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Sample records for costa caribe colombiana

  1. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  2. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent.

  3. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1981-11-01

    The focus in this discussion of Costa Rica is on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The government of Costa Rica does not advocate direct intervention to modify the rate of population growth, largely because of its rapid decline in fertility and its moderate rate of natural increase. 5 censuses have been conducted since 1892, and the most recent census was conducted in 1973. The registration for births and deaths is complete. A National Fertility Survey was conducted in 1976 in cooperation with the World Fertility Survey. An important government priority in recent years has been the development of an institutional framework for the further integration of population factors within development plans. A National Commission on Population Policy was established in 1978. Population policy is viewed as instrumental in realizing the government's political objectives and overall development goals. The National Commission on Population Policy approved the terms of reference for a comprehensive population policy in 1979. The government considers its rate of population growth to be unsatisfactory because it remains moderately high. The crude death rate was estimated to be slightly more than 4/1000 in 1977. The government considers levels and trends of mortality to be acceptable. The crude birthrate declined to about 22.0 in 1975. The government considers levels and trends of fertility to be unsatisfactory because they are too high. The government now considers levels and trends of emigration to be significant and unsatisfactory

  4. Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Marco; Förster, Eric; Bönisch, Harald; Fischbeck, Garlich; Safadi, Layal; Hermann, Markus; Assmann, Denise; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Since May 2005 the CARIBIC passenger aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container - Lufthansa, Airbus 340-600) measures ˜100 trace gases and aerosol components in the UTLS (9-12 km altitude) on 4-6 consecutive long-distance flights per month. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are measured with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). In 2017 the current instrument will be replaced by an improved version, similar to the one operated by our group onboard the HALO research aircraft. Worldwide ˜1.3 Tg/y of acetonitrile (CH3CN) is emitted into the atmosphere almost exclusively from biomass burning (BB) together with other VOCs (e.g. ketones, aldehydes, aromatics), CO, CO2, NOx and aerosol particles. Therefore, and due to its rather long tropospheric lifetime of ˜6 months, acetonitrile constitutes a reliable BB tracer. Based on the signal of acetonitrile and CO, we analyzed the IAGOS-CARIBIC data set with respect to signatures of BB. The most intense but relatively rare BB signals (up to ˜1200 pptV acetonitrile, i.e. ˜8 times the tropospheric background) were sampled ˜3 km above the thermal tropopause over North America and Greenland in boreal summer. However, the largest contribution of BB signatures (˜40%) was observed over the tropics in autumn and winter. In the tropics ECMWF back trajectory calculations show that the upward transport is driven by convection and we found hints for secondary O3 production in BB affected air masses leading to an enhancement of ˜25 ppb O3 relative to the tropospheric background. Based on our applied detection algorithm, ˜8% of the IAGOS-CARIBIC data were identified to be affected by BB.

  5. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Costa Rica is a country of 51,032 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 93% are literate. Independence was gained on September 15, 1821. The terrain consists of eastern and western coastal plains separated by a rugged, central massif, with a climate ranging from tropical to subtropical. Spanish and a Jamaican dialect of English are spoken by European, black, and indigenous ethnic groups who are overwhelmingly of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is approximately 70 years. The gross domestic product is $5.6 billion, growing at a rate of 1%. Per capita income is $1810. Hydroelectric power is a natural resource of the country. Food processing, textiles, construction materials, and fertilizer, as well as banana, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain agriculture are areas of economic production. Manufactured goods, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuel, food, and fertilizer are imported, and bananas, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country.

  6. Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Hermann, Markus; Scharffe, Dieter; Safadi, Layal; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC Since May 2005 the CARIBIC passenger aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container - Lufthansa, Airbus 340-600) measures ˜100 trace gases and aerosol components in the UTLS (9-12 km altitude) on 4-6 consecutive long-distance flights per month. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are measured with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Worldwide ~1.3 Tg/y of acetonitrile (CH3CN) is emitted into the atmosphere almost exclusively from biomass burning (BB) together with other VOCs (e.g. ketones, aldehydes, aromatics), CO, CO2, NOx and aerosol particles. Therefore, and due to its rather long tropospheric lifetime of ~6 months, acetonitrile constitutes a reliable BB tracer. Based on the signal of acetonitrile and CO we checked several algorithms to detect BB plumes in the IAGOS-CARIBIC data set. It turned out that the most intense BB plumes were sampled during summer over North America and during autumn over South America. The results will also be discussed with respect to biases due to flight statistics (i.e. destination, flight season, sampling of tropospheric and stratospheric air, etc.). Two flights that took place during the strong ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) event in July 2015 between Munich (MUC) and Los Angeles (LAX) will be discussed in more detail by taking into account other VOCs and aerosol particles. Here acetonitrile mixing ratios of up to ~1100 pptv were sampled over Greenland ~0.5 km above the tropopause. It is shown that the sampled air originated from Northern America / Canada where strong wildfires took place. During the flight from LAX to MUC the boundary layer air entered the upper troposphere by isentropic quasi-horizontal mixing and not by fast convective transport. The correlation of some VOCs (i.e. acetone, methanol and acetonitrile) with CO will be discussed and contrasted to findings from the literature. It is

  7. Lessons from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene; Lobo, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the highest concentrations of computers in the Americas and is regarded as a Central American pioneer in technology development. The authors of this article describe their trip to Costa Rica, which included visits to several schools as well as to the Foundation Omar Dengo (FOD) and the Ministry of Public Education (MEP),…

  8. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  9. Project Caribe, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Jose J.; Cabrera, Eulalia

    Project CARIBE (Career Awareness in Bilingual Education) was a Title VII-funded project in its third year at two New York high schools, one in Brooklyn and one in Queens. The project supplemented municipally funded bilingual programs for limited-English-speaking Hispanic students by establishing a resource/computer center and conducting academic…

  10. Project CARIBE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, the second year of funding, Project CARIBE proposed to increase career awareness among Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP) through a computer-literacy program. The project operated at two schools in Brooklyn, New York, Eastern District High School and Clara Barton High School, but after the number of…

  11. Project CARIBE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, the second year of funding, Project CARIBE proposed to increase career awareness among Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP) through a computer-literacy program. The project operated at two schools in Brooklyn, New York, Eastern District High School and Clara Barton High School, but after the number of…

  12. Stages of Ethical Reasoning and Moral Norms of Carib Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Barnes, M. Louise

    1973-01-01

    Ethical development was investigated in a cross-cultural context by examining both the cognitive structure of ethical reasoning and the content of perceived moral norms in black Carib boys of British Honduras in the framework of stage theory. (Author/JM)

  13. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  14. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  15. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  16. Staggered Costas signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Avraham; Levanon, Nadav

    1986-11-01

    A radar signal, based on coherent processing of a train of staggered Costas (1984) bursts is based on a minimum number of collocation of their individual ambiguity function sidelobe peaks. The resulting ambiguity function combines qualities of both 'thumbtack' and 'bed of nails' signals. Comparison with linear-FM, V-FM, and complementary phase coded signals is given, as well as comparison with hybrid signals consisting of both phase and frequency coding.

  17. Atmospheric mercury measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H.; Bödewadt, Jan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Weber, Stefan; Hermann, Markus; Becker, Julia; Zahn, Andreas; Martinsson, Bengt

    2016-05-01

    Goal of the project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) is to carry out regular and detailed observations of atmospheric composition (particles and gases) at cruising altitudes of passenger aircraft, i.e. at 9-12 km. Mercury has been measured since May 2005 by a modified Tekran instrument (Tekran Model 2537 A analyser, Tekran Inc., Toronto, Canada) during monthly intercontinental flights between Europe and South and North America, Africa, and Asia. Here we describe the instrument modifications, the post-flight processing of the raw instrument signal, and the fractionation experiments.

  18. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  19. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    the U.S. and O.A.S, Ambassador to the U.N, Angel Eilraondo ^olano Calderon Francisco Morales Hernandez GuillerjTio Sandoval Aguilar Federfco...and Italian, Telephone; 2^4-1(3-38, 22-72-7l< and 23-63-95. 2I4) ROMERO PEREZ , Jorge Enrique; (Civil), educ. Law School, University of Costa Rica...34 Office address: Ave. Central Calles 8/10, Liberia, Gte, PUNTARENAS : PEREZ CASTRO ^ AnseL-no; Telephone; 𔄀l-^0𔃽^bU Office address 1 Calle 1 y

  20. Investigating the representativeness of CARIBIC data using model simulations of the model EMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Johannes; Ruhnke, Roland; Zahn, Andreas; Neumaier, Marco; Kirner, Ole

    2015-04-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container), measuring about 100 atmospheric trace gases and aerosol parameters, has run since the year 2005 in its second stage, CARIBIC 2 (Brennikmeijer et al., ACP, 2007). The data for each species are sorted into bins of month and height relative to the tropopause (using measurements of ozone, following Sprung and Zahn, JGR, 2010). We question whether these plots stand for a climatological seasonal cycle, i.e. is the data taken by CARIBIC representative? This question is tackled using model data. The model data is taken from a run of the general circulation model EMAC with a horizontal resolution of T42 (about 2.8 degrees) which includes an extensive interactive chemistry scheme. In order to compare the CARIBIC data to the model output, the latter is first interpolated linearly in time and space to the location of the aircraft. Since the pressure corresponding to different tropopause definitions is calculated by the model, a climatological seasonal cycle relative to the tropopause can be produced form the model data and compared to that using the CARIBIC data. This study goes beyond only comparing measurement and model data. In addition, different random data sets are produced from the model data, namely along random paths flown at the speed of civil aircraft and completely random data. The model data along these random paths is compared to the model data along true CARIBIC paths using descriptive statistics. In a second step, a variance analysis following Rohrer and Berresheim, Nature, 2006, which has already been applied to aircraft measurements by Kunz et al., ACP, 2008, is performed for different height bins to investigate the spread of the data. The variance analysis together with the descriptive statistics give information on the representativeness of the data along the CARIBIC paths. The second aim of this study is then to link species lifetime and variability

  1. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  2. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  3. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  4. An optical particle size spectrometer for aircraft-borne measurements in IAGOS-CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Markus; Weigelt, Andreas; Assmann, Denise; Pfeifer, Sascha; Muller, Thomas; Conrath, Thomas; Voigtlander, Jens; Heintzenberg, Jost; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Deshler, Terry; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The particle number size distribution is an important parameter to characterize the atmospheric aerosol and its influence on the Earth's climate. Here we describe a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for measurements of the accumulation mode particle number size distribution in the tropopause region on board a passenger aircraft (IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A modified KS93 particle sensor from RION Co., Ltd., together with a new airflow system and a dedicated data acquisition system, is the key component of the CARIBIC OPSS. The instrument records individual particle pulse signal curves in the particle size range 130-1110 nm diameter (for a particle refractive index of 1.47-i0.006) together with a time stamp and thus allows the post-flight choice of the time resolution and the size distribution bin width. The CARIBIC OPSS has a 50 % particle detection diameter of 152 nm and a maximum asymptotic counting efficiency of 98 %. The instrument's measurement performance shows no pressure dependency and no particle coincidence for free tropospheric conditions. The size response function of the CARIBIC OPSS was obtained by a polystyrene latex calibration in combination with model calculations. Particle number size distributions measured with the new OPSS in the lowermost stratosphere agreed within a factor of 2 in concentration with balloon-borne measurements over western North America. Since June 2010 the CARIBIC OPSS is deployed once per month in the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory.

