cost of the screening strategy to 3.47 dollars per patient. In the screening strategy, 1 case of CKD was diagnosed per 800 screened, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 2779.50 dollars per case diagnosed. Urine dipstick is inexpensive, but it is a poor screening test for CKD and a cost-ineffective procedure for the primary care provider. These data support the change in the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines on the use of screening dipstick urinalysis. Clinicians must consider the cost-effectiveness of preventive care procedures to make better use of available resources.

  18. Delivering Diabetes Education through Nurse-Led Telecoaching. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Odnoletkova, Irina; Ramaekers, Dirk; Nobels, Frank; Goderis, Geert; Aertgeerts, Bert; Annemans, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Background People with diabetes have a high risk of developing micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diminished life expectancy and elevated treatment costs. Patient education programs can improve diabetes control in the short term, but their cost-effectiveness is uncertain. Our study aimed to analyze the lifelong cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led telecoaching program compared to usual care in people with type 2 diabetes from the perspective of the Belgian healthcare system. Methods The UKPDS Outcomes Model was populated with patient-level data from an 18-month randomized clinical trial in the Belgian primary care sector involving 574 participants; trial data were extrapolated to 40 years; Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), treatment costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) were calculated for the entire cohort and the subgroup with poor glycemic control at baseline (“elevated HbA1c subgroup”) and the associated uncertainty was explored. Results The cumulative mean QALY (95% CI) gain was 0.21 (0.13; 0.28) overall and 0.56 (0.43; 0.68) in elevated HbA1c subgroup; the respective incremental costs were €1,147 (188; 2,107) and €2,565 (654; 4,474) and the respective ICERs €5,569 (€677; €15,679) and €4,615 (1,207; 9,969) per QALY. In the scenario analysis, repeating the intervention for lifetime had the greatest impact on the cost-effectiveness and resulted in the mean ICERs of €13,034 in the entire cohort and €7,858 in the elevated HbA1c subgroup. Conclusion Taking into account reimbursement thresholds applied in West-European countries, nurse-led telecoaching of people with type 2 diabetes may be considered highly cost-effective within the Belgian healthcare system. Trial registration NCT01612520 PMID:27727281

  19. [Potential sponsorship bias in cost-effectiveness analyses of healthcare interventions: A cross-sectional analysis].

    PubMed

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Ridao, Manuel

    To examine the relationship between the funding source of cost-effectiveness analyses of healthcare interventions published in Spain and study conclusions. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Scientific literature databases (until December 2014). Cohort of cost-effectiveness analysis of healthcare interventions published in Spain between 1989-2014 (n=223) presenting quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The relationship between qualitative conclusions of the studies and the type of funding source were established using Fisher's exact test in contingency tables. Distributions of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios by source of funding in relation to hypothetical willingness to pay thresholds between €30,000-€50,000 per QALY were explored. A total of 136 (61.0%) studies were funded by industry. The industry-funded studies were less likely to report unfavorable or neutral conclusions than studies non-funded by industry (2.2% vs. 23.0%; P<.0001), largely driven by studies evaluating drugs (0.9% vs. 21.4%; P<.0001). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in studies funded by industry were more likely to be below the hypothetical willingness to pay threshold of €30,000 (73.8% vs. 56.3%; P<.0001) and €50,000 (89.4% vs. 68.2%; P<.0001) per QALY. This study reveals a potential sponsorship bias in cost-effectiveness analyses of healthcare interventions. Studies funded by industry could be favoring the efficiency profile of their products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Behl, Ajay S; Goddard, Katrina A B; Flottemesch, Thomas J; Veenstra, David; Meenan, Richard T; Lin, Jennifer S; Maciosek, Michael V

    2012-12-05

    In 2009, the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommended that patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who are candidates for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy have their tumors tested for KRAS mutations because tumors with such mutations do not respond to anti-EGFR therapy. Limiting anti-EGFR therapy to those without KRAS mutations will reserve treatment for those likely to benefit while avoiding unnecessary costs and harm to those who would not. Similarly, tumors with BRAF genetic mutations may not respond to anti-EGFR therapy, though this is less clear. Economic analyses of mutation testing have not fully explored the roles of alternative therapies and resection of metastases. This paper is based on a decision analytic framework that forms the basis of a cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in mCRC in the context of treatment with cetuximab. A cohort of 50 000 patients with mCRC is simulated 10 000 times, with attributes randomly assigned on the basis of distributions from randomized controlled trials. Screening for both KRAS and BRAF mutations compared with the base strategy (of no anti-EGFR therapy) increases expected overall survival by 0.034 years at a cost of $22 033, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately $650 000 per additional year of life. Compared with anti-EGFR therapy without screening, adding KRAS testing saves approximately $7500 per patient; adding BRAF testing saves another $1023, with little reduction in expected survival. Screening for KRAS and BFAF mutation improves the cost-effectiveness of anti-EGFR therapy, but the incremental cost effectiveness ratio remains above the generally accepted threshold for acceptable cost effectiveness ratio of $100 000/quality adjusted life year.

  1. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Antidepressants in Primary Care: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Model

    PubMed Central

    Ramsberg, Joakim; Asseburg, Christian; Henriksson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness over a one-year time horizon of pharmacological first line treatment in primary care for patients with moderate to severe depression. Design A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis was employed to determine the relative efficacy in terms of remission of 10 antidepressants (citalopram, duloxetine escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine). The estimated remission rates were then applied in a decision-analytic model in order to estimate costs and quality of life with different treatments at one year. Data Sources Meta-analyses of remission rates from randomised controlled trials, and cost and quality-of-life data from published sources. Results The most favourable pharmacological treatment in terms of remission was escitalopram with an 8- to 12-week probability of remission of 0.47. Despite a high acquisition cost, this clinical effectiveness translated into escitalopram being both more effective and having a lower total cost than all other comparators from a societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the cost per QALY of escitalopram was €3732 compared with venlafaxine. Conclusion Of the investigated antidepressants, escitalopram has the highest probability of remission and is the most effective and cost-effective pharmacological treatment in a primary care setting, when evaluated over a one year time-horizon. Small differences in remission rates may be important when assessing costs and cost-effectiveness of antidepressants. PMID:22876296

  2. Hidden costs: The ethics of cost-effectiveness analyses for health interventions in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Rutstein, Sarah E; Price, Joan T; Rosenberg, Nora E; Rennie, Stuart M; Biddle, Andrea K; Miller, William C

    2017-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is an increasingly appealing tool for evaluating and comparing health-related interventions in resource-limited settings. The goal is to inform decision-makers regarding the health benefits and associated costs of alternative interventions, helping guide allocation of limited resources by prioritising interventions that offer the most health for the least money. Although only one component of a more complex decision-making process, CEAs influence the distribution of health-care resources, directly influencing morbidity and mortality for the world's most vulnerable populations. However, CEA-associated measures are frequently setting-specific valuations, and CEA outcomes may violate ethical principles of equity and distributive justice. We examine the assumptions and analytical tools used in CEAs that may conflict with societal values. We then evaluate contextual features unique to resource-limited settings, including the source of health-state utilities and disability weights, implications of CEA thresholds in light of economic uncertainty, and the role of external donors. Finally, we explore opportunities to help align interpretation of CEA outcomes with values and budgetary constraints in resource-limited settings. The ethical implications of CEAs in resource-limited settings are vast. It is imperative that CEA outcome summary measures and implementation thresholds adequately reflect societal values and ethical priorities in resource-limited settings.

  3. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Proposed Inpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Units at Eisenhower Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-28

    average length of stay and average cost per stay, have to be defined to support the cost-effectiveness analysis. As...Hospital of Augusta. Average Length of Stay (in Days) 60 56 ..............--- .---------- .---- -- ------------. ----- 251 Fiscal Year(s) Cost...Effectiveness Analysis 27 As the average length of stay at Charter Hospital decreased, the total costs associated with each stay decreased. Figure 4

  4. Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment Strategies in Resource-Limited Settings: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rajasingham, Radha; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Birkenkamp, Kate E.; Meya, David B.; Boulware, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most common form of meningitis in Africa. World Health Organization guidelines recommend 14-d amphotericin-based induction therapy; however, this is impractical for many resource-limited settings due to cost and intensive monitoring needs. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to guide stakeholders with respect to optimal CM treatment within resource limitations. Methods and Findings: We conducted a decision analysis to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of six CM induction regimens: fluconazole (800–1,200 mg/d) monotherapy, fluconazole + flucytosine (5FC), short-course amphotericin (7-d) + fluconazole, 14-d of amphotericin alone, amphotericin + fluconazole, and amphotericin + 5FC. We computed actual 2012 healthcare costs in Uganda for medications, supplies, and personnel, and average laboratory costs for three African countries. A systematic review of cryptococcal treatment trials in resource-limited areas summarized 10-wk survival outcomes. We modeled one-year survival based on South African, Ugandan, and Thai CM outcome data, and survival beyond one-year on Ugandan and Thai data. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were determined and used to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio and ICER. The cost of hospital care ranged from $154 for fluconazole monotherapy to $467 for 14 d of amphotericin + 5FC. Based on 18 studies investigating outcomes for HIV-infected individuals with CM in resource-limited settings, the estimated mean one-year survival was lowest for fluconazole monotherapy, at 40%. The cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from $20 to $44 per QALY. Overall, amphotericin-based regimens had higher costs but better survival. Short-course amphotericin (1 mg/kg/d for 7 d) with fluconazole (1,200 mg/d for14 d) had the best one-year survival (66%) and the most favorable cost-effectiveness ratio, at $20.24/QALY, with an ICER of $15.11 per additional QALY over fluconazole monotherapy. The

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weixia; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Li; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Zhenjiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is newly available for treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients in China. To date, no study has been conducted to examine the cost-effectiveness of this treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of TDF versus four oral nucleos(t)ide analogs [lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), telbivudine (LdT), and entecavir (ETV)] and from a pharmacoeconomic perspective to assess current drug pricing for TDF. Based on Chinese healthcare perspectives, a Markov model was applied to simulate the lifetime (40-year time span) costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for five different monotherapy strategies. Two kinds of rescue combination strategies (base-case: LAM + ADV then ETV + ADV; alternative: directly using ETV + ADV) were separately considered for treatment of patients refractory to monotherapy. Model parameters (including disease transition, cost, and utility) were obtained from previous Chinese population studies. Both branded and generic drugs were separately analyzed. Study model uncertainties were assessed by one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Two-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainties between efficacy and price of TDF. In the base-case analysis, the lowest lifetime cost and the best cost-effectiveness ratio were obtained by ETV, which was considered the reference treatment. LAM, ADV, and LdT treatments had significantly greater costs and lower efficacies. Compared to ETV, TDF was more effective but also more expensive. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of TDF versus ETV were much higher than the willing-to-pay threshold of $20,466 US dollars (USD) per QALY gained (3 × gross domestic product per capita of China, 2014). TDF would be the most cost-effective strategy if the annual cost did not exceed $2260 USD and $1600 USD for branded and generic drugs, respectively. For Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients, ETV is still the most cost-effective

  6. Optimal control and cost effectiveness analysis for Newcastle disease eco-epidemiological model in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Alfred; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel; Kumar, Santosh; Chibwana, Fred F

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a deterministic compartmental eco- epidemiological model with optimal control of Newcastle disease (ND) in Tanzania is proposed and analysed. Necessary conditions of optimal control problem were rigorously analysed using Pontryagin's maximum principle and the numerical values of model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood estimator. Three control strategies were incorporated such as chicken vaccination (preventive), human education campaign and treatment of infected human (curative) and its' impact were graphically observed. The incremental cost effectiveness analysis technique used to determine the most cost effectiveness strategy and we observe that combination of chicken vaccination and human education campaign strategy is the best strategy to implement in limited resources. Therefore, ND can be controlled if the farmers will apply chicken vaccination properly and well in time.

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the First Federally Funded Antismoking Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Alexander, Robert L.; Simpson, Sean A.; Goates, Scott; Nonnemaker, James M.; Davis, Kevin C.; McAfee, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, CDC launched the first federally funded national mass media antismoking campaign. The Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign resulted in a 12% relative increase in population-level quit attempts. Purpose Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in 2013 to evaluate Tips from a funding agency’s perspective. Methods Estimates of sustained cessations; premature deaths averted; undiscounted life years (LYs) saved; and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by Tips were estimated. Results Tips saved about 179,099 QALYs and prevented 17,109 premature deaths in the U.S. With the campaign cost of roughly $48 million, Tips spent approximately $480 per quitter, $2,819 per premature death averted, $393 per LY saved, and $268 per QALY gained. Conclusions Tips was not only successful at reducing smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality but also was a highly cost-effective mass media intervention. PMID:25498550

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized trial comparing care models for chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert B; Garg, Amit X; Levin, Adeera; Molzahn, Anita; Rigatto, Claudio; Singer, Joel; Soltys, George; Soroka, Steven; Parfrey, Patrick S; Barrett, Brendan J; Goeree, Ron

    2011-06-01

    Potential cost and effectiveness of a nephrologist/nurse-based multifaceted intervention for stage 3 to 4 chronic kidney disease are not known. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of a chronic disease management model for chronic kidney disease. Cost and cost-effectiveness were prospectively gathered alongside a multicenter trial. The Canadian Prevention of Renal and Cardiovascular Endpoints Trial (CanPREVENT) randomized 236 patients to receive usual care (controls) and another 238 patients to multifaceted nurse/nephrologist-supported care that targeted factors associated with development of kidney and cardiovascular disease (intervention). Cost and outcomes over 2 years were examined to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Base-case analysis included disease-related costs, and sensitivity analysis included all costs. Consideration of all costs produced statistically significant differences. A lower number of days in hospital explained most of the cost difference. For both base-case and sensitivity analyses with all costs included, the intervention group required fewer resources and had higher quality of life. The direction of the results was unchanged to inclusion of various types of costs, consideration of payer or societal perspective, changes to the discount rate, and levels of GFR. The nephrologist/nurse-based multifaceted intervention represents good value for money because it reduces costs without reducing quality of life for patients with chronic kidney disease.

  9. Prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicolás-Pérez, David; Castilla-Rodríguez, Iván; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Romero-García, Rafael; Núñez-Díaz, Venancio; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of the different strategies used to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis. We performed a cost-effectiveness decision analysis of 4 prophylactic strategies (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, pancreatic stent, stent plus rectal indomethacin, and no prophylaxis) in a simulated cohort of 300 patients during 1 year. Treatment effectiveness was defined as the number of patients who did not develop post-ERCP pancreatitis. The baseline costs of each strategy were as follows: rectal NSAID $359,098, pancreatic stent $426,504, stent plus rectal indomethacin $479,153, and no prophylaxis $491,275. The mean number of cases developing post-ERCP pancreatitis was 16, 21, 23, and 37 for the strategies rectal NSAID, pancreatic stent, stent plus rectal indomethacin, and no prophylaxis, respectively. Taking rectal NSAID prophylaxis as the reference strategy, the odds ratio of an episode of post-ERCP acute pancreatitis after pancreatic stent placement was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-2.61); after stent plus indomethacin, it was 1.40 (95% CI, 0.72-2.73), and after no prophylaxis, it was 2.49 (95% CI, 1.35-4.59). Rectal NSAID administration proved to be the most cost-effective prophylactic strategy used to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis. The strategy of no prophylaxis for this complication should be avoided.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for metastatic pancreatic cancer based on PRODIGE and MPACT trials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Rongce; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Yifan; Tang, Ruilei; Chen, Hongdou; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qiu

    2016-06-02

    Fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (GEM-N) have shown a significant survival benefit for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of FOLFIRINOX versus GEM-N for treating metastatic pancreatic cancer based on the PRODIGE and MPACT trials. A decision model was performed to compare FOLFIRINOX with GEM-N. Primary base case data were identified from PRODIGE and MPACT trials. Costs were estimated and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China. Survival benefits were reported in quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Finally, sensitive analysis was performed by varying potentially modifiable parameters in the model. The base-case analysis showed that FOLFIRINOX cost $37,203.75 and yielded a survival of 0.67 QALY, and GEM-N cost $32,080.59 and yielded a survival of 0.51 QALY in the entire treatment. Thus, the ICER of FOLFIRINOX versus GEM-N was $32,019.75 per QALY gained. The GEM-N regimen was more cost-effective compared with the FOLFIRINOX regimen for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer from a Chinese perspective.

  11. Concomitant radiochemotherapy in unresectable carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Cellini, N; Costamagna, G; Morganti, A G; Valentini, V; Macchia, G; Mutignani, M; Pandolfi, M; Trodella, L

    1999-01-01

    One of the principal therapeutic options in unresectable carcinoma of exocrine pancreas is concomitant radiochemotherapy. However, in current scientific literature cost analyses of this therapeutic modality are lacking. A payer-oriented cost-effectiveness analysis of concomitant radiochemotherapy was carried out. Outcomes and differences in costs relatively to two different therapeutic strategies were compared retrospectively: biliary drainage + observation (group 1); biliary drainage + concomitant radiochemotherapy (group 2). Cost-effectiveness was assessed based on the analysis of incremental cost of benefit in terms of survival in group 2. As incremental cost of group 2 was considered that of radiochemotherapy, costs of diagnosis and staging being similar in the two groups. The unit of measurement used was $/Lys (LYS = years of life saved). For estimates of cost-effectiveness in different clinical situations, a sensitivity analysis was carried out. The incremental cost of standard concomitant radiochemotherapy was shown to be $4,755. Incremental costs relatively to the situations of minimum and maximum treatment were shown to be $4,410 and $8,375, respectively. Median survival was 4.5 and 10 months in group 1 and 2 respectively (logrank: p = 0.0046). The benefit in terms of survival achieved by concomitant radiochemotherapy was shown to be 5.5 months equal to 0.46 years. Therefore, in the standard situation, the treatment cost-effectiveness can be estimated in: $4,755/0.46 years = $10,337/LYS, that is, the cost of a year of life saved was shown to be $10,337. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness can be estimated in the range $7,603 and $25,379/LYS. In conclusion, concomitant radiochemotherapy in patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma is able to improve the quality of life through the relief of related symptoms as well as median survival (10 vs 4.5 months). Costs of these benefits, even if considering better survival only, based

  12. 78 FR 6140 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...The Office of Management and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be updated annually when the interest rate and inflation assumptions used to prepare the Budget of the United States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The updated discount rates are shown below. The discount rates in Appendix C are to be used for cost-effectiveness analysis, including lease-purchase analysis, as specified in the revised Circular. They do not apply to regulatory analysis.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nerich, Virginie; Fleck, Camille; Chaigneau, Loïc; Isambert, Nicolas; Borg, Christophe; Kalbacher, Elsa; Jary, Marine; Simon, Pauline; Pivot, Xavier; Blay, Jean-Yves; Limat, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The management of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has been modified considerably by the availability of costly tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, the best therapeutic sequence in terms of cost and effectiveness remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare four potential strategies (reflecting the potential daily practice), each including imatinib 400 mg/day, as first-line treatment: S1 (imatinib400/best supportive care [BSC]); S2 (imatinib400/imatinib800/BSC); S3 (imatinib400/sunitinib/BSC); and S4 (imatinib400/imatinib800/sunitinib/BSC). A Markov model was developed with a hypothetical cohort of patients and a lifetime horizon. Transition probabilities were estimated from the results of clinical trials. The analysis was performed from the French payer perspective, and only direct medical costs were included. Clinical and economic parameters were discounted, and the robustness of results was assessed. The least costly and effective strategy was S1, at a cost of €65,744 for 32.9 life months (reference). S3 was the most cost-effective strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €48,277/life-year saved (LYS). S2 was dominated, and S4 yielded an ICER of €363,320/LYS compared with S3. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results; however, when taking into account a price reduction of 80 % for imatinib, S2 and S4 become the most cost-effective strategies. Our approach is innovative to the extent that our analysis takes into account the sequential application of TKIs. The results suggest that the S1 strategy is the best cost-effective strategy, but a price reduction of imatinib impacts on the results. This approach must continue, including new drugs and their impact on the quality of life of patients with advanced GISTs.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a collaborative care programme for depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Cortacans, Germán; Sánchez-Iriso, Eduardo; Piñol, Josep-Lluís; Caballero, Antonia; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Cabasés, Juan

    2014-04-01

    Collaborative care programmes lead to better outcomes in the management of depression. A programme of this nature has demonstrated its effectiveness in primary care in Spain. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this programme compared to usual care. A bottom-up cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted within a randomized controlled trial (2007-2010). The intervention consisted of a collaborative care programme with clinical, educational and organizational procedures. Outcomes were monitored over a 12 months period. Primary outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER): mean differences in costs divided by quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and mean differences in costs divided by depression-free days (DFD). Analyses were performed from a healthcare system perspective (considering healthcare costs) and from a society perspective (including healthcare costs plus loss of productivity costs). Three hundred and thirty-eight adult patients with major depression were assessed at baseline. Only patients with complete data were included in the primary analysis (166 in the intervention group and 126 in the control group). From a healthcare perspective, the average incremental cost of the programme compared to usual care was €182.53 (p<0.001). Incremental effectiveness was 0.045 QALY (p=0.017) and 40.09 DFD (p=0.011). ICERs were €4,056/QALY and €4.55/DFD. These estimates and their uncertainty are graphically represented in the cost-effectiveness plane. The amount of 13.6% of patients with incomplete data may have introduced a bias. Available data about non-healthcare costs were limited, although they may represent most of the total cost of depression. The intervention yields better outcomes than usual care with a modest increase in costs, resulting in favourable ICERs. This supports the recommendation for its implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting programme for parents of children at risk of developing conduct disorder: cost effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rhiannon T; Céilleachair, Alan; Bywater, Tracey; Hughes, Dyfrig A; Hutchings, Judy

    2007-03-31

    To investigate the cost effectiveness of a parenting programme. An incremental cost effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a group parenting programme delivered through Sure Start in the community. Sure Start areas in north and mid Wales. Parents of 116 children aged 36-59 months (87% of the clinical sample) at risk of developing conduct disorders defined by scoring over the clinical cut off on the Eyberg child behaviour inventory). Children were identified by health visitors and recruited by the research team. The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years basic parenting programme or a six month waiting list control. Incremental cost per unit of improvement on the intensity score of the Eyberg child behaviour inventory. The bootstrapped incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimate was 73 pounds sterling (109 euros, $142) per one point improvement on the intensity score (95% confidence interval 42 pounds sterling to 140 pounds sterling ). It would cost 5486 (8190 euros, $10,666) to bring the child with the highest intensity score to below the clinical cut-off point and 1344 (2006 euros, $2618) to bring the average child in the intervention group within the non-clinical limits on the intensity score (below 127). For a ceiling ratio of 100 pounds sterling (149 euros, $194) per point increase in intensity score, there is an 83.9% chance of the intervention being cost effective. The mean cost per child attending the parenting group was 1934 pounds sterling (2887 euros, $3760) for eight children and 1289 pounds sterling (1924 euros, $2506) for 12 children, including initial costs and materials for training group leaders. When we categorised the sample into relatively mild, moderate, and severe behaviour groups based on intensity scores at baseline the intervention seemed more cost effective in those with the highest risk of developing conduct disorder. This parenting programme improves child behaviour as measured

  16. Ipilimumab in 2nd line treatment of patients with advanced melanoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barzey, Victor; Atkins, Michael B; Garrison, Louis P; Asukai, Yumi; Kotapati, Srividya; Penrod, John R

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) compared with best supportive care (BSC) in pre-treated advanced melanoma patients. The analysis was based on a US payer perspective and lifetime time horizon. A three-state Markov model was developed representing clinical outcomes, quality-of-life, and healthcare resource use of patients treated with ipilimumab and BSC. Transitions between states were modeled using overall and progression-free survival data from the MDX010-20 trial. Utility data were from a melanoma-specific study of the health state preferences of the general population. Disease management costs expressed in 2011 US Dollars were based on healthcare resource use observed in a US retrospective medical chart study. Uncertainty was analyzed using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The gain in life years and QALYs from introducing ipilimumab over BSC were 1.88 years (95% CI = 1.62-2.20) and 1.14 (95% CI = 1.01-1.34) QALYs, respectively, over the lifetime time horizon. The estimated incremental cost of treating with ipilimumab vs BSC was $146,716 (95% CI = $130,992-$164,025). The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $78,218 per life year gained and $128,656 per QALY gained. Ipilimumab was 95% likely to be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay of $146,000/QALY. Ipilimumab's method of action causes a tumor response pattern that differs from the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors upon which the model is based, leading to a potential under-estimate of quality-of-life of ipilimumab patients. Survival and QALY gains were related to the time horizon of the analysis. Sensitivity analyses indicated that qualitative conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of ipilimumab were unchanged when the method of quality adjustment and the time horizon were varied. The analysis shows that the estimated cost-effectiveness of ipilimumab is within what has been shown to be acceptable to payers for oncology

  17. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. However, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective. PMID:25741648

  18. Hospital-centered violence intervention programs: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Vincent E; Smith, Randi; Garcia, Arturo; Lee, Wayne S; Ashley, Linnea; Marks, Anne; Liu, Terrence H; Victorino, Gregory P

    2015-04-01

    Hospital-centered violence intervention programs (HVIPs) reduce violent injury recidivism. However, dedicated cost analyses of such programs have not yet been published. We hypothesized that the HVIP at our urban trauma center is a cost-effective means for reducing violent injury recidivism. We conducted a cost-utility analysis using a state-transition (Markov) decision model, comparing participation in our HVIP with standard risk reduction for patients injured because of firearm violence. Model inputs were derived from our trauma registry and published literature. The 1-year recidivism rate for participants in our HVIP was 2.5%, compared with 4% for those receiving standard risk reduction resources. Total per-person costs of each violence prevention arm were similar: $3,574 for our HVIP and $3,515 for standard referrals. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for our HVIP was $2,941. Our HVIP is a cost-effective means of preventing recurrent episodes of violent injury in patients hurt by firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The cost-effectiveness and budget impact of competing therapies in hepatic encephalopathy - a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, E; Esrailian, E; Spiegel, B M R

    2007-10-15

    Treatment options for hepatic encephalopathy have disparate risks and benefits. Non-absorbable disaccharides and neomycin are limited by uncertain efficacy and common dose-limiting side effects. In contrast, rifaximin is safe and effective in hepatic encephalopathy, but is more expensive. We conducted a decision analysis to calculate the cost-effectiveness of six strategies in hepatic encephalopathy: (i) no hepatic encephalopathy treatment, (ii) lactulose monotherapy, (iii) lactitol monotherapy, (iv) neomycin monotherapy, (v) rifaximin monotherapy and (vi) up-front lactulose with crossover to rifaximin if poor response or intolerance of lactulose ('rifaximin salvage'). The primary outcome was cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Under base-case conditions, 'do nothing' was least effective and rifaximin salvage was most effective. Lactulose monotherapy was least expensive, and rifaximin monotherapy was most expensive. When balancing cost and effectiveness, lactulose monotherapy and rifaximin salvage dominated alternative strategies. Compared to lactulose monotherapy, rifaximin salvage cost an incremental US$2315 per quality-adjusted life-year-gained. The cost of rifaximin had to fall below US$1.03/tab in order for rifaximin monotherapy to dominate lactulose monotherapy. Rifaximin monotherapy is not cost-effective in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy at current average wholesale prices. However, a hybrid salvage strategy, reserving rifaximin for lactulose-refractory patients, may be highly cost-effective.

  20. The value of hygiene promotion: cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sijbesma, Christine; Christoffers, Trea

    2009-11-01

    Hygiene promotion can greatly improve the benefits of water and sanitation programmes in developing countries at relatively limited costs. There are, however, few studies with hard data on the costs and effectiveness of individual programmes and even fewer have compared the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches. This article argues that objectively measured reductions of key sanitation and hygiene risks are better than DALYs for evaluating hygiene and sanitation promotion programmes. It presents a framework for the cost-effectiveness analysis of such programmes, which is used to analyse six field programmes. At costs ranging from US dollar 1.05 to US dollar 1.74 per person per year in 1999 US dollar values, they achieved (almost) complete abandonment of open defecation and considerable improvements in keeping toilets free from faecal soiling, safe disposal of child faeces, and/or washing hands with soap after defecation, before eating and after cleaning children's bottoms. However, only two studies used a quasi-experimental design (before and after studies in the intervention and - matched - control area) and only two measured costs and the degree to which results were sustained after the programme had ended. If the promotion of good sanitation and hygiene is to receive the political and managerial support it deserves, every water, sanitation and/or hygiene programme should give data on inputs, costs, processes and effects over time. More and better research that reflects the here-presented model is also needed to compare the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches.