  5. Area Handbook for Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This handbook is an attempt to provide an integrated exposition and analysis of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of the Costa Rican society. It is designed to give readers an understanding of the dynamics of the component elements of the society and an insight into the ideas and goals of its people. Chapters contain material…

  6. Area Handbook for Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This handbook is an attempt to provide an integrated exposition and analysis of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of the Costa Rican society. It is designed to give readers an understanding of the dynamics of the component elements of the society and an insight into the ideas and goals of its people. Chapters contain material…

  7. Career Awareness Program in Bilingual Education. Project CARIBE, 1987-88. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Cerf, Charlotte

    In its first year of extension funding, Project CARIBE (Career Awareness in Bilingual Education) served 376 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency at Eastern District High School (Brooklyn) and Far Rockaway High School (Queens). The program consisted of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction, native language arts (NLA),…

  8. [Costa acro-kerato-elastoidosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A; Benkalfat, M R; Khedim, A

    1993-01-01

    We report 2 cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa observed in two sisters born of unaffected first cousins. The lesions were lenticular papules, either white or of normal skin colour, which were isolated or arranged in groups of plaques crossed by the natural furrows and located on the thenar eminences, the lateral edges of the hands and fingers and the back of the interphalangeal joints. On the feet, the lesions, located on the lateral edges, the plantar arch and the heel, were much more keratotic and appeared to be translucent. Hyperhidrosis was noted in only one of the two patients. Histological examination showed, beneath an acanthotic and hyperkeratotic epidermis, a reduced elastic network with shorter and thinner fibres in the middle dermis. These are two typical but rough cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa. The mode of transmission of this disease (autosomal recessive?) seems to be unusual compared with the data found in the literature (dominant, or sporadic cases).

  9. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Montezuma Formation of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, W.H.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Montezuma Formation of the Nicoya Peninsula is one of the better known Neogene stratigraphic units of the Pacific side of Costa Rica. Past workers have reported its age to be Miocene-Pliocene or Miocene-Quaternary, and its environment of deposition to be inner shelf. The planktonic foraminiferal record of the unit in the type locality, however, places it firmly in the Lower Pliocene (Globorotalia margaritae zones). Furthermore, benthic such as Bolivina interjuncta var. bicostata, Epistominella exigua, and E. pacifica indicate that the sedimentation occurred at depths no shallower than the outermost shelf. No drastic faunal turnovers are observed within the formation; a cluster analysis of various Neogene samples from the Nicoya Peninsula and other Pacific areas of Costa Rica demonstrate an overall uniformity of the Montezuma fauna. The frequency trends of certain species, particularly of Epistominella exigua, however, suggest a transgression, the assemblage in the upper part of the section definitely representing upper bathyal depths. Judging by the present elevation of Montezuma outcrops, this part of Costa Rica has been uplifted at least 300 meters in the past 5 m.y.

  11. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  12. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  13. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  14. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. ); Cohen, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  16. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-22

    innovative policies have done much to restore Costa Rica’s environment and ecotourism has provided a significant source of economic growth. Costa...policies have done much to restore Costa Rica’s environment and ecotourism has provided a significant source of economic growth. Costa Rica’s efforts also...destinations for ecotourism . More than one million people visit Costa Rica’s environmental attractions each year, generating $1.1 billion in foreign

  17. DOAS on Board: Trace Gas Measurements on CARIBIC Flights With Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, B.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Friess, U.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2006-12-01

    Within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container), a new DOAS instrument has been built. It measures UV-visible scattered sun light from three different viewing directions to detect various trace gases. With this multi-axis technique the separation of boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric columns of BrO, HCHO, NO2, O3, and O4 is possible. Thus for example anthropogenic and natural sources of NO2 , such as industry and (natural) forest fires can be studied. Besides the measurement of stratospheric O3 and BrO columns, the CARIBIC DOAS can also detect elevated levels of BrO in the free troposphere, which would impact on tropospheric ozone. The oxygen dimer O4 has a known vertical profile, therefore it can be used to determine light paths through the atmosphere and to investigate the influence of clouds and aerosols on the radiative transfer. This DOAS system is the only remote sensing instrument in the CARIBIC container, which comprises 21 instruments of 11 European institutions. It was successfully put into operation on a new long-range Airbus (A340-600) of Deutsche Lufthansa in December 2004. Since May 2005 monthly flights with fully automated measurements are performed. We will present selected results from several flights and show the potential of this unique DOAS data set.

  18. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr. ); Ramirez, O. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors compare the competitive position of peat for energy with coal, oil, and cogenerative systems in gasifiers and solid-fuel boilers. They also explore the possibility for peat use in industry. To identify the major factors, they analyze costs using a Los Alamos levelized cost code, and they study parametric costs, comparing peat production in constant dollars with interest rates and return on investment. They consider costs of processing plant construction, sizes and kinds of boilers, retrofitting, peat drying, and mining methods. They examine mining requirements for Moin, Changuinola, and El Cairo and review wet mining and dewatering methods. Peat can, indeed, be competitive with other energy sources, but this depends on the ratio of fuel costs to boiler costs. This ratio is nearly constant in comparison with cogeneration in a steam-only production system. For grate boilers using Costa Rican high-ash peat, and for small nonautomatic boilers now used in Costa Rica, the authors recommend combustion tests. An appendix contains a preliminary mining plan and cost estimate for the El Cairo peat deposit. 8 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. A new DOAS instrument on long-distance IAGOS-CARIBIC flights and airborne DOAS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penth, Lara; Frieß, Udo; Pöhler, Denis; Platt, Ulrich; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project airborne DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements of atmospheric trace gases are performed aboard a commercial long range passenger aircraft from Lufthansa since 2005. They provide a unique dataset for episodic, long-term and seasonal observations. The DOAS instrument is the only remote sensing technique aboard. DOAS is a well-established remote sensing technique to retrieve trace gas columns in the atmosphere from scattered light spectra of the sun. A series of trace gas species can be observed simultaneously, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), bromine oxide (BrO), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO) and ozone (O3). Since DOAS is a contact-free measurement technique, it is specially well suited for measuring highly reactive trace gases. It is widely used on different platforms and the airborne DOAS measurements are filling the gap between ground-based measurements and satellite data. The CARIBIC DOAS instrument is divided into an instrument unit within the CARIBIC container in the cargo hold of the aircraft, a telescope unit, which is specially designed for the permanently mounted pylon underneath the aircraft, and fiber optics in between. The instrument unit consists of three temperature stabilized spectrometers and the readout and control electronics. The telescope unit contains three telescopes, which observe scattered sunlight to the right under the elevation angles of +10˚ , -10˚ and -82˚ (nadir) relative to the horizon. This measurement geometry allows the separation of boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric trace gas columns along the flight track. A new DOAS instrument was designed and installed in 2016 (first flights expected from March 2017) to improve the detection limits of NO2, SO2, BrO, HCHO, HONO, O3 and O4. Furthermore, an extended wavelength range allows to measure in addition iodine monoxide (a potentially important oxidant in the free troposphere

  20. The humerus of Cryptotis colombiana and its bearing on the species? phylogenetic relationships (Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Cuartas-Calle, C.A.; Delgado-V., C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Colombian small-eared shrew, Cryptotis colombiana Woodman and Timm, was described from the Colombian Andes in 1993. Its original allocation to the Cryptotis nigrescens-group recently was questioned based on several cranial characters the species appeared to share with some members of the Cryptotis thomasi-group. We review characteristics of the C. nigrescens- and C. thomasi-groups, and we describe the humerus of C. colombiana and the humerus and manus of Cryptotis medellinia. The morphology of the humerus joins the suite of characters that supports the hypotheses that C. colombiana is not a member of the C. thomasi-group and that all remaining South American species form a cohesive, definable set that is probably monophyletic.

  1. Inverse Papular Acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Lidiane Pereira; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Pina, Juliana Carnevale; Cuzzi, Tullia

    2010-01-01

    Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Oswaldo Costa, or inverse papular acrokeratosis, is a rare genodermatosis first described in 1952 by Oswaldo Costa, a Brazilian dermatologist. It is characterized by flesh-colored papules on the lateral aspects of the palms and soles and dorsum of hands. The histological features are hyperkeratosis, hyalinized and homogenous collagen, and a decrease in and fragmentation of the elastic fibers (elastorrhexis). In the absence of elastic fiber fragmentation, a similar clinical presentation is diagnosed as focal acral hyperkeratosis. Many cases of inverse papular acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa may have been considered focal acral hyperkeratosis since it can be difficult to find the elastorrhexis. The authors report a case of a 51-year-old woman with inverse papular acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa with poor response to topical treatments. PMID:20725552

  2. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  3. Hydro development in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The initial foreign thrust of private power activities was quite naturally by large companies acquiring existing government-owned facilities in relatively large countries. Only recently, it seems, people have discovered that there are countries in Latin America other than Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, and that there is interest in having the private sector construct new (and often smaller) facilities, with an increasing emphasis on renewable energy. Costa Rica passed its private power law in 1991 and has clearly been the most progressive country in Central America in promoting greenfield development of private power projects. The country has not been exempt, however, from the cyclical nature of the support that governments, utilities and regulatory agencies give to private power producers. The initial enthusiasm and willingness to encourage private power producers inevitably give way to requirements and procedures which impair if not thwart the initial intentions of the private power laws.

  4. The McGill-Costa Rica Project

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M. William L.; Haggerty, Jeannie; Filion-Laporte, Liliane

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, health authorities in Costa Rica started a training program in family and community medicine and requested assistance from the Department of Family Medicine at McGill University. The authors outline the health care system in Costa Rica and the background of the project. The design, implementation, and progress of the project to date are discussed. The problems associated with this kind of project and its future are also discussed. Imagesp1152-a PMID:21221332

  5. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  6. Rediscovery of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Anura: Centrolenidae) in southeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Brian

    2004-03-01

    The Suretka glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi, has been recently rediscovered in the southeastern region of Costa Rica. This species was last reported in Costa Rica in the 1950's. H. chirripoi is distinguished from H. colymbiphyllum, which appears to be its most closely Costa Rican related taxon, by having extensive webbing between fingers II-III.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  8. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, B.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Frieß, U.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2009-11-01

    A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon) using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights. During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia, while BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions. Biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO).

  9. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Andersson, S. M.; Weigelt, A.; Hermann, M.; Assmann, D.; Voigtländer, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Zahn, A.

    2014-04-01

    Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9-12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical mid troposphere (MT) were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC) is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA). Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  10. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, B.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Frieß, U.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2009-02-01

    A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon) using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights. During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia. BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions, biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO).

  11. Comparison between CARIBIC Aerosol Samples Analysed by Accelerator-Based Methods and Optical Particle Counter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Andersson, S. M.; Weigelt, A.; Hermann, M.; Assmann, D.; Voigtländer, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Zahn, A.

    2014-08-01

    Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on a Instrument Container) passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9-12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical mid troposphere (MT) were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC) is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with the following accelerator-based methods: particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA). Data from 48 flights during 1 year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  12. Platinum group minerals (PGM) in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit, Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquin A.; Zaccarini, Federica; Lewis, John F.; Garuti, Giorgio; Labrador, Manuel; Longo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Two Ni-laterite profiles from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic) have been investigated for their platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry and mineralogy. One profile (Loma Peguera) is characterized by PGE-enriched (up to 3.5 ppm total PGE) chromitite bodies incorporated within the saprolite, whereas the second profile is chromitite-free (Loma Caribe). Total PGE contents of both profiles slightly increase from parent rocks (36 and 30 ppb, respectively) to saprolite (˜50 ppb) and reach highest levels within the limonite zone (640 and 264 ppb, respectively). Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of saprolite and limonite reveal rather flat shapes with positive peaks of Ru and Pd. Three types of platinum group minerals (PGM) were found by using an innovative hydroseparation technique: (i) primary PGM inclusions in fresh Cr-spinel (laurite and bowieite), (ii) secondary PGM (e.g., Ru-Fe-Os-Ir compounds) from weathering of preexisting PGM (e.g., serpentinization and/or laterization), and (iii) PGM precipitated after PGE mobilization within the laterite (neoformation). Our results provide evidence that (i) PGM occurrence and PGE enrichment in the laterite profiles is independent of chromitite incorporation; (ii) PGE enrichment is residual on the profile scale; and (iii) PGE are mobile on a local scale leading to in situ growth of PGM within limonite, probably by bioreduction and/or electrochemical metal accretion.