  1. Genomic profile of breast cancer: cost-effectiveness analysis from the Spanish National Healthcare System perspective.

    PubMed

    Seguí, Miguel Ángel; Crespo, Carlos; Cortés, Javier; Lluch, Ana; Brosa, Max; Becerra, Virginia; Chiavenna, Sebastián Matias; Gracia, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of MammaPrint(®) (70-gene signature) in the diagnosis of early breast cancer as a prognosis assay to study the risk of tumor recurrence to administer adjuvant chemotherapy. Markov model assuming a cohort of 60-year-old women with breast cancer. Treatment costs and effects were assessed by comparing the 5-year, 10-year and lifetime risk of recurrence using Adjuvant! Online(®) (online algorithm), 70-gene signature or Oncotype DX(®) (21-gene assay). 70-gene signature showed a life expectancy of 23.55 years at lifetime. Life expectancy was lower for 21-gene assay and online algorithm, with associated quality-adjusted life year gains up to 0.23 and 0.75, respectively, with 70-gene signature. At year 5, the mean cost of 21-gene assay, 70-gene signature and online algorithm was €7100, €6380 and €4580, respectively. 70-gene signature was dominant versus 21-gene assay at any time horizon and would be cost-effective from year 7 versus online algorithm (lifetime: €1457 per quality-adjusted life years gained). 70-gene signature was a dominant strategy over 21-gene assay and was highly cost-effective versus online algorithm.

  2. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guerra Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. Moreover, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective [corrected].

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rours, G I J G; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar Anne; Ditkowsky, Jared; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Verkooyen, R P; de Groot, R; Verbrugh, H A; Postma, M J

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis screening during pregnancy. We used a health-economic decision analysis model, which included potential health outcomes of C. trachomatis infection for women, partners and infants, and premature delivery. We estimated the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective using recent prevalence data from a population-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in the Netherlands. We calculated the averted costs by linking health outcomes with health care costs and productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as net costs per major outcome prevented and was estimated in base-case analysis, sensitivity, and scenario analysis. In the base-case analysis, the costs to detect 1000 pregnant women with C. trachomatis were estimated at €527,900. Prevention of adverse health outcomes averted €626,800 in medical costs, resulting in net cost savings. Sensitivity analysis showed that net cost savings remained with test costs up to €22 (test price €19) for a broad range of variation in underlying assumptions. Scenario analysis showed even more cost savings with targeted screening for women less than 30 years of age or with first pregnancies only. Antenatal screening for C. trachomatis is a cost-saving intervention when testing all pregnant women in the Netherlands. Savings increase even further when testing women younger than 30 years of age or with pregnancies only.

  4. Schizophrenia treatment in the developing world: an interregional and multinational cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Saldivia, Sandra; Villalón Calderón, Marcelo; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Mendis, Nalaka; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose-Luis; Saxena, Shekhar

    2008-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling disease and is costly to treat. We set out to establish what are the most cost-effective interventions applicable to developing regions and countries. Analysis was undertaken at the level of three WHO subregions spanning the Americas, Africa and South-East Asia, and subsequently in three member states (Chile, Nigeria and Sri Lanka). A state transition model was used to estimate the population-level health impact of older and newer antipsychotic drugs, alone or in combination with psychosocial intervention. Total population-level costs (in international dollars or local currencies) and effectiveness (measured in disability-adjusted life years averted) were combined to form cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective interventions were those using older antipsychotic drugs combined with psychosocial treatment, delivered via a community-based service model (I$ 2350-7158 per disability-adjusted life year averted across the three subregions, I$ 1670-3400 following country-level contextualisation within each of these subregions). The relative cost-effectiveness of interventions making use of newer, "atypical" antipsychotic drugs is estimated to be much less favourable. By moving to a community-based service model and selecting efficient treatment options, the cost of substantially increasing treatment coverage is not high (less than I$ 1 investment per capita). Taken together with other priority-setting criteria such as disease severity, vulnerability and human rights protection, this study suggests that a great deal more could be done for persons and families living under the spectre of this disorder.

  5. Schizophrenia treatment in the developing world: an interregional and multinational cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, Oye; Saldivia, Sandra; Calderón, Marcelo Villalón; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Mendis, Nalaka; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose-Luis; Saxena, Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Schizophrenia is a highly disabling disease and is costly to treat. We set out to establish what are the most cost-effective interventions applicable to developing regions and countries. Methods Analysis was undertaken at the level of three WHO subregions spanning the Americas, Africa and South-East Asia, and subsequently in three member states (Chile, Nigeria and Sri Lanka). A state transition model was used to estimate the population-level health impact of older and newer antipsychotic drugs, alone or in combination with psychosocial intervention. Total population-level costs (in international dollars or local currencies) and effectiveness (measured in disability-adjusted life years averted) were combined to form cost-effectiveness ratios. Findings The most cost-effective interventions were those using older antipsychotic drugs combined with psychosocial treatment, delivered via a community-based service model (I$ 2350–7158 per disability-adjusted life year averted across the three subregions, I$ 1670–3400 following country-level contextualisation within each of these subregions). The relative cost-effectiveness of interventions making use of newer, “atypical” antipsychotic drugs is estimated to be much less favourable. Conclusion By moving to a community-based service model and selecting efficient treatment options, the cost of substantially increasing treatment coverage is not high (less than I$ 1 investment per capita). Taken together with other priority-setting criteria such as disease severity, vulnerability and human rights protection, this study suggests that a great deal more could be done for persons and families living under the spectre of this disorder. PMID:18670667

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of self-help smoking cessation methods for pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, R A; Warner, K E; Cutter, G R

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of health promotion-health education methods for pregnant smokers designed to increase birth weight are not available. This paper presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis from a recently completed randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation methods for pregnant women in public health maternity clinics. The study population--309 pregnant smokers from 3 prenatal clinics--were randomly assigned, during their first clinic visit, to 1 of 3 groups: (a) group 1 received the standard clinic information and advice to quit smoking, (b) group 2 received the standard clinic information and advice to quit plus the manual "Freedom From Smoking in 20 Days" by the American Lung Association, and (c) group 3 received the standard clinic information and advice to quit plus the pregnancy-specific manual "A Pregnant Woman's Self-Help Guide to Quit Smoking." The quit rates by the end of pregnancy were 2 percent for group 1, 6 percent for group 2, and 14 percent for group 3. Analyses also indicated that the method used for group 3 was the most cost effective: group 3 achieved smoking cessation at less than half the cost experienced by the other two groups. Although additional studies are needed concerning the behavioral impact, cost effectiveness, and cost benefit of self-help health education methods for smoking cessation, the methods tested in this trial are promising as solutions to part of the problem of low birth weight among infants of smoking mothers in the United States. PMID:3124203

  7. The optimal imaging strategy for patients with stable chest pain: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Genders, Tessa S S; Petersen, Steffen E; Pugliese, Francesca; Dastidar, Amardeep G; Fleischmann, Kirsten E; Nieman, Koen; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2015-04-07

    The optimal imaging strategy for patients with stable chest pain is uncertain. To determine the cost-effectiveness of different imaging strategies for patients with stable chest pain. Microsimulation state-transition model. Published literature. 60-year-old patients with a low to intermediate probability of coronary artery disease (CAD). Lifetime. The United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography, cardiac stress magnetic resonance imaging, stress single-photon emission CT, and stress echocardiography. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The strategy that maximized QALYs and was cost-effective in the United States and the Netherlands began with coronary CT angiography, continued with cardiac stress imaging if angiography found at least 50% stenosis in at least 1 coronary artery, and ended with catheter-based coronary angiography if stress imaging induced ischemia of any severity. For U.K. men, the preferred strategy was optimal medical therapy without catheter-based coronary angiography if coronary CT angiography found only moderate CAD or stress imaging induced only mild ischemia. In these strategies, stress echocardiography was consistently more effective and less expensive than other stress imaging tests. For U.K. women, the optimal strategy was stress echocardiography followed by catheter-based coronary angiography if echocardiography induced mild or moderate ischemia. Results were sensitive to changes in the probability of CAD and assumptions about false-positive results. All cardiac stress imaging tests were assumed to be available. Exercise electrocardiography was included only in a sensitivity analysis. Differences in QALYs among strategies were small. Coronary CT angiography is a cost-effective triage test for 60-year-old patients who have nonacute chest pain and a low to intermediate probability of CAD. Erasmus University Medical Center.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing an antimicrobial stewardship program in critical care units.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Jesus; Frasquet, Juan; Romá, Eva; Poveda-Andres, Jose Luis; Salavert-Leti, Miguel; Castellanos, Alvaro; Ramirez, Paula

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) program implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed. Model variables and costs, along with their distributions, were obtained from the literature. The study was performed from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective, including only direct costs. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was analysed regarding the ability of the program to reduce multi-drug resistant bacteria. Uncertainty in ICERs was evaluated with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In the short-term, implementing an AS reduces the consumption of antimicrobials with a net benefit of €71,738. In the long-term, the maintenance of the program involves an additional cost to the system of €107,569. Cost per avoided resistance was €7,342, and cost-per-life-years gained (LYG) was €9,788. Results from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that there was a more than 90% likelihood that an AS would be cost-effective at a level of €8,000 per LYG. Wide variability of economic results obtained from the implementation of this type of AS program and short information on their impact on patient evolution and any resistance avoided. Implementing an AS focusing on critical care patients is a long-term cost-effective tool. Implementation costs are amortized by reducing antimicrobial consumption to prevent infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  9. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal screening for thyroid disease in pregnant women in Spain].

    PubMed

    Donnay Candil, Sergio; Balsa Barro, José Antonio; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Crespo Palomo, Carlos; Pérez-Alcántara, Ferrán; Polanco Sánchez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of universal screening for thyroid disease in pregnant women in Spain as compared to high risk screening and no screening. A decision-analytic model comparing the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of universal screening versus high risk screening and versus no screening. was used for the pregnancy and postpartum period. Probabilities from randomized controlled trials were considered for adverse obstetrical outcomes. A Markov model was used to assess the lifetime period after the first postpartum year and account for development of overt hypothyroidism. The main assumptions in the model and use of resources were assessed by local clinical experts. The analysis considered direct healthcare costs only. Universal screening gained .011 QALYs over high risk screening and .014 QALYS over no screening. Total direct costs per patient were €5,786 for universal screening, €5,791 for high risk screening, and €5,781 for no screening. Universal screening was dominant compared to risk-based screening and a very cost-effective alternative as compared to no screening. Use of universal screening instead of high risk screening would result in €2,653,854 annual savings for the Spanish National Health System. Universal screening for thyroid disease in pregnant women in the first trimester is dominant in Spain as compared to risk-based screening, and is cost-effective as compared to no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €374 per QALY). Moreover, it allows diagnosing and treating cases of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism that may not be detected when only high-risk women are screened. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Procedural-support music therapy in the healthcare setting: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    DeLoach Walworth, Darcy

    2005-08-01

    This comparative analysis examined the cost-effectiveness of music therapy as a procedural support in the pediatric healthcare setting. Many healthcare organizations are actively attempting to reduce the amount of sedation for pediatric patients undergoing various procedures. Patients receiving music therapy-assisted computerized tomography scans ( n = 57), echocardiograms ( n = 92), and other procedures ( n = 17) were included in the analysis. Results of music therapy-assisted procedures indicate successful elimination of patient sedation, reduction in procedural times, and decrease in the number of staff members present for procedures. Implications for nurses and music therapists in the healthcare setting are discussed.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chromoendoscopy for colorectal cancer surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Konijeti, Gauree Gupta; Shrime, Mark G.; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies report that the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) may be lower than previously estimated. Although white-light endoscopy (WLE) with random biopsies is recommended for dysplasia detection in patients with UC, several studies reported increased detection of dysplasia by chromoendoscopy. Objective To analyze the cost effectiveness of chromoendoscopy relative to WLE or no endoscopy for CRC surveillance in patients with UC. Design Decision–analytic state–transition (Markov) model with Monte Carlo simulation. Setting To simulate the clinical course of chronic UC, we estimated dysplasia and CRC incidence and progression, endoscopic test characteristics, stage-specific mortality rates, and costs from published literature and Medicare reimbursement data. Patients Patients from a population-based age distribution with ulcerative colitis for ≥8 years. Intervention We compared 3 different strategies at various surveillance intervals: chromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies, WLE with random biopsies, and no surveillance. The robustness of the model was assessed by using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate individual variables, and 3-dimensional analysis was used to examine the effects of varying screening intervals. Main Outcome Measurements Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Chromoendoscopy was found to be more effective and less costly than WLE at all surveillance intervals. However, compared with no surveillance, chromoendoscopy was cost effective only at surveillance intervals of at least 7 years, with an ICER of $77,176. Chromoendoscopy was the most cost effective strategy at sensitivity levels >0.23 for dysplasia detection and cost <$2200, regardless of the level of sensitivity of WLE for dysplasia detection. The estimated population lifetime risk of developing CRC ranged from 2.5% (annual chromoendoscopy) to 5

  12. Epidural analgesia during labour, routinely or on request: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonouvrié, Kimberley; van den Bosch, Anouk; Roumen, Frans J M E; van Kuijk, Sander M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Wassen, Martine M L H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of routine labour epidural analgesia (EA), from a societal perspective, as compared with labour analgesia on request. Women delivering of a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks' gestation were randomly allocated to routine labour EA or analgesia on request in one university and one non-university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Costs included all medical, non-medical and indirect costs from randomisation to 6 weeks postpartum. Effectiveness was defined as a non-operative, spontaneous vaginal delivery without EA-related maternal adverse effects. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was defined as the ratio of the difference in costs and the difference in effectiveness between both groups. Data were analysed according to intention to treat and divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Total delivery costs in the routine EA group (n=233) were higher than in the labour on request group (n=255) (difference -€ 322, 95% CI -€ 60 to € 355) due to more medication costs (including EA), a longer stay in the labour ward, and more operations including caesarean sections. Total postpartum hospital costs in the routine EA group were lower (difference -€ 344, 95% CI -€ 1338 to € 621) mainly due to less neonatal admissions (difference -€ 472, 95% CI -€ 1297 to € 331), whereas total postpartum home and others costs were comparable (difference -€ 20, 95% CI -€ 267 to € 248, and -€ 1, 95% CI -€ 67 to € 284, respectively). As a result, the overall mean costs per woman were comparable between the routine EA group and the analgesia on request group (€ 8.708 and € 8.710, respectively, mean difference -€ 2, 95% CI -€ 1.012 to € 916). Routine labour EA resulted in more deliveries with maternal adverse effects, nevertheless the ICER remained low (€ 8; bootstrap 95% CI -€ 6.120 to € 8.659). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated a low probability that

  13. Drug therapies for chronic hepatitis C infection: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W. L.; Lee, Karen M.; Singh, Sumeet; Wells, George; Feld, Jordan J.; Krahn, Murray

    2017-01-01

    Background: Before 2011, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was the standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents were then approved. Although these treatments appear to be more effective, they are substantially more expensive. In anticipation of the need for information regarding the comparative cost-effectiveness of new regimens in a recent therapeutic review, we conducted the analysis to inform listing decision in Canada. Methods: A state-transition model was developed in the form of a cost-utility analysis. Regimens included in the analysis were comprehensive. The cohort under consideration had a mean age of 50 years. The cohort was defined by treatment status and cirrhosis status. Inputs for the model were derived from published sources and validated by clinical experts. Results: For each genotype 1 population, at least 1 of the interferon-free agents appeared to be economically attractive compared with pegylated interferon-ribavirin, at a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. The drug that was the most cost-effective varied by population. For genotype 2-4 population, the direct-acting antiviral therapies appeared not to be economically attractive compared with pegylated interferon-ribavirin for the treatment-naive; however, there were direct-acting antiviral therapies that appeared to be attractive when compared with no treatment for the treatment-experienced. Interpretation: Public health policy should be informed by consideration of health benefit, social and ethical values, feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Our analysis assists the development of reimbursements and policies for interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agent regimens for chronic hepatitis C infection by informing the last criterion. Considering the rapid development of treatments for chronic hepatitis C, further update and expanded reviews will be necessary.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of HIV monitoring strategies in resource-limited settings: a southern African analysis.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Eran; Young, Sean D; Katzenstein, David A; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Sanders, Gillian D; Owens, Douglas K

    2008-09-22

    Although the number of infected persons receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in low- and middle-income countries has increased dramatically, optimal disease management is not well defined. We developed a model to compare the costs and benefits of 3 types of human immunodeficiency virus monitoring strategies: symptom-based strategies, CD4-based strategies, and CD4 counts plus viral load strategies for starting, switching, and stopping HAART. We used clinical and cost data from southern Africa and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis. All assumptions were tested in sensitivity analyses. Compared with the symptom-based approaches, monitoring CD4 counts every 6 months and starting treatment at a threshold of 200/muL was associated with a gain in life expectancy of 6.5 months (61.9 months vs 68.4 months) and a discounted lifetime cost savings of US $464 per person (US $4069 vs US $3605, discounted 2007 dollars). The CD4-based strategies in which treatment was started at the higher threshold of 350/microL provided an additional gain in life expectancy of 5.3 months at a cost-effectiveness of US $107 per life-year gained compared with a threshold of 200/microL. Monitoring viral load with CD4 was more expensive than monitoring CD4 counts alone, added 2.0 months of life, and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US $5414 per life-year gained relative to monitoring of CD4 counts. In sensitivity analyses, the cost savings from CD4 count monitoring compared with the symptom-based approaches was sensitive to cost of inpatient care, and the cost-effectiveness of viral load monitoring was influenced by the per test costs and rates of virologic failure. Use of CD4 monitoring and early initiation of HAART in southern Africa provides large health benefits relative to symptom-based approaches for HAART management. In southern African countries with relatively high costs of hospitalization, CD4 monitoring would likely reduce total health care expenditures

  15. Intervention strategies to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mexico: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Natalie; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Orozco, Ricardo; Mancuso, Anna; Hogan, Daniel R; Lee, Diana; Murakami, Yuki; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Medina-Mora, María Elena; González-Pier, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To inform decision making regarding intervention strategies against non-communicable diseases in Mexico, in the context of health reform. Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on epidemiological modelling. Interventions 101 intervention strategies relating to nine major clusters of non-communicable disease: depression, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use, cataracts, breast cancer, cervical cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Data sources Mexican data sources were used for most key input parameters, including administrative registries; disease burden and population estimates; household surveys; and drug price databases. These sources were supplemented as needed with estimates for Mexico from the WHO-CHOICE unit cost database or with estimates extrapolated from the published literature. Main outcome measures Population health outcomes, measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs); costs in 2005 international dollars ($Int); and costs per DALY. Results Across 101 intervention strategies examined in this study, average yearly costs at the population level would range from around ≤$Int1m (such as for cataract surgeries) to >$Int1bn for certain strategies for primary prevention in cardiovascular disease. Wide variation also appeared in total population health benefits, from <1000 DALYs averted a year (for some components of cancer treatments or aspirin for acute ischaemic stroke) to >300 000 averted DALYs (for aggressive combinations of interventions to deal with alcohol use or cardiovascular risks). Interventions in this study spanned a wide range of average cost effectiveness ratios, differing by more than three orders of magnitude between the lowest and highest ratios. Overall, community and public health interventions such as non-personal interventions for alcohol use, tobacco use, and cardiovascular risks tended to have lower cost effectiveness ratios than many clinical interventions (of varying

  16. Seasonal influenza vaccination for children in Thailand: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeyai, Aronrag; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Kotirum, Surachai; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Putthasri, Weerasak; Cooper, Ben S; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Routine immunization of children has the potential to reduce this mortality through both direct and indirect protection, but has not been adopted by any low- or middle-income countries. We developed a framework to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination policies in developing countries and used it to consider annual vaccination of school- and preschool-aged children with either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Thailand. We also compared these approaches with a policy of expanding TIV coverage in the elderly. We developed an age-structured model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of eight vaccination policies parameterized using country-level data from Thailand. For policies using LAIV, we considered five different age groups of children to vaccinate. We adopted a Bayesian evidence-synthesis framework, expressing uncertainty in parameters through probability distributions derived by fitting the model to prospectively collected laboratory-confirmed influenza data from 2005-2009, by meta-analysis of clinical trial data, and by using prior probability distributions derived from literature review and elicitation of expert opinion. We performed sensitivity analyses using alternative assumptions about prior immunity, contact patterns between age groups, the proportion of infections that are symptomatic, cost per unit vaccine, and vaccine effectiveness. Vaccination of children with LAIV was found to be highly cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between about 2,000 and 5,000 international dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted, and was consistently preferred to TIV-based policies. These findings were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses. The optimal age group to vaccinate with LAIV, however, was sensitive both to the willingness to pay for health benefits and to assumptions about contact

  17. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination for Children in Thailand: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meeyai, Aronrag; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Kotirum, Surachai; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Putthasri, Weerasak; Cooper, Ben S.; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Routine immunization of children has the potential to reduce this mortality through both direct and indirect protection, but has not been adopted by any low- or middle-income countries. We developed a framework to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination policies in developing countries and used it to consider annual vaccination of school- and preschool-aged children with either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Thailand. We also compared these approaches with a policy of expanding TIV coverage in the elderly. Methods and Findings We developed an age-structured model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of eight vaccination policies parameterized using country-level data from Thailand. For policies using LAIV, we considered five different age groups of children to vaccinate. We adopted a Bayesian evidence-synthesis framework, expressing uncertainty in parameters through probability distributions derived by fitting the model to prospectively collected laboratory-confirmed influenza data from 2005-2009, by meta-analysis of clinical trial data, and by using prior probability distributions derived from literature review and elicitation of expert opinion. We performed sensitivity analyses using alternative assumptions about prior immunity, contact patterns between age groups, the proportion of infections that are symptomatic, cost per unit vaccine, and vaccine effectiveness. Vaccination of children with LAIV was found to be highly cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between about 2,000 and 5,000 international dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted, and was consistently preferred to TIV-based policies. These findings were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses. The optimal age group to vaccinate with LAIV, however, was sensitive both to the willingness to pay for health benefits and

  18. Strategies to identify the Lynch syndrome among patients with colorectal cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ladabaum, Uri; Wang, Grace; Terdiman, Jonathan; Blanco, Amie; Kuppermann, Miriam; Boland, C Richard; Ford, James; Elkin, Elena; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2011-07-19

    Testing has been advocated for all persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer to identify families with the Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome that is a paradigm for personalized medicine. To estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify the Lynch syndrome, with attention to sex, age at screening, and differential effects for probands and relatives. Markov model that incorporated risk for colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Published literature. All persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and their relatives. Lifetime. Third-party payer. Strategies based on clinical criteria, prediction algorithms, tumor testing, or up-front germline mutation testing, followed by tailored screening and risk-reducing surgery. Life-years, cancer cases and deaths, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The benefit of all strategies accrued primarily to relatives with a mutation associated with the Lynch syndrome, particularly women, whose life expectancy could increase by approximately 4 years with hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy and adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. At current rates of germline testing, screening, and prophylactic surgery, the strategies reduced deaths from colorectal cancer by 7% to 42% and deaths from endometrial and ovarian cancer by 1% to 6%. Among tumor-testing strategies, immunohistochemistry followed by BRAF mutation testing was preferred, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36,200 per life-year gained. The number of relatives tested per proband was a critical determinant of both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, with testing of 3 to 4 relatives required for most strategies to meet a threshold of $50,000 per life-year gained. Immunohistochemistry followed by BRAF mutation testing was preferred in 59% of iterations in probabilistic sensitivity analysis at a threshold of $100,000 per life-year gained. Screening for the

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importation of malaria to non-endemic countries remains a major cause of travel-related morbidity and a leading cause of travel-related hospitalizations. Currently they are three priority medications for malaria prophylaxis to West Africa: mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline. We investigate the cost effectiveness of a partial reimbursement of the cheapest effective malaria chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine) for travellers to high risk areas of malaria transmission compared with the current situation of no reimbursement. Methods This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis based on malaria cases imported from West Africa to Switzerland from the perspective of the Swiss health system. We used a decision tree model and made a literature research on the components of travel related malaria. The main outcome measure was the cost effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis reimbursement based on malaria and deaths averted. Results Using a program where travellers would be reimbursed for 80% of the cost of the cheapest malaria chemoprophylaxis is dominant (i.e. cost saving and more effective than the current situation) using the assumption that currently 68.7% of travellers to West Africa use malaria chemoprophylaxis. If the current usage of malaria chemoprophylaxis would be higher, 82.4%, the incremental cost per malaria case averted is € 2'302. The incremental cost of malaria death averted is € 191'833. The most important factors influencing the model were: the proportion of travellers using malaria chemoprophylaxis, the probability of contracting malaria without malaria chemoprophylaxis, the cost of the mefloquine regimen, the decrease in the number of travellers without malaria chemoprophylaxis in the reimbursement strategy. Conclusions This study suggests that a reimbursement of 80% of the cost of the cheapest effective malaria chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine) for travellers from Switzerland to West Africa is highly effective in terms of malaria

  20. [A cost-effectiveness analysis on universal infant rotavirus vaccination strategy in China].

    PubMed

    Sun, S L; Gao, Y Q; Yin, J; Zhuang, G H

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of current universal infant rotavirus vaccination strategy, in China. Through constructing decision tree-Markov model, we simulated rotavirus diarrhea associated cost and health outcome on those newborns in 2012 regarding different vaccination programs as: group with no vaccination, Rotavirus vaccination group and Rotateq vaccination group, respectively. We determined the optimal program, based on the comparison between incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and China' s 2012 per capital gross domestic product (GDP). Compared with non-vaccination group, the Rotavirus vaccination and Rotateq vaccination groups had to pay 3 760 Yuan and 7 578 Yuan (both less than 2012 GDP per capital) to avert one disability adjusted life years (DALY) loss, respectively. RESULTS from sensitivity analysis indicated that both results were robust. Compared with Rotavirus vaccination program, the Rotateq vaccination program had to pay extra 81 068 Yuan (between 1 and 3 times GDP per capital) to avert one DALY loss. Data from the sensitivity analysis indicated that the result was not robust. From the perspective of health economics, both two-dose Rotarix vaccine and three-dose' s Rotateq vaccine programs were highly cost-effective, when compared to the non-vaccination program. It was appropriate to integrate rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization program. Considering the large amount of extra cost that had to spend on Rotateq vaccination program, results from the sensitivity analysis showed that it was not robust. Rotateq vaccine required one more dose than the Rotarix vaccine, to be effective. However, it appeared more difficult to practice, suggesting that it was better to choose the Rotarix vaccine, at current stage.