  13. (Power sector efficiency analysis in Costa Rica). [Power Sector Efficiency Analysis in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-04-10

    I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica, to review the state of the electric power utility with a team of specialists, including a transmission and distribution specialist, a hydroelectric engineering specialist, and a thermal power plant specialist. The purpose of the mission was to determine the costs and benefits of efficiency improvements to supply side technologies employed by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, the national power company in Costa Rica, and the potential contribution of these efficiency measures to the future electric power needs of Costa Rica.

  14. CArdiac resynchronization in combination with beta blocker treatment in advanced chronic heart failure (CARIBE-HF): the results of the CARIBE-HF study.

    PubMed

    Grosu, Aurelia; Senni, Michele; Iacovoni, Attilio; Gori, Mauro; Cantù, Francesco; Bisetti, Silvia; De Santo, Tiziana; De Luca, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Antonello

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), combined with optimal medical therapy (OMT), is an established treatment for patients with advanced chronic heart failure (ACHF). In ACHF, carvedilol at the dose used in clinical trials, reduces morbidity and mortality. However, patients often do not tolerate the drug at the targeted dosage. The aim of the CARIBE-HF prospective observational study was to investigate the role of CRT in the implementation of carvedilol therapy in patients with ACHF. One hundred and six patients (aged 65 12 [mean +/- SD] years) with ACHF were enrolled and treated with OMT, in which carvedilol was titrated up to the maximal dose (phase 1). Subsequently, patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction < or = 35%, NYHA class III-IV and QRS interval > or =120 msec were assigned to CRT. Both CRT and NO-CRT patients underwent a long-term follow-up of 7 years (1193.98 +/- 924 days), while efforts to up titrate the carvedilol dose were continued during the second phase (471 + 310 days). Phase 1 was completed by 84 patients (79%), and 15 (18%) underwent CRT. The mean carvedilol dose in the CRT group was 19.0 +/- 17.8 mg, against 32.7 +/- 19.1 mg in the remaining 69 patients (P = 0.018). At the end of phase 2, CRT patients presented a significantly greater variation of increasing in the carvedilol dose than NO-CRT patients (+20.0 +/- 19.8 mg vs. -0.3 +/- 20.5 mg; P = 0.015), a greater NYHA class reduction (-0.8 +/- 0.6 vs. -0.2 +/- 0.7; P = 0.011), and a greater increase in LV ejection fraction (10.8 +/- 9 vs. 3.1 +/- 6.1; P = 0.018). The data from the CARIBE study suggest that, in ACHF, CRT may be effective in enabling the target dose of carvedilol to be reached. The significant improvement seen in LV function was probably due to a synergistic effect of CRT and carvedilol. During the extended follow-up (mean 1193.98 +/- 924 days) the mean dosage of carvedilol in the CRT group was significantly higher (P < 0.02).

  15. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  16. Violent Reform: Costa Rica, Central America's Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Shelly

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to Costa Rica's peaceful status in a region of violent political conflict. Describes the country's political and educational systems, stating that its democratic government allows the country to withstand many problems typical of the region and that its high level of education allows it to maintain the highest per…

  17. Education in Costa Rica: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Zaher

    Costa Rican education, although fairly successful compared to other Third World or Latin American countries, has serious problems needing action, including (1) large discrepancies between educational ideals and the realities of urban privilege, with regard to access and quality, and (2) a rote, narrow, superficial, impractical education. Other…

  18. Educational and Demographic Profile: Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Contra Costa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  19. Flux Calculation Using CARIBIC DOAS Aircraft Measurements: SO2 Emission of Norilsk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, D.; Heue, K.-P.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Platt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the nickel smelter in Norilsk (Siberia), the retrieval of trace gas fluxes using airborne remote sensing is discussed. A DOAS system onboard an Airbus 340 detected large amounts of SO2 and NO2 near Norilsk during a regular passenger flight within the CARIBIC project. The remote sensing data were combined with ECMWF wind data to estimate the SO2 output of the Norilsk industrial complex to be around 1 Mt per year, which is in agreement with independent estimates. This value is compared to results using data from satellite remote sensing (GOME, OMI). The validity of the assumptions underlying our estimate is discussed, including the adaptation of this method to other gases and sources like the NO2 emissions of large industries or cities.

  20. Deuterium content of H2 measured on air samples from the CARIBIC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    H2 is present in the atmosphere at levels of ~500 ppb; its largest sources are the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons and combustion processes. In the coming decades, H2 levels are expected to rise due to use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This may affect methane lifetimes and stratospheric ozone depletion. Unfortunately, large uncertainties still exist in the global H2budget. The different sources and sinks of H2 have very distinct isotopic signatures and fractionation coefficients, respectively. For this reason, measurements of isotopic composition are a promising tool to gain insight into H2 source and sink processes and to constrain the terms in the global budget. The CARIBIC project uses an automated instrument container on board of a commercial passenger aircraft to carry out in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols and to collect air samples. The use of a commercial airliner results in samples mostly from the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. Although the UTLS region is considered to be an interesting part of the atmosphere, relatively few measurements have been made there before. The CARIBIC samples are routinely analyzed for various gases, including four important greenhouse gases. In addition, air samples of 15 CARIBIC flights have now been analyzed for molecular hydrogen concentration (H2) and H2 deuterium content (^D-H2) in the isotope laboratory of the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU). A GC-IRMS system (similar to Rhee et al. [2004]) is used to determine the concentration and deuterium content of atmospheric H2 precisely and routinely. This poster will present a selection of the first results. For some flights, samples close to the takeoff and landing region show strong contamination signatures (high H2 concentrations and low ^D-H2 values). With the exclusion of these samples, ^D values correlate negatively with methane concentration, as observed previously by Rahn et al. [2003] and R

  1. Flux Calculation Using CARIBIC DOAS Aircraft Measurements: SO2 Emission of Norilsk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, D.; Heue, K.-P.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Platt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the nickel smelter in Norilsk (Siberia), the retrieval of trace gas fluxes using airborne remote sensing is discussed. A DOAS system onboard an Airbus 340 detected large amounts of SO2 and NO2 near Norilsk during a regular passenger flight within the CARIBIC project. The remote sensing data were combined with ECMWF wind data to estimate the SO2 output of the Norilsk industrial complex to be around 1 Mt per year, which is in agreement with independent estimates. This value is compared to results using data from satellite remote sensing (GOME, OMI). The validity of the assumptions underlying our estimate is discussed, including the adaptation of this method to other gases and sources like the NO2 emissions of large industries or cities.

  2. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-07-01

    Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June-September), during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in monsoon outflow. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included the non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over Southwest Asia between June and September, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios to carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of LPG and natural gas, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3-6 d in the south and 9-12 d in the north.

  3. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June-September), during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included a number of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia during the monsoon, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios with carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of fossil fuels, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3-6 days in the south and 9-12 days in the north.

  4. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil.

  5. Spatio-temporal aerosol particle distributions in the UT/LMS measured by the IAGOS-CARIBIC Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Denise; Hermann, Markus; Weigelt, Andreas; Martinsson, Bengt; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; van Velthoven, Peter; Bönisch, Harald; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Submicrometer aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) influence the Earth`s radiation budget directly and, more important, indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and by changing trace gas concentrations through heterogeneous chemical processes. Since 1997, regular in situ UT/LMS aerosol particle measurements have been conducted by the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany and the University of Lund, Sweden, using the the CARIBIC (now IAGOS-CARIBIC) observatory (www.caribic-atmospheric.com) onboard a passenger aircraft. Submicrometer aerosol particle number concentrations and the aerosol particle size distribution are measured using three condensation particle counters and one optical particle size spectrometer. Moreover, particle elemental composition is determined using an aerosol impactor sampler and post-flight ion beam analysis (PIXE, PESA) of the samples in the laboratory. Based on this unique data set, including meteorological analysis, we present representative spatio-temporal distributions of particle number, surface, volume and elemental concentrations in an altitude of 8-12 km covering a large fraction of the northern hemisphere. We discuss the measured values in the different size regimes with respect to sources and sinks in different regions. Additionally, we calculated highly resolved latitudinal and longitudinal cross sections of the particle number size distribution, probability density functions and trends in particle number concentrations, but also in elemental composition, determined from our regular measurements over more than a decade. Moreover, we generated seasonal contour plots for particle number concentrations, the potential temperature, and the equivalent latitude. The results are interpreted with respect to aerosol microphysics and transport using CARIBIC trace gas data like ozone and water vapour. The influence of clouds in the troposphere and the different

  6. Civil aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: the new CARIBIC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Crutzen, P.; Boumard, F.; Dauer, T.; Dix, B.; Ebinghaus, R.; Filippi, D.; Fischer, H.; Franke, H.; Frieß, U.; Heintzenberg, J.; Helleis, F.; Hermann, M.; Kock, H. H.; Koeppel, C.; Lelieveld, J.; Leuenberger, M.; Martinsson, B. G.; Miemczyk, S.; Moret, H. P.; Nguyen, H. N.; Nyfeler, P.; Oram, D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Penkett, S.; Platt, U.; Pupek, M.; Ramonet, M.; Randa, B.; Reichelt, M.; Rhee, T. S.; Rohwer, J.; Rosenfeld, K.; Scharffe, D.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U.; Slemr, F.; Sprung, D.; Stock, P.; Thaler, R.; Valentino, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Waibel, A.; Wandel, A.; Waschitschek, K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.; Zech, U.; Ziereis, H.

    2007-04-01

    A large airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, caribic-atmospheric.com">http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance) in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter). Furthermore, an optical particle counter and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are installed. Aerosol samples are collected for analyses of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS) with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. Here we describe the flying observatory and report examples of measurement results.

  7. Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Crutzen, P.; Boumard, F.; Dauer, T.; Dix, B.; Ebinghaus, R.; Filippi, D.; Fischer, H.; Franke, H.; Frieß, U.; Heintzenberg, J.; Helleis, F.; Hermann, M.; Kock, H. H.; Koeppel, C.; Lelieveld, J.; Leuenberger, M.; Martinsson, B. G.; Miemczyk, S.; Moret, H. P.; Nguyen, H. N.; Nyfeler, P.; Oram, D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Penkett, S.; Platt, U.; Pupek, M.; Ramonet, M.; Randa, B.; Reichelt, M.; Rhee, T. S.; Rohwer, J.; Rosenfeld, K.; Scharffe, D.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U.; Slemr, F.; Sprung, D.; Stock, P.; Thaler, R.; Valentino, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Waibel, A.; Wandel, A.; Waschitschek, K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.; Zech, U.; Ziereis, H.

    2007-09-01

    An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, caribic-atmospheric.com">http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance) in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter). Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC) and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2) in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS) with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

  8. Recent volcano monitoring in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, R.; Brown, G.; Rymer, H.; Barritt, S.; Randal, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Costa Rican volacno Rincon de la Vieja is loosely but mysteriously translated as the "Old Lady's Corner." It consists of six volcanic centers that form a remote elongated ridge standing some 1300m above the surrounding terraine. Geologically speaking, the Guanacaste province of northern Costa Rica consists of a series of composite volcanic cones built on a shield of ignimbrites (welded and unwelded ash flows) of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (up to 2 million years old), that themselves lie on basement crust of Cretaceious-Tertiary age (up to 90 million years old). the active volcanoes are aligned on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the Middle American oceanic trench in the Pacific Ocean that is the site of subduction of hte Cocos oceanic plate underneath Central America.  