  1. Updated cost-effectiveness analysis of supplemental glutamine for parenteral nutrition of intensive-care patients

    PubMed Central

    Pradelli, L; Povero, M; Muscaritoli, M; Eandi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intravenous (i.v.) glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition (PN) can improve clinical outcomes, reduce mortality and infection rates and shorten the length of hospital and/or intensive care unit (ICU) stays compared with standard PN. This study is a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine whether i.v. glutamine supplementation of PN remains both a highly favourable and cost-effective option for Italian ICU patients. Subjects/Methods: A previously published discrete event simulation model was updated by incorporating the most up-to-date and clinically relevant efficacy data (a clinically realistic subgroup analysis from a published meta-analysis), recent cost data from the Italian health-care system and the latest epidemiology data from a large Italian ICU database (covering 230 Italian ICUs and more than 77 000 patients). Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results: Parenteral glutamine supplementation can significantly improve ICU efficiency in Italy, as the additional cost of supplemented treatment is more than completely offset by cost savings in hospital care. Supplementation was more cost-effective (cost-effectiveness ratio (CER)=€35 165 per patient discharged alive) than standard, non-supplemented PN (CER=€40 156 per patient discharged alive), and it resulted in mean cost savings of €4991 per patient discharged alive or €1047 per patient admitted to the hospital. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. Conclusions: Alanyl-glutamine supplementation of PN is a clinically and economically attractive strategy for ICU patients in Italy and may be applicable to selected ICU patient populations in other countries. PMID:25469466

  2. The cost-effectiveness of public health interventions examined by NICE from 2011 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Owen, Lesley; Pennington, Becky; Fischer, Alastair; Jeong, Kim

    2017-09-18

    A review of economic evaluations of public health interventions assessed by NICE between 2005 and 2010 found 85% were cost-effective. Owen et al. (The cost-effectiveness of public health interventions. J Public Health 2012;34(1):37-45). With significant pressure on budgets the role of economics in securing funding remains important. This study updates the earlier analysis. Economic evaluations carried out between 2011 and 2016 were categorized: cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-consequences analysis (CCA). Cost-effectiveness estimates were analysed and compared with Owen et al. (The cost-effectiveness of public health interventions. J Public Health 2012;34(1):37-45). Of 43 guidelines examined, 23 used CUA for specific interventions yielding 138 base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) estimates, 11 used CUA for a threshold or 'what if' analysis, 1 used CEA, 3 used CCA, 1 used CBA and CUA and 1 used CEA and CUA, 5 did not require economic modelling. Compared with the earlier period, the median ICER for the 138 estimates was substantially higher (£7843 versus £1053) and there was greater variability (a higher proportion in the later period was cost-saving, but a higher proportion was also over £20 000 per quality adjusted life year). Nearly two-thirds (63%) of public health interventions assessed were cost-effective. However, increased variability in estimates highlights the importance of assessing cost-effectiveness to ensure good use of scarce resources.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  9. Is Stacking Intervention Components Cost-Effective? An Analysis of the Incredible Years Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Olchowski, Allison E.; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.

    2007-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of delivering stacked multiple intervention components for children is compared to implementing single intervention by analyzing the Incredible Years Series program. The result suggests multiple intervention components are more cost-effective than single intervention components.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  8. Is Taurolidine-citrate an effective and cost-effective hemodialysis catheter lock solution? A systematic review and cost- effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Kavosi, Zahra; Sarikhani Khorrami, Maryam; Keshavarz, Khosro; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Safaei, Hamid Reza; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases. The outcomes of interest for cost-effectiveness analysis were as follows: "Catheter-related bacteremia episodes"; "catheter-related bacteremia-free survival"; "catheter thrombosis rate" for efficacy evaluation and "reduction of catheter-related infection". For evidence synthesis, a meta-analysis was conducted on the extracted efficacy data. To evaluate the cost of treatments, direct medical costs were included, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each comparison. The payers' (patients and insurance companies) perspectives were used for cost analysis. After carrying out the systematic process, three articles were included in the analysis. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was -0.16 (-0.25 to -0.07) for catheterrelated bacteremia episode, indicating that the rate of catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 16% less than in those hemodialysis patients who received heparin. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was 0.13 (-0.06 0.32) for catheter thrombosis, showing that the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 13% more than in hemodialysis patients who received heparin. The results of this analysis indicated that taurolidine-citrate, compared to heparin, was more effective in preventing catheter-related infection; therefore, it could be considered as a superior strategy

  9. Is Taurolidine-citrate an effective and cost-effective hemodialysis catheter lock solution? A systematic review and cost- effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Zahra; Sarikhani Khorrami, Maryam; Keshavarz, Khosro; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Safaei, Hamid Reza; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. Methods: To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases. The outcomes of interest for cost-effectiveness analysis were as follows: "Catheter-related bacteremia episodes"; "catheter-related bacteremia-free survival"; "catheter thrombosis rate" for efficacy evaluation and "reduction of catheter-related infection". For evidence synthesis, a meta-analysis was conducted on the extracted efficacy data. To evaluate the cost of treatments, direct medical costs were included, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each comparison. The payers’ (patients and insurance companies) perspectives were used for cost analysis. Results: After carrying out the systematic process, three articles were included in the analysis. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was -0.16 (-0.25 to -0.07) for catheterrelated bacteremia episode, indicating that the rate of catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 16% less than in those hemodialysis patients who received heparin. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was 0.13 (-0.06 0.32) for catheter thrombosis, showing that the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 13% more than in hemodialysis patients who received heparin. The results of this analysis indicated that taurolidine-citrate, compared to heparin, was more effective in preventing catheter-related infection; therefore, it could be

  10. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tend to have higher CEA levels than non-smokers. Increased CEA levels can indicate some non-cancer-related conditions, such as inflammation , cirrhosis , peptic ulcer , ulcerative colitis , rectal polyps , emphysema , and benign breast disease. ^ Back to top Proudly ...

  11. The value of corneoscleral rim cultures in keratoplasty: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kiatos, Efstathia; Armstrong, James J; Hutnik, Cindy ML; Tsioros, Stephen M; Malvankar-Mehta, Monali S; Hodge, William G

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the performance of donor corneoscleral rim cultures for predicting infection after corneal transplantation, and determines if there is a correlation between positive corneoscleral rim cultures and postkeratoplasty infection. Design and data sources This was a systematic review, prognostic accuracy analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis. Databases searched were: Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and BioSis Previews. Grey literature was also explored. Materials and methods A systematic review was conducted to locate published and unpublished studies. All studies examining corneal button contamination and its association with endophthalmitis and keratitis posttransplantation were included. Extracted data were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Cost data from the London Laboratory Services Group in London, ON were used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of culturing donor rim cultures. Results Of 7,870 grafts, 954 had a positive rim culture (12.1%), with 12 patients going on to develop keratitis or endophthalmitis (1.3%). The prevalence of keratitis and endophthalmitis in this study was 0.15%, and the positive predictive value 1.5%. Of the 12 infections, nine were fungal and three bacterial. The estimated cost of a positive and negative test result was CAD$45.99 and $14.15, respectively. The cost to run all 7,870 tests was estimated to be $141,735.86, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $40,215.70. Conclusion There was a significant divergence between bacterial and fungal rim-culture results. Bacterial cultures predicted clinical infection poorly, did not change management, and were expensive. Fungal cultures predicted clinical infection in over 10% of patients, had the potential to change management, and were 40% less expensive than full rim culturing (bacterial and fungal tests). Fungal rim cultures may be considered

  12. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  13. Tuberculosis screening of travelers to higher-incidence countries: A cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Michael; Menzies, Dick; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Travelers to countries with high tuberculosis incidence can acquire infection during travel. We sought to compare four screening interventions for travelers from low-incidence countries, who visit countries with varying tuberculosis incidence. Methods Decision analysis model: We considered hypothetical cohorts of 1,000 travelers, 21 years old, visiting Mexico, the Dominican Republic, or Haiti for three months. Travelers departed from and returned to the United States or Canada; they were born in the United States, Canada, or the destination countries. The time horizon was 20 years, with 3% annual discounting of future costs and outcomes. The analysis was conducted from the health care system perspective. Screening involved tuberculin skin testing (post-travel in three strategies, with baseline pre-travel tests in two), or chest radiography post-travel (one strategy). Returning travelers with tuberculin conversion (one strategy) or other evidence of latent tuberculosis (three strategies) were offered treatment. The main outcome was cost (in 2005 US dollars) per tuberculosis case prevented. Results For all travelers, a single post-trip tuberculin test was most cost-effective. The associated cost estimate per case prevented ranged from $21,406 for Haitian-born travelers to Haiti, to $161,196 for US-born travelers to Mexico. In all sensitivity analyses, the single post-trip tuberculin test remained most cost-effective. For US-born travelers to Haiti, this strategy was associated with cost savings for trips over 22 months. Screening was more cost-effective with increasing trip duration and infection risk, and less so with poorer treatment adherence. Conclusion A single post-trip tuberculin skin test was the most cost-effective strategy considered, for travelers from the United States or Canada. The analysis did not evaluate the use of interferon-gamma release assays, which would be most relevant for travelers who received BCG vaccination after infancy, as in

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Mehdi; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Esteghamati, Abdoulreza; Mansour Ghanaie, Roxana; Mahmoudi, Sussan; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Baxter, Louise; Shakerian, Sareh; Chaudhri, Irtaza; Fleming, Jessica A; Munier, Aline; Baradaran, Hamid R

    2015-05-07

    Although the mortality from diarrheal diseases has been decreasing dramatically in Iran, it still represents an important proportion of disease burden in children <5 years old. Rotavirus vaccines are among the most effective strategies against diarrheal diseases in specific epidemiological conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of rotavirus vaccine (3 doses of pentavalent RotaTeq (RV5)) in Iran, from the viewpoints of Iran's health system and society. The TRIVAC decision support model was used to calculate total incremental costs, life years (LYs) gained, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted due to the vaccination program. Necessary input data were collected from the most valid accessible sources as well as a systematic review and meta-analysis on epidemiological studies. We used WHO guidelines to estimate vaccination cost. An annual discount rate of 3% was considered for both health gain and costs. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed for testing the robustness of the models results. Our results indicated that total DALYs potentially lost due to rotavirus diarrhea within 10 years would be 138,161, of which 76,591 could be prevented by rotavirus vaccine. The total vaccination cost for 10 cohorts was estimated to be US$ 499.91 million. Also, US$ 470.61 million would be saved because of preventing outpatient visits and inpatient admissions (cost-saving from the society perspective). We estimated a cost per DALY averted of US$ 2868 for RV5 vaccination, which corresponds to a highly cost-effective strategy from the government perspective. In the sensitivity analysis, all scenarios tested were still cost-saving or highly cost-effective from the society perspective, except in the least favorable scenario and low vaccine efficacy and disease incidence scenario. Based on the findings, introduction of rotavirus vaccine is a highly cost-effective strategy from the government perspective. Introducing the

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of drug-coated therapies in the superficial femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Natalie D; Boitet, Aureline; Smith, Kenneth; Noorbakhsh, Kathy; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Eslami, Mohammad H; Makaroun, Michel; Chaer, Rabih

    2017-09-25

    Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) may increase durability of endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease while avoiding stent-related risks. The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic data of DCB studies to compare the cost-effectiveness of potential SFA treatments: DCB, drug-eluting stent (DES), plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), or bare-metal stent (BMS). A search for randomized controlled trials comparing DCB with POBA for treatment of SFA disease was performed. Hazard ratios were extracted to account for the time-to-event primary outcome of target lesion revascularization. Odds ratios were calculated for the secondary outcomes of primary patency (PP) and major amputation. Incorporating pooled data from the meta-analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, assuming a payer perspective, used a decision model to simulate patency at 1 year and 2 years for each index treatment modality: POBA, BMS, DCB, or DES. Costs were based on current Medicare outpatient reimbursement rates. Eight studies (1352 patients) met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. DCB outperformed POBA with respect to target lesion revascularization over time (pooled hazard ratio, 0.41; P < .001). Risk of major amputation at 12 months was not significantly different between groups. There was significantly improved 1-year PP in the DCB group compared with POBA (pooled odds ratio, 3.30; P < .001). In the decision model, the highest PP at 1 year was seen in the DES index therapy strategy (79%), followed by DCB (74%), BMS (71%), and POBA (64%). With a baseline cost of $9259.39 per patent limb at 1 year in the POBA-first group, the incremental cost per patent limb for each other strategy compared with POBA was calculated: $14,136.10/additional patent limb for DCB, $38,549.80/limb for DES, and $59,748,85/limb for BMS. The primary BMS option is dominated by being more expensive and less effective than DCB. Compared directly with DCB, DES costs $87,377.20 per additional patent

  16. A generic, cost-effective, and scalable cell lineage analysis platform

    PubMed Central

    Biezuner, Tamir; Spiro, Adam; Raz, Ofir; Amir, Shiran; Milo, Lilach; Adar, Rivka; Chapal-Ilani, Noa; Berman, Veronika; Fried, Yael; Ainbinder, Elena; Cohen, Galit; Barr, Haim M.; Halaban, Ruth; Shapiro, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Advances in single-cell genomics enable commensurate improvements in methods for uncovering lineage relations among individual cells. Current sequencing-based methods for cell lineage analysis depend on low-resolution bulk analysis or rely on extensive single-cell sequencing, which is not scalable and could be biased by functional dependencies. Here we show an integrated biochemical-computational platform for generic single-cell lineage analysis that is retrospective, cost-effective, and scalable. It consists of a biochemical-computational pipeline that inputs individual cells, produces targeted single-cell sequencing data, and uses it to generate a lineage tree of the input cells. We validated the platform by applying it to cells sampled from an ex vivo grown tree and analyzed its feasibility landscape by computer simulations. We conclude that the platform may serve as a generic tool for lineage analysis and thus pave the way toward large-scale human cell lineage discovery. PMID:27558250

  17. Mammography screening: an incremental cost effectiveness analysis of two view versus one view procedures in London.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, S; Brown, J; Warren, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To compare the costs and effects of routine mammography screening by a single mediolateral-oblique view and two views (mediolateral-oblique plus craniocaudal) of each breast. DESIGN--A cost effectiveness analysis of a prospective non-randomised trial comparing one and two view mammography screening was carried out at St Margaret's Hospital, Epping. All women in the study had two view mammography. The mediolateral-oblique view was always the first image read by the radiologist. After reading the films for a clinic session, the same radiologist then went back and read both the mediolateral-oblique and craniocaudal views together. Each set of films was read by two radiologists. The main outcome measures were recall rates, number of cancers detected, screening and assessment costs, and cost effectiveness ratios. SUBJECTS--A total of 26,430 women who attended for breast screening using both one and two view mammography participated. A sample of 132 women attending for assessment provided data on the private costs incurred in attending for assessment. RESULTS--There was a reduction in the recall rate from 9.1% (2404 of 26,430) after one view screening to 6.7% (1760 of 26,430) after two view screening. The results also suggest that for every 10,000 women screened an additional five cancers would be detected earlier with two view screening. The additional health service screening cost associated with two view screening was estimated to be 3.63 pounds: the costs associated with one and two view screening policies were estimated to be 41.49 pounds and 32.99 pounds respectively. Private costs incurred were estimated to be 0.35 pounds per woman screened and 32.75 pounds per woman assessed. Two cost effectiveness ratios were calculated: an incremental health service cost per additional cancer detected of 4129 pounds and an incremental health service plus private cost per additional cancer detected of 2742 pounds. The sensitivity analysis suggested that the

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a European primary-care physician training in smoking cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Pinget, Christophe; Martin, Erika; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Humair, Jean-Paul; Cornuz, Jacques

    2007-06-01

    Physician training in smoking cessation counseling has been shown to be effective as a means to increase quit success. We assessed the cost-effectiveness ratio of a smoking cessation counseling training programme. Its effectiveness was previously demonstrated in a cluster randomized, control trial performed in two Swiss university outpatients clinics, in which residents were randomized to receive training in smoking interventions or a control educational intervention. We used a Markov simulation model for effectiveness analysis. This model incorporates the intervention efficacy, the natural quit rate, and the lifetime probability of relapse after 1-year abstinence. We used previously published results in addition to hospital service and outpatient clinic cost data. The time horizon was 1 year, and we opted for a third-party payer perspective. The incremental cost of the intervention amounted to US$2.58 per consultation by a smoker, translating into a cost per life-year saved of US$25.4 for men and 35.2 for women. One-way sensitivity analyses yielded a range of US$4.0-107.1 in men and US$9.7-148.6 in women. Variations in the quit rate of the control intervention, the length of training effectiveness, and the discount rate yielded moderately large effects on the outcome. Variations in the natural cessation rate, the lifetime probability of relapse, the cost of physician training, the counseling time, the cost per hour of physician time, and the cost of the booklets had little effect on the cost-effectiveness ratio. Training residents in smoking cessation counseling is a very cost-effective intervention and may be more efficient than currently accepted tobacco control interventions.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of nephron sparing options for the management of small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steven L; Cipriano, Lauren E; Harshman, Lauren C; Garber, Alan M; Chung, Benjamin I

    2011-05-01

    A recent increase in the detection of contrast enhancing renal masses 4 cm or smaller suspicious for malignancy has led to the widespread use of nephron sparing options. Limited data exist to help clinicians decide which of these competing nephron sparing therapies is most appropriate. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate the relative clinical and economic merits of commonly available nephron sparing strategies for small renal masses. We developed a decision analytic Markov model estimating the costs and health outcomes of treating a healthy 65-year-old patient with an asymptomatic unilateral small renal mass using competing nephron sparing options of immediate intervention (ie open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy as well as laparoscopic and percutaneous ablation), active surveillance with possible delayed intervention and nonsurgical management with observation. Benefits were measured in quality adjusted life-years. We used a societal perspective, lifetime horizon and willingness to pay threshold of $50,000 per quality adjusted life-year gained. Model results were assessed with sensitivity analyses. In the base case scenario the least costly option was observation and the optimal option was immediate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, which had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36,645 per quality adjusted life-year gained compared to surveillance with possible delayed percutaneous ablation. Results were sensitive to age at diagnosis, health status and tumor size. Immediate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is the preferred nephron sparing option for healthy patients younger than 74 years old with a small renal mass. Surveillance with possible delayed percutaneous ablation is a cost-effective alternative for patients with advanced age or significant comorbidities. Observation maximizes quality adjusted life-years in patients who are poor surgical candidates or with limited life expectancy (less than 3 years). Copyright © 2011

  20. Deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer disease: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Mirsaeedi-Farahani, Keyvan; Halpern, C H; Baltuch, G H; Wolk, D A; Stein, S C

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by impairments in memory function. Standard AD treatment provides marginal improvements in this domain. Recent reports, however, suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) may result in improved memory. Given significant equipment costs and health expenses required for DBS surgery, we determine clinical and economic thresholds required for it to be as effective as standard AD treatment. Literature review yielded annual AD progression probabilities, health-related quality of life (QoL), and costs by AD stage. Our 5-year decision analysis model compared cumulative QoL in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs of standard therapy to theoretical DBS treatment of various success rates, using known complication rates and QoL data. The base case was a patient with mild-stage AD. DBS success was defined as regression to and maintenance of minimal stage AD, which was defined as midway between mild and no dementia, for the first year, and continuation of the natural course of AD for the remaining 4 years. Compared to standard treatment alone, DBS for mild-stage AD requires a success rate of 3% to overcome effects of possible surgical complications on QoL. If DBS can be delivered with success rates above 20% ($200 K/QALY) or 74% ($50 K/QALY) for mild AD, it can be considered cost-effective. Above a success rate of 80%, DBS treatment is both clinically more effective and more cost-effective than standard treatment. Our findings demonstrate that clinical and economic thresholds required for DBS to be cost-effective for AD are relatively low.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis on spinal anesthesia versus local anesthesia plus sedation for loop colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Filinto Aníbal Alagia; Abreu, Rone Antônio Alves; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de; Speranzini, Manlio Basílio; Fernandes, Luís Cesar; Matos, Delcio

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the area of health economics are still poorly explored and it is known that the cost savings in this area is becoming more necessary, provided that strict criteria. To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of spinal anesthesia versus local anesthesia plus sedation for loop colostomy closure. This was a randomized clinical trial with 50 patients undergoing loop colostomy closure either under spinal anesthesia (n = 25) or under local anesthesia plus sedation (n = 25). The duration of the operation, time spent in the post-anesthesia recovery room, pain, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, laboratory and imaging examinations and need for rehospitalization and reoperation were analyzed. The direct medical costs were analyzed. A decision tree model was constructed. The outcome measures were mean cost and cost per local and systemic postoperative complications avoided. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were presented. Duration of operation: 146 +/- 111.5 min. vs 105 +/- 23.6 min. (P = 0.012); mean time spent in post-anesthesia recovery room: 145 +/- 110.8 min. vs 36.8 +/- 34.6 min. (P<0.001). Immediate postoperative pain was lower with local anesthesia plus sedation (P<0.05). Local and systemic complications were fewer with local anesthesia plus sedation (P = 0.209). Hospitalization + rehospitalization: 4.5 +/- 4.1 days vs 2.9 +/- 2.2 days (P<0.0001); mean spending per patient: R$ 5,038.05 vs 2,665.57 (P<0.001). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: R$ -474.78, indicating that the strategy with local anesthesia plus sedation is cost saving. In the present investigation, loop colostomy closure under local anesthesia plus sedation was effective and appeared to be a dominant strategy, compared with the same surgical procedure under spinal anesthesia.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative first-trimester pregnancy termination strategies in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hu, D; Grossman, D; Levin, C; Blanchard, K; Goldie, S J

    2009-05-01

    To assess the comparative health and economic outcomes associated with three alternative first-trimester abortion techniques in Mexico City and to examine the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion modalities within a restrictive setting. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Mexico City. Reproductive-aged women with unintended pregnancy seeking first-trimester abortion. Synthesising the best available data, a computer-based model simulates induced abortion and its potential complications and is used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative safe modalities for first-trimester pregnancy termination: (1) hospital-based dilatation and curettage (D&C), (2) hospital-based manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), (3) clinic-based MVA and (4) medical abortion using vaginal misoprostol. Number of complications, lifetime costs, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy. In comparison to the magnitude of health gains associated with all safe abortion modalities, the relative differences between strategies were more pronounced in terms of their economic costs. Assuming all options were equally available, clinic-based MVA was the least costly and most effective. Medical abortion with misoprostol provided comparable benefits to D&C, but cost substantially less. Enhanced access to safe abortion was always more influential than shifting between safe abortion modalities. This study demonstrates that the provision of safe abortion is cost-effective and will result in reduced complications, decreased mortality and substantial cost savings compared with unsafe abortion. In Mexico City, shifting from a practice of hospital-based D&C to clinic-based MVA and enhancing access to medical abortion will have the best chance to minimise abortion-related morbidity and mortality.

  3. Development of a cost-effectiveness analysis of leafy green marketing agreement irrigation water provisions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H; Pouliot, Sébastien; Wang, Tong; Jay-Russell, Michele T

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of meeting the irrigation water provisions of the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) relative to its costs provides an approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of good agricultural practices that uses available data. A case example for lettuce is used to evaluate data requirements and provide a methodological example to determine the cost-effectiveness of the LGMA water quality provision. Both cost and field data on pathogen or indicator bacterial levels are difficult and expensive to obtain prospectively. Therefore, methods to use existing field and experimental data are required. Based on data from current literature and experimental studies, we calculate a cost-efficiency ratio that expresses the reduction in E. coli concentration per dollar expenditure on testing of irrigation water. With appropriate data, the same type of analysis can be extended to soil amendments and other practices and to evaluation of public benefits of practices used in production. Careful use of existing and experimental data can lead to evaluation of an expanded set of practices.

  4. The value of heterogeneity for cost-effectiveness subgroup analysis: conceptual framework and application.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Manuel A; Manca, Andrea; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    This article develops a general framework to guide the use of subgroup cost-effectiveness analysis for decision making in a collectively funded health system. In doing so, it addresses 2 key policy questions, namely, the identification and selection of subgroups, while distinguishing 2 sources of potential value associated with heterogeneity. These are 1) the value of revealing the factors associated with heterogeneity in costs and outcomes using existing evidence (static value) and 2) the value of acquiring further subgroup-related evidence to resolve the uncertainty given the current understanding of heterogeneity (dynamic value). Consideration of these 2 sources of value can guide subgroup-specific treatment decisions and inform whether further research should be conducted to resolve uncertainty to explain variability in costs and outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to a cost-effectiveness analysis for the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study presents the expected net benefits under current and perfect information when subgroups are defined based on the use and combination of 6 binary covariates. The results of the case study confirm the theoretical expectations. As more subgroups are considered, the marginal net benefit gains obtained under the current information show diminishing marginal returns, and the expected value of perfect information shows a decreasing trend. We present a suggested algorithm that synthesizes the results to guide policy.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan children using a simple economic model.

    PubMed

    Alkoshi, Salem; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in Libya. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in that country. We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate the rotavirus burden. The economic analysis was done from two perspectives: health care provider and societal. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty in some values of the variables selected. The three hospitals received 545 diarrhea patients aged≤5 with 311 (57%) rotavirus positive test results during a 9-month period. The societal cost for treatment of a case of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at US$ 661/event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with a vaccine price of US$ 27 per course was US$ 8,972 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the health care perspective. From a societal perspective, the analysis shows cost savings of around US$ 16 per child. The model shows that rotavirus vaccination could be economically a very attractive intervention in Libya.

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of buprenorphine-assisted heroin withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Doran, C M; Shanahan, M; Bell, J; Gibson, A

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of detoxification from heroin using buprenorphine in a specialist clinic versus a shared care setting. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a total of 115 heroin-dependent patients receiving a 5-day treatment regime of buprenorphine. The specialist clinic was a community-based treatment agency in inner-city Sydney. Shared care involved treatment by a general practitioner supplemented by weekend dispensing and some concurrent counselling at the specialist clinic. Quantification of resource use was limited to inputs for treatment provision. The primary outcome measure used in the economic analysis was the proportion of each group that completed detoxification and achieved an initial 7-day period of abstinence. Buprenorphine detoxification in the shared care setting was estimated to be 24 dollars more expensive per patient than treatment at the clinic, which had an average treatment cost of 332 dollars per patient. Twenty-three per cent of the shared care patients and 22% of the clinic patients reported no opiate use during the withdrawal period. These results suggest that the provision of buprenorphine treatment for heroin dependence in shared care and clinic appear to be equally cost-effective.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan children using a simple economic model

    PubMed Central

    Alkoshi, Salem; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in Libya. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in that country. Methods We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate the rotavirus burden. The economic analysis was done from two perspectives: health care provider and societal. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty in some values of the variables selected. Results The three hospitals received 545 diarrhea patients aged≤5 with 311 (57%) rotavirus positive test results during a 9-month period. The societal cost for treatment of a case of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at US$ 661/event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with a vaccine price of US$ 27 per course was US$ 8,972 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the health care perspective. From a societal perspective, the analysis shows cost savings of around US$ 16 per child. Conclusion The model shows that rotavirus vaccination could be economically a very attractive intervention in Libya. PMID:25499622

  8. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  9. An Alternative Methodological Approach for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Decision Making in Genomic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fragoulakis, Vasilios; Mitropoulou, Christina; van Schaik, Ron H; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Patrinos, George P

    2016-05-01

    Genomic Medicine aims to improve therapeutic interventions and diagnostics, the quality of life of patients, but also to rationalize healthcare costs. To reach this goal, careful assessment and identification of evidence gaps for public health genomics priorities are required so that a more efficient healthcare environment is created. Here, we propose a public health genomics-driven approach to adjust the classical healthcare decision making process with an alternative methodological approach of cost-effectiveness analysis, which is particularly helpful for genomic medicine interventions. By combining classical cost-effectiveness analysis with budget constraints, social preferences, and patient ethics, we demonstrate the application of this model, the Genome Economics Model (GEM), based on a previously reported genome-guided intervention from a developing country environment. The model and the attendant rationale provide a practical guide by which all major healthcare stakeholders could ensure the sustainability of funding for genome-guided interventions, their adoption and coverage by health insurance funds, and prioritization of Genomic Medicine research, development, and innovation, given the restriction of budgets, particularly in developing countries and low-income healthcare settings in developed countries. The implications of the GEM for the policy makers interested in Genomic Medicine and new health technology and innovation assessment are also discussed.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a state funded programme for control of severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rosana; Santos, Andreia C; do Nascimento, Harrison F; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Ponte, Eduardo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Loureiro, Sebastião; Barreto, Maurício L; Rodrigues, Laura C; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2007-05-17

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and a major economical burden to families and health systems. Whereas efficacy of current therapeutical options has been clearly established, cost-effectiveness analysis of public health interventions for asthma control are scarce. 81 patients with severe asthma (12-75 years) joining a programme in a reference clinic providing free asthma medication were asked retrospectively about costs and events in the previous 12 months. During 12 months after joining the programme, information on direct and indirect costs, asthma control by lung function, symptoms and quality of life were collected. The information obtained was used to estimate cost-effectiveness of the intervention as compared to usual public health asthma management. Sensitivity analysis was conducted. 64 patients concluded the study. During the 12-months follow-up within the programme, patients had 5 fewer days of hospitalization and 68 fewer visits to emergency/non scheduled medical visits per year, on average. Asthma control scores improved by 50% and quality of life by 74%. The annual saving in public resources was US$387 per patient. Family annual income increased US$512, and family costs were reduced by US$733. A programme for control of severe asthma in a developing country can reduce morbidity, improve quality of life and save resources from the health system and patients families.

  11. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of telephone or surgery asthma reviews: economic analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinnock, Hilary; McKenzie, Lynda; Price, David; Sheikh, Aziz

    2005-01-01

    Background Only about a third of people with asthma attend an annual review. Clinicians need to identify cost-effective ways to improve access and ensure regular review. Aim To compare the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led telephone with face-to-face asthma reviews. Design of study Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a 3-month randomised controlled trial. Setting Four general practices in England. Methods Adults due an asthma review were randomised to telephone or face-to-face consultations. Trial nurses recorded proportion reviewed, duration of consultation, and abortive calls/missed appointments. Data on use of healthcare resources were extracted from GP records. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from the health service perspective; sensitivity analyses were based on proportion reviewed and duration of consultation. Results A total of 278 people with asthma were randomised to surgery (n = 141) or telephone (n = 137) review. One-hundred-and-one (74%) of those with asthma in the telephone group were reviewed versus 68 (48%) in the surgery group (P <0.001). Telephone consultations were significantly shorter (mean duration telephone = 11.19 minutes [standard deviation {SD} = 4.79] versus surgery = 21.87 minutes [SD = 6.85], P < 0.001). Total respiratory healthcare costs per patient over 3 months were similar (telephone = 64.49 [SD = 73.33] versus surgery = 59.48 [SD = 66.02], P = 0.55). Total costs of providing 101 telephone versus 68 face-to-face asthma reviews were also similar (telephone = 725.84 versus surgery = 755.70), but mean cost per consultation achieved was lower in the telephone arm (telephone = 7.19 [SD = 2.49] versus surgery = 11.11 [SD = 3.50]; mean difference = −3.92 [95% confidence interval = −4.84 to 3.01], P < 0.001). Conclusions Telephone consultations enable a greater proportion of asthma patients to be reviewed at no additional cost to the health service. This mode of delivering care improves access and reduces cost per consultation achieved

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rural telemedicine collaborative care intervention for depression.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Jeffrey M; Fortney, John C; Tripathi, Shanti Prakash; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Edlund, Mark J; Williams, D Keith

    2010-08-01

    Collaborative care interventions for depression in primary care settings are clinically beneficial and cost-effective. Most prior studies were conducted in urban settings. To examine the cost-effectiveness of a rural telemedicine-based collaborative care depression intervention. Randomized controlled trial of intervention vs usual care. Seven small (serving 1000 to 5000 veterans) Veterans Health Administration community-based outpatient clinics serving rural catchment areas in 3 mid-South states. Each site had interactive televideo dedicated to mental health but no psychiatrist or psychologist on site. Patients Among 18 306 primary care patients who were screened, 1260 (6.9%) screened positive for depression; 395 met eligibility criteria and were enrolled from April 2003 to September 2004. Of those enrolled, 360 (91.1%) completed a 6-month follow-up and 335 (84.8%) completed a 12-month follow-up. Intervention A stepped-care model for depression treatment was used by an off-site depression care team to make treatment recommendations via electronic medical record. The team included a nurse depression care manager, clinical pharmacist, and psychiatrist. The depression care manager communicated with patients via telephone and was supported by computerized decision support software. The base case cost analysis included outpatient, pharmacy, and intervention expenditures. The effectiveness outcomes were depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) calculated using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey standard gamble conversion formula. The incremental depression-free days outcome was not significant (P = .10); therefore, further cost-effectiveness analyses were not done. The incremental QALY outcome was significant (P = .04) and the mean base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $85 634/QALY. Results adding inpatient costs were $111 999/QALY to $132 175/QALY. In rural settings, a telemedicine-based collaborative care intervention for depression

  14. Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of a Suicide Barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Atkins Whitmer, Dayna; Woods, David Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Golden Gate Bridge (GGB) is a well-known “suicide magnet” and the site of approximately 30 suicides per year. Recently, a suicide barrier was approved to prevent further suicides. Aims: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the proposed suicide barrier, we compared the proposed costs of the barrier over a 20-year period ($51.6 million) to estimated reductions in mortality. Method: We reviewed San Francisco and Golden Gate Bridge suicides over a 70-year period (1936–2006). We assumed that all suicides prevented by the barrier would attempt suicide with alternative methods and estimated the mortality reduction based on the difference in lethality between GGB jumps and other suicide methods. Cost/benefit analyses utilized estimates of value of statistical life (VSL) used in highway projects. Results: GGB suicides occur at a rate of approximately 30 per year, with a lethality of 98%. Jumping from other structures has an average lethality of 47%. Assuming that unsuccessful suicides eventually committed suicide at previously reported (12–13%) rates, approximately 286 lives would be saved over a 20-year period at an average cost/life of approximately $180,419 i.e., roughly 6% of US Department of Transportation minimal VSL estimate ($3.2 million). Conclusions: Cost-benefit analysis suggests that a suicide barrier on the GGB would result in a highly cost-effective reduction in suicide mortality in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23261913

  15. BACT analysis: Are there cost effective air quality benefits from trees?

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, E.G.; Simpson, J.R.; Scott, K.I.

    1996-12-31

    Trees absorb gaseous pollutants through leaf stomata and can bind or dissolve water soluble pollutants onto moist leaf surfaces. Tree canopies also intercept particulates and reduce local air temperatures. Urban trees may reduce ambient air ozone concentrations, either by direct absorption of ozone or other pollutants such as NO{sub 2}, or by reducing air temperatures, which reduces hydrocarbon emission and ozone formation rates. On the other hand, biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from trees may play a role in ozone formation. The role of trees in air quality has become coupled with concern over the costs and benefits of large-scale urban free planting programs. Air quality management districts provide pollution abatement credits to businesses and institutions by permitting the use of controls or processes, provided they are technically feasible and cost effective, based upon guidelines in Best Available Control Technology (BACT) manuals. Typically BACT analysis is applied to stationary sources, but the authors apply it here to determine if a large-scale urban tree planting can be a cost effective means to improve air quality.

  16. Cost effectiveness analysis of a smoke alarm giveaway program in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Haddix, A C; Mallonee, S; Waxweiler, R; Douglas, M R

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the cost effectiveness of the Lifesavers Residential Fire and Injury Prevention Program (LRFIPP), a smoke alarm giveaway program. In 1990, the LRFIPP distributed over 10,000 smoke alarms in an area of Oklahoma City at high risk for residential fire injuries. The program also included fire prevention education and battery replacement components. A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted from the societal and health care systems perspectives. The study compared program costs with the total costs of medical treatment and productivity losses averted over a five year period. Fatal and non-fatal residential fire related injuries prevented were estimated from surveillance data. Medical costs were obtained from chart reviews of patients with fire related injuries that occurred during the pre-intervention period. During the five years post-intervention, it is estimated that the LRFIPP prevented 20 fatal and 24 non-fatal injuries. From the societal perspective, the total discounted cost of the program was $531,000. Total discounted net savings exceeded $15 million. From the health care system perspective, the total discounted net savings were almost $1 million and would have a net saving even if program effectiveness was reduced by 64%. The program was effective in reducing fatal and non-fatal residential fire related injuries and was cost saving. Similar programs in other high risk areas would be good investments even if program effectiveness was lower than that achieved by the LRFIPP.

  17. Cost effectiveness analysis of a smoke alarm giveaway program in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Haddix, A; Mallonee, S; Waxweiler, R; Douglas, M

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To estimate the cost effectiveness of the Lifesavers Residential Fire and Injury Prevention Program (LRFIPP), a smoke alarm giveaway program. Setting—In 1990, the LRFIPP distributed over 10 000 smoke alarms in an area of Oklahoma City at high risk for residential fire injuries. The program also included fire prevention education and battery replacement components. Methods—A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted from the societal and health care systems perspectives. The study compared program costs with the total costs of medical treatment and productivity losses averted over a five year period. Fatal and non-fatal residential fire related injuries prevented were estimated from surveillance data. Medical costs were obtained from chart reviews of patients with fire related injuries that occurred during the pre-intervention period. Results—During the five years post-intervention, it is estimated that the LRFIPP prevented 20 fatal and 24 non-fatal injuries. From the societal perspective, the total discounted cost of the program was $531 000. Total discounted net savings exceeded $15 million. From the health care system perspective, the total discounted net savings were almost $1 million and would have a net saving even if program effectiveness was reduced by 64%. Conclusions—The program was effective in reducing fatal and non-fatal residential fire related injuries and was cost saving. Similar programs in other high risk areas would be good investments even if program effectiveness was lower than that achieved by the LRFIPP. PMID:11770651

  18. Smarter elder care? A cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing technology in elder care.

    PubMed

    Aanesen, Margrethe; Lotherington, Ann Therese; Olsen, Frank

    2011-09-01

    Whereas in most sectors, technology has taken over trivial and labour consuming tasks, this transformation has been delayed in the healthcare sector. Although appropriate technology is available, there is general resistance to substituting 'warm' hands with 'cold' technology. In the future, this may change as the number of elderly people increases relative to the people in the work force. In combination with an increasing demand for healthcare services, there are calls for efforts to increase productivity in the sector. Based on experience data from previous studies on information and communication technology efforts in the healthcare sector, we quantitatively assess the use of smart house technology and video visits in home care. Having identified healthcare providers, hospitals and relatives as the main affected groups, we show that smart house technology is cost-effective, even if only relatives gain from it. Video visits, which have higher implementation costs, demand effects on both relatives and health care providers in order to be a cost-effective tool in home care. As the analysis is purely quantitative, these results need to be complemented with qualitative effects and with more thorough discussions of the ethical, medical and legal aspects of the use of technology in home care.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the genetic screening program for familial hypercholesterolemia in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wonderling, David; Umans-Eckenhausen, Marina A W; Marks, Dalya; Defesche, Joep C; Kastelein, John J P; Thorogood, Margaret

    2004-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with pronounced atherosclerosis leading to premature cardiovascular disease and untimely death. Despite the availability of effective preventative drug treatments, many affected individuals remain undiagnosed and untreated until they become symptomatic with cardiovascular disease. To assess the cost-effectiveness of systematic genetic screening of family members of persons diagnosed with FH, an analysis was conducted using data from a nationwide screening program for the identification of individuals with FH, instituted in The Netherlands in 1994, and from other sources. There was DNA testing of families with a known genetic defect to identify new cases of FH in the presymptomatic stage of the disease. After identification, most newly identified patients were started on cholesterol-lowering statin treatment. On average, new cases diagnosed by the screening program gained 3.3 years of life each. Twenty-six myocardial infarctions would be avoided for every 100 persons treated with statins between the ages of 18 and 60 years. The average total lifetime incremental costs, over all age ranges and both sexes, including costs for screening and testing, lifetime drug treatment, and treatment of cardiovascular events, was US dollars 7500 per new case identified. Cost per life-year gained was US dollars 8700. Therefore, systematic genetic screening of family members of persons diagnosed with FH is cost-effective in The Netherlands and should be considered for other settings.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT CNG fleet conversion, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euritt, M. A.; Taylor, D. B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  1. Probabilistic risk analysis toward cost-effective 3S (safety, safeguards, security) implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2014-09-30

    Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) has been introduced for several decades in safety and nuclear advanced countries have already used this methodology in their own regulatory systems. However, PRA has not been developed in safeguards and security so far because of inherent difficulties in intentional and malicious acts. In this paper, probabilistic proliferation and risk analysis based on random process is applied to hypothetical reprocessing process and physical protection system in nuclear reactor with the Markov model that was originally developed by the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPPWG) in Generation IV International Framework (GIF). Through the challenge to quantify the security risk with a frequency in this model, integrated risk notion among 3S to pursue the cost-effective installation of those countermeasures is discussed in a heroic manner.

  2. Probabilistic risk analysis toward cost-effective 3S (safety, safeguards, security) implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2014-09-01

    Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) has been introduced for several decades in safety and nuclear advanced countries have already used this methodology in their own regulatory systems. However, PRA has not been developed in safeguards and security so far because of inherent difficulties in intentional and malicious acts. In this paper, probabilistic proliferation and risk analysis based on random process is applied to hypothetical reprocessing process and physical protection system in nuclear reactor with the Markov model that was originally developed by the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPPWG) in Generation IV International Framework (GIF). Through the challenge to quantify the security risk with a frequency in this model, integrated risk notion among 3S to pursue the cost-effective installation of those countermeasures is discussed in a heroic manner.

  3. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anterior surgical management of single-level cervical disc disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Daniel J; Attiah, Mark A; Malhotra, Neil R; Burnett, Mark G; Stein, Sherman C

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis with decision analysis and meta-analysis. To determine the relative cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (with autograft, allograft, or spacers), anterior cervical discectomy without fusion (ACD), and cervical disc replacement (CDR) for the treatment of 1-level cervical disc disease. There is debate as to the optimal anterior surgical strategy to treat single-level cervical disc disease. Surgical strategies include 3 techniques of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (autograft, allograft, or spacer-assisted fusion), ACD, and CDR. Several controlled trials have compared these treatments but have yielded mixed results. Decision analysis provides a structure for making a quantitative comparison of the costs and outcomes of each treatment. A literature search was performed and yielded 156 case series that fulfilled our search criteria describing nearly 17,000 cases. Data were abstracted from these publications and pooled meta-analytically to estimate the incidence of various outcomes, including index-level and adjacent-level reoperation. A decision analytic model calculated the expected costs in US dollars and outcomes in quality-adjusted life years for a typical adult patient with 1-level cervical radiculopathy subjected to each of the 5 approaches. At 5 years postoperatively, patients who had undergone ACD alone had significantly (P < 0.001) more quality-adjusted life years (4.885 ± 0.041) than those receiving other treatments. Patients with ACD also exhibited highly significant (P < 0.001) differences in costs, incurring the lowest societal costs ($16,558 ± $539). Follow-up data were inadequate for comparison beyond 5 years. The results of our decision analytic model indicate advantages for ACD, both in effectiveness and costs, over other strategies. Thus, ACD is a cost-effective alternative to anterior cervical discectomy with fusion and CDR in patients with single-level cervical disc disease. Definitive

  5. Use of cost-effectiveness analysis to determine inventory size for a national cord blood bank.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H; Meltzer, David; Kollman, Craig; Maiers, Martin; Logan, Brent; Gragert, Loren; Setterholm, Michelle; Horowitz, Mary M

    2008-01-01

    Transplantation with stem cells from stored umbilical cord blood units is an alternative to living unrelated bone marrow transplantation. The larger the inventory of stored cord units, the greater the likelihood that transplant candidates will match to a unit, but storing units is costly. The authors present the results of a study, commissioned by the Institute of Medicine, as part of a report on the establishment of a national cord blood bank, examining the optimal inventory level. They emphasize the unique challenges of undertaking cost-effectiveness analysis in this field and the contribution of the analysis to policy. The authors estimate the likelihood that transplant candidates will match to a living unrelated marrow donor or a cord blood unit as a function of cord blood inventory and then calculate the life-years gained for each transplant type by match level using historical data. They develop a model of the cord blood inventory level to estimate total costs as a function of the number of stored units. The cost per life-year gained associated with increasing inventory from 50,000 to 100,000 units is $44,000 to $86,000 and from 100,000 to 150,000 units is $64,000 to $153,000, depending on the assumption about the degree to which survival rates for cord transplants vary by match quality. Expanding the cord blood inventory above current levels is cost-effective by conventional standards. The analysis helped shape the Institute of Medicine's report, but it is difficult to determine the extent to which the analysis influenced subsequent congressional legislation.

  6. Impact of total knee replacement practice: cost effectiveness analysis of data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ferket, Bart S; Feldman, Zachary; Zhou, Jing; Oei, Edwin H; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Mazumdar, Madhu

    2017-03-28

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of total knee replacement on quality of life in people with knee osteoarthritis and to estimate associated differences in lifetime costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) according to use by level of symptoms.Design Marginal structural modeling and cost effectiveness analysis based on lifetime predictions for total knee replacement and death from population based cohort data.Setting Data from two studies-Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST)-within the US health system.Participants 4498 participants with or at high risk for knee osteoarthritis aged 45-79 from the OAI with no previous knee replacement (confirmed by baseline radiography) followed up for nine years. Validation cohort comprised 2907 patients from MOST with two year follow-up.Intervention Scenarios ranging from current practice, defined as total knee replacement practice as performed in the OAI (with procedural rates estimated by a prediction model), to practice limited to patients with severe symptoms to no surgery.Main outcome measures Generic (SF-12) and osteoarthritis specific quality of life measured over 96 months, model based QALYs, costs, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios over a lifetime horizon.Results In the OAI, total knee replacement showed improvements in quality of life with small absolute changes when averaged across levels of confounding variables: 1.70 (95% uncertainty interval 0.26 to 3.57) for SF-12 physical component summary (PCS); -10.69 (-13.39 to -8.01) for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC); and 9.16 (6.35 to 12.49) for knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) quality of life subscale. These improvements became larger with decreasing functional status at baseline. Provision of total knee replacement to patients with SF-12 PCS scores <35 was the optimal scenario given a cost effectiveness threshold of $200 000/QALY, with cost savings of $6974

  7. Is testosterone replacement therapy in males with hypogonadism cost-effective? An analysis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Arver, Stefan; Luong, Ba; Fraschke, Anina; Ghatnekar, Ola; Stanisic, Sanja; Gultyev, Dmitry; Müller, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been recommended for the treatment of primary and secondary hypogonadism. However, long-term implications of TRT have not been investigated extensively. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate health outcomes and costs associated with life-long TRT in patients suffering from Klinefelter syndrome and late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). A Markov model was developed to assess cost-effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) depot injection treatment compared with no treatment. Health outcomes and associated costs were modeled in monthly cycles per patient individually along a lifetime horizon. Modeled health outcomes included development of type 2 diabetes, depression, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, and fractures. Analysis was performed for the Swedish health-care setting from health-care payer's and societal perspective. One-way sensitivity analyses evaluated the robustness of results. The main outcome measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and total cost in TU depot injection treatment and no treatment cohorts. In addition, outcomes were also expressed as incremental cost per QALY gained for TU depot injection therapy compared with no treatment (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER]). TU depot injection compared to no-treatment yielded a gain of 1.67 QALYs at an incremental cost of 28,176 EUR (37,192 USD) in the Klinefelter population. The ICER was 16,884 EUR (22,287 USD) per QALY gained. Outcomes in LOH population estimated benefits of TRT at 19,719 EUR (26,029 USD) per QALY gained. Results showed to be considerably robust when tested in sensitivity analyses. Variation of relative risk to develop type 2 diabetes had the highest impact on long-term outcomes in both patient groups. This analysis suggests that lifelong TU depot injection therapy of patients with hypogonadism is a cost-effective treatment in Sweden. Hence, it can support clinicians in decision making when considering

  8. Preoperative autologous blood donation in total-hip arthroplasty. A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Healy, J C; Frankforter, S A; Graves, B K; Reddy, R L; Beck, J R

    1994-04-01

    Preoperative autologous blood donation is employed with increasing frequency, particularly in patients undergoing elective orthopedic procedures. While autologous transfusion decreases the incidence of postoperative infections and other complications, the cost-effectiveness of this therapy has not been fully investigated. We constructed a decision analytic model to study the cost-effectiveness of preoperative autologous blood donation of packed red blood cells compared with allogeneic packed red blood cells in primary hip arthroplasty. We used data from 73 patients presenting at our blood center with a prescription for 2 U of autologous red blood cells prior to hip arthroplasty to establish probabilities for the number of units that would be donated. Patients were able to donate an average of 1.9 U (range, 0 to 2 U) of autologous blood. We also reviewed the charts of 56 patients who underwent primary hip arthroplasty to model the number of units given during hospitalization (1.5 U given; range, 0 to 5 U). We applied the model to a 65-year-old patient undergoing primary hip arthroplasty. Estimates for the incidence of posttransfusion hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, postoperative bacterial infection, and fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction were derived from the literature. Patient utility was measured in life-years. Costs included the cost of preoperative autologous blood donation, blood administration, and medical care costs associated with the complications of transfusion. Costs were derived from local data and the literature. Future earnings lost were not modeled. In the baseline analysis, autologous transfusion results in a net cost savings compared with allogeneic blood over a wide range of complication rates, patient ages, and transfusion requirements. The dominant factor in the analysis is the effect of postoperative bacterial infection on length of hospital stay and the resultant increase in costs. The effect of

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Rodrigues, Eliane R; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the main causes of death in women in low- and middle-income countries. Despite technological and scientific advances that allow an early detection of precancerous lesions and curative treatment of cervical cancer, Mexico and other Latin American countries have only been able to obtain a small decrease in the mortality rates for this kind of cancer. How to implement and sustain effective public health strategies for cervical cancer prevention, such as increasing cytology-based screening program coverage and implementing HPV-DNA testing and vaccination, are important questions. The aim of this study is to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of a quadrivalent (HPV 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine into the public health system and evaluate the epidemiological and economic benefits on prevention of cervical cancer in Mexico. A Markov model is used to simulate the natural history of HPV infection in a cohort of Mexican women to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the cervical cancer screening strategy used in Mexico as well as the benefits of other potential strategies such as 1) vaccination only, 2) conventional cytology-based screening program only and 3) vaccination followed by screening. For the strategies that involve screening we have chosen screening intervals of 3 and 5 years. The model produces results that are reasonably close to the epidemiological data related to HPV and cervical cancer in Mexico. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine could reduce the probability of persistent HPV-16/18 infection by at least 60%, which would result in a near-proportional reduction in HPV-16/18-associated invasive cervical cancer and CIN 3. The strategy of using only vaccination ($45 USD for three doses) as a preventive measure was a very cost-effective strategy in Mexico ($68USD/LYS). The strategy of vaccination with traditional screening of Pap test every 3 years produced higher cost by a lower performance of cervical cytology in Mexico, at a

  10. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Vascular Access Referral Policies in CKD.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Steven M; Chandler, Talon; Skandari, M Reza; Zalunardo, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    The optimal timing of vascular access referral for patients with chronic kidney disease who may need hemodialysis (HD) is a pressing question in nephrology. Current referral policies have not been rigorously compared with respect to costs and benefits and do not consider patient-specific factors such as age. Monte Carlo simulation model. Patients with chronic kidney disease, referred to a multidisciplinary kidney clinic in a universal health care system. Cost-effectiveness analysis, payer perspective, lifetime horizon. The following vascular access referral policies are considered: central venous catheter (CVC) only, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or graft (AVG) referral upon HD initiation, AVF (or AVG) referral when HD is forecast to begin within 12 (or 3 for AVG) months, AVF (or AVG) referral when estimated glomerular filtration rate is <15 (or <10 for AVG) mL/min/1.73m(2). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, in 2014 US dollars per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). The ICER of AVF (AVG) referral within 12 (3) months of forecasted HD initiation, compared to using only a CVC, is ∼$105k/QALY ($101k/QALY) at a population level (HD costs included). Pre-HD AVF or AVG referral dominates delaying referral until HD initiation. The ICER of pre-HD referral increases with patient age. Results are most sensitive to erythropoietin costs, ongoing HD costs, and patients' utilities for HD. When ongoing HD costs are excluded from the analysis, pre-HD AVF dominates both pre-HD AVG and CVC-only policies. Literature-based estimates for HD, AVF, and AVG utilities are limited. The cost-effectiveness of vascular access referral is largely driven by the annual costs of HD, erythropoietin costs, and access-specific utilities. Further research is needed in the field of dialysis-related quality of life to inform decision making regarding vascular access referral. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioeconomic analysis of child-targeted subsidies for artemisinin combination therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eili Y.; Smith, David L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) was conceived as a global market-based mechanism to increase access to effective malaria treatment and prolong effectiveness of artemisinin. Although results from a pilot implementation suggested that the subsidy was effective in increasing access to high-quality artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the Global Fund has converted AMFm into a country-driven mechanism whereby individual countries could choose to fund the subsidy from within their country envelopes. Because the initial costs of the subsidy in the pilot countries was higher than expected, countries are also exploring alternatives to a universal subsidy, such as subsidizing only child doses. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of a child-targeted policy using an age-structured bioeconomic model of malaria from the provider perspective. Because the vast majority of malaria deaths occur in children, targeting children could potentially improve the cost-effectiveness of the subsidy, though it would avert significantly fewer deaths. However, the benefits of a child-targeted subsidy (i.e. deaths averted) are eroded as leakage (i.e. older individuals taking young child-targeted doses) increases, with few of the benefits of a universal subsidy gained (i.e. reductions in overall prevalence). Although potentially more cost-effective, a child-targeted subsidy must contain measures to reduce the possibility of leakage. PMID:25994293

  12. Bioeconomic analysis of child-targeted subsidies for artemisinin combination therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eili Y; Smith, David L; Cohen, Justin M; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-06-06

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) was conceived as a global market-based mechanism to increase access to effective malaria treatment and prolong effectiveness of artemisinin. Although results from a pilot implementation suggested that the subsidy was effective in increasing access to high-quality artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the Global Fund has converted AMFm into a country-driven mechanism whereby individual countries could choose to fund the subsidy from within their country envelopes. Because the initial costs of the subsidy in the pilot countries was higher than expected, countries are also exploring alternatives to a universal subsidy, such as subsidizing only child doses. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of a child-targeted policy using an age-structured bioeconomic model of malaria from the provider perspective. Because the vast majority of malaria deaths occur in children, targeting children could potentially improve the cost-effectiveness of the subsidy, though it would avert significantly fewer deaths. However, the benefits of a child-targeted subsidy (i.e. deaths averted) are eroded as leakage (i.e. older individuals taking young child-targeted doses) increases, with few of the benefits of a universal subsidy gained (i.e. reductions in overall prevalence). Although potentially more cost-effective, a child-targeted subsidy must contain measures to reduce the possibility of leakage.