  9. [Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla; Cortés, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50,000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional). Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent.

  10. [Current estate of biotechnology in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marta; López, Rebeca; Jiménez, Luis

    2004-09-01

    A study was carried out on the construction of indicators in biotechnology in Costa Rica as part of the project "SYMBIOSIS, Cooperative Program for the Construction of Indicators in Biotechnology adapted to Latin American and Caribbean countries, to motivate the application and transference of industrial technologies". The study focused on two units: researchers and research projects developed in Costa Rica, between 1998 and 2002. For researchers, information was collected about indicators related to sex, age, teaching activities, number of projects, academic degree, area of speciality and number of publications. For research projects we obtained information about: speciality, sector of application, duration of projects and number of researchers per project. Very interesting results include the high participation of the women in this area of investigation (54%); the low participation of young researchers (13% younger than 30), and a high proportion of the investigators that are responsible for 4 or more projects (42%). With relation to the specialities of the projects, the majority are in the category Bio-Agro (39%) whereas in Acuaculture only 1% was found. The sectors of application with the most number of projects are: Agriculture and Livestock (37%) and Human Health (35%). The main strengthts and limitatations for the development of biotechnology in Costa Rica are discussed.

  11. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  12. Revisiting the IAGOS-CARIBIC CO and O3 observations and their correlation in the UT/LS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boenisch, Harald; Zahn, Andreas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Scharffe, Dieter; van Velthoven, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The CARIBIC research project, the predecessor of the actual IAGOS-CARIBIC project, is divided into two distinct phases: 1997-2002 and 2005-2016. Here, we will present a reassessment of CO and O3 observed during IAGOS-CARIBIC. The distribution and particularly the tracer-tracer correlation of both species has been widely used as a diagnostic tool for UT/LS transport processes (e.g. Hoor et al., 2002 and 2004; Pan et al., 2004). Up to now, only the early phase of CARIBIC observations of CO and O3 has been applied for transport studies in the tropopause region (Zahn et al., 2000 and 2002). The focus of this work here will be on the variability of the CO-O3 distribution and correlation on seasonal and interannual timescales in the extratropics using the IAGOS-CARIBIC in-situ measurements of CO and O3 spanning a time period from 1997 to 2016 with more than 400 flights. For a more detailed analysis and understanding of the underlying transport processes, the observations will be interpreted in combination with meteorological reanalysis data sets. The distribution of CO and O3 will be analysed relative to different tropopause definitions (chemical, dynamical, thermal) and in different coordinate systems (e.g. equivalent latitude, potential temperature, potential vorticity and distance to the tropopause). Also, the role of static stability and the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) on the tracer distribution will be investigated. Hoor, P., H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, and D. Brunner (2002), Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3 correlation from in situ measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D5), 4044, doi:10.1029/2000JD000289. Hoor, P., C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer (2004), Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1427-1442. Pan, L. L., W. J. Randel, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, and E. J. Hintsa (2004

  13. Insects that feed on Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    P. Hanson; K. Nishida; P. Allen; E Chacón; B. Reichert; A. Castillo; M. Alfaro; L. Madrigal; E. Rojas; F. Badenes-Perez; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Research at the University of Costa Rica on potential biological control agents of Miconia calvescens was initiated in 2000. Although M. calvescens can be fairly common at certain sites, it is generally uncommon in Costa Rica and appears to be incapable of becoming established in forests with a closed canopy. Over fifty insect...

  14. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  15. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  16. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-22

    ecotourism . The United States and Costa Rica have long enjoyed close relations as a result of the countries’ shared commitments to strengthening...Costa Rica as the country has become one of the premier destinations for ecotourism . Uncontrolled development and overuse of protected areas, however

  17. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    for ecotourism . The United States and Costa Rica have long enjoyed close relations as a result of the countries’ shared commitments to strengthening...Costa Rica as the country has become one of the premier destinations for ecotourism . Uncontrolled development and the overuse of some protected areas

  18. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  19. Sustainability and Peace in Costa Rica: The Case of University of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segreda, Alejandrina Mata

    2002-01-01

    This article describes initiatives at the University of Costa Rica, which, in combination with national programs, have strengthened the country's commitment to sustainable development over the past 15 years. It discusses the University's role in defining a national perspective on sustainability starting in 1987, as well as the evolution of the…

  20. Sustainability and Peace in Costa Rica: The Case of University of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segreda, Alejandrina Mata

    2002-01-01

    This article describes initiatives at the University of Costa Rica, which, in combination with national programs, have strengthened the country's commitment to sustainable development over the past 15 years. It discusses the University's role in defining a national perspective on sustainability starting in 1987, as well as the evolution of the…

  1. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Costa Rica 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Marcelo Pérez; Fagerstrom, Kaila A

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global spirochete causing chronic renal disease that is increasing in Costa Rica. This paper identifies the prevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in Costa Rica between the years of 2011-2015. Clinical cases of leptospirosis in Costa Rica demonstrated various symptoms: from asymptomatic diseases to severe cases of kidney and liver failure. A variety of diagnostic methods with varying specificities and sensitivities were employed. In Costa Rica, prevention methods such as protective clothing, decreased contact with animals, and prophylaxis of close contacts continue to be the most important factors in reducing transmission of leptospirosis. In Costa Rica, the following populations should be aware of their increased risk: those living in the province of San José, Puntarenas, or Alajuela; being a male; being of productive years; and exposure to specific environmental factors.

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 81-335-1566, Union Carbide Caribe, Penuelas, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, T.; Lee, S.

    1985-10-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for benzene, hydrazine, morpholine, cyclohexylamine, carbon black, and other organic solvents at Union Carbide Caribe in Penuelas, Puerto Rico in July, 1981 and October, 1983. The evaluation was requested by the union out of concern for possible benzene exposures, especially in the Employee Relations building, where it was feared that benzene-contaminated groundwater might be entering the building. Eleven employees were interviewed. Breathing-zone samples contained 0.03 to 0.10 mg/m/sup 3/ benzene. The OSHA standard for benzene is 32 mg/m/sup 3/. Benzene concentrations above a sewer opening and in a condemned men's room in the Employee Relations building were 134 mg/m/sup 3/ and 126 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively. Area air benzene concentrations in the building ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 mg/m/sup 3/. Concentrations of the other chemicals were below their relevant standards. Symptoms such as muccus membrane irritation, chest discomfort, low back pain, anxiety or nervousness, and skin rash were reported. The authors conclude that a potential for excessive exposure to benzene exists in the Employees Relations building. Recommendations include implementing a respiratory fit testing program and continued evaluation of the Employees Relation building benzene contamination problem.

  3. Occurrence of citrus viroids in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, W; Rivera, C; Hammond, R W

    1997-09-01

    A survey for citrus viroids was conducted in the major citrus commercial growing areas in Costa Rica. Screening of 36 sweet orange and 12 lemon trees resulted in the detection of members of four of the five citrus viroid groups as determined by nucleic acid hybridization using specific RNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific oligonucleotide primers. CEVd, CVd-IIa, CVD-IIb and CVd-III viroids were found to be widespread in the three main regions of commercial citrus production. CVd-Ib was only found in lemon in Nicoya.

  4. Geochemical record of subduction initiation in the sub-arc mantle: Insights from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Butjosa, Lidia; Lewis, John F.

    2016-05-01

    The Loma Caribe peridotite body is mainly composed of serpentinized spinel harzburgites and lherzolites and minor orthopyroxene-bearing dunites and dunites. Modal proportions, mineral and whole-rock major and trace element compositions generally coincide with those of abyssal mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges for the lherzolites, and refractory supra-subduction peridotites for the harzburgites and dunites. The clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites have intermediate compositions that overlap with those of residual mantle from both these settings. Major elements in the peridotites were mostly undisturbed by serpentinization and/or seafloor weathering whereas light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) were enriched by syn- and/or post-melting interaction with fluids/melts. Major element variations indicate that protoliths of the Loma Caribe peridotites mostly melted at 1-2 GPa and 1250 °C-1500 °C, as normal mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone mantle. The MREE/HREE fractionations in both whole rocks and clinopyroxene can be explained by initial low (5%-6%) fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite source followed by variable (5%-20%) melting in the spinel stability field. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites are residues of increasing melting triggered by increasing addition of slab fluids to a spinel peridotite source, while melting of the harzburgite protoliths was likely the result of focused flux of slab hydrous melts. The dunites and orthopyroxene-bearing dunites are products of pyroxene dissolution in residual peridotites caused by reaction with two different subduction-related melts, probably the parental magmas of Early Cretaceous low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites from Central Hispaniola, respectively. We conclude that the geochemical heterogeneity of the Loma Caribe peridotites records shifting conditions of melting during the development of subduction beneath the incipient Greater Antilles

  5. Geochemical record of subduction initiation in the sub-arc mantle: insights from Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Butjosa, Lidia; Lewis, John F.

    2016-04-01

    The Loma Caribe peridotite body is mainly composed of serpentinized spinel harzburgite and lherzolite and minor (Opx-bearing) dunite. Modal proportions, mineral and whole-rock major and trace element compositions generally coincide with those of abyssal mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges for lherzolite and refractory supra-subduction peridotites for harzburgite and (Opx-) dunite. Cpx-bearing harzburgite has intermediate compositions that overlap those of residual mantle from both these settings. Major elements in peridotite were mostly undisturbed by serpentinization and/or seafloor weathering whereas LREE and LILE were enriched by syn- and/or post-melting interaction with fluids/melts. Major element variations support that protoliths of Loma Caribe peridotite mostly melted at 1-2 GPa and 1300-1500 °C, as normal mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone mantle. MREE/HREE fractionations in whole-rocks and clinopyroxene can be explained by initial low (5-6%) fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite source followed by variable (5-20%) melting in the spinel stability field. Lherzolite and Cpx-harzburgite are residues of increasing melting triggered by increasing addition of fluids to a spinel peridotite source, while melting of the harzburgite protolith was likely promoted by focused flux of hydrous melts. Dunite and Opx-bearing dunite are products of pyroxene dissolution in residual peridotite caused by reaction with two different subduction-related melts, likely the parental magmas of Early Cretaceous low-Ti IAT and boninite from Central Hispaniola, respectively. We propose that the geochemical heterogeneity of Loma Caribe peridotite records shifting conditions of melting during the development of subduction beneath the incipient Greater Antilles paleo-island arc in the Early Cretaceous. The common presence in the Caribbean realm of oceanic mantle rocks related to subduction indicates that most peri-Caribbean ophiolitic bodies are not fragments of an oceanic

  6. Studying Active Lakes of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, Dmitri; Ohba, Takeshi

    2010-07-01

    7th Workshop of the IAVCEI Commission of Volcanic Lakes; Costa Rica, 10-19 March 2010; Volcanic lakes are surface manifestations of a volcano's deeper hydrothermal system. Insights into crater lake dynamics can be very useful in volcano monitoring programs (J. C. Varekamp and M. J. van Bergen (Eds.), Volcanic lakes and environmental impacts of volcanic fluids, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 178, 131-330, 2008). To bring together researchers with a variety of areas of expertise to study crater lake dynamics, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) Commission of Volcanic Lakes (CVL) reunited in Costa Rica for its seventh workshop, almost 6 years after its last workshop, in Caviahue, Argentina. The main goal of CVL7 was to expand the multidisciplinary efforts of the scientific community. Quoting J. C. Varekamp, former CVL leader, volcanic lake science is “a special field with intertwined aspects of disciplines such as volcanology, limnology, geochemistry and biology/toxicology.” Considering that during the past decade, volcanic lake research was mainly focused on characterizing geochemical processes, an additional aim of the CVL7 workshop was to give renewed attention to the hazards posed by Nyos-type lakes, named for a lake in Cameroon that stores carbon dioxide in its bottom waters.