  13. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  14. Cost-effective and rapid blood analysis on a cell-phone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. We evaluated the performance of this cell-phone based blood analysis platform using anonymous human blood samples and achieved comparable results to a standard bench-top hematology analyser. Test results can either be stored on the cell-phone memory or be transmitted to a central server, providing remote diagnosis opportunities even in field settings.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Health Care Waste Treatment Facilities in Iran Hospitals; a Provider Perspective

    PubMed Central

    RASHIDIAN, Arash; ALINIA, Cyrus; MAJDZADEH, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to make right and informative decision about choosing the most cost-effectiveness heterogeneous infectious waste treatment methods and devices. Methods: In this descriptive study, decision tree analysis, with 10-yr time horizon in bottom-up approach was used to estimate the costs and effectiveness criteria of the employed devices at provider perspective in Iranian hospitals. We used the one-way and scenario sensitivity analysis to measure the effects of variables with uncertainty. The resources of data were national Environmental and Occupational Health Center Survey (EOHCS) in 2012, field observation and completing questionnaire by relevant authorities in mentioned centers. Results: Devices called Saray 2, Autoclave based, and Newster 10, Hydroclave based, with 92032.4 (±12005) and 6786322.9 (±826453) Dollars had the lowest and highest costs respectively in studied time period and given the 5–10% discount rate. Depending on effectiveness factor type, Newster 10 with Ecodas products and Saray products respectively had the highest and lowest effectiveness. In most considered scenarios, Caspian-Alborz device was the most cost-effectiveness alternative, so for the treatment of each adjusted unit of volume and weight of infectious waste in a 10 year period and in different conditions, between 39.4 (±5.1) to 915 (±111.4) dollars must be spent. Conclusion: The findings indicate the inefficiency and waste of resources, so in order to efficient resource allocation and to encourage further cost containment in infectious waste management we introduce policy recommendation that be taken in three levels. PMID:25905078

  16. [Spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia. Cost-effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ordóñez, M; Tenías, J M; Picazo-Yeste, J

    2014-05-01

    To compare the costs related to the clinical effectiveness of general anesthesia versus spinal anesthesia in inguinal hernioplasty ambulatory surgery. An observational, retrospective cohort study measurement and analysis of cost-effectiveness, in the ambulatory surgery unit of a general hospital. All patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with primary inguinal hernia and scheduled for unilateral hernioplasty between January 2010 and December 2011 were included. Duration of anesthetic induction, length of stay in both the operating room, and in the post-anesthesia care unit, the anesthetic effectiveness (the incidence of adverse effects and the patient's comfort level), and variable economic costs associated with the use of drugs, as well as the use of human resources, were compared. The final analysis included 218 patients, 87.2% male, with a mean age of 53 years (range: 18-85 years). Of these, 139 (63.76%) received subarachnoid anesthesia and 79,(36.2%) general anesthesia. The length of time a patient remained in the post-anesthesia care unit was 337.6±160.2min in the subarachnoid anesthesia group, and 210.0±97.5min for the general anesthesia group (P<.001). Costs of drugs for general anesthesia were higher than that for subarachnoid anesthesia (86.2±8.3 vs. 18.7±7.2). The total cost difference between the 2 techniques was €115.8 more for subarachnoid anesthesia (P<.001). Both techniques showed similar effectiveness. The overall costs for subarachnoid anesthesia were greater than for the general. The cost-effectiveness of general anesthesia is better for outpatient inguinal hernia repair surgery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir-based regimens for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Ramón; Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Blázquez, Antonio; Mar, Javier

    2015-08-01

    A new scenario of therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is being established with the approval of sofosbuvir (SOF). To estimate the cost-effectiveness of SOF-based regimens approved in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) versus the standard of care for different genotypes and patient populations (naive or pretreated). A Markov model simulating CHC progression was used to estimate disease treatment costs and effects over patients' lifetimes, from the Spanish National Public Healthcare System perspective. Different therapeutic options were analysed for genotypes 1, 2 and 3 in naive population and for genotype 2 and 3 pretreated patients, according to data obtained from clinical trials. A one-way sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the uncertainty of certain parameters: treatment starting age, transition probabilities, drug costs and discount rate. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was also carried out. For the naive population, the option SOF+pegylated-interferon-α (pIFN)+ribavirin (RBV) for 12 weeks recorded in SmPC for genotype 1 and 3 versus pIFN+RBV for 24 weeks estimated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) below the €40,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) benchmark. For the pretreated population, SOF triple therapy reached an ICER on the threshold limit for genotype 3. Other options included in SmPC for different genotypes exceeded the accepted efficiency limit in our setting. The options that included SOF+RBV+pIFN in a 12-week course regimen fell below the efficiency threshold considered in our setting. IFN-free regimens administered for 24 weeks reached figures over the benchmark of €40,000/QALY. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of left atrial appendage occlusion compared with pharmacological strategies for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian Wing-Yan; Tsai, Ronald Bing-Ching; Chow, Ines Hang-Iao; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Park, Jai-Wun; Lam, Yat-Yin

    2016-08-31

    Transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is a promising therapy for stroke prophylaxis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) but its cost-effectiveness remains understudied. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of LAAO for stroke prophylaxis in NVAF. A Markov decision analytic model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of LAAO with 7 pharmacological strategies: aspirin alone, clopidogrel plus aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg, dabigatran 150 mg, apixaban, and rivaroxaban. Outcome measures included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Base-case data were derived from ACTIVE, RE-LY, ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, PROTECT-AF and PREVAIL trials. One-way sensitivity analysis varied by CHADS2 score, HAS-BLED score, time horizons, and LAAO costs; and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations was conducted to assess parameter uncertainty. LAAO was considered cost-effective compared with aspirin, clopidogrel plus aspirin, and warfarin, with ICER of US$5,115, $2,447, and $6,298 per QALY gained, respectively. LAAO was dominant (i.e. less costly but more effective) compared to other strategies. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated favorable ICERs of LAAO against other strategies in varied CHADS2 score, HAS-BLED score, time horizons (5 to 15 years) and LAAO costs. LAAO was cost-effective in 86.24 % of 10,000 simulations using a threshold of US$50,000/QALY. Transcatheter LAAO is cost-effective for prevention of stroke in NVAF compared with 7 pharmacological strategies. The transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is considered cost-effective against the standard 7 oral pharmacological strategies including acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) alone, clopidogrel plus ASA, warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg, dabigatran 150 mg, apixaban, and rivaroxaban for stroke prophylaxis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation management.

  19. Mobile App for Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Malin; Lindholm, Lars; Samuelsson, Eva

    2017-05-08

    Mobile apps can increase access to care, facilitate self-management, and improve adherence to treatment. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10-35% of women and, currently, an app with instructions for pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is available as first-line treatment. A previous randomized controlled study demonstrated that the app benefitted symptom severity and quality of life (QoL); in this study we investigate the cost-effectiveness of the app. The objective of this study was to evaluate the health economy of the app for treating SUI. This deterministic cost-utility analysis, with a 1-year societal perspective, compared the app treatment with no treatment. Health economic data were collected alongside a randomized controlled trial performed in Sweden from March 2013 to October 2014. This study included 123 community-dwelling women participants of 18 years and above, with stress urinary incontinence ≥1 time per week. Participants were self-assessed with validated questionnaires and 2-day leakage diaries, and then randomized to 3 months of treatment (app group, n=62) or no treatment (controls, n=61). The app focused on pelvic floor muscle training, prescribed 3 times daily. We continuously registered treatment delivery costs. Data were collected on each participant's training time, incontinence aids, and laundry at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. We measured quality of life with the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Quality of Life, and calculated the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Data from the 3-month follow-up were extrapolated to 1 year for the calculations. Our main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared between app and control groups. One-way and multiway sensitivity analyses were performed. The mean age of participants was 44.7 years (SD 9.4). Annual costs were €547.0 for the app group and €482.4 for the control group. Annual

  20. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Pascalina; Masiye, Felix; Chitah, Bona M; Sipilanyambe, Naawa; Hawela, Moonga; Banda, Patrick; Okorosobo, Tuoyo

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis). Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success) from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Pan, Xin-Juan; Wang, Xue-Liang

    2008-08-18

    The socioeconomic improvement has impacted hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection with a shift from high to intermediate endemicity in many parts of China. The first China-developed inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, with significantly low price, was licensed in 2002, prompting us to evaluate whether universal childhood vaccination is advisable now in China. We considered vaccination scheduled at ages 12 and 18 months for all healthy children, and assumed that a single cohort was enrolled in 2005. A Markov model was used to predict hepatitis A outcomes and costs. Vaccination was compared with no vaccination, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated from the health system and the societal perspectives. The analysis was run separately in five regions (covering all the 31 provinces of Mainland China) defined by anti-HAV prevalence (around 50%, 50-69%, 70-79%, 80-89% and 90%-). The study projects that with the Chinese low-cost vaccine, vaccination could gain quality adjusted life years (QALYs) through the whole country and save health system or societal costs in the lowest, lower, intermediate and higher infection regions. Vaccination should also be cost-effective in the highest infection region because of low additional costs per QALY gained. However, vaccination would increase the probability of death due to hepatitis A in the highest and higher infection regions by 38 and 37 per million enrolled, respectively, and as vaccine protection loss increases the risk would also occur in intermediate and lower infection regions. The trend that the lower infection level the region has, the more cost-effective vaccination would be is obvious. Sensitivity analyses prove that our conclusions are robust. Considering the potential risk of vaccination, as well as unbalanced socioeconomic developments and significant differences in HAV infection through the whole country, the study suggests that universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination should be first administrated in

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  6. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  7. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in Syria, 2010-2020.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Meredith L; Mason, Helen; Fouad, Fouad M; Rastam, Samer; al Ali, Radwan; Page, Timothy F; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to lower coronary heart disease in Syria. Costs and benefits of a health promotion campaign about salt reduction (HP); labeling of salt content on packaged foods (L); reformulation of salt content within packaged foods (R); and combinations of the three were estimated over a 10-year time frame. Policies were deemed cost-effective if their cost-effectiveness ratios were below the region's established threshold of $38,997 purchasing power parity (PPP). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for the uncertainty in the reduction of salt intake. HP, L, and R+HP+L were cost-saving using the best estimates. The remaining policies were cost-effective (CERs: R=$5,453 PPP/LYG; R+HP=$2,201 PPP/LYG; R+L=$2,125 PPP/LYG). R+HP+L provided the largest benefit with net savings using the best and maximum estimates, while R+L was cost-effective with the lowest marginal cost using the minimum estimates. This study demonstrated that all policies were cost-saving or cost effective, with the combination of reformulation plus labeling and a comprehensive policy involving all three approaches being the most promising salt reduction strategies to reduce CHD mortality in Syria.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Ida Berenice Molina; Mendoza, Lourdes Otilia; García, Odalys; Díaz, Iris; Figueroa, Jacqueline; Duarte, Rosa María; Perdomo, Gabriel; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Janusz, Cara Bess

    2015-05-07

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Honduras. With the availability of a vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), the causative agent for cervical cancer, the Honduran Secretary of Health undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing the HPV vaccine to support their national decision-making process. A national multidisciplinary team conducted this analysis with the CERVIVAC model, developed by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative. The cumulative costs and health benefits of introducing the HPV vaccine were assessed over the lifetime of one single cohort of 11-year-old girls. We assumed a three-dose series with 95% vaccination coverage of the cohort using a mixture of school-based and facility-based delivery. To estimate national cervical cancer cases and deaths, we used United Nations demographic projections and GLOBOCAN estimates based on registry data from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Division of Intensified Cooperation with Countries (ICO), we assumed that 70% of cervical cancer would be due to vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18. We used a vaccine dose price of US$ 13.45 and evidence from the scientific literature to estimate vaccine effectiveness. National information was used to estimate health service utilization and costs of cervical cancer treatment. All costs and health benefits were discounted at 3%. Upon fully vaccinating 86,906 11-year old girls, 2250 (undiscounted) cervical cancer cases and 1336 (undiscounted) deaths would be prevented over the lifetime of the cohort. After discounting future health benefits at 3% per year, the equivalent cases and deaths prevented were 421 and 170. HPV vaccination is estimated to cost around US$ 5 million per vaccinated cohort, but this would be offset by around US$ 1 million in avoided costs borne by the government to

  10. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device as an Endometrial Cancer Prevention Strategy in Obese Women: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dottino, Joseph A; Hasselblad, Vic; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Myers, Evan R; Chino, Junzo; Havrilesky, Laura J

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (IUD) as an endometrial cancer prevention strategy in obese women. A modified Markov model was used to compare IUD placement at age 50 with usual care among women with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m) 40 or greater or BMI 30 or greater. The effects of obesity on incidence and survival were incorporated. The IUD was assumed to confer a 50% reduction in cancer incidence over 5 years. Costs of IUD and cancer care were included. Clinical outcomes were cancer diagnosis and deaths from cancer. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated in 2015 U.S. dollars per year of life saved. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo probabilistic analyses were performed. For a 50 year old with BMI 40 or greater, the IUD strategy is costlier and more effective than usual care with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $74,707 per year of life saved. If the protective effect of the levonorgestrel IUD is assumed to be 10 years, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases to $37,858 per year of life saved. In sensitivity analysis, a levonorgestrel IUD that reduces cancer incidence by at least 68% in women with BMIs of 40 or greater or costs less than $500 is potentially cost-effective. For BMI 30 or greater, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of IUD strategy is $137,223 per year of life saved compared with usual care. In Monte Carlo analysis, IUD placement for BMI 40 or greater is cost-effective in 50% of simulations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per year of life saved. The levonorgestrel IUD is a potentially cost-effective strategy for prevention of deaths from endometrial cancer in obese women.

  11. The impact of including passive benefits in cost-effectiveness analysis: the case of automated external defibrillators on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Cram, Peter; Vijan, Sandeep; Wolbrink, Alex; Fendrick, A Mark

    2003-01-01

    Traditional cost-utility analysis assumes that all benefits from health-related interventions are captured by the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained by the few individuals whose outcome is improved by the intervention. However, it is possible that many individuals who do not directly benefit from an intervention receive utility, and therefore QALYs, because of the passive benefit (aka sense of security) provided by the existence of the intervention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact that varying quantities of passive benefit have on the cost-effectiveness of airline defibrillator programs. A decision analytic model with Markov processes was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of defibrillator deployment on domestic commercial passenger aircraft over 1 year. Airline passengers were assigned small incremental utility gains (.001-.01) during an estimated 3-hour flight to evaluate the impact of passive benefit on overall cost-effectiveness. In the base case analysis with no allowance for passive benefit, the cost-effectiveness of airline automated external defibrillator deployment was US dollars 34000 per QALY gained. If 1% of all passengers received utility gain of.01, the cost-effectiveness declined to US dollars 30000. Cost-effectiveness was enhanced when the quantity of passive benefit was raised or the percentage of individuals receiving passive benefit increased. Automated external defibrillator deployment on passenger aircraft is likely to be cost-effective. If a small percentage of airline passengers receive incremental utility gains from passive benefit of automated external defibrillator availability, the impact on overall cost-effectiveness may be substantial. Further research should attempt to clarify the magnitude and percentage of patients who receive passive benefit.

  12. Optimal combinations of control strategies and cost-effective analysis for visceral leishmaniasis disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Santanu; Subramanian, Abhishek; ELMojtaba, Ibrahim M.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate. Fitting the model for real data reported in South Sudan, we estimate the model parameters and compare the model predictions with known VL cases. Using optimal control theory, we study the effects of popular control strategies namely, drug-based treatment of symptomatic and PKDL-infected individuals, insecticide treated bednets and spray of insecticides on the dynamics of infected human and vector populations. We propose that the strategies remain ineffective in curbing the disease individually, as opposed to the use of optimal combinations of the mentioned strategies. Testing the model for different optimal combinations while considering periodic seasonal fluctuations, we find that the optimal combination of treatment of individuals and insecticide sprays perform well in controlling the disease for the time period of intervention introduced. Performing a cost-effective analysis we identify that the same strategy also proves to be efficacious and cost-effective. Finally, we suggest that our model would be helpful for policy makers to predict the best intervention strategies for specific time periods and their appropriate implementation for elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:28222162

  13. Optimal combinations of control strategies and cost-effective analysis for visceral leishmaniasis disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Santanu; Subramanian, Abhishek; ELMojtaba, Ibrahim M; Chattopadhyay, Joydev; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate. Fitting the model for real data reported in South Sudan, we estimate the model parameters and compare the model predictions with known VL cases. Using optimal control theory, we study the effects of popular control strategies namely, drug-based treatment of symptomatic and PKDL-infected individuals, insecticide treated bednets and spray of insecticides on the dynamics of infected human and vector populations. We propose that the strategies remain ineffective in curbing the disease individually, as opposed to the use of optimal combinations of the mentioned strategies. Testing the model for different optimal combinations while considering periodic seasonal fluctuations, we find that the optimal combination of treatment of individuals and insecticide sprays perform well in controlling the disease for the time period of intervention introduced. Performing a cost-effective analysis we identify that the same strategy also proves to be efficacious and cost-effective. Finally, we suggest that our model would be helpful for policy makers to predict the best intervention strategies for specific time periods and their appropriate implementation for elimination of visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinically indicated versus routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Rickard, Claire M; Webster, Joan; Marsh, Nicole; Gordon, Louisa; Wallis, Marianne; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    Millions of peripheral intravenous catheters are used worldwide. The current guidelines recommend routine catheter replacement every 72-96 h. This practice requires increasing healthcare resource use. The clinically indicated catheter replacement strategy is proposed as an alternative. To assess the cost effectiveness of clinically indicated versus routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters. A cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia, was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial. Adult patients with an intravenous catheter of expected use for longer than 4 days were randomly assigned to receive either clinically indicated replacement or third-day routine replacement. The primary outcome was phlebitis during catheterization or within 48 h after catheter removal. Resource use data were prospectively collected and valued (2010 prices). The incremental net monetary benefit was calculated with uncertainty characterized using bootstrap simulations. Additionally, value of information (VOI) and value of implementation analyses were performed. The clinically indicated replacement strategy was associated with a cost saving per patient of AU$7.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.96-10.62) and a non-significant difference in the phlebitis rate of 0.41% (95% CI -1.33 to 2.15). The incremental net monetary benefit was AU$7.60 (95% CI 4.96-10.62). The expected VOI was zero, whereas the expected value of perfect implementation of the clinically indicated replacement strategy was approximately AU$5 million over 5 years. The clinically indicated catheter replacement strategy is cost saving compared with routine replacement. It is recommended that healthcare organizations consider changing to a policy whereby catheters are changed only if clinically indicated.

  15. Pasireotide for the Prevention of Pancreatic Fistula Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Goyert, Nik; Eeson, Gareth; Kagedan, Daniel J; Behman, Ramy; Lemke, Madeline; Hallet, Julie; Mittmann, Nicole; Law, Calvin; Karanicolas, Paul J; Coburn, Natalie G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of perioperative administration of pasireotide for reduction of pancreatic fistula (PF). PF is a major complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), associated with significant morbidity and healthcare-related costs. Pasireotide is a novel multireceptor ligand somatostatin analogue, which has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of PF following pancreas resection; however, the drug cost is significant. This study sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of routine administration of pasireotide to patients undergoing PD, compared with no intervention from the perspective of the hospital system. A decision-analytic model was developed to compare costs for perioperative administration of pasireotide versus no pasireotide. The model was populated using an institutional database containing all PDs performed 2002 to 2012 at a single institution, including data regarding clinically significant PF (International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula Grade B or C) and hospital-related inpatient costs for 90 days following PD, converted to 2014 $USD. Relative risk of PF associated with pasireotide was estimated from the published literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test robustness of the model. Mean institutional cost of index admissions was $67,417 and $31,950 for patients with and without PF, respectively. Pasireotide was the dominant strategy, associated with savings of $1685, and a mean reduction of 1.5 days length of stay. Univariate sensitivity analyses demonstrated cost-savings down to a PF rate of 5.6%, up to a relative risk of PF of 0.775, and up to a drug cost of $2817. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 79% of simulations were cost saving. Pasireotide appears to be a cost-saving treatment following PD across a wide variation of clinical and cost scenarios.

  16. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Ottawa, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jozaghi, Ehsan; Reid, Andrew A; Andresen, Martin A; Juneau, Alexandre

    2014-08-04

    Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are venues where people who inject drugs (PWID) have access to a clean and medically supervised environment in which they can safely inject their own illicit drugs. There is currently only one legal SIF in North America: Insite in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The responses and feedback generated by the evaluations of Insite in Vancouver have been overwhelmingly positive. This study assesses whether the above mentioned facility in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver needs to be expanded to other locations, more specifically that of Canada's capital city, Ottawa. The current study is aimed at contributing to the existing literature on health policy by conducting cost-benefit and cost-effective analyses for the opening of SIFs in Ottawa, Ontario. In particular, the costs of operating numerous SIFs in Ottawa was compared to the savings incurred; this was done after accounting for the prevention of new HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections. To ensure accuracy, two distinct mathematical models and a sensitivity analysis were employed. The sensitivity analyses conducted with the models reveals the potential for SIFs in Ottawa to be a fiscally responsible harm reduction strategy for the prevention of HCV cases--when considered independently. With a baseline sharing rate of 19%, the cumulative annual cost model supported the establishment of two SIFs and the marginal annual cost model supported the establishment of a single SIF. More often, the prevention of HIV or HCV alone were not sufficient to justify the establishment cost-effectiveness; rather, only when both HIV and HCV are considered does sufficient economic support became apparent. Funded supervised injection facilities in Ottawa appear to be an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain.

  17. Spatially-Distributed Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution.

    PubMed

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ''best approach" depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program efficiency

  18. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Antipsychotics for Treatment of Schizophrenia in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, Solomon J; Mutamba, Byamah B; Nganizi, Angelo; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    Reductions in prices following the expiry of patents on second-generation antipsychotics means that they could be made available to patients with schizophrenia in low-income countries. In this study we examine the cost effectiveness of antipsychotics for schizophrenia in Uganda. We developed a decision-analytic 10-state Markov model to represent the clinical and treatment course of schizophrenia and the experience of the average patient within the Uganda healthcare system. The model was run for a base population of 25-years-old patients attending Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, in annual cycles over a lifetime horizon. Parameters were derived from a primary chart abstraction study, a local community pharmacy survey, published literature, and expert opinion where necessary. We computed mean disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and costs (in US$ 2012) for each antipsychotic, incremental cost, and DALYs averted as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). In the base-case analysis, mean DALYs were highest with chlorpromazine (27.608), followed by haloperidol (27.563), while olanzapine (27.552) and risperidone had the lowest DALYs (27.557). Expected costs were highest with quetiapine (US$4943), and lowest with risperidone (US$4424). Compared to chlorpromazine, haloperidol was a dominant option (i.e. it was less costly and more effective); and risperidone was dominant over both haloperidol and quetiapine. The ICER comparing olanzapine to risperidone was US$5868 per DALY averted. When choosing between first-generation antipsychotics, clinicians should consider haloperidol as the first-line agent for schizophrenia. However, overall, risperidone is a cost-saving strategy; policymakers should consider its addition to essential medicines lists for treatment of schizophrenia in Uganda.

  19. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Ottawa, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are venues where people who inject drugs (PWID) have access to a clean and medically supervised environment in which they can safely inject their own illicit drugs. There is currently only one legal SIF in North America: Insite in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The responses and feedback generated by the evaluations of Insite in Vancouver have been overwhelmingly positive. This study assesses whether the above mentioned facility in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver needs to be expanded to other locations, more specifically that of Canada’s capital city, Ottawa. Methods The current study is aimed at contributing to the existing literature on health policy by conducting cost-benefit and cost-effective analyses for the opening of SIFs in Ottawa, Ontario. In particular, the costs of operating numerous SIFs in Ottawa was compared to the savings incurred; this was done after accounting for the prevention of new HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections. To ensure accuracy, two distinct mathematical models and a sensitivity analysis were employed. Results The sensitivity analyses conducted with the models reveals the potential for SIFs in Ottawa to be a fiscally responsible harm reduction strategy for the prevention of HCV cases – when considered independently. With a baseline sharing rate of 19%, the cumulative annual cost model supported the establishment of two SIFs and the marginal annual cost model supported the establishment of a single SIF. More often, the prevention of HIV or HCV alone were not sufficient to justify the establishment cost-effectiveness; rather, only when both HIV and HCV are considered does sufficient economic support became apparent. Conclusions Funded supervised injection facilities in Ottawa appear to be an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain. PMID:25091704

  20. Pamidronate in prevention of bone complications in metastatic breast cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hillner, B E; Weeks, J C; Desch, C E; Smith, T J

    2000-01-01

    Pamidronate is effective in reducing bony complications in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have known osteolytic lesions. However, pamidronate does not increase survival and is associated with additional financial costs and inconvenience. We conducted a post-hoc evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of pamidronate using the results of two randomized trials that evaluated pamidronate 90 mg administered intravenously every month versus placebo. The trials differed only in the initial systemic therapy administered (hormonal or chemotherapy). Total skeletal related events (SREs), including surgery for pathologic fracture, radiation for fracture or pain control, conservatively treated pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, or hypercalcemia, were taken directly from the trials. Using a societal perspective, direct health care costs were assigned to each SRE. Each group's monthly survival was equal and was projected to decline using observed median survivals. The cost of pamidronate reflected the average wholesale price of the drug plus infusion. The value or disutility of an adverse event per month was evaluated using a zero value (events avoided) or an assigned one (range, 0.2 to 0.8). The cost of pamidronate therapy exceeded the cost savings from prevented adverse events. The difference between the treated and placebo groups was larger with hormonal systemic therapy than with chemotherapy (additional $7,685 compared with $3,968 per woman). The projected net cost per SRE avoided was $3,940 with chemotherapy and $9,390 with hormonal therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratios were $108,200 with chemotherapy and $305, 300 with hormonal therapy per quality-adjusted year. Although pamidronate is effective in preventing a feared, common adverse outcome in metastatic breast cancer, its use is associated with high incremental costs per adverse event avoided. The analysis is most sensitive to the costs of pamidronate and pathologic fractures that were asymptomatic

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of coagulation testing prior to tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James D; Smith, Kenneth J; Ritchey, A Kim

    2010-12-01

    The American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology recommends pre-operative coagulation testing only when indicated by history or physical exam. Nevertheless, many surgeons test all children scheduled for tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (T&A). Studies of pre-operative screening have had conflicting results. A decision analysis model was constructed to address the costs and health outcome states of pre-operative screening strategies in children. A 14-day Markov model evaluated three strategies: (1) test all children for coagulation disorders; (2) test only those children with a pertinent history; and (3) perform no pre-operative testing. A literature search and a review of national databases estimated probabilities, costs, and utility data. Parameters then were varied widely in sensitivity analyses. Using a societal perspective and a cycle length of 1 day, we compared the strategies based on total costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Total costs for the strategies were $3,200 for testing all children, $3,083 for testing only those with a history finding, and $3,077 for not testing. Total utilities were 0.02579, 0.02654, and 0.02659 QALYs, respectively. Cost-effectiveness ratios were most sensitive to variation in the cost of post-operative care and the probability of post-operative bleeding. The strategy of not testing was dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Our results demonstrate that not performing preoperative testing is the most cost-effective strategy. This was persistent in sensitivity analyses, indicating that the model was robust. These data may be helpful to institutions and organizations to formulate policies regarding pre-operative coagulation for children without previous diagnoses of bleeding disorders.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral fentanyl formulations for breakthrough cancer pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; D'Angiolella, Lucia Sara; Vellucci, Renato; Allegri, Massimo; Casale, Giuseppe; Favaretti, Carlo; Kheiraoui, Flavia; Cesana, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Breakthrough cancer Pain (BTcP) has a high prevalence in cancer population. Patients with BTcP reported relevant health care costs and poor quality of life. The study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the available Oral Fentanyl Formulations (OFFs) for BTcP in Italy. A decision-analytical model was developed to estimate costs and benefits associated with treatments, from the Italian NHS perspective. Expected reductions in pain intensity per BTcP episodes were translated into, percentage of BTcP reduction, resource use and Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs). Relative efficacy, resources used and unit costs data were derived from the literature and validated by clinical experts. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. At base-case analysis, Sublingual Fentanyl Citrate (FCSL) compared to other oral formulations reported a lower patient's cost (€1,960.8) and a higher efficacy (18.7% of BTcP avoided and 0.0507 QALYs gained). The sensitivity analyses confirmed the main results in all tested scenarios, with the highest impact reported by BTcP duration and health care resources consumption parameters. Between OFFs, FCSL is the cost-effective option due to faster reduction of pain intensity. However, new research is needed to better understand the economic and epidemiologic impact of BTcP, and to collect more robust data on economic and quality of life impact of the different fentanyl formulations. Different fentanyl formulations are available to manage BTcP in cancer population. The study is the first that assesses the different impact in terms of cost and effectiveness of OFFs, providing new information to better allocate the resources available to treat BTcP and highlighting the need of better data.

  3. On the economic foundations of CEA. Ladies and gentlemen, take your positions!

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W B; Koopmanschap, M A

    2000-07-01

    There are still many ongoing debates about several aspects of the methodology of economic evaluations of health care interventions. Some of the disparities in recommendations on methodological issues may be traced back to different viewpoints on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in general. Two important views are the welfarist approach, which aims at embedding CEA into traditional welfare economics, and the decision maker's approach, which takes a broader and more pragmatic view on CEA. The focus in welfarism may be on utility while that of the decision maker's approach may be considered to be on health. In this paper it is examined how these two views differ and how these differences may subsequently lead to debates in methodological areas. It is indicated that embedding the practical operationalization of CEA in welfare economics seems impossible. In a strict welfarist approach it is necessary to view QALYs as being utilities, although one may question whether such an approach to QALYs is appropriate. Also, equity considerations may play an important role in cost-effectiveness analysis and these should preferably be taken into account in a way that reflects societal attitudes towards an equitable distribution of health care. These equity considerations may not always be directly related to utility or efficiency. Furthermore, both camps may prefer different methods for cost measurement in areas such as productivity costs and informal care. A better recognition of the contents and origins of controversies and disputes may enhance the clarity of discussions.

  4. Hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: cost effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T E; Tsourapas, A; Middleton, L J; Champaneria, R; Daniels, J P; Cooper, K G; Bhattacharya, S; Barton, P M

    2011-04-26

    To undertake a cost effectiveness analysis comparing first and second generation endometrial ablative techniques, hysterectomy, and the levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for treating heavy menstrual bleeding. Model based economic evaluation with data from an individual patient data meta-analysis supplemented with cost and outcome data from published sources taking an NHS (National Health Service) perspective. A state transition (Markov) model was developed, the structure being informed by the reviews of the trials and clinical input. A subgroup analysis, one way sensitivity analysis, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were also carried out. Four hypothetical cohorts of women with heavy menstrual bleeding. One of four alternative strategies: Mirena, first or second generation endometrial ablation techniques, or hysterectomy. Cost effectiveness based on incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Hysterectomy is the preferred strategy for the first intervention for heavy menstrual bleeding. Although hysterectomy is more expensive, it produces more QALYs relative to other remaining strategies and is likely to be considered cost effective. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for hysterectomy compared with Mirena is £1440 (€1633, $2350) per additional QALY. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for hysterectomy compared with second generation ablation is £970 per additional QALY. In light of the acceptable thresholds used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, hysterectomy would be considered the preferred strategy for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. The results concur with those of other studies but are highly sensitive to utility values used in the analysis.

  5. Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery: a cost-effective procedure.

    PubMed

    Malvankar-Mehta, Monali S; Filek, Richard; Iqbal, Munir; Shakir, Abubakar; Mao, Alex; Si, Francie; Malvankar, Madhukar G; Mehta, Siddhartha S; Hodge, William G

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this project was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) versus delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery (DSBCS) to determine whether ISBCS represents an appropriate, cost-effective way to rapidly rehabilitate a patient's visual impairment. A systematic review followed by a primary economic analysis with computer-based econometric modeling. Not applicable. We constructed a decision analytic model from the perspective of the public third-party payer (i.e., the Ministry of Health) to conduct a CEA of both surgeries, ISBCS and DSBCS. Cost data consisted of the costs of the surgery, intravitreal injections, medications, and drops, all of which were obtained from a comprehensive literature search and from records at St. Joseph's Hospital, London, Ont. The effectiveness was measured by the utility values associated with visual acuity in the better seeing eye. ISBCS resulted in an incremental effectiveness of 0.08 utility at an incremental cost of $1607. Discounting the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained by an annual interest rate of 3% resulted in 0.932 QALYs gained. The cost-effectiveness of ISBCS was calculated to be $1431 per QALY gained. A 1-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying costs, utility values, probabilities, and discounting rates. This analysis varied the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio but did not change the conclusion. Health economics assessment showed that, compared with DSBCS, ISBCS is a cost-effective procedure. This finding will be highly useful to policy-makers, decision-makers, clinicians, hospital administrators, and payers in making cost-efficient decisions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of seminatural wetlands and activated sludge wastewater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  7. A generic, cost-effective, and scalable cell lineage analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Biezuner, Tamir; Spiro, Adam; Raz, Ofir; Amir, Shiran; Milo, Lilach; Adar, Rivka; Chapal-Ilani, Noa; Berman, Veronika; Fried, Yael; Ainbinder, Elena; Cohen, Galit; Barr, Haim M; Halaban, Ruth; Shapiro, Ehud

    2016-11-01

    Advances in single-cell genomics enable commensurate improvements in methods for uncovering lineage relations among individual cells. Current sequencing-based methods for cell lineage analysis depend on low-resolution bulk analysis or rely on extensive single-cell sequencing, which is not scalable and could be biased by functional dependencies. Here we show an integrated biochemical-computational platform for generic single-cell lineage analysis that is retrospective, cost-effective, and scalable. It consists of a biochemical-computational pipeline that inputs individual cells, produces targeted single-cell sequencing data, and uses it to generate a lineage tree of the input cells. We validated the platform by applying it to cells sampled from an ex vivo grown tree and analyzed its feasibility landscape by computer simulations. We conclude that the platform may serve as a generic tool for lineage analysis and thus pave the way toward large-scale human cell lineage discovery. © 2016 Biezuner et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  9. Screening, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer -- a global and regional generalized cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary Michael; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia

    2009-10-09

    The paper calculates regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of screening, prevention, treatment and combined interventions for cervical cancer. Using standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology, a cervical cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening, vaccination and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod) that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. In regions characterized by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of any screening programme to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective. However, based on projections of the future price per dose (representing the economic costs of the vaccination excluding monopolistic rents and vaccine development cost) vaccination is the most cost-effective intervention. In regions characterized by low income, low mortality and existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without combining it with screening appears to be cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening in a no-treatment scenario would not be cost-effective. Vaccination is usually the most cost-effective intervention. Penta or tri-annual PAP smears appear to be cost-effective, though when combined with HPV-DNA testing they are not cost-effective. In regions characterized by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, expanding treatment with or without adding screening would be very cost-effective. A one off vaccination plus expanding treatment was usually very cost-effective. One-off PAP or VIA screening at age 40 are more cost-effective than other interventions though less effective overall. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, consideration should be given to implementing

  10. Monitoring the FLASH Cryomodule Transportation from DESY Hamburg to CEA Saclay: Coupler Contact, Vacuum, Acceleration and Vibration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barbanotti, S.; Bosotti, A.; Fusetti, M.; Michelato, P.; Bertolini, A.; Berry, S.; Dorlot, M.; Madec, C.; Napoly, O.; Amirikas, R.; Boehnert, M.; /DESY /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    With a view to the series production of one hundred, 12 m long XFEL 1.3 GHz cryomodules and their transportation from the assembly site at CEA Saclay (F) to the installation site at DESY Hamburg (D) a test transportation of a FLASH cryomodule has been performed, in the condition foreseen for the mass transportation. The present study examines the stresses induced on the module and verifies the damping capabilities of the transport frame in order to minimize risk of damage to the most critical components. During the transportation, acceleration and vibration have been monitored as well as coupler antenna contacts and vacuum performances. This paper describes the analysis performed and compares those results to the data of a similar transportation study at Fermilab for the CM1 cryomodule.

  11. Adaptive e-learning to improve dietary behaviour: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Felix, L; Miners, A; Murray, E; Michie, S; Ferguson, E; Free, C; Lock, K; Landon, J; Edwards, P

    2011-10-01

    included studies, with any discrepancies settled by a third author. Where studies reported the same outcome, the results were pooled using a random-effects model, with weighted mean differences (WMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in two ways: through a systematic literature review and by building a de novo decision model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a 'generic' e-learning device compared with dietary advice delivered by a health-care professional. A total of 36,379 titles were initially identified by the electronic searches, of which 43 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. All e-learning interventions were delivered in high-income countries. The most commonly used behavioural change techniques reported to have been used were goal setting; feedback on performance; information on consequences of behaviour in general; barrier identification/problem solving; prompting self-monitoring of behaviour; and instruction on how to perform the behaviour. There was substantial heterogeneity in the estimates of effect. E-learning interventions were associated with a WMD of +0.24 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.44) servings of fruit and vegetables per day; -0.78 g (95% CI -2.5 g to 0.95 g) total fat consumed per day; -0.24 g (95% CI -1.44 g to 0.96 g) saturated fat intake per day; -1.4% (95% CI -2.5% to -0.3%) of total energy consumed from fat per day; +1.45 g (95% CI -0.02 g to 2.92 g) dietary fibre per day; +4 kcal (95% CI -85 kcal to 93 kcal) daily energy intake; -0.1 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.7 kg/m2 to 0.4 kg/m2) change in body mass index. The base-case results from the E-Learning Economic Evaluation Model suggested that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was approximately £102,112 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) analysis showed that although the individual-level EVPI was arguably negligible, the population-level value was between £37M and £170M at a willingness to pay

  12. Reimbursement and value-based pricing: stratified cost-effectiveness analysis may not be the last word.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Neil; Scott, David A

    2011-06-01

    During recent discussions, it has been argued that stratified cost-effectiveness analysis has a key role in reimbursement decision-making and value-based pricing (VBP). It has previously been shown that when manufacturers are price-takers, reimbursement decisions made in reference to stratified cost-effectiveness analysis lead to a more efficient allocation of resources than decisions based on whole-population cost-effectiveness analysis. However, we demonstrate that when manufacturers are price setters, reimbursement or VBP based on stratified cost-effectiveness analysis may not be optimal. Using two examples - one considering the choice of thrombolytic treatment for specific patient subgroups and the other considering the extension of coverage for a cancer treatment to include an additional indication - we show that combinations of extended coverage and reduced price can be identified that are advantageous to both payers and manufacturers. The benefits of a given extension in coverage and reduction in price depend both upon the average treatment benefit in the additional population and its size relative to the original population. Negotiation regarding trade-offs between price and coverage may lead to improved outcomes both for health-care systems and manufacturers compared with processes where coverage is determined conditional simply on stratified cost-effectiveness at a given price.

  13. EPA compromises consistency in its coastal oil and gas industry cost-effectiveness analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis to estimate the cost of complying with each newly proposed set of industrial effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs). CE is defined as the incremental annualized cost of a pollution control option in an industry per incremental pound equivalent (PE) of pollutant removed annually by that control options. EPA`s guidelines for conducting the CE analysis require that all costs be expressed in 1981 dollars so that comparison to other industries can be done on a consistent basis. In the results of its CE analyses, EPA presents information showing $/PE values for all the industries for which it has done the CE analysis. These examples indicate that EPA is interested in maintaining consistency and comparability. EPA is not legally bound by the results of a CE analysis; however, if the $/PE for a proposed ELG is calculated to be significantly higher than the $/PEs for other comparable ELGs, EPA might reconsider its proposal. EPA`s approach of using an expanded pollutant list and revised weighting factors probably generates a more accurate estimate of the PEs removed for the coastal oil and gas industry, but in doing so, EPA loses the ability to equitably compare this CE analysis to the CE analyses that have been done for other industries. This shortcoming is particularly obvious since the offshore Ce analysis, evaluating a nearly identical waste stream, was completed just two years earlier. Given EPA`s concern over consistency and comparability to other industries, it may be appropriate to modify this approach for the coastal CE analysis. Another alternative that would allow EPA to reflect the newest toxicological information and still preserve consistency and comparability would be to recalculate all earlier CE analyses whenever new weighting factors are developed.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Mayige, Mary; Oliveira, Tiago Cravo; Robberstad, Bjarne; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Higashi, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco consumption contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. The prevalence of smoking is estimated to be increasing in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, especially among women and youth. Even so, the implementation of tobacco control measures has been discouraging in the country. Efforts to foster investment in tobacco control are hindered by lack of evidence on what works and at what cost. Aims We aim to estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Tanzania. Materials and methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using an Excel-based Markov model, from a governmental perspective. We employed an ingredient approach and step-down methodologies in the costing exercise following a government perspective. Epidemiological data and efficacy inputs were derived from the literature. We used disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted as the outcome measure. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out with Ersatz to incorporate uncertainties in the model parameters. Results Our model results showed that all five tobacco control strategies were very cost-effective since they fell below the ceiling ratio of one GDP per capita suggested by the WHO. Increase in tobacco taxes was the most cost-effective strategy, while a workplace smoking ban was the least cost-effective option, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$5 and US$267, respectively. Conclusions Even though all five interventions are deemed very cost-effective in the prevention of CVD in Tanzania, more research on budget impact analysis is required to further assess the government’s ability to implement these interventions. PMID:28767722

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Mayige, Mary; Oliveira, Tiago Cravo; Robberstad, Bjarne; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Higashi, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco consumption contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. The prevalence of smoking is estimated to be increasing in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, especially among women and youth. Even so, the implementation of tobacco control measures has been discouraging in the country. Efforts to foster investment in tobacco control are hindered by lack of evidence on what works and at what cost. We aim to estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Tanzania. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using an Excel-based Markov model, from a governmental perspective. We employed an ingredient approach and step-down methodologies in the costing exercise following a government perspective. Epidemiological data and efficacy inputs were derived from the literature. We used disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted as the outcome measure. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out with Ersatz to incorporate uncertainties in the model parameters. Our model results showed that all five tobacco control strategies were very cost-effective since they fell below the ceiling ratio of one GDP per capita suggested by the WHO. Increase in tobacco taxes was the most cost-effective strategy, while a workplace smoking ban was the least cost-effective option, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$5 and US$267, respectively. Even though all five interventions are deemed very cost-effective in the prevention of CVD in Tanzania, more research on budget impact analysis is required to further assess the government's ability to implement these interventions.

  16. Spacecraft Autonomy and Automation: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Cost Effective Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Nathaniel, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of satellite operations over the last 40 years has drastically changed. October 4, 1957 (during the cold war) the Soviet Union launched the world's first spacecraft into orbit. The Sputnik satellite orbited Earth for three months and catapulted the United States into a race for dominance in space. A year after Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower formed the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA). With a team of scientists and engineers, NASA successfully launched Explorer 1, the first US satellite to orbit Earth. During these early years, massive amounts of ground support equipment and operators were required to successfully operate spacecraft vehicles. Today, budget reductions and technological advances have forced new approaches to spacecraft operations. These approaches require increasingly complex, on board spacecraft systems, that enable autonomous operations, resulting in more cost-effective mission operations. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, considered world class in satellite development and operations, has developed and operated over 200 satellites during its 40 years of existence. NASA Goddard is adopting several new millennium initiatives that lower operational costs through the spacecraft autonomy and automation. This paper examines NASA's approach to spacecraft autonomy and ground system automation through a comparative analysis of satellite missions for Hubble Space Telescope-HST, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous-NEAR, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory-SoHO, with emphasis on cost reduction methods, risk analysis and anomalies and strategies employed for mitigating risk.

  17. Hydrostratigraphic analysis - The key to cost-effective ground water cleanup at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.G.; Noyes, C.M.; Maley, M.P.

    1995-07-01

    Cost-effective ground water cleanup requires a thorough understanding of the hydrogeologic factors that control the site-specific flow and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), contaminants are distributed within a thick, complex sequence of alluvial sediments. We have used hydrostratigraphic analysis to divide this sequence into hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) based on a detailed analysis of chemical, geological, and aquifer test data. HSUs are defined as sedimentary sequences whose permeable layers show evidence of hydraulic communication. In contrast, hydraulic communication between HSUs is restricted across HSU boundaries. HSUs have been a useful management tool for implementing site-wide remediation by improving our ability to identify and target contaminant migration pathways, delineate individual plume geometries, identify the relationship between plumes and source areas, and better define hydraulic capture areas. With a better understanding of LLNL subsurface conditions, we are more effectively implementing remediation plans, improving cleanup time, and reducing overall project costs. Hydrostratigraphic characterization has been instrumental in communicating the contaminant distribution, subsurface flow pathways, and the cleanup approach to the Department of Energy (DOE), regulatory agencies, and the community.

  18. Spacecraft Autonomy and Automation: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Cost Effective Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Nathaniel, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of satellite operations over the last 40 years has drastically changed. October 4, 1957 (during the cold war) the Soviet Union launched the world's first spacecraft into orbit. The Sputnik satellite orbited Earth for three months and catapulted the United States into a race for dominance in space. A year after Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower formed the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA). With a team of scientists and engineers, NASA successfully launched Explorer 1, the first US satellite to orbit Earth. During these early years, massive amounts of ground support equipment and operators were required to successfully operate spacecraft vehicles. Today, budget reductions and technological advances have forced new approaches to spacecraft operations. These approaches require increasingly complex, on board spacecraft systems, that enable autonomous operations, resulting in more cost-effective mission operations. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, considered world class in satellite development and operations, has developed and operated over 200 satellites during its 40 years of existence. NASA Goddard is adopting several new millennium initiatives that lower operational costs through the spacecraft autonomy and automation. This paper examines NASA's approach to spacecraft autonomy and ground system automation through a comparative analysis of satellite missions for Hubble Space Telescope-HST, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous-NEAR, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory-SoHO, with emphasis on cost reduction methods, risk analysis and anomalies and strategies employed for mitigating risk.

  19. An improved set of standards for finding cost for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines have helped standardize methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, allowing different interventions to be compared and enhancing the generalizability of study findings. There is agreement that all relevant services be valued from the societal perspective using a long-term time horizon and that more exact methods be used to cost services most affected by the study intervention. Guidelines are not specific enough with respect to costing methods, however. The literature was reviewed to identify the problems associated with the 4 principal methods of cost determination. Microcosting requires direct measurement and is ordinarily reserved to cost novel interventions. Analysts should include nonwage labor cost, person-level and institutional overhead, and the cost of development, set-up activities, supplies, space, and screening. Activity-based cost systems have promise of finding accurate costs of all services provided, but are not widely adopted. Quality must be evaluated and the generalizability of cost estimates to other settings must be considered. Administrative cost estimates, chiefly cost-adjusted charges, are widely used, but the analyst must consider items excluded from the available system. Gross costing methods determine quantity of services used and employ a unit cost. If the intervention will affect the characteristics of a service, the method should not assume that the service is homogeneous. Questions are posed for future reviews of the quality of costing methods. The analyst must avoid inappropriate assumptions, especially those that bias the analysis by exclusion of costs that are affected by the intervention under study.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent in older adults in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50 years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. PMID:24679135

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of preoperative transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease using evidence from the TAPS trial.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Eldon; Sculpher, Mark; Howard, Jo; Malfroy, Moira; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Choo, Louise; Hodge, Renate; Johnson, Tony; Rees, David C; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Davies, Sally; Williamson, Lorna

    2014-03-01

    The study's objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of preoperative transfusion compared with no preoperative transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease undergoing low- or medium-risk surgery. Seventy patients with sickle cell disease (HbSS/Sß(0) thal genotypes) undergoing elective surgery participated in a multicentre randomised trial, Transfusion Alternatives Preoperatively in Sickle Cell Disease (TAPS). Here, a cost-effectiveness analysis based on evidence from that trial is presented. A decision-analytic model is used to incorporate long-term consequences of transfusions and acute chest syndrome. Costs and health benefits, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), are reported from the 'within-trial' analysis and for the decision-analytic model. The probability of cost-effectiveness for each form of management is calculated taking into account the small sample size and other sources of uncertainty. In the range of scenarios considered in the analysis, preoperative transfusion was more effective, with the mean improvement in QALYs ranging from 0.018 to 0.206 per patient, and also less costly in all but one scenario, with the mean cost difference ranging from -£813 to £26. All scenarios suggested preoperative transfusion had a probability of cost-effectiveness >0.79 at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20 000 per QALY.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure was undertaken from the perspective of the Public Administration. The current Spanish situation, where all the patients undergoing graft function loss are referred back to dialysis in a late manner, was compared to an ideal scenario where all the patients are timely referred. Methods A Markov model was developed in which six health states were defined: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation, late referral hemodialysis, late referral peritoneal dialysis and death. The model carried out a simulation of the progression of renal disease for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients aged 40, who were observed in a lifetime temporal horizon of 45 years. In depth sensitivity analyses were performed in order to ensure the robustness of the results obtained. Results Considering a discount rate of 3 %, timely referral showed an incremental cost of 211 €, compared to late referral. This cost increase was however a consequence of the incremental survival observed. The incremental effectiveness was 0.0087 quality-adjusted life years (QALY). When comparing both scenarios, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 24,390 €/QALY was obtained, meaning that timely dialysis referral might be an efficient alternative if a willingness-to-pay threshold of 45,000 €/QALY is considered. This result proved to be independent of the proportion of late referral patients observed. The acceptance probability of timely referral was 61.90 %, while late referral was acceptable in 38.10 % of the simulations. If we however restrict the analysis to those situations not involving any loss of effectiveness, the acceptance probability of timely referral was 70.10 %, increasing twofold that of late referral (29.90 %). Conclusions Timely dialysis referral after graft function loss might be an efficient alternative in Spain, improving both patients’ survival rates and

  3. Optimal control and cost-effective analysis of malaria/visceral leishmaniasis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Agusto, Folashade B.; ELmojtaba, Ibrahim M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a deterministic model involving the transmission dynamics of malaria/visceral leishmaniasis co-infection is presented and studied. Optimal control theory is then applied to investigate the optimal strategies for curtailing the spread of the diseases using the use of personal protection, indoor residual spraying and culling of infected reservoirs as the system control variables. Various combination strategies were examined so as to investigate the impact of the controls on the spread of the disease. And we investigated the most cost-effective strategy of all the control strategies using three approaches, the infection averted ratio (IAR), the average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Our results show that the implementation of the strategy combining all the time dependent control variables is the most cost-effective control strategy. This result is further emphasized by using the results obtained from the cost objective functional, the ACER, and the ICER. PMID:28166308

  4. Vaccination against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in France: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bresse, Xavier; Annemans, Lieven; Préaud, Emmanuelle; Bloch, Karine; Duru, Gérard; Gauthier, Aline

    2013-06-01

    This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia in France, using a published Markov model. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating individuals aged from 65 years or between 70 and 79 years was evaluated over their lifetime, from a third-party payer perspective. French-specific data were combined with results from clinical studies and international quality-of-life-based (EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) utilities from the literature. HZ vaccination was highly cost effective in both populations. Incremental cost-effective ratios were estimated between €9513 and 12,304 per quality-adjusted life year gained, corresponding to €2240-2651 per HZ case avoided and €3539-4395 per postherpetic neuralgia case avoided. In addition to epidemiological and clinical evidence, economic evidence also supports the implementation of HZ vaccination in France.

  5. The Cost Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Model-Based Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Dias, Sofia; Kew, Kayleigh; Clark, David M.; Ades, A. E.; Pilling, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder is one of the most persistent and common anxiety disorders. Individually delivered psychological therapies are the most effective treatment options for adults with social anxiety disorder, but they are associated with high intervention costs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the relative cost effectiveness of a variety of psychological and pharmacological interventions for adults with social anxiety disorder. Methods A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) of 28 interventions for social anxiety disorder from the perspective of the British National Health Service and personal social services. Efficacy data were derived from a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Other model input parameters were based on published literature and national sources, supplemented by expert opinion. Results Individual cognitive therapy was the most cost-effective intervention for adults with social anxiety disorder, followed by generic individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), phenelzine and book-based self-help without support. Other drugs, group-based psychological interventions and other individually delivered psychological interventions were less cost-effective. Results were influenced by limited evidence suggesting superiority of psychological interventions over drugs in retaining long-term effects. The analysis did not take into account side effects of drugs. Conclusion Various forms of individually delivered CBT appear to be the most cost-effective options for the treatment of adults with social anxiety disorder. Consideration of side effects of drugs would only strengthen this conclusion, as it would improve even further the cost effectiveness of individually delivered CBT relative to phenelzine, which was the next most cost-effective option, due to the serious side effects associated with phenelzine. Further research needs to determine more accurately

  6. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis of cascade screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia using alternative diagnostic and identification strategies.

    PubMed

    Nherera, L; Marks, D; Minhas, R; Thorogood, M; Humphries, S E

    2011-07-01

    To estimate the probabilistic cost-effectiveness of cascade screening methods in familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) from the UK NHS perspective. Economic evaluation (cost utility analysis) comparing four cascade screening strategies for FH: Using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol measurements to diagnose affected relatives (cholesterol method); cascading only in patients with a causative mutation identified and using DNA tests to diagnose relatives (DNA method); DNA testing combined with LDL-cholesterol testing in families with no mutation identified, only in patients with clinically defined 'definite' FH (DNA+DFH method); DNA testing combined with LDL-cholesterol testing in no-mutation families of both 'definite' and 'probable' FH patients (DNA+DFH+PFH). A probabilistic model was constructed to estimate the treatment benefit from statins, with all diagnosed individuals receiving high-intensity statin treatment. A cohort of 1000 people suspected of having FH aged 50 years for index cases and 30 years for relatives, followed for a lifetime. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). The DNA+DFH+PFH method was the most cost-effective cascade screening strategy. The ICER was estimated at £3666/QALY. Using this strategy, of the tested relatives 30.6% will be true positives, 6.3% false positives, 61.9% true negatives and 1.1% false negatives. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that this approach is 100% cost-effective using the conventional benchmark for cost-effective treatments in the NHS of between £20,000 and £30,000 per QALY gained. Cascade testing of relatives of patients with DFH and PFH is cost-effective when using a combination of DNA testing for known family mutations and LDL-cholesterol levels in the remaining families. The approach is more cost-effective than current primary prevention screening strategies.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Television Campaign to Promote Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Among the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minchul; Yoo, Byung-Kwang

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. policy goals regarding influenza vaccination coverage rate among the elderly include the increase in the coverage rate and the elimination of disparities across racial/ethnic groups. To examine the potential effectiveness of a television (TV) campaign to increase seasonal influenza vaccination among the elderly. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER, defined as incremental cost per additionally vaccinated Medicare individual) of a hypothetical nationwide TV campaign for influenza vaccination compared with no campaign. We measured the effectiveness of the nationwide TV campaign (advertised once a week at prime time for 30 seconds) during a 17-week influenza vaccination season among four racial/ethnic elderly groups (N=39 million): non-Hispanic white (W), non-Hispanic African American (AA), English-speaking Hispanic (EH), and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH). The hypothetical campaign cost was $5,960,000 (in 2012 US dollars). The estimated campaign effectiveness ranged from -1.1% (the SH group) to 1.42% (the W group), leading to an increased disparity in influenza vaccination among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic African American (W-AA) groups (0.6 percentage points), W-EH groups (0.1 percentage points), and W-SH groups (1.5 percentage points). The estimated ICER was $23.54 (95% confidence interval $14.21-$39.37) per additionally vaccinated Medicare elderly in a probabilistic analysis. Race/ethnicity-specific ICERs were lowest among the EH group ($22.27), followed by the W group ($22.47) and the AA group ($30.55). The nationwide TV campaign was concluded to be reasonably cost-effective compared with a benchmark intervention (with ICER $44.39 per vaccinated individual) of a school-located vaccination program. Break-even analyses estimated the maximum acceptable campaign cost to be $14,870,000, which was comparable to the benchmark ICER. The results could justify public expenditures on the implementation of a future nationwide TV

  8. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of prevention of reinfarction using low-dose acetylsalicylic acid; model calculation].

    PubMed

    Schädlich, P K; Brecht, J G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential of savings which can be achieved by prophylaxis of myocardial reinfarction with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) at 75 mg per day over a treatment period of two years. After secondary analysis of published data, the effectiveness of low-dose ASA is compared to placebo by a model calculation. The difference in the effectiveness between the prophylaxis with ASA and placebo is taken from an international meta-analysis. The economic valuation of this difference is carried out by a cost-effectiveness analysis applying disease costs per case. According to the model calculation, 5535 DM can be saved per patient with a history of myocardial infarction with 75 mg ASA a day over a treatment period of two years. In 1991 there were around 740,000 patients with a history of myocardial infarction in the age group of 25-64 in the Old Bundesländer of the Federal Republic of Germany. The application of the results of the model calculation would lead to considerable savings. Even in the sensitivity analysis with different assumptions regarding costs incurred by hospital treatment and costs incurred by premature retirement, the cost advantage of the ASA-prophylaxis remains. Due to the cautious and conservative assumptions in the model calculation the potential of savings is likely underestimated. Nevertheless, there is a distinct advantage for the prophylaxis with low-dose ASA which already occurs in direct costs thus leading to advantages also for cost carriers.

  9. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  10. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenia treatment in India under universal public finance.

    PubMed

    Raykar, Neha; Nigam, Aditi; Chisholm, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a priority condition in mental health policy and service development because of its early onset, severity and consequences for affected individuals and households. This paper reports on an 'extended' cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) for schizophrenia treatment in India, which seeks to evaluate through a modeling approach not only the costs and health effects of intervention but also the consequences of a policy of universal public finance (UPF) on health and financial outcomes across income quintiles. Using plausible values for input parameters, we conclude that health gains from UPF are concentrated among the poorest, whereas the non-health gains in the form of out-of-pocket private expenditures averted due to UPF are concentrated among the richest income quintiles. Value of insurance is the highest for the poorest quintile and declines with income. Universal public finance can play a crucial role in ameliorating the adverse economic and social consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment in resource-constrained settings where health insurance coverage is generally poor. This paper shows the potential distributional and financial risk protection effects of treating schizophrenia.

  11. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley Ltd.