  7. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  8. [The health system of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards.

  9. [Fresh water macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica I].

    PubMed

    Springer, Monika; Ramirez, Alonso; Hanson, Paul

    2010-12-01

    This is the first in a series of three volumes on the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica. The present volume includes an introductory chapter summarizing the major types of freshwater environments, the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates (habitats, food, respiration, osmoregulation, etc.), ecological and economic importance, conservation and a synopis of the major groups, followed by a simplified key. The next two chapters discuss collecting methods and biomonitoring. These are followed by chapters on mayflies (Ephemeroptera: 10 families), dragonflies (Odonata: 13 families), stoneflies (Plecoptera: 1 family) and caddisflies (Trichoptera: 15 families). Both in this volume and in those to follow, the chapters treating individual taxa include a summary of the natural history, importance, taxonomy, collecting methods, morphology and an illustrated key to the families; each family is discussed separately and an illustrated key to genera is provided; each chapter ends with a bibliography and a table listing all the genera with information on number of species, distribution, habitat and tolerance to water pollution. While the emphasis is on families and genera known from Costa Rica, additional taxa occurring elsewhere in Central America are mentioned. The present volume also includes numerous color plates of aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  10. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): RCA del Caribe, operable unit 1, Barceloneta, Pr., September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the RCA del Caribe Site (the `Site`), located in the Town of Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined that the Site does not pose a significant threat to human health and the environment and, therefore, remediation is not necessary nor appropriate. This determination is for the Site as defined by CERCLA which is the soils and sediments in the four lined lagoons and any groundwater contamination associated with releases from these lagoons.

  12. Economics of health planning--Costa Rica as an example.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, D

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica has been unusually successful in providing high levels of health for its people given its economic resources. It is proposed that there are two reasons for its success. Having no military, Costa Rica has had resources to invest in health care. Having a relatively equal income and education distribution and a democratic government, it has been able to provide health care widely rather than just to the elites. This paper examines production functions for health and possible directions for appropriate management of health as Costa Rica confronts the chronic disease pattern of the developed world.

  13. Costa Rica, Central America as seen from STS-60

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-09

    STS060-85-000AD (3-11 Feb 1994) --- This photograph shows the Central American nations of Nicaragua, Costa Rica and parts of Panama. Lake Nicaragua defines the southern limits of the country of Nicaragua. The cloud-free portion of the photo shows Costa Rica, it's gulf and Peninsula of Nicoya. Agricultural land use is clearly seen around Nicoya and a few islands of tropical forests are seen at the edges. The capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, is partly cloud-covered in this image.

  14. Modeling the Crust and Upper Mantle in Northern Beata Ridge (CARIBE NORTE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.

  15. NO and NOy in the upper troposphere: Nine years of CARIBIC measurements onboard a passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; Stock, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Velthoven, P. V.; Schlager, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NO and NOy) measurements were performed onboard an in-service aircraft within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A total of 330 flights were completed from May 2005 through April 2013 between Frankfurt/Germany and destination airports in Canada, the USA, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, South Africa, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Thailand, and the Philippines. Different regions show differing NO and NOy mixing ratios. In the mid-latitudes, observed NOy and NO generally shows clear seasonal cycles in the upper troposphere with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. Mean NOy mixing ratios vary between 1.36 nmol/mol in summer and 0.27 nmol/mol in winter. Mean NO mixing ratios range between 0.05 nmol/mol and 0.22 nmol/mol. Regions south of 40°N show no consistent seasonal dependence. Based on CO observations, low, median and high CO air masses were defined. According to this classification, more data was obtained in high CO air masses in the regions south of 40°N compared to the midlatitudes. This indicates that boundary layer emissions are more important in these regions. In general, NOy mixing ratios are highest when measured in high CO air masses. This dataset is one of the most comprehensive NO and NOy dataset available today for the upper troposphere and is therefore highly suitable for the validation of atmosphere-chemistry-models.

  16. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2010-12-01

    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  17. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  18. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  19. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  20. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  1. Costa Rica: achievements of a heterodox health policy.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-04-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica's population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system.

  2. Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G.

    1997-05-12

    The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

  3. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L; Dasch, Gregory A; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal(2) in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis.

  4. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  5. [Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marta; Rodríguez, Iris; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in a sample (n=750) of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modem biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of negative acceptances to biotechnology and GMOs when their opinions were compared with those of students from life sciences and technologies.

  6. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  7. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis.

  8. Very Short-lived Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.

  9. [Think, practice and write: the Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría and the history of Colombian psychiatry in the second half of the twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Cruz Montalvo, Olga Marcela

    This article analyses the part played by Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría in the development of psychiatry as a medical speciality in Colombia. Moreover, it discusses its role in helping to consolidate the biomedical perspective and evidence-based medicine in Colombian psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  11. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  12. Career and Academic Resources in Bilingual Education Program for High School Students (Project CARIBE). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranadive, Jyoti

    Career and Academic Resources in Bilingual Education (Project CARIBE) was a federally funded program that served 70 limited-English-speaking, native Spanish-speaking students, largely immigrants, in two Brooklyn (New York) high schools. Participating students received instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA),…

  13. A report from rural Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fishel, J

    1997-01-01

    This report provides findings from interviews conducted among single mothers and other community members from Monteverde, Costa Rica in 1995. Costa Rica has experienced recent, rapid fertility decline. The population still includes 33% who are under 15 years old and capable of adding to population increases. The sample of single mothers includes women who were never married, or those who were divorced, widowed, or separated. This group of mothers contends with primary headship and decision making in family affairs and with social stigma from being single mothers. Many employers discriminate against single mothers in hiring. Single mothers were concerned about making enough money to pay for basic items, such as rent, food, and child care. Some worried about the lack of a father's love and discipline. All sample respondents stated that it was important to plan the number and timing of childbearing. The single mothers were familiar with several modern and traditional methods of contraception. Few pregnancies were planned. Most were mistrustful of the effectiveness and safety of modern contraceptives. The negative attitudes were attributed to religious influences, misinformation, or lack of information. High school sex education provides information about biological reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and methods of contraception. One instructor said that she recommends rhythm as the safest and best method. The only other source of information about family planning is the clinic. Little information is directed to unmarried girls and or male responsibility. The community organization that sponsored the survey is working to empower women and decrease social discrimination against single mothers. The author recommends improved information dissemination on sexuality, reproductive health, and contraception and improved access of unmarried teens to contraceptives.

  14. Seroepidemiology of chlamydia in Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, K M; Barnes, R C; Oberle, M W; Rosero-Bixby, L; Schachter, J

    1990-01-01

    A population-based study of the sero-epidemiology of chlamydia was performed among a nationally representative sample of 760 Costa Rican women aged 25 to 59 years. Interviews and sera collection were completed between September 1984 and February 1985. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among these women was 56.1%. Women 25 to 39 years of age had a seroprevalence of 51.1%, while women 40 to 59 years of age had a seroprevalence of 64.2%. Women who reported no prior sexual activity had a seroprevalence rate of 48.6%, compared with a seroprevalence rate of 80.7% among women who reported three or more lifetime sexual partners. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of seropositive women ranged from 34.4 among the women who reported no prior sexual activity to 155.0 among the women with three or more lifetime sexual partners. Sero-positivity was more consistently associated with sexual activity than with age. Women with serological evidence of past Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or syphilis infection were more likely to be seropositive than were women without evidence of exposure to these sexually transmitted diseases, even when controlled for age and the number of lifetime sexual partners. The seropositivity among never sexually active women indicates the probable presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, while the high seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among the sexually active women suggests that sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent a public health problem not previously quantified in Costa Rica. Further seroepidemiological and/or culture studies are warranted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection among men and younger women. PMID:2370061

  15. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  16. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region around the tropopause (TP) by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (m(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analysed samples consisted of air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that m(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by competing H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δ D [‰]=-0.35 · m(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD [‰]=-1.90 · m(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in m(H2), but δD is up to 15‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD lowering is correlated with m(CH4) increase. The significant correlation with m(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible m(H2) increase that accompanies the δD lowering indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high m(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples collected close to airports

  17. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-05-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (χ(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that χ(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP), whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4)) and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O)), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=-0.35 · χ(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=-1.90· χ(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2), but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4) increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2) increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high χ(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples

  18. Extended HLA haplotypes in a Carib Amerindian population: the Yucpa of the Perija Range.

    PubMed

    Layrisse, Z; Guedez, Y; Domínguez, E; Paz, N; Montagnani, S; Matos, M; Herrera, F; Ogando, V; Balbas, O; Rodríguez-Larralde, A

    2001-09-01

    Eleven MHC loci haplotypes have been defined among a Carib speaking Amerindian population; the Yucpa, inhabiting the northern section of the Perija Range, on the limits between Colombia and Venezuela. This tribe has been known with the name of "Motilones mansos" and is located close to the Chibcha-Paeze speaking Bari or "Motilones bravos." Seventy-three full blooded Yucpa living at the villages of Aroy, Marewa, and Peraya, were selected using a genealogy previously collected by an anthropologist and tested for Bf-C4AB complement allotypes and by serology, high resolution PCR-SSO and SBT typing for HLA class 1 and class 2 alleles. Combinations of 6 HLA-A, 6 HLA-B, 5 HLA-C, 1 Bf, 3 C4AB, 3 DQA1, 3DQB1 and 2 DPA1 and 2 DPB1 alleles present in this population originate 17 different haplotypes, 3 of which represent 63% of the haplotypic constitution of the tribe. The presence of 13 individuals homozygous for 11-loci haplotypes corroborates the existence of the following allelic combinations: DRB1*0411 DQA1*03011 DQB1*0302 DPA1*01 DPB1*0402 with HLA-A*6801 C*0702 B*3909 BfS C4 32 (f = 0.3372) or with A*0204 C*0702 B*3905 (f = 0.1977) and a third haplotype which differs only in DRB1*0403 and A*2402 (f = 0.0930). The results demonstrate the isolation of the tribe and the existence of high frequencies of a reduced number of "Amerindian" ancestral and novel class 1 and class 2 alleles (B*1522, DRB1*0807) with significant linkage disequilibria. These results will be useful to test the hypothesis that differentiation of Amerindian tribal groups will have to rely on haplotypes and micropolymorphism rather than allelic lineage frequencies due to the uniformity shown thus far by the putative descendants of the original Paleo-Indians.