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of exercise as a health promotion activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hatziandreu, E I; Koplan, J P; Weinstein, M C; Caspersen, C J; Warner, K E

    1988-01-01

    We used cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the health and economic implications of exercise in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD). We assumed that nonexercisers have a relative risk of 2.0 for a CHD event. Two hypothetical cohorts (one with exercise and the other without exercise) of 1,000 35-year-old men were followed for 30 years to observe differences in the number of CHD events, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy. We used jogging as an example to calculate cost, injury rates, adherence, and the value of time spent. Both direct and indirect costs associated with exercise, injury, and treating CHD were considered. We estimate that exercising regularly results in 78.1 fewer CHD events and 1,138.3 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained over the 30-year study period. Under our base case assumptions, which include indirect costs such as time spent in exercise, exercise does not produce economic savings. However, the cost per QALY gained of $11,313 is favorable when compared with other preventive or therapeutic interventions for CHD. The value of time spent is a crucial factor, influencing whether exercise is a cost-saving activity. In an alternative model, where all members of the cohort exercise for one year, and then only those who like it or are neutral continue, exercise produces net economic savings as well as reducing morbidity. PMID:3140681

  13. Using Habitat Equivalency Analysis to Assess the Cost Effectiveness of Restoration Outcomes in Four Institutional Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scemama, Pierre; Levrel, Harold

    2016-01-01

    At the national level, with a fixed amount of resources available for public investment in the restoration of biodiversity, it is difficult to prioritize alternative restoration projects. One way to do this is to assess the level of ecosystem services delivered by these projects and to compare them with their costs. The challenge is to derive a common unit of measurement for ecosystem services in order to compare projects which are carried out in different institutional contexts having different goals (application of environmental laws, management of natural reserves, etc.). This paper assesses the use of habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) as a tool to evaluate ecosystem services provided by restoration projects developed in different institutional contexts. This tool was initially developed to quantify the level of ecosystem services required to compensate for non-market impacts coming from accidental pollution in the US. In this paper, HEA is used to assess the cost effectiveness of several restoration projects in relation to different environmental policies, using case studies based in France. Four case studies were used: the creation of a market for wetlands, public acceptance of a port development project, the rehabilitation of marshes to mitigate nitrate loading to the sea, and the restoration of streams in a protected area. Our main conclusion is that HEA can provide a simple tool to clarify the objectives of restoration projects, to compare the cost and effectiveness of these projects, and to carry out trade-offs, without requiring significant amounts of human or technical resources.

  14. Using Habitat Equivalency Analysis to Assess the Cost Effectiveness of Restoration Outcomes in Four Institutional Contexts.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Pierre; Levrel, Harold

    2016-01-01

    At the national level, with a fixed amount of resources available for public investment in the restoration of biodiversity, it is difficult to prioritize alternative restoration projects. One way to do this is to assess the level of ecosystem services delivered by these projects and to compare them with their costs. The challenge is to derive a common unit of measurement for ecosystem services in order to compare projects which are carried out in different institutional contexts having different goals (application of environmental laws, management of natural reserves, etc.). This paper assesses the use of habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) as a tool to evaluate ecosystem services provided by restoration projects developed in different institutional contexts. This tool was initially developed to quantify the level of ecosystem services required to compensate for non-market impacts coming from accidental pollution in the US. In this paper, HEA is used to assess the cost effectiveness of several restoration projects in relation to different environmental policies, using case studies based in France. Four case studies were used: the creation of a market for wetlands, public acceptance of a port development project, the rehabilitation of marshes to mitigate nitrate loading to the sea, and the restoration of streams in a protected area. Our main conclusion is that HEA can provide a simple tool to clarify the objectives of restoration projects, to compare the cost and effectiveness of these projects, and to carry out trade-offs, without requiring significant amounts of human or technical resources.

  15. A cost-effective plate-based sample preparation for antibody N-glycan analysis.

    PubMed

    Burnina, Irina; Hoyt, Erik; Lynaugh, Heather; Li, Huijuan; Gong, Bing

    2013-09-13

    During early cell line and process development of therapeutic antibodies, a cost-effective high-throughput approach to characterize the N-linked glycans is highly desired given that a large number of samples need to be analyzed. Using commercially available, low cost 96-well plates, we developed a practical procedure to prepare fluorescently labeled N-linked glycans for both qualitative and quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Antibody samples were continuously denatured, reduced, and deglycosylated in a single 96-well hydrophobic membrane filter plate. Subsequently, released glycans were fluorescently labeled in a collection plate, and cleaned-up using a hydrophilic membrane filter plate. Carried out entirely in ready-to-use 96-well plates with simple buffer systems, this procedure requires less than 90min to finish. We applied the optimized procedure to examine the N-linked glycosylation of trastuzumab and were able to quantify ten major N-linked glycans. The results from different amounts of starting materials (10-200μg) were highly similar and showed the robustness of this procedure. Compared to other methods, this new procedure is simple to implement, economically more affordable, and could be very valuable for early screenings of antibody development.

  16. [Comparision of costs of secondary prevention and treatment of stroke--cost-effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Ceronja, Ivana; Sosić, Zvonko

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a serious complication of untreated arterial hypertension. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of secondary prevention and treatment of CVA caused by untreated arterial hypertension. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and therapy of arterial hypertension in comparison with CVA treatment. The cost of secondary prevention of CVA per patient per year in 2006. was 1.589,19 kunas, which comes to 15.107,75 kunas in thirty years of treatment (discount factor included), whereas a single CVA treatment was 17.207,54 kunas on average. In every 850 treatments of hypertension (NNT) comes a prevented CVA which is 1.350.811,5 kunas, and is therefore more expensive than a single CVA treatment. Secondary prevention has a long-term protective effect improving the patients' quality of life, inhibiting the potential post-CVA handicap and pre-retirement. Thus, the main advantage of both primary and secondary prevention is in their greater benefit for patients.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty in elderly low-demand patients. A Markov decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Slover, James; Espehaug, Birgitte; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Engesaeter, Lars Birger; Furnes, Ove; Tomek, Ivan; Tosteson, Anna

    2006-11-01

    Interest in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has recently increased in the United States, making a firm understanding of the indications for this procedure important. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty compared with total knee arthroplasty in elderly low-demand patients. A Markov decision model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty as compared with total knee arthroplasty in the elderly population. Transition probabilities were estimated from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register and the arthroplasty literature, and costs were based on the average Medicare reimbursement for unicompartmental, tricompartmental, and revision knee arthroplasties. Outcomes were measured in quality-adjusted life-years. Our model showed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty to be a cost-effective strategy for this population as long as the annual probability of revision is <4%. The cost of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty must be greater than $13,500 or the cost of total knee arthroplasty must be less than $8500 before total knee arthroplasty becomes more cost-effective. Our model suggests that, on the basis of currently available cost and outcomes data, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty have similar cost-effectiveness profiles in the elderly low-demand patient population. However, several important parameters that could alter the cost-effectiveness analysis were identified; these included implant survival rates, costs, perioperative mortality and infection rates, and utility values achieved with each procedure. The thresholds identified in this study may help decision-makers to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of each strategy as further research characterizes the variables associate with unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasties and may be helpful for designing future appropriate clinical trials.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Community Active Case Finding and Household Contact Investigation for Tuberculosis Case Detection in Urban Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sekandi, Juliet N.; Dobbin, Kevin; Oloya, James; Okwera, Alphonse; Whalen, Christopher C.; Corso, Phaedra S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Case detection by passive case finding (PCF) strategy alone is inadequate for detecting all tuberculosis (TB) cases in high burden settings especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative case detection strategies such as community Active Case Finding (ACF) and Household Contact Investigations (HCI) are effective but empirical evidence of their cost-effectiveness is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine whether adding ACF or HCI compared with standard PCF alone represent cost-effective alternative TB case detection strategies in urban Africa. Methods A static decision modeling framework was used to examine the costs and effectiveness of three TB case detection strategies: PCF alone, PCF+ACF, and PCF+HCI. Probability and cost estimates were obtained from National TB program data, primary studies conducted in Uganda, published literature and expert opinions. The analysis was performed from the societal and provider perspectives over a 1.5 year time-frame. The main effectiveness measure was the number of true TB cases detected and the outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) expressed as cost in 2013 US$ per additional true TB case detected. Results Compared to PCF alone, the PCF+HCI strategy was cost-effective at US$443.62 per additional TB case detected. However, PCF+ACF was not cost-effective at US$1492.95 per additional TB case detected. Sensitivity analyses showed that PCF+ACF would be cost-effective if the prevalence of chronic cough in the population screened by ACF increased 10-fold from 4% to 40% and if the program costs for ACF were reduced by 50%. Conclusions Under our baseline assumptions, the addition of HCI to an existing PCF program presented a more cost-effective strategy than the addition of ACF in the context of an African city. Therefore, implementation of household contact investigations as a part of the recommended TB control strategy should be prioritized. PMID:25658592

  19. Economic impact of combination therapy with infliximab plus azathioprine for drug-refractory Crohn's disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shota; Shimizu, Utako; Nan, Zhang; Mandai, Nozomu; Yokoyama, Junji; Terajima, Kenshi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2013-03-01

    Combination therapy with infliximab (IFX) and azathioprine (AZA) is significantly more effective for treatment of active Crohn's disease (CD) than IFX monotherapy. However, AZA is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA for drug-refractory CD. A decision analysis model is constructed to compare, over a time horizon of 1year, the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA and that of IFX monotherapy for CD patients refractory to conventional non-anti-TNF-α therapy. The treatment efficacy, adverse effects, quality-of-life scores, and treatment costs are derived from published data. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses are performed to estimate the uncertainty in the results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA is 24,917 GBP/QALY when compared with IFX monotherapy. The sensitivity analyses reveal that the utility score of nonresponding active disease has the strongest influence on the cost-effectiveness, with ICERs ranging from 17,147 to 45,564 GBP/QALY. Assuming that policy makers are willing to pay 30,000 GBP/QALY, the probability that combination therapy with IFX plus AZA is cost-effective is 0.750. Combination therapy with IFX plus AZA appears to be a cost-effective treatment for drug-refractory CD when compared with IFX monotherapy. Furthermore, the additional lymphoma risk of combination therapy has little significance on its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. Methods and Findings We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7–US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below

  1. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Joseph T; Jit, Mark; Zheng, Yaming; Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H Y; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-03-01

    China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010-2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6-71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7-US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below US$17.9 (95% CI US$16.9-US$18.8) in

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Radiation Therapy Versus Transoral Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Danielle; Caulley, Lisa; Burger, Emily; Kim, Jane; Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V; Hansen, Aaron; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) versus the standard treatment modality for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), radiation therapy (RT), in a subset of patients with early-stage OPSCC. We developed a microsimulation state-transition model associated with RT and TORS for patients with clinically staged T1N0M0 to T2N1M0 OPSCC. Transition probabilities, utilities, and costs for each health state were estimated from recently published data and discounted by 3% annually over a lifetime time horizon. Model outcomes included lifetime costs (in 2014 US dollars), health benefits (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]), and cost-effectiveness ratios from a societal perspective. Under base-case assumptions, TORS was associated with modest gains in QALYs. RT yielded 10.43 QALYs at a cost of $123,410 per patient, whereas TORS yielded 11.10 QALYs at a cost of $178,480. This resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $82,190/QALY gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was most sensitive to the need for adjuvant therapy, cost of late toxicity, age at diagnosis, disease state utilities, and discount rate. Accounting for joint parameter uncertainty, RT had a higher probability of demonstrating a cost-effective profile compared with TORS, at 54% compared with 46%. By use of standard benchmarks for cost-effectiveness in the United States, TORS may be a cost-effective alternative for the subset of patients with early-stage OPSCC but demonstrates considerable sensitivity to assumptions around quality of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of a genetic screening program in the close relatives of Spanish patients with familial hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Oliva, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Moreno, Santiago G; Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a genetic screening program for first-degree relatives of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), followed by treatment when necessary, compared with the alternative of no screening. The cost-effectiveness analysis modeled the effect of statin treatment on individuals who were diagnosed with FH after genetic screening. The impact of uncertainty was evaluated using univariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The alternate strategy considered was no screening. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the number of life-years gained (LYG) was regarded as the health outcome and the costs of screening, statin treatment, specialist consultations and hospital visits were all included. In addition, the expected value of perfect information was calculated as part of the sensitivity analysis. In the base case, the incremental cost of the screening program for close relatives was 3423 euros per LYG. Although the sensitivity analysis gave a range of results, the conclusions were not affected by changes in the parameters considered. The screening program was found to be better than the alternative considered at a probability level of 95% if the acceptable level of health-care costs was at least 7400 euros per LYG. This analysis indicates that a genetic screening program, supplemented by treatment, for the close relatives of individuals with FH is preferable to the alternative of no screening in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness.

  4. FOLFOX4 or sorafenib as the first-line treatments for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Wen, Feng; Li, Qiu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmaco-economic implications of FOLFOX4 or sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in China. To conduct the analysis, we performed a Markov model to simulate the process of advanced HCC treated with sorafenib or FOLFOX4. Clinical data were obtained from the ORIENTAL trial and the EACH trial. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was regarded as the primary outcome in the analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the impact of essential variables on the results of the analysis. Treatment with sorafenib provided an effectiveness gain of 0.3935 quality-adjusted life year at an average cost of $18,748.00, whereas chemotherapy of FOLFOX4 brought 0.3808 quality-adjusted life year at a cost of $6876.02. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of FOLFOX4 versus sorafenib was $934,801.57/QALY. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on a Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 items, the probabilities of FOLFOX4 and sorafenib being cost-effective were 100% and 0% using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $20,301.00 per quality-adjusted life year. FOLFOX4 chemotherapy is likely to be a cost-effective option compared with sorafenib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in China. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of treprostinil versus epoprostenol in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a Canadian analysis.

    PubMed

    Einarson, T R; Granton, John T; Vicente, Colin; Walker, John; Engel, Greg; Iskedjian, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, exerting a tremendous health and economic impact on patients. In the present study, an economic evaluation of patients with PAH treated with either treprostinil or epoprostenol was performed. A cost-minimization analysis (a cost-effectiveness subtype) was performed under the assumption that treprostinil and epoprostenol were clinically equivalent. Two cohorts of 60 patients, treated with treprostinil or epoprostenol, were evaluated over three years by using a dynamic spreadsheet model. The evaluation included both the provincial ministries of health and societal perspectives. Resource valuation data for drugs, medical supplies, consultations, and surgical and diagnostic procedures were obtained from standard lists. Costs of hospitalizations and adverse events were derived from published sources. Additional outpatient costs were considered equivalent and, therefore, were excluded from the analysis. Costs are presented in 2003 Canadian dollars discounted at 3%. Sensitivity analyses were performed testing all uncertainties in the model. In the base-case analysis (over three years), treatment with treprostinil resulted in an expected savings of 2,610,642 US dollars and 2,781,438 US dollars from the ministries of health and societal perspectives, respectively. On a per-patient level, treatment with treprostinil resulted in an average annual savings of 14,504 US dollars and 15,452 US dollars, respectively. The greatest savings with treprostinil came from reduced hospitalizations. Multivariate sensitivity analyses estimated cost savings in greater than 99% of scenarios. By initiating and continuing treprostinil treatment over a three-year period, the economic burden associated with PAH may be reduced compared with epoprostenol treatment.

  6. A risk-profiling approach for surveillance of inflammatory bowel disease-colorectal carcinoma is more cost-effective: a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis between international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lutgens, Maurice; van Oijen, Martijn; Mooiweer, Erik; van der Valk, Mirthe; Vleggaar, Frank; Siersema, Peter; Oldenburg, Bas

    2014-11-01

    Colonoscopic surveillance for neoplasia is recommended for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related colitis. However, data on cost-effectiveness predate current international guidelines. To compare cost-effectiveness based on contemporary data between the surveillance strategies of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) and British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). We constructed a Markov decision model to simulate the clinical course of IBD patients. We compared the 2 surveillance strategies for a base case of a 40-year-old colitis patient who was followed for 40 years. AGA surveillance distinguishes 2 groups: a high-risk group with annual surveillance and an average-risk group with biannual surveillance. BSG surveillance distinguishes 3 risk groups with yearly, 3-year, or 5-year surveillance. Patients could move from a no-dysplasia state with colonoscopic surveillance to 1 of 3 states for which proctocolectomy was indicated: (1) dysplasia/local cancer, (2) regional/metastasized cancer, or (3) refractory disease. After proctocolectomy, a patient moved to a no-colon state without surveillance. Direct costs of medical care, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. BSG surveillance dominated AGA surveillance with $9846 per QALY. Both strategies were equally effective with 24.16 QALYs, but BSG surveillance was associated with lower costs because of fewer colonoscopies performed. Costs related to IBD, surgery, or cancer did not affect cost-effectiveness. The model depends on the accuracy of derived data, and the assumptions that were made to reflect real-life situations. Study conclusions may only apply to the U.S. health care system. The updated risk-profiling approach for surveillance of IBD colorectal carcinoma by the BSG guideline appears to be more cost-effective. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Optimal timing for hepatitis C therapy in US patients eligible for liver transplantation: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Njei, B; McCarty, T R; Fortune, B E; Lim, J K

    2016-11-01

    Recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) following liver transplantation (LT) is universal for those with ongoing viraemia and is associated with higher rates of allograft failure and death. However, the optimal timing of HCV treatment for patients awaiting transplant remains unclear. To evaluate the comparative cost-effectiveness of treating HCV pre-LT vs. post-LT (pre-emptive or after HCV recurrence). A Markov state-transition model was created to simulate the progression of a cohort of HCV-genotype 1 or 4 cirrhotic patients from the time of transplant listing until death. We then used this model to study the cost-effectiveness of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) with ribavirin for 12 weeks, administered for three separate treatment strategies: (i) pre-LT; (ii) post-LT preemptively prior to HCV recurrence; or (iii) post-LT after HCV recurrence. In the base-case analysis using a median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score <25 at the time of transplant, we found that pre-LT treatment of HCV led to more QALYs for fewer dollars compared to other strategies. Analysis limited to living donor LT recipients revealed that pre-LT treatment was also the most cost-effective strategy. When the analysis was repeated for MELD ≥25, decompensated disease (Child-Pugh class B or C), and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, preemptive post-LT strategy was more cost-effective. Treatment of HCV prior to liver transplantation appears to be the most cost-effective strategy for patients with a MELD score <25. For patients with a MELD ≥25 or decompensated cirrhosis, preemptive post-liver transplantation treatment before HCV recurrence is the most cost-effective strategy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Elective Neck Dissection in Patients With Clinically Node-Negative Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Joseph R.; Fero, Katherine E.; Wilson, Bayard; Sacco, Assuntina G.; Mell, Loren K.; Coffey, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recently, a large randomized trial found a survival advantage among patients who received elective neck dissection in conjunction with primary surgery for clinically node-negative oral cavity cancer compared with those receiving primary surgery alone. However, elective neck dissection comes with greater upfront cost and patient morbidity. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis of elective neck dissection for the initial surgical management of early-stage oral cavity cancer. Methods We constructed a Markov model to simulate primary, adjuvant, and salvage therapy; disease recurrence; and survival in patients with T1/T2 clinically node-negative oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Transition probabilities were derived from clinical trial data; costs (in 2015 US dollars) and health utilities were estimated from the literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as dollar per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), were calculated with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $100,000/QALY considered cost effective. We conducted one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine model uncertainty. Results Our base-case model found that over a lifetime the addition of elective neck dissection to primary surgery reduced overall costs by $6,000 and improved effectiveness by 0.42 QALYs compared with primary surgery alone. The decrease in overall cost despite the added neck dissection was a result of less use of salvage therapy. On one-way sensitivity analysis, the model was most sensitive to assumptions about disease recurrence, survival, and the health utility reduction from a neck dissection. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that treatment with elective neck dissection was cost effective 76% of the time at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Conclusion Our study found that the addition of elective neck dissection reduces costs and improves health outcomes, making this a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients

  9. New therapeutic options in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Can cost-effectiveness analysis help in treatment decisions?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Leslie; Tang, Jun; Zhong, Lixian; Balani, Gregory; Gipson, Gregory; Xiang, Pin; Yu, Dawn; Srinivas, Sandy

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone, cabazitaxel, and enzalutamide compared to placebo for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. A decision-tree model compared three treatment options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients over 18 months from a societal perspective in 2012 USD. Chance nodes included baseline pain as a severity indicator, significant adverse effects (neutropenia, cardiac events, or seizures), and survival. Probabilities, survival rates, and health utilities were from clinical trials (COU-AA, TROPIC, and AFFIRM) and other published studies. Survival of enzalutamide was adjusted to match placebo groups across trials. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses, acceptability curves and net benefit calculations were performed. Abiraterone was the most cost-effective of the treatments ($123.4 K/quality-adjusted life year) compared to placebo, enzalutamide was $437.6 K/quality-adjusted life year compared to abiraterone, and cabazitaxel was $351.9 K/quality-adjusted life year compared to enzalutamide. Enzalutamide and cabazitaxel were not cost-effective compared to placebo at $154.3 K/quality-adjusted life year and $163.2 K/quality-adjusted life year, respectively. Acceptability curves showed abiraterone was cost-effective 29.3% of the time with a willingness to pay threshold of $100 K. The model was sensitive to changes in cost of the drugs, life expectancy, and survival rate. Sensitivity analysis shows that enzalutamide can become the most cost-effective option if the price of the medication decreased by 26% and other drug costs remained the same. Based on the cost-effective analysis, and survival adjustments necessary to match placebo groups, we would recommend abiraterone for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer despite not quite falling under the usually accepted willingness to pay threshold. Further analysis should examine comparative survival across the three drugs. © The

  10. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of First Trimester Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Trisomies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brandon S.; Nelson, Richard E.; Jackson, Brian R.; Grenache, David G.; Ashwood, Edward R.; Schmidt, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new technology for diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. NIPT is more accurate than conventional maternal serum screening (MSS) but is also more costly. Contingent NIPT may provide a cost-effective alternative to universal NIPT screening. Contingent screening used a two-stage process in which risk is assessed by MSS in the first stage and, based on a risk cutoff, high-risk pregnancies are referred for NIPT. The objective of this study was to (1) determine the optimum MSS risk cutoff for contingent NIPT and (2) compare the cost effectiveness of optimized contingent NIPT to universal NIPT and conventional MSS. Study Design Decision-analytic model using micro-simulation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We evaluated cost effectiveness from three perspectives: societal, governmental, and payer. Results From a societal perspective, universal NIPT dominated both contingent NIPT and MSS. From a government and payer perspective, contingent NIPT dominated MSS. Compared to contingent NIPT, adopting a universal NIPT would cost $203,088 for each additional case detected from a government perspective and $263,922 for each additional case detected from a payer perspective. Conclusions From a societal perspective, universal NIPT is a cost-effective alternative to MSS and contingent NIPT. When viewed from narrower perspectives, contingent NIPT is less costly than universal NIPT and provides a cost-effective alternative to MSS. PMID:26133556

  11. Methods of cost-effectiveness analysis in the evaluation of new antipsychotics: implications for schizophrenia treatment.

    PubMed

    Neumann, P J

    1999-01-01

    Because health care payers are increasingly interested in learning whether new treatments offer value for money, there has been an abundance of research into the cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies in the United States. In the past few years, a number of studies comparing the cost-effectiveness of the conventional neuroleptics with that of the atypical antipsychotics have been published. Cost-effectiveness analyses show the relationship between the resources used (costs) and the health benefits achieved (effects) for a health or medical intervention compared with an alternative strategy. Ideally, the analyses can help decision makers improve the health of the population by better allocating society's limited health care resources. However, the extent to which cost-effectiveness data are actually used in decision making is unclear. The analyses are sometimes viewed with skepticism, in part because studies differ in their methodological approaches. Recently, the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine offered recommendations for standard methodological practices, which may help improve the quality of studies and the acceptability of the approach in the future. The issue is particularly important in light of new legislation governing how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate promotional claims made by drug companies regarding health economic information.

  12. The impact of ignoring population heterogeneity when Markov models are used in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaric, Gregory S

    2003-01-01

    Many factors related to the spread and progression of diseases vary throughout a population. This heterogeneity is frequently ignored in cost-effectiveness analyses by using average or representative values or by considering multiple risk groups. The author explores the impact that such simplifying assumptions may have on the results and interpretation of cost-effectiveness analyses when Markov models are used to calculate the costs and health impact of interventions. A discrete-time Markov model for a disease is defined, and 5 potential interventions are considered. Health benefits, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are calculated for each intervention. It is assumed that the population is heterogeneous with respect to the probability of becoming sick. Ignoring this heterogeneity may lead to optimistic or pessimistic estimates of cost-effectiveness ratios, depending on the intervention and, in some cases, the parameter values. Implications are discussed of this finding on the use of league tables and on comparisons of cost-effectiveness ratios versus commonly accepted threshold values.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of microdose clinical trials in drug development.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Naoe; Igarashi, Ataru; Kusama, Makiko; Maeda, Kazuya; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Microdose (MD) clinical trials have been introduced to obtain human pharmacokinetic data early in drug development. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of microdose integrated drug development in a hypothetical model, as there was no such quantitative research that weighed the additional effectiveness against the additional time and/or cost. First, we calculated the cost and effectiveness (i.e., success rate) of 3 types of MD integrated drug development strategies: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, and positron emission tomography. Then, we analyzed the cost-effectiveness of 9 hypothetical scenarios where 100 drug candidates entering into a non-clinical toxicity study were selected by different methods as the conventional scenario without MD. In the base-case, where 70 drug candidates were selected without MD and 30 selected evenly by one of the three MD methods, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per one additional drug approved was JPY 12.7 billion (US$ 0.159 billion), whereas the average cost-effectiveness ratio of the conventional strategy was JPY 24.4 billion, which we set as a threshold. Integrating MD in the conventional drug development was cost-effective in this model. This quantitative analytical model which allows various modifications according to each company's conditions, would be helpful for guiding decisions early in clinical development.

  14. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of HIV testing strategy in hospitals from 2006 to 2010 in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xin, Qian-qian; Xu, Hui-fang; Liang, Cai-yun; Han, Zhi-gang; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Peng; Wang, Ming; Lü, Fan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of HIV testing strategy in hospitals from 2006 to 2010 in Guangzhou. According to the HIV test strategy costs and the number of HIV patients found in Guangzhou, following aspects were calculated as the total cost of HIV testing strategy in hospitals from 2006 to 2010 of Guangzhou, the cost of finding each HIV patient, and the cost of obtaining one quality adjusted life year (QALY) using Markov model. The total HIV test strategy costs increased from 11 106.98 thousand Yuan to 25 105.58 thousand Yuan, and 4599 HIV positive patients were found due to this strategy. The cost-effectiveness of HIV testing were different in hospitals from 2006 to 2010 in Guangzhou. The lowest cost-effectiveness ratio of HIV testing strategy was 11 810 Yuan per HIV positive patient, the highest was 23 510 Yuan, and the average was 16 070 Yuan. According to the Markov model result, 7.2855 QALYs could be gained per HIV patient on average via HIV testing strategy in 113 hospitals in Guangzhou, and the cost of obtaining one QALY was 2210 Yuan. The cost effectiveness ratio of HIV testing strategy in hospitals in Guangzhou was significantly lower than the standard of WHO recommended, and it was cost-effective to carry out the HIV testing strategy in Guangzhou.

  15. Preliminary report on the cost effectiveness of ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Takura, Tomoyuki; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tominaga, Ryuji; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of ventricular assist devices (VAD) implantation surgery in the Japanese medical reimbursement system. The study group consisted of thirty-seven patients who had undergone VAD implantation surgery for dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 25; 67.6 %) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 4; 10.8 %), and others (n = 8; 21.6 %). Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using the utility score and years of life. Medical reimbursement bills were chosen as cost indices. The observation period was the 12-month period after surgery. Then, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated according to the VAD type. In addition, the prognosis after 36 months was estimated on the basis of the results obtained using the Markov chain model. The mean preoperative INTERMACS profile score was 2.35 ± 0.77. Our results showed that the utility score, which indicates the effectiveness of VAD implantation surgery, improved by 0.279 ± 0.188 (ΔQALY, p < 0.05). The cost of VAD implantation surgery was 313,282 ± 25,275 (ΔUS$/year) on the basis of medical reimbursement bills associated with therapeutic interventions. The calculated result of CEA was 364,501 ± 190,599 (ΔUS$/QALY). The improvement in the utility score was greater for implantable versus extracorporeal VADs (0.233 ± 0.534 vs. 0.371 ± 0.238) and ICER was 303,104 (ΔUS$/ΔQALY). Furthermore, when we estimated CEA for 36 months, the expected baseline value was 102,712 (US$/QALY). Therefore, VAD implantation surgery was cost effective considering the disease specificities.