  19. An assessment of the climatological representativeness of IAGOS-CARIBIC trace gas measurements using EMAC model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Johannes; Ruhnke, Roland; Zahn, Andreas; Neumaier, Marco; Kirner, Ole; Braesicke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Measurement data from the long-term passenger aircraft project IAGOS-CARIBIC are often used to derive climatologies of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). We investigate to what extent such climatologies are representative of the true state of the atmosphere. Climatologies are considered relative to the tropopause in mid-latitudes (35 to 75° N) for trace gases with different atmospheric lifetimes. Using the chemistry-climate model EMAC, we sample the modeled trace gases along CARIBIC flight tracks. Representativeness is then assessed by comparing the CARIBIC sampled model data to the full climatological model state. Three statistical methods are applied for the investigation of representativeness: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and two scores based on the variability and relative differences. Two requirements for any score describing representativeness are essential: representativeness is expected to increase (i) with the number of samples and (ii) with decreasing variability of the species considered. Based on these two requirements, we investigate the suitability of the different statistical measures for investigating representativeness. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is very strict and does not identify any trace-gas climatology as representative - not even of long-lived trace gases. In contrast, the two scores based on either variability or relative differences show the expected behavior and thus appear applicable for investigating representativeness. For the final analysis of climatological representativeness, we use the relative difference score and calculate a representativeness uncertainty for each trace gas in percent. In order to justify the transfer of conclusions about representativeness of individual trace gases from the model to measurements, we compare the trace gas variability between model and measurements. We find that the model reaches 50-100 % of the measurement variability. The tendency of the model to underestimate

  20. Monitoring organic nitrogen species in the UT/LS - a new system for analysis of CARIBIC whole air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The CARIBIC project is a unique program for long term and global scale monitoring of the atmosphere (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). An instrument container is installed monthly into a civil aircraft operated by Lufthansa (Airbus A 340-600) and makes atmospheric observations en route from Frankfurt, Germany to various destinations around the globe. In four to six long distance flights at a cruising altitude of 10 to 12 km online measurements of various atmospheric tracers are performed during the flight as well as whole air samples are taken with two different sampling units (116 samples in both glass and stainless steel canisters). These samples are routinely analyzed for greenhouse gases, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halogenated compounds. Nitrogen containing compounds play various important roles in the atmosphere. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are products of the reaction of NMHC with OH and other oxidants in the presence of NO. They can provide information on the oxidative history of an air mass. Moreover they influence photolchemical ozone formation and act as a transport mechanism for reactive nitrogen. Less reactive nitrogen containing species such as HCN and acetonitrile are important markers for biomass burning, while organic amines are involved in gas to particle partitioning. Finally N2O is a long lived nitrogen containing gas important for the Earth's radiative budget. Regular measurements of such nitrogen compounds would therefore be a significant contribution to the CARIBIC data set. Especially for high altitude samples, in which the mixing ratios of many species are expected to be in the low ppt range, a highly sensitive method for analysis is required. Therefore a new system for measurement of nitrogen compounds has been built up, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). An important advantage of the NCD is that it is selective for nitrogen and equimolar. The nitrogen compounds are sequentially pre

  1. A New Subgenus and Species of Neotropical Hylaeus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Neotropical subgenus of Hylaeus, Snellingella, is described, with Hylaeus amplus new species from Costa Rica as the type species. Characteristics to separate the new species from other Costa Rican Hylaeus are provided....

  2. Relationship between brain gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and seasonal reproductive cycle of "caribe colorado," Pygocentrus notatus.

    PubMed

    Gentile, F; Lira, O; Marcano-de Cotte, D

    1986-11-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotrophic hormone-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) was detected in hypothalamic and telencephalic extracts of the Venezuelan freshwater fish "caribe colorado," Pygocentrus notatus. Hypothalamic ir-GnRH from female fish demonstrated displacement curves parallel to those of synthetic mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). The content of hypothalamic and telencephalic ir-GnRH from female fish was more than four-fold greater than that of male animals. Also, fluctuations that depended on the reproductive state and environmental conditions (rainfall) occurred in females but not in males. Thus, ir-GnRH levels were higher in hypothalamic and telencephalic extracts from sexually mature females than in those from fish sampled outside the climatically determined breeding season.

  3. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  4. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in Costa Rican cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Frenkel, J K

    1980-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection of cats was studied in seven localities in Costa Rica. A total of 237 cats were tested for antibody by the dye test, and for oocysts by injection into mice. Toxoplasma was isolated from 55 (23%) and antibody was found in 109 (46%). Sixty percent of cats were infected as shown by shedding or antibody. Of the 55 isolations, 64% were from kittens without antibody and 36% from kittens with antibody. Almost half of the Toxoplasma isolations were made from the feces of kittens weighing less than 600 g, 35 cm in length, or under 2 months of age, of which 41% were shedding Toxoplasma. Six hundred and seventy-six homeowners in the seven towns were questioned about the number of owned and stray cats visiting their houses, the cats' pattern of roaming, food sources, types of food foraged, defecation sites outdoors and indoors, and location of fecal deposits in houses. Seventy-six percent of houses reported cats, which averaged 2.1 cats per house; about 80% were strays, and 99% lived outdoors part or all of the time. The cats visited from 5-12 (average 6) houses, foraging for food in garbage, hunting mice, rats, sparrows and insects. Of the 516 households reporting cats, 29% supplied some food in addition. In 14% of these houses cats defecated in the house, including the false attic and crawl space; they commonly defecated in front and backyards of houses, close to human habitation and accessible to intermediate hosts.

  6. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems: Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, G. W. S. V.

    A case study of Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia, an Open University school with a distance learning system, is presented. Areas of discussion include characteristics of the country, the educational system of Costa Rica, and the university. Specific topics include: the physical setting of Costa Rica; the population; the economy;…

  7. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  8. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  9. CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

  10. Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Baker, A. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Humphrey, S.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, a regulated toxic air pollutant and minor contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion, were reported to have peaked around 1990 and to be declining in the early part of the 21st century. Recent observations suggest this trend has reversed and that CH2Cl2 is once again increasing in the atmosphere. Despite the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting of atmospheric CH2Cl2, no time series has been discussed in detail since 2006. The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) has analysed the halocarbon content of whole-air samples collected at altitudes of between ~ 10-12 km via a custom-built container installed on commercial passenger aircraft since 1998, providing a long-term record of CH2Cl2 observations. In this paper we present this unique CH2Cl2 time series, discussing key flight routes which have been used at various times over the past 15 years. Between 1998 and 2012 increases were seen in all northern hemispheric regions and at different altitudes, ranging from ~ 7-10 ppt in background air to ~ 13-15 ppt in regions with stronger emissions (equating to a 38-69% increase). Of particular interest is the rising importance of India as a source of atmospheric CH2Cl2: based on CARIBIC data we provide regional emission estimates for the Indian subcontinent and show that regional emissions have increased from 3-14 Gg yr-1 (1998-2000) to 16-25 Gg yr-1 (2008). Potential causes of the increasing atmospheric burden of CH2Cl2 are discussed. One possible source is the increased use of CH2Cl2 as a feedstock for the production of HFC-32, a chemical used predominantly as a replacement for ozone-depleting substances in a variety of applications including air conditioners and refrigeration.

  11. Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Baker, A. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Humphrey, S.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, is a short-lived chlorocarbon of predominantly anthropogenic origin. Increasing industrial usage and associated emissions resulted in an increasing atmospheric burden throughout the 1900s. Atmospheric abundance peaked around 1990 and was followed by a decline in the early part of the 21st century. Despite the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting of atmospheric CH2Cl2 (it is a regulated toxic air pollutant and a contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion) no time series has been discussed in detail since 2006. The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) has analysed the halocarbon content of whole air samples collected at altitudes of between ~10-12 km via a custom-built container installed on commercial passenger aircraft since 1998, providing a long-term record of CH2Cl2 observations. In this paper we present this unique CH2Cl2 time series, discussing key flight routes which have been traversed at various times over the past 15 years. Between 1998 and 2012 increases were seen in all northern hemispheric regions and at different altitudes, ranging from ~7-9 ppt in background air to ~12-15 ppt in regions with stronger emissions (equating to a 38-69% increase). Of particular interest is the rising importance of India as a source of atmospheric CH2Cl2: based on CARIBIC data we provide regional emission estimates for the Indian subcontinent and show that regional emissions have increased from 3-15 Gg yr-1 (1998-2000) to 16-25 Gg yr-1 (2008). Potential causes of the increasing atmospheric burden of CH2Cl2 are discussed. One possible source is the increased use of CH2Cl2 as a feedstock for the production of HFC-32, a chemical used predominantly as a replacement for ozone-depleting substances in a variety of applications including air conditioners and refrigeration.

  12. The Temporal and Spatial Variations of the D/H Ratio of H2 in the Free Troposphere: CARIBIC Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, T. S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Rföckmann, T.

    2003-12-01

    A new technique for the analysis of the D/H ratio in atmospheric H2 using continuous-flow gas-chromatography isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (GC/IRMS) that requires small amounts ( ˜ 300 mL, STP) of sample air and produces excellent results has been developed and applied to air samples from the CARIBIC passenger aircraft project. CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) used a Boeing 767 on intercontinental flights to measure trace gases and aerosols between November 1997 and April 2002. From April 2004 onwards, a new Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 with a new inlet system and measurement container with 16 experiments will become operational for a projected period of 10 years. The isotopic ratios and atmospheric concentrations of H2 were measured for 3 flights over Europe and Africa carried out in 2000. The flight tracks cover from 50° N to 30° S allowing us to investigate hemispheric variation along the route. As the air samples for 3 flights had been collected at different seasons of boreal spring (May), summer (July), and early winter (December), the seasonal variation of the isotopic ratios can be investigated. Although, during 3 seasons, biomass burning was always active in the tropics, the D/H isotopic ratios hardly give us clear evidence, except for the boreal summer when biomass burning peaks. A seasonal variation is clearly visible, but the trends are opposite in the two hemispheres: in the northern hemisphere deuterium is enriched in winter (December) and in the southern hemisphere in fall (May), suggesting the major process governing the seasonal variation might be different in the two hemisphere. In addition, the D/H ratios of H2 in the southern hemisphere are higher than that in the northern hemisphere, in 3 seasons.

  13. Primary Health Care That Works: The Costa Rican Experience.

    PubMed

    Pesec, Madeline; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    Long considered a paragon among low- and middle-income countries in its provision of primary health care, Costa Rica reformed its primary health care system in 1994 using a model that, despite its success, has been generally understudied: basic integrated health care teams. This case study provides a detailed description of Costa Rica's innovative implementation of four critical service delivery reforms and explains how those reforms supported the provision of the four essential functions of primary health care: first-contact access, coordination, continuity, and comprehensiveness. As countries around the world pursue high-quality universal health coverage to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, Costa Rica's experiences provide valuable lessons about both the types of primary health care reforms needed and potential mechanisms through which these reforms can be successfully implemented.

  14. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  15. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  16. An investigation of habitual and incidental physical activity among Costa Rican and Costa Rican American teenage girls.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Cortese, Lauren B

    2007-07-01

    A comparative survey design was used to examine habitual and incidental physical activity among native Costa Rican (CR) and Costa Rican American (CRA) adolescent girls. The purposive sample included 17 girls (ages 12-19 years) living in Limon, Costa Rica (n = 11), and the metropolitan New York/New Jersey area (n = 6). Participants in the CR group had significantly higher levels of habitual (p = .04), incidental (p = .02), and combined (p = .03) physical activity as compared with those on the CRA group. Dance was a preferred form of activity for both groups. The relationship between habitual and incidental physical activity was not significant, underscoring the need to address both variables in assessment of total physical activity. The findings suggest a need to prioritize the promotion of physical activity among immigrant teenage girls using culturally valued methods.

  17. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic…

  18. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  19. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  20. Contra Costa Community College District Transfer Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA.

    This research report from Contra Costa Community College District (CCCCD), California, summarizes relevant findings from assessments of the performance of students receiving transfer education, and CCCCD's progress in meeting its Partnership for Excellence (PFE) goals in this area. Findings reported include the following: (1) Student Goal…

  1. Contra Costa Community College District Institutional Effectiveness Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA. Office of District Research.

    This document addresses the 2000 institutional effectiveness report for Contra Costa Community College District. The document discusses the following ten indicators which are directly aligned with Partnership for Excellence (PFE) 2005-2006 Goals: (1) Student Goal Attainment; (2) Course Success/ Persistence/ Retention Rates; (3) Certificate/ Degree…

  2. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  3. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  4. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  5. Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Costa Rica. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston

    To assist the Costa Rican Social Security Systems in designing a Rural Community Comprehensive Health Model, a study identified functional limitations among 1253 persons over age 7; assessed functional development of 293 children, ages 0-6; identified possible preventive factors of disability; and explored practices and resources in the districts…

  6. The Marine Education Programme and ESD Schools in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata-Segreda, Alejandrina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,…

  7. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Victoria; Gomez, Carolina; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC) and the drug information services (DIS). Objective To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened. PMID:25246999

  8. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  9. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    PubMed

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces.

  10. Science and Mathematics Education Research in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berty, Rolando; Esquivel, Juan M.

    Increased emphasis on science and mathematics education research in Costa Rica since 1973 is reported. The majority of the studies carried out in the past 12 years have been diagnostic studies. General findings are listed, under the headings of certification, supervision, basic skills, teaching methods, attitudes, and curriculum. The diagnostic…

  11. [Migration and employment in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1986-04-01

    The relationship between rural-urban migration and employment in Costa Rica is explored. "The main purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions in which immigrants are absorbed in the labour market." The data are from the Survey on Migration and Employment in Metropolitan Areas carried out by the Ministry of Planning and Political Economics in 1982. (summary in ENG)

  12. Interdisciplinary Team Teaching on Sustainable Development in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessor, Roberta; Reeves, Margaret; Andrade, Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of an interdisciplinary field course in Costa Rica focused on sustainable development. The semester-long curriculum integrated sociology, political economy, and agricultural ecology. The curriculum was empirically based and involved faculty members and students working collaboratively on different…

  13. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  14. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora meibomiae, has been reported to occur in several legume species in the tropical regions of Central and South America. In Costa Rica, this pathogen was initially reported as P. pachyrhizi; however, to our knowledge P. pachyrhizi has not been detected in the...

  15. The Educational System of Costa Rica. Education Around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.

    This booklet reviews Costa Rica's educational system, with emphasis on finance, philosophy, administration, and teacher education. The basic educational system consists of a preschool level of at least one year; a general basic education level of nine years (divided into three cycles of three years duration each--the first two cycles represent…

  16. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  17. First 5 Contra Costa Report on Parent Involvement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sarah; Induni, Marta; Moiduddin, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Parental Involvement in Pre-School Telephone Interview study completed by Mathematica Policy Research for the First 5 Contra Costa Children and Families Commission. Parent involvement in children's preschool programs and learning experiences is proven to be positively associated with cognitive, academic,…

  18. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  19. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic…

  20. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  1. Contra Costa Community College District Vocational Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA. Office of District Research.

    This report provides an overview of the legislative and administrative context of Vocational Education and profiles Vocational Education nationally, statewide, and at Contra Costa Community College District (CCCCD). Certain national trends, economic trends, and labor market trends have created implications for vocational and technical education in…

  2. Inventory of Vocational Programs in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaghan, William F., Comp.

    The document presents a directory of vocationally oriented educational programs which already exist in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. It is hoped that the inventory will permit improved planning for future programs and greater utilization and coordination of present ones. Listings include: Directory of Educational Agencies, with…

  3. Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Costa Rica. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston

    To assist the Costa Rican Social Security Systems in designing a Rural Community Comprehensive Health Model, a study identified functional limitations among 1253 persons over age 7; assessed functional development of 293 children, ages 0-6; identified possible preventive factors of disability; and explored practices and resources in the districts…

  4. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed.

  5. Electronic Invoice in Costa Rica: Challenges for Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Juan José; De La O-Selva, Mario; Cortés-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the current situation that Costa Rica faces around fiscal issues and high evasion rates. Using actors and multidimensional analysis, it proposes the electronic invoice as an e-government strategic solution that will close the gap around tax evasion and the government incomes. The success achieved by Brazil in this area…

  6. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-02

    for ecotourism . The United States and Costa Rica have long enjoyed close relations as a result of the countries’ shared commitments to strengthening...for ecotourism . Uncontrolled development and the overuse of some protected areas, however, have drawn criticism from environmentalists.28 Although

  7. Citizenship, Wealth, and Whiteness in a Costa Rican High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the democratic rhetoric taught in a Costa Rican High School and the ways in which that rhetoric clashed with school practices that revealed hierarchies based on race, ethnicity, class, and religion. This contradiction was rendered visible through student elections, the Independence Day celebration, and civic acts. Through…

  8. Oscar Costa-Mandry and posthurricane bacillary dysentery.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Bernard

    2006-06-01

    After the recent hurricanes Katrina and Rita, outbreaks of waterborne viral and bacterial diseases were expected. Dr. Oscar Costa-Mandry, a Puerto Rican bacteriologist and epidemiologist in the 1930s, identified the relationship between hurricanes and epidemic bacillary dysentery in townships that were directly affected by hurricanes.

  9. Rights of the Child in Costa Rica: Report Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luz Angela

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Costa Rica. The report's introduction notes that in addition to ratifying the Convention, Costa Rica's…

  10. Favourable impact of regular swimming in young people with haemophilia: experience derived from 'Desafio del Caribe' project.

    PubMed

    Boadas, A; Osorio, M; Gibraltar, A; Rosas, M M; Berges, A; Herrera, E; Gadea, S; Gutiérrez, M Á; Salazar, F; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming is beneficial for persons with haemophilia (PWH) providing good maintenance of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system and improving many psychological characteristics. In the Desafío del Caribe Project, young PWH from Venezuela and Mexico took part in an open water competition in the Gulf of Mexico under a multidisciplinary team supervision. Eight severe haemophilia A, two moderate haemophilia A, one severe haemophilia B and two moderate haemophilia B subjects were included. Haematological, musculoskeletal and psychological evaluations were carried out before and during training for the competition. Training program included physical exercise routines and swimming practices that alternated between pools and open water. Swimmers had coverage with factor concentrates before pool and open water trainings. In physiatric evaluations, the Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was used. The objective of the psychology area was to analyse self-esteem, precompetition anxiety, coping mechanisms and relaxation levels. The need of factor prophylaxis before intense trainings was confirmed. In the musculoskeletal system a decrease of elbow pain as well as an increase of muscle strength in the ankles were observed. In the psychological area significant differences between the first and second test in self-esteem levels, cognitive anxiety and group cohesion were found. PWH must be provided with orientation and encouragement to practice swimming regularly. High competition exercise must be supervised by a multidisciplinary team which must evaluate the pros and cons of the activity to make relevant recommendations.

  11. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given.

  12. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  13. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica - an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Cáceres González, Daniel A; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%).

  14. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  15. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Children from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cristian; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Arias, María L.

    2010-01-01

    More than 5,000 diarrheal cases per year receive medical care at the National Children's Hospital of Costa Rica, and nearly 5% of them require hospitalization. A total of 173 Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea were characterized at the molecular, serologic, and phenotypic level. Multiplex and duplex polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the six categories of diarrheagenic E. coli. Thirty percent (n = 52) of the strains were positive, indicating a high prevalence among the pediatric population. Enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli pathotypes were the most prevalent (21% and 19%, respectively). Pathogenic strains were distributed among the four E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D, with groups A and B1 the most commonly found. This study used molecular typing to evaluate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli reported in Costa Rica and demonstrated the importance of these pathotypes in the pediatric population. PMID:20682870

  16. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  17. [Abnormal haemoglobins in the newborn human population of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Abarca, Gabriela; Navarrete, Marta; Trejos, Rafael; de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary autosomic recessive diseases. A total of 70 943 samples of whole blood collected by heel prick in filter paper (S&S 903) from throughout Costa Rica (October 2005-October 2006) were analyzed to detect variants of hemoglobin by the iso-electric focusing technique. Eight hundred ninety one cases presented some variant, for a frecuency of 1/79. Five cases are homozygous for hemoglobin S (sickle cell disease) and one shows the double heterozygous genotype SC. In this study the S and C variants of hemoglobin, although with some local differences, are widespread all over the country. Thus, the prevention of new cases is important through the testing of hemoglobin in the Costa Rican National Newborn Screening Program, together with a Interdisciplinary National Program of Education for the disease and carrier status (AS/AC) for patients, families and medicar personnel. This is the basis for proper genetic counseling, to improve treatment and to reduce morbi-mortality.

  18. MEDISE: A macroeconomic model for energy planning in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.R. ); Leiva, C.L. . Direccion Sectorial de Energia)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the development and results of MEDISE, an econometric macroeconomic model for energy planning in Costa Rica. The model is a simultaneous system of 19 equations that was constructed using ENERPLAN, an energy planning tool developed by the United Nations for use in developing countries. The equations were estimated using regression analysis on a data time series of 1966 to 1984. ENERPLAN's model solution package was used to obtain forecasts of 19 economic variables from 1985 to 2005. the modeling effort was conducted jointly by Los Alamos Central American Energy and Resources Project (CAP) personnel and the Energy Sector Directorate of Costa Rica during 1986. The CAP was funded by the US Agency for International Development. 6 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-06

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. PMID:27139442

  1. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L. ); Trocki, L.K. )

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica.

  2. The Orbiniidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2015-05-08

    Seven species of Orbiniidae are described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica including two new species. Leodamas hamatus n. sp., a commonly occurring species on the coast of Pacific Costa Rica, is described from 11‒18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and Bahia Culebra. This species is unusual in that the neuropodial uncini differ morphologically from anterior to posterior in the thorax. Scoloplos cryptospinigerus n. sp. is described from 18-22 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and has only a few short, toothed spines amidst numerous capillary setae in most of the thoracic neuropodia. This arrangement of thoracic neurosetae is unusual and has been seen only in one other described species of Scoloplos from Australia.

  3. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  4. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    largest source of Costa Rica’s imports. Other significant import sources were CACM, EEC, and Japan; since 1980 large imports of pet- roleum from Mexico ...the wealth in gold and silver of the sort the Spaniads exploited in Mexico and other parts of Latin America. Consequently, a pernment Spanish...native population, each family had to work in the fields to maintain itself. The col- ony’s relative isolation from the Spanish colonial centers in Mexico

  5. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  6. Contra Costa Community College District Enrollment Report, October 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA.

    This report analyzes enrollment figures for Contra Costa Community College District in 2000-2001. The data for 2002 is compared with the data from 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. The following are some of the major findings of the report: (1) both resident and non-resident FTES totals have increased over 1995/1996 levels; (2) the growth…

  7. Population genetic data for 18 STR loci in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Arrieta, G; Sanóu, I; Vargas, M C; García, O; Yurrebaso, I; Pérez, J A; Villalta, M; Espinoza, M

    2007-05-03

    Allele frequencies for 18 STR autosomal loci (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, Penta D, Penta E, D19S433, D2S1338 and SE33) were obtained from a sample of 191-500 unrelated individuals from Costa Rica, Central America.

  8. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  9. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  10. [Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Morera Salas, Melvin; Aparicio Llanos, Amada

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor) in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that there is no problem with access in the public - almost universal - Costa Rican health system. No conclusive results were obtained on the influence of the physician on the frequency of use of health care services, as postulated by the principal-agent model. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. A guide to the winged aphids (Homoptera) of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Voegtlin, David; Villalobos, William; Sánchez, Marco Vinicio; Saborio-R, Guido; Rivera, Carmen

    2003-05-01

    This guide is a compilation of limited morphological and biological information on the winged morphs of 60 species of aphids that have been collected in Costa Rica. It should not be viewed as a definitive taxonomic treatise on the aphids of Costa Rica, rather it is a tool that can be used to assist in research on the biology, host plant relationships, taxonomy, and virus transmission capabilities of aphids. Each species is covered in an identical manner. Morphological and biological information is provided in both Spanish and English as well as photographs of slide mounted specimens. Keys are provided to help the user in identifying the species. Most of the specimens examined were taken in traps associated with epidemiological studies. Limited field collecting has generated host records and these have been added to a list of the aphids of Central America that was compiled by Pamela Anderson and appended in the guide with her permission. The authors hope that this book will be useful to entomologists in Costa Rica and Central America.

  12. Arcobacter Isolation from Minced Beef Samples in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Calderón, Oscar; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Castro-Arias, Eduardo; Arias-EchandI, María Laura

    2017-04-03

    The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained. A total of 75 different Arcobacter strains were isolated from minced beef samples, for a final frequency of 48.3%. After species PCR identification, the strains were classified as A. butzleri (37.3%), A. cibarius (14.7%), A. thereius (12%), and Arcobacter spp. (36%). All samples were sensitive to gentamicin but were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained in this study show that the frequency of isolation of Arcobacter in minced beef samples is high and that there is a high resistance rate for antibiotics in common use. This suggests that Arcobacter represents a health risk for Costa Rica and that control measures should be developed to decrease its potential impact.

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening and treatment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Tabarez-Carvajal, Ana Catalina; Montes-Cantillo, Milagro; Unkrich, Kelly H; Trivedi, Rupal H; Peterseim, Mae Millicent Winfrey

    2017-04-12

    To determine the recent demographic data, risk factors and results of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and treatment in Costa Rica. The medical records of all preterm infants meeting ROP screening criteria (≤34 weeks' gestational age (GA) or birth weight (BW) ≤1750g, and those determined at risk by neonatologists) in the national healthcare system, Costa Rica, January 2010-December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. The numbers and percentages of infants with ROP, risk factors, percentage of patients treated and treatment outcomes were determined. Comparison is made with screening criteria and literature reports of ROP incidence in other countries. The study population included 3018 preterm infants. Overall, 585 patients (585/3018, 19.4%) were found to have ROP. Of these, 15.4% (90 patients) required laser treatment, and 53% of those requiring treatment had BW <1000g. Five babies requiring treatment were ≥32 weeks' GA but with BW ≤1750g. Aggressive posterior disease was found in nine patients, and two infants of those screened (2/3018, 0.07%) suffered severe visual impairment during the 5-year study period. We provide comprehensive data of ROP care in Costa Rica allowing assessment and comparison of screening criteria and protocol. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Northwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Montero, Walter; Lewis, Jonathan C; Araya, Maria Cristina

    2017-05-11

    Recent studies have shown that the Nicoya Peninsula of northwestern Costa Rica is moving northwestward ~11 mm a(-1) as part of a tectonic sliver. Toward the northwest in El Salvador the northern sliver boundary is marked by a dextral strike-slip fault system active since Late Pleistocene time. To the southeast there is no consensus on what constitutes the northern boundary of the sliver, although a system of active crustal faults has been described in central Costa Rica. Here we propose that the Haciendas-Chiripa fault system serves as the northeastern boundary for the sliver and that the sliver includes most of the Guanacaste volcanic arc, herein the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver. In this paper we provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the boundary of the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver that are timely and essential to any models aimed at resolving the driving mechanism for sliver motion. Our results are also critical for assessing geological hazards in northwestern Costa Rica.

  15. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  16. Socioeconomic development, health interventions and mortality decline in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica, whose life expectancy was 74 years by 1985, has reached a health level comparable to a developed country. The health achievements of this country are product of political and socioeconomic circumstances as well as of right public health policies. Until about 1970 the features of Costa Rica mortality, although somewhat better than the Latin American average, evolved in a similar way to the rest of the region. In particular, the decades of 1940s and 1950s saw dramatic improvements in life expectancy, thanks mainly to the import of low-cost, high-effectiveness health technologies. In the 1970s, however, Costa Rica departed from a regional pattern of stagnation and managed to close the gap with developed countries in terms of mortality levels. A dramatic decline in the infant mortality rate from 60 to 19 per 1,000 took place in this decade. The main determinants of this breakthrough were health interventions, notably a primary health care program, even though favorable socioeconomic conditions and a reduced fertility also played a role. Ecological data and other evidence suggest that up to three fourths of the mortality decline was accounted for contemporary improvements in public health services, with about 40 percent attributable to primary health care interventions. Furthermore, by targeting interventions on the less privileged population, these interventions had the merit of reducing geographic and socioeconomic differentials in child mortality.

  17. Tunable diode laser in-situ CH4 measurements aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft: instrument performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schuck, T. J.

    2014-03-01

    A laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft is presented. The instrument is based on a commercial Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Los Gatos Res.), which was adapted to meet the requirements imposed by unattended airborne operation. It was characterised in the laboratory with respect to instrument stability, precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy. For airborne operation, a calibration strategy is described that utilises CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. The precision of airborne measurements is 2 ppb for 10 s averages. The accuracy at aircraft cruising altitude is 3.85 ppb. During aircraft ascent and descent, where no flask samples were obtained, instrumental drifts can be less accurately determined and the uncertainty is estimated to be 12.4 ppb. A linear humidity bias correction was applied to the CH4 measurements, which was most important in the lower troposphere. On average, the correction bias was around 6.5 ppb at an altitude of 2 km, and negligible at cruising flight level. Observations from 103 long-distance flights are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS), with occasional crossing of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. These accurate data mark the largest UT/LMS in-situ CH4 dataset worldwide. An example of a tracer-tracer correlation study with ozone is given, highlighting the possibility for accurate cross-tropopause transport analyses.

  18. Tunable diode laser in-situ CH4 measurements aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft: instrument performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schuck, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    A laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft is presented. The instrument is based on a commercial Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA, Los Gatos Res.), which was adapted to meet the requirements imposed by unattended airborne employment. The modified instrument is described. A laboratory characterization was performed to determine the instrument stability, precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy. For airborne operation a calibration strategy is described, that utilizes CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. The precision of airborne measurements is 2 ppbv for 10 s averages. The accuracy at aircraft cruising altitude is 3.85 ppbv. During aircraft ascent and descent, where no flask samples were obtained, instrumental drifts can be less accurately considered and the uncertainty is estimated to be 12.4 ppbv. A linear humidity bias correction was applied to the CH4 measurements, which was most important in the lower troposphere. On average, the correction bias was around 6.5 ppbv at an altitude of 2 km, and negligible at cruising flight level. Observations from 103 long-distance flights are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS), with occasional crossing of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. These accurate data mark the largest UT/LMS in-situ CH4 dataset worldwide. An example of a tracer-tracer correlation study with ozone is given, highlighting the possibility for accurate cross-tropopause transport analyses.

  19. A Comprehensive Data Composite of NO and NOy in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere from CARIBIC Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; Stock, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Schlager, H.

    2015-12-01

    As a key precursor for tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. The NOx distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is controlled by different sources and processes, such as long-range transport, uplift of emissions from the boundary layer, lightning, and air traffic emissions. The combination of comparatively short lifetime, variety of sources, and complex chemistry entails large spatial variations in the abundance of nitrogen oxides. Insufficient knowledge of the NOx background concentrations in the UTLS implicates uncertainties in the determination of the ozone production, which depends non-linear on the background NOxmixing ratios. To evaluate model simulations, a sound observational data base of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS is required. Within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) nitrogen oxide measurements are performed regularly aboard a passenger aircraft. A total of 330 flights were conducted from May 2005 through April 2013 between Frankfurt/Germany and destinations in the USA, Canada, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, South Africa, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Thailand, and the Philippines. We present data averages of NO and NOy for the different regions and for different seasons. At mid-latitudes, observed NOy and NO generally show clear seasonal cycles in the upper troposphere with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. Mean NOy mixing ratios vary between 1.36 nmol/mol in summer and 0.27 nmol/mol in winter. Mean NO mixing ratios range between 0.05 nmol/mol and 0.22 nmol/mol. Regions in the sub-tropics and tropics show no consistent seasonal dependence of the NO and NOyabundance. These measurements represent one of the most comprehensive NO and NOy dataset presently available for the tropopause region and is a suitable basis for establishing a climatology. It can be used

  20. Demography and development: the lessons of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on demography and development in Costa Rica. In a 15-year period, during the 1960s and the 1st years of the 1970s, Costa Rica achieved the fastest and steepest fertility decline yet recorded in Latin America. The crude birthrate dropped from a high point in 1959 of 48.3/1000 to a low of 29.9/1000 in 1973. During the same period, the death rate declined from 9.2/1000 to 5.2/1000 by 1973. Because of this, the drop in the rate of natural increase, from 3.9% a year in 1959 to 2.47% in 1973, was not quite as pronounced in percentage terms. During those same years infant mortality dropped from 74/1000 to about 45/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 7.3 children in 1960 to 5.5 in 1968 and to just above 4 children in 1973. The major thrust of the decline originated primarily in popular perception of the imbalance between an unnecessarily high birthrate and changed socioeconomic conditions toward the end of the 1950s, of which improvements in health and general social care were among the most influential. It is not so much the economic performance of Costa Rica that distinguishes it from its neighbors as its social condition. What keeps Costa Rica from being a "banana republic" is its comparatively much higher level of social indicators: newspaper circulation per capita and the amount of newsprint consumption, the extraordinary number of bookstores in San Jose, the number of physicians and hospital beds per person, the number of teachers and students enrolled at all levels of education, and its extremely low mortality rate and very high longevity. The total fertility rate appears to have entered a period of stagnation or pause, with virtually no decline since 1974 and even a slight increase since 1976. In the 5-year period since 1973, the decline through 1978 amounted to only 5%. In the preceding 1968-73 period it wasmore than 26%. The number of births/1000 women in the 15-19 year old age group remains constant and is comparatively very

  1. Highlights from the first ecancer–Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer conference, 17–18 November 2016, Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The first oncology conference organised by ecancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on 17–18 November 2016 in Bogota. It was a highly successful event owing to the number of participants, the quality of the speakers, and the academic programme. Around 48 professors from 8 different countries came and shared their knowledge and experience of cancer management. They also talked about the most recent developments noted or achieved in this area. The keynote speech from Dr Nubia Muñoz was of great interest which was related to the safety of a HPV vaccine and the implications of a mass vaccination programme in developing countries. Geriatric oncology and palliative care were also topics that sparked great interest during the event. PMID:28487749

  2. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  3. Differences and Similarities between School Principals in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective school leadership is a global concern. This paper provides a comparison of the school principal in Costa Rica to the United States. Differences and similarities are described for principals in both nations. Major differences for principals in Costa Rica include administrative salaries, selection procedures, induction, no…

  4. Educational Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica. [Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Torres, Carlos

    In the 1960s and 1970s, steady economic growth helped the Costa Rican government expand its education system rapidly. The 1979 oil shocks, the U.S. 1981-82 recession, and other factors ended this prosperity and exposed the fragility of Costa Rica's late 1970s debt-financed development. To restore economic growth, new economic policies were…

  5. Incidence, distribution and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey was conducted in 39 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in Costa Rica to determine incidence and association of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea and Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The fields were located in Costa Rica’s two major potato production regions, and were further char...

  6. Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia: A Case Study. DERG Papers, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED), the education system in the country, and information on Costa Rica are considered. UNED is helping to equalize geographical inequalities of access to higher education. Overall, UNED's academic programs have been aimed at those who want to obtain professional qualifications. In the first semester…

  7. Teacher Expectations and Students from Low Socioeconomic Background: A Perspective from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regalla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' academic expectations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) in Costa Rica for the purpose of cross-cultural comparison. A group of 17 teachers from two different elementary schools located in a small town in Costa Rica were questioned about their expectations of low SES students enrolled in their classes.…

  8. [A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica. The presence of a small specimen of the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (84 mm total length) in the stomach contents of an adult coral snake Micrurus alleni with 692 mm total length from the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica is reported. This eel was swallowed headfirst.

  9. Special Education and Severe Disabilities in Costa Rica: Developing Inclusion in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of special education in Costa Rica is provided. Costa Rica has promulgated four educational service models that extend special education expertise: consulting teachers, educational assistance teams, itinerant teams, and resource centers. Their educational classification system describes the level of modifications required by students.…

  10. The Impact of Post-Secondary Privatization: The Case of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.; Santos, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, the Central American country of Costa Rica experienced rapid and unprecedented private university growth as