  16. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Folic Acid Fortification Policy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Tanya G.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Willett, Walter C.; Kuntz, KM

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the health and economic outcomes associated with changes in folic acid consumption following fortification of enriched grain products in the United States. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting Annual burden of disease, quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), and costs were projected for four steady-state strategies: no fortification or fortifying with 140, 350, or 700 micrograms (mcg) folic acid per 100 grams (g) enriched grain. The analysis considered four health outcomes: neural tube defects (NTDs); myocardial infarctions (MIs); colon cancers; and B-12 deficiency maskings. Subjects U.S. adult population subgroups defined by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, with folate intake distributions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1992 and 1999-2000), and reference sources for disease incidence, utility, and economic estimates. Results The greatest benefits from fortification were predicted in MI prevention, with 16,862 and 88,172 cases averted per year in steady state for the 140-mcg and 700-mcg fortification levels, respectively. These projections were 6,261 and 38,805 for colon cancer and 182 and 1,423 for NTDs, while 15 to 820 additional B-12 cases were predicted. Compared with no fortification, all post-fortification strategies provided QALY gains and cost savings for all subgroups, with predicted population benefits of 266,649 QALYs gained and $3.6 billion saved in the long run by changing the fortification level from 140-mcg/100-g enriched grain to 700-mcg/100-g. Conclusions This study indicates that the health and economic gains of folic acid fortification far outweigh the losses for the U.S. population, and that increasing the level of fortification deserves further consideration to maximize net gains. PMID:18590584

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of folic acid fortification policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tanya Gk; Weinstein, Milton C; Willett, Walter C; Kuntz, Karen M

    2009-04-01

    To quantify the health and economic outcomes associated with changes in folic acid consumption following the fortification of enriched grain products in the USA. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Annual burden of disease, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and costs were projected for four steady-state strategies: no fortification, or fortifying with 140, 350 or 700 microg folic acid per 100 g enriched grain. The analysis considered four health outcomes: neural tube defects (NTD), myocardial infarctions (MI), colon cancers and B12 deficiency maskings. The US adult population subgroups defined by age, gender and race/ethnicity, with folate intake distributions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1992 and 1999-2000), and reference sources for disease incidence, utility and economic estimates. The greatest benefits from fortification were predicted in MI prevention, with 16 862 and 88 172 cases averted per year in steady state for the 140 and 700 microg fortification levels, respectively. These projections were between 6261 and 38 805 for colon cancer and 182 and 1423 for NTD, while 15-820 additional B12 cases were predicted. Compared with no fortification, all post-fortification strategies provided QALY gains and cost savings for all subgroups, with predicted population benefits of 266 649 QALY gained and $3.6 billion saved in the long run by changing the fortification level from 140 microg/100 g enriched grain to 700 microg/100 g. The present study indicates that the health and economic gains of folic acid fortification far outweigh the losses for the US population, and that increasing the level of fortification deserves further consideration to maximise net gains.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of risk stratified followup after urethral reconstruction: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Belsante, Michael J; Zhao, Lee C; Hudak, Steven J; Lotan, Yair; Morey, Allen F

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel risk stratified followup protocol for use after urethroplasty and explore potential cost savings. Decision analysis was performed comparing a symptom based, risk stratified protocol for patients undergoing excision and primary anastomosis urethroplasty vs a standard regimen of close followup for urethroplasty. Model assumptions included that excision and primary anastomosis has a 94% success rate, 11% of patients with successful urethroplasty had persistent lower urinary tract symptoms requiring cystoscopic evaluation, patients in whom treatment failed undergo urethrotomy and patients with recurrence on symptom based surveillance have a delayed diagnosis requiring suprapubic tube drainage. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2010 was queried to identify the number of urethroplasties performed per year in the United States. Costs were obtained based on Medicare reimbursement rates. The 5-year cost of a symptom based, risk stratified followup protocol is $430 per patient vs $2,827 per patient using standard close followup practice. An estimated 7,761 urethroplasties were performed in the United States in 2010. Assuming that 60% were excision and primary anastomosis, and with more than 5 years of followup, the risk stratified protocol was projected to yield an estimated savings of $11,165,130. Sensitivity analysis showed that the symptom based, risk stratified followup protocol was far more cost-effective than standard close followup in all settings. Less than 1% of patients would be expected to have an asymptomatic recurrence using the risk stratified followup protocol. A risk stratified, symptom based approach to urethroplasty followup would produce a significant reduction in health care costs while decreasing unnecessary followup visits, invasive testing and radiation exposure. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of short-term clopidogrel therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gibler, Kyle B; Huskamp, Haiden A; Sabatine, Marc S; Murphy, Sabina A; Cohen, David J; Cannon, Christopher P

    2010-03-01

    Clopidogrel improves outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is recommended in the guidelines. We sought to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel therapy in this patient population. We used primary patient-level resource use and clinical outcomes data from 3491 STEMI patients treated with fibrinolysis and either clopidogrel or placebo prior to a diagnostic coronary angiogram in the Clopidogrel as Adjunctive Reperfusion Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 28 (CLARITY-TIMI 28) trial. Costs for each patient were calculated based on diagnosis-related groups-specific Medicare reimbursement rates for all hospitalizations and the average wholesale price of clopidogrel. Cost per event prevented and cost per life year gained (LYG) were calculated using standard methods. The estimate of LYG due to clopidogrel therapy was based on recurrent myocardial infarction and death outcomes. The bootstrap method was used to produce bias-corrected confidence intervals for cost and efficacy estimates as well as the cost per LYG ratio. Total costs and resource use were not significantly different for the clopidogrel and placebo groups ($8128 vs. $8134), indicating that short-term clopidogrel therapy is an economically dominant treatment strategy. Even in a sensitivity analysis accounting for higher long-term medical costs due to greater life expectancy, clopidogrel remained under $6000 per LYG. Clopidogrel therapy was dominant in 35% of the bootstrap simulations and cost less than $50,000 per LYG in 67% of simulations. In conclusion, this analysis finds short-term clopidogrel therapy to be a highly economically attractive therapy, improving patient outcomes at no increase in costs.

  20. In Vitro Cell Death Discrimination and Screening Method by Simple and Cost-Effective Viability Analysis.

    PubMed

    Helm, Katharina; Beyreis, Marlena; Mayr, Christian; Ritter, Markus; Jakab, Martin; Kiesslich, Tobias; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2017-01-01

    For in vitro cytotoxicity testing, discrimination of apoptosis and necrosis represents valuable information. Viability analysis performed at two different time points post treatment could serve such a purpose because the dynamics of metabolic activity of apoptotic and necrotic cells is different, i.e. a more rapid decline of cellular metabolism during necrosis whereas cellular metabolism is maintained during the entire execution phase of apoptosis. This study describes a straightforward approach to distinguish apoptosis and necrosis. A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations/doses of actinomycin D (Act-D), 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole (TBB), Ro 31-8220, H2O2 and photodynamic treatment (PDT). The resazurin viability signal was recorded at 2 and 24 hrs post treatment. Apoptosis and necrosis were verified by measuring caspase 3/7 and membrane integrity. Calculation of the difference curve between the 2 and 24 hrs resazurin signals yields the following information: a positive difference signal indicates apoptosis (i.e. high metabolic activity at early time points and low signal at 24 hrs post treatment) while an early reduction of the viability signal indicates necrosis. For all treatments, this dose-dependent sequence of cellular responses could be confirmed by independent assays. Simple and cost-effective viability analysis provides reliable information about the dose ranges of a cytotoxic agent where apoptosis or necrosis occurs. This may serve as a starting point for further in-depth characterisation of cytotoxic treatments. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Nutritional policy changes in the supplemental nutrition assistance program: a microsimulation and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Seligman, Hilary; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2013-10-01

    Some experts have proposed limiting the use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, for calorie-dense foods or subsidizing SNAP purchases of healthier foods. To estimate health effects and cost-effectiveness of banning or taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) or subsidizing fruits and vegetables purchased with SNAP. . Microsimulation. Data Sources. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, US Department of Agriculture Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database, and SNAP program data. US adults aged 25 to 64 y. Time Horizon. 10 y. Perspective. Governmental. Incremental costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), body mass index, Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Food Security Score, diabetes person-years, and deaths from myocardial infarctions (MIs) and strokes. of Base-Case Analysis. Banning SSB purchases using SNAP benefits would be expected to avert 510,000 diabetes person-years and 52,000 deaths from MIs and strokes over the next decade, with a savings of $2900 per QALY saved. A penny-per-ounce tax on SSBs purchased with SNAP dollars would produce higher cost savings due to tax revenues but avert fewer chronic disease deaths. However, some SNAP participants are likely to preferentially purchase SSBs through their disposable income, indirectly reducing their food security. A 30% produce subsidy would be expected to avert 39,000 diabetes person-years and 4600 cardiovascular deaths over 10 y without effects on food security. Results of Sensitivity Analysis. Results are sensitive to the intake elasticities of SSBs and produce. Limitations. Input data did not provide information on heterogeneity in response to price changes within the SNAP-using SNAP restrictions on SSBs could lower chronic disease mortality, but further testing should examine indirect effects on disposable income and food security. Subsidizing produce could confer fewer benefits or risks but at higher cost.

  2. The cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly Australians: an exploratory analysis of the vaccine efficacy required.

    PubMed

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo

    2014-03-10

    It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money.

  3. Attitudes and opinions of dietetics professionals toward cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses.

    PubMed

    Gilbride, J A; Parks, S C; Palakurthi, R R

    1994-04-01

    To compare the attitudes and opinions of dietitians and dietary managers in regard to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A questionnaire was sent nationwide to a sample of 1,074 dietitians and 454 dietary managers. The dietitians were randomly selected from three dietetic practice groups of The American Dietetic Association that have practitioners with administrative responsibilities in health care: Clinical Nutrition Management, Consultant Dietitians in Health Care Facilities, and Management in Healthcare Systems. The random sample of dietary managers was drawn from the membership list of the Dietary Managers Association. We hypothesized that there would be a difference between the dietitians and dietary managers in their attitudes about, and experiences in conducting CBA and CEA. Data analysis incorporated frequencies, means, and standard deviations to describe the respondents. Pearson's pairwise correlations and analysis of variance examined the significance of the relationships among the variables of the study. Scheffe's test was conducted to identify which variables related closely to each other. Seven hundred twenty-two usable questionnaires were returned, which gave an overall response rate of 47%. Although both professional groups had experience with reducing costs at their jobs, they did not think it important to conduct CBA and CEA. Neither group could distinguish between CBA and CEA. Dietitians, who were more positive toward using CBA and CEA, saw them as important techniques that could justify the value of dietetics services. Dietitians were also more likely than the dietary managers to use the techniques in the future. Dietitians were beginning to explore the techniques, but they did not feel that good sources of information were available for conducting CBA and CEA studies. Our findings suggest a strong need to educate dietitians and dietary managers in the techniques and proper use of CBA and CEA in practice settings

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Systematic Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Manfredi, Mariangela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of treatments that have changed the “natural history” of a chronic progressive disease needs to be evaluated over the long term. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and should be started as early as possible. A number of studies have shown that they are effective in improving disease activity and function, and in joint damage. Our review was focused on revision and critical evaluation of the studies including the literature on cost effectiveness of DMARDs (cyclosporine A, sulphasalazine, leflunomide, and methotrexate). The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations showed that traditional DMARDs are cost effective at the time of disease onset. They are less expensive than biological DMARDs and can be useful in controlling disease activity in early RA. PMID:22162693

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PET-CT-guided management for locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, A F; Hall, P S; Hulme, C T; Dunn, J A; McConkey, C C; Rahman, J K; McCabe, C; Mehanna, H

    2017-09-04

    A recent large United Kingdom (UK) clinical trial demonstrated that positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)-guided administration of neck dissection (ND) in patients with advanced head and neck cancer after primary chemo-radiotherapy treatment produces similar survival outcomes to planned ND (standard care) and is cost-effective over a short-term horizon. Further assessment of long-term outcomes is required to inform a robust adoption decision. Here we present results of a lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis of PET-CT-guided management from a UK secondary care perspective. Initial 6-month cost and health outcomes were derived from trial data; subsequent incidence of recurrence and mortality was simulated using a de novo Markov model. Health benefit was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs reported in 2015 British pounds. Model parameters were derived from trial data and published literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of uncertainty and broader National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services (PSS) costs on the results. PET-CT management produced an average per-person lifetime cost saving of £1485 and an additional 0.13 QALYs. At a £20,000 willingness-to-pay per additional QALY threshold, there was a 75% probability that PET-CT was cost-effective, and the results remained cost-effective over the majority of sensitivity analyses. When adopting a broader NHS and PSS perspective, PET-CT management produced an average saving of £700 and had an 81% probability of being cost-effective. This analysis indicates that PET-CT-guided management is cost-effective in the long-term and supports the case for wide-scale adoption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Pre-Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-Targeted Intervention with Ontario's Autism Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S. Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario…

  7. Priority Determination and Resource Allocation by Planning-Programming-Budgeting and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James G.; Rath, Gustave J.

    A planning/programing/budgeting system and a cost-effectiveness analysis are complementary rather than opposing methods of operations research. The relative value of each process is dependent on the function each is to fulfill. The planning/programing/budgeting system is useful in determining educational objectives, developing programs to meet…

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Pre-Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-Targeted Intervention with Ontario's Autism Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S. Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario…

  9. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  10. Febuxostat in the management of gout: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Lee J; Gahn, James C; Mitri, Ghaith; Shiozawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of febuxostat vs allopurinol for the management of gout. A stochastic microsimulation cost-effectiveness model with a US private-payer perspective and 5-year time horizon was developed. Model flow based on guideline and real-world treatment paradigms incorporated gout flare, serum uric acid (sUA) testing, treatment titration, discontinuation, and adverse events, chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence and progression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence. Outcomes were estimated for the general gout population and for gout patients with CKD stages 3/4. Modeled treatment interventions were daily oral febuxostat 40-80 mg and allopurinol 100-300 mg. Baseline patient characteristics were taken from epidemiologic studies, efficacy data from randomized controlled trials, adverse event rates from package inserts, and costs from the literature, government sources, and expert opinion. Eight clinically-relevant incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated: per patient reaching target sUA, per flare avoided, per CKD incidence, progression, stages 3/4 progression, and stage 5 progression avoided, per incident T2DM avoided, and per death avoided. Five-year incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the general gout population were $5377 per patient reaching target sUA, $1773 per flare avoided, $221,795 per incident CKD avoided, $29,063 per CKD progression avoided, $36,018 per progression to CKD 3/4 avoided, $71,426 per progression to CKD 5 avoided, $214,277 per incident T2DM avoided, and $217,971 per death avoided. In patients with CKD 3/4, febuxostat dominated allopurinol for all cost-effectiveness outcome measures. Febuxostat may be a cost-effective alternative to allopurinol, especially for patients with CKD stages 3 or 4.

  11. Preventing and Treating Peri-Implantitis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tu, Yu-Kang; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-09-01

    A large number of treatments for peri-implantitis are available, but their cost-effectiveness remains uncertain. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of preventing and treating peri-implantitis. A Markov model was constructed that followed each implant over 20 years. Supportive implant therapy (SIT) for managing peri-implant mucositis and preventing development of peri-implantitis was either provided or not. Risk of peri-implantitis was assumed to be affected by SIT and the patient's risk profile. If peri-implantitis occurred, 11 treatment strategies (non-surgical or surgical debridement alone or combined with adjunct therapies) were compared. Treatments and risk profiles determined disease progression. Modeling was performed based on systematically collected data. Primary outcomes were costs and proportion of lost implants, as assessed via Monte Carlo microsimulations. Not providing SIT and performing only non-surgical debridement was both least costly and least effective. The next best (more costly and effective) option was to provide SIT and perform surgical debridement (additional 0.89 euros per 1% fewer implants lost). The most effective option included bone grafts, membranes, and laser treatment (56 euros per 1%). For patients at high risk, the cost-effectiveness of SIT increased, whereas in low-risk groups, a cost-optimized strategy was cost-effective. Although clinical decision-making will be guided mainly by clinical condition, cost-effectiveness analyses might add another perspective. Based on these findings, an unambiguous comparative effectiveness ranking was not established. However, cost-effectiveness was predominantly determined by provision of SIT and initial treatment costs. Transferability of these findings to other healthcare systems needs further confirmation.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a pertussis vaccination programme for Japan considering intergenerational infection.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Tomoya; Shimizu, Sachiko; Iwasa, Maya; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2013-06-12

    The incidence of pertussis in adolescence and adulthood has been increasing, and pertussis outbreaks have occurred sporadically in Japan. The risk of intergenerational infection of pertussis is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination programmes for replacing the conventional diphtheria-tetanus (DT) vaccine programme administered in adolescence, considering the risk of intergenerational infection. We examined the cost-effectiveness of 4 pertussis vaccination programmes: (1) one-time adolescent DT vaccination (DT); (2) one-time adolescent DT-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; (3) one-time adolescent DTaP with decennial booster (DTaP+booster); and (4) one-time adolescent DTaP with additional vaccination targeted at parents with infants (additional DTaP for parents). We adapted a state-transition Markov model to estimate the costs and effectiveness of vaccination in the adolescent and adult cohorts and then considered intergenerational infection from adolescents/adults to infants. We assumed a societal perspective to estimate results and expressed these in terms of cost, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). At an incidence of 25 per 100,000, the ICERs of the DTaP and additional DTaP for parents strategies were 3,576,072 JPY and 240,055,273 JPY, respectively, when intergenerational transmission of infection was considered. The ICER for the DTaP+booster strategy was dominated. Alternative vaccination programmes are not currently cost-effective. If intergenerational infection considered, one-time adolescent DTaP vaccination is cost-effective. More accurate reports of pertussis incidence are required as the results of cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccination vary greatly depending on incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsourapas, A; Middleton, L J; Champaneria, R; Daniels, J P; Cooper, K G; Bhattacharya, S; Barton, P M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To undertake a cost effectiveness analysis comparing first and second generation endometrial ablative techniques, hysterectomy, and the levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for treating heavy menstrual bleeding. Design Model based economic evaluation with data from an individual patient data meta-analysis supplemented with cost and outcome data from published sources taking an NHS (National Health Service) perspective. A state transition (Markov) model was developed, the structure being informed by the reviews of the trials and clinical input. A subgroup analysis, one way sensitivity analysis, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were also carried out. Population Four hypothetical cohorts of women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Interventions One of four alternative strategies: Mirena, first or second generation endometrial ablation techniques, or hysterectomy. Main outcome measures Cost effectiveness based on incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Results Hysterectomy is the preferred strategy for the first intervention for heavy menstrual bleeding. Although hysterectomy is more expensive, it produces more QALYs relative to other remaining strategies and is likely to be considered cost effective. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for hysterectomy compared with Mirena is £1440 (€1633, $2350) per additional QALY. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for hysterectomy compared with second generation ablation is £970 per additional QALY. Conclusion In light of the acceptable thresholds used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, hysterectomy would be considered the preferred strategy for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. The results concur with those of other studies but are highly sensitive to utility values used in the analysis. PMID:21521730

  14. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Murphy, Shane; Anderson, Benjamin; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Glass, Roger; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-10-01

    An estimated 4% of global child deaths (approximately 300,000 deaths) were attributed to rotavirus in 2010. About a third of these deaths occurred in India and Ethiopia. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in these two countries could substantially decrease child mortality and also reduce rotavirus-related hospitalizations, prevent health-related impoverishment and bring significant cost savings to households. We use a methodology of 'extended cost-effectiveness analysis' (ECEA) to evaluate a hypothetical publicly financed program for rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia. We measure program impact along four dimensions: 1) rotavirus deaths averted; 2) household expenditures averted; 3) financial risk protection afforded; 4) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country populations. In India and Ethiopia, the program would lead to a substantial decrease in rotavirus deaths, mainly among the poorer; it would reduce household expenditures across all income groups and it would effectively provide financial risk protection, mostly concentrated among the poorest. Potential indirect benefits of vaccination (herd immunity) would increase program benefits among all income groups, whereas potentially decreased vaccine efficacy among poorer households would reduce the equity benefits of the program. Our approach incorporates financial risk protection and distributional consequences into the systematic economic evaluation of vaccine policy, illustrated here with the case study of public finance for rotavirus vaccination. This enables selection of vaccine packages based on the quantitative inclusion of information on equity and on how much financial risk protection is being bought per dollar expenditure on vaccine policy, in addition to how much health is being bought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404–411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  16. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404-411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  17. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption: a cost-effectiveness analysis of public policies.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Jean; Dauchet, Luc; de Mouzon, Olivier; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2011-02-01

    In many countries, consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) is below recommended levels. We quantify the economic and health effects of alternative policy (P) scenarios aiming to increase F&V consumption: (P1) 3.4% reduction in VAT, (P2) €100/year/person F&V stamp policy designed for low-income consumers (LIC) and (P3) €10 M information campaign. An economic model of the F&V market provides F&V consumption variations to a health impact model, leading to the number of deaths avoided (DA) and life-years saved (LYS). We compare the cost per statistical DA and LYS, taking into account the public costs of alternative policies. This analysis is applied to France in 2006. Relative risks of death for one additional F&V portion are disease dependent (range: 0.84-0.99). The highest variations in F&V consumption levels (less than +10 g/day/person on average) and health effects (<+600 DA, <+10 000 LYS) are modest. The costs/LYS are smaller for information campaign (€3 k), followed by VAT reduction (€99 k) and food stamp policy (€403 k). However, the information campaign leads to less LYS than VAT reduction. The food stamp policy reduces health inequalities between LIC and others, whereas the other ones can increase them. Our results suggest that (i) LYS are larger with VAT reduction than F&V stamps policies, (ii) information campaigns are the most cost-effective and (iii) market forces can limit the impacts of public health policies designed to favour F&V consumption increase.

  18. How to Appropriately Extrapolate Costs and Utilities in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bojke, Laura; Manca, Andrea; Asaria, Miqdad; Mahon, Ronan; Ren, Shijie; Palmer, Stephen

    2017-05-03

    Costs and utilities are key inputs into any cost-effectiveness analysis. Their estimates are typically derived from individual patient-level data collected as part of clinical studies the follow-up duration of which is often too short to allow a robust quantification of the likely costs and benefits a technology will yield over the patient's entire lifetime. In the absence of long-term data, some form of temporal extrapolation-to project short-term evidence over a longer time horizon-is required. Temporal extrapolation inevitably involves assumptions regarding the behaviour of the quantities of interest beyond the time horizon supported by the clinical evidence. Unfortunately, the implications for decisions made on the basis of evidence derived following this practice and the degree of uncertainty surrounding the validity of any assumptions made are often not fully appreciated. The issue is compounded by the absence of methodological guidance concerning the extrapolation of non-time-to-event outcomes such as costs and utilities. This paper considers current approaches to predict long-term costs and utilities, highlights some of the challenges with the existing methods, and provides recommendations for future applications. It finds that, typically, economic evaluation models employ a simplistic approach to temporal extrapolation of costs and utilities. For instance, their parameters (e.g. mean) are typically assumed to be homogeneous with respect to both time and patients' characteristics. Furthermore, costs and utilities have often been modelled to follow the dynamics of the associated time-to-event outcomes. However, cost and utility estimates may be more nuanced, and it is important to ensure extrapolation is carried out appropriately for these parameters.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Hiromasa; Takayama, Shinji; Shiokawa, Mitsuru; Inoue, Tadao

    2008-04-01

    Recently, ambulatory treatment centers (ATC) are markedly increasingboth in number and scale. It is therefore important to consolidate an efficient therapeutic system. A decrease in both treatment time and waitingtime leads to not only the improvement of the quality of life (QOL) for patients but also the efficient use of personnel and running costs for medical institutions by reducingthe bed occupation rate. In ATC, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used for high emetic risk patients. However, their high cost and prolonged treatment causes one of the problems in improvingthe efficiency of the therapeutic system when they are administered by intravenous infusion. Amongthe 4 types of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (injections) currently available in Japan, azasetron is the only drugthat is not designated as a powerful drug and that can be administered by bolus intravenous infusion. In this study, we investigated azasetron and granisetron from the standpoint of pharmacoeconomics with a simulation model using the results of clinical studies in Japan. Accordingto the results of cost-effectiveness analysis, therapeutic and time costs per patient for azasetron 10 mgand granisetron 2 mg (calculated in consideration of both medical institutions and patients) was 8,219 and 10,193 yen, respectively. This gap was attributable to the time loss due to the difference in administration methods. The result suggests that this time loss is more significant not only for patients but also for medical staff than the loss attributable to the drugcost. Furthermore, the bolus intravenous infusion of azasetron is considered superior to the non-bolus intravenous infusion of granisetron from a pharmacoeconomic standpoint. It is desirable to choose the appropriate administration method of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in various chemotherapy regimens for the purpose of reducingthe treatment time and promotingthe efficiency of the therapeutic system at ATCs.

  20. Cost and cost-effectiveness analysis of a bundled intervention to enhance outcomes after stroke in Nigeria: Rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Salako, Babatunde L.; Hurst, Samantha; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Uvere, Ezinne; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The economic and social costs of stroke to the society can be enormous. These costs can cause serious economic damage to both the individual and the nation. It is thus important to conduct a cost effectiveness analysis to indicate whether an intervention provides high value where its health benefits justify its costs. This study will provide evidence based on the costs of stroke with a view of improving intervention and treatments of stoke survivors in Nigeria. This study utilizes two types of economic evaluation methods - cost-effectiveness analysis and cost–benefit analysis - to determine the economic impact of Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) intervention. The study is conducted in four Nigerian hospitals where 400 patients are recruited to participate in the study. The cost-effectiveness of THRIVES post-discharge intervention is compared with the control Intervention scenario, which is the usual and customary care delivered at each health facility in terms of cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs). It is expected that successful implementation of the project would serve as a model of cost-effective quality stroke care for implementation. PMID:26640824

  1. Partial-Breast Irradiation Versus Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Wittenberg, Eve; Suh, W. Warren; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Punglia, Rinaa S.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) is a new treatment paradigm for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Although PBI may lead to greater local recurrence rates, it may be cost-effective because of better tolerability and lower cost. We aim to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of PBI compared with whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal women treated for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. External beam (EB) and MammoSite (MS) PBI were considered and assumed to be equally effective, but carried different costs. Patients received tamoxifen, but not chemotherapy. Utilities, recurrence risks, and costs were adapted from the literature; the baseline utility for no disease after radiotherapy was set at 0.92. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in the PBI hazard ratio, recurrence pattern, and patient utilities. Costs (in 2004 US dollars) and quality-adjusted life-years were discounted at 3%/y. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for WBRT compared with EB-PBI was $630,000/quality-adjusted life-year; WBRT strongly dominated MS-PBI. One-way sensitivity analysis found that results were sensitive to PBI hazard ratio, recurrence pattern, baseline recurrence risk, and no evidence of disease PBI utility values. Probabilistic sensitivity showed that EB-PBI was the most cost-effective technique over a wide range of assumptions and societal willingness-to-pay values. Conclusions: EB-PBI was the most cost-effective strategy for postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer. Unless the quality of life after MS-PBI proves to be superior, it is unlikely to be cost-effective.

  2. Gastroprotective strategies in chronic NSAID users: a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing single-tablet formulations with individual components.

    PubMed

    de Groot, N L; Spiegel, B M R; van Haalen, H G M; de Wit, N J; Siersema, P D; van Oijen, M G H

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of competing gastroprotective strategies, including single-tablet formulations, in the prevention of gastrointestinal (GI) complications in patients with chronic arthritis taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We performed a cost-utility analysis to compare eight gastroprotective strategies including NSAIDs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2 receptor antagonists, misoprostol, and single-tablet formulations. We derived estimates for outcomes and costs from medical literature. The primary outcome was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. We performed sensitivity analyses to assess the effect of GI complications, compliance rates, and drug costs. For average-risk patients, NSAID + PPI cotherapy was most cost-effective. The NSAID/PPI single-tablet formulation became cost-effective only when its price decreased from €0.78 to €0.56 per tablet, or when PPI compliance fell below 51% in the NSAID + PPI strategy. All other strategies were more costly and less effective. The model was highly sensitive to the GI complication risk, costs of PPI and NSAID/PPI single-tablet formulation, and compliance to PPI. In patients with a threefold higher risk of GI complications, both NSAID + PPI cotherapy and single-tablet formulation were cost-effective. NSAID + PPI cotherapy is the most cost-effective strategy in all patients with chronic arthritis irrespective of their risk for GI complications. For patients with increased GI risk, the NSAID/PPI single-tablet formulation is also cost-effective. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment initiated during psychiatric hospitalization: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment for psychiatric inpatients. Method Smokers, regardless of intention to quit, were recruited during psychiatric hospitalization and randomized to receive stage-based smoking cessation services or usual aftercare. Smoking cessation services, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed during 18-months of follow-up. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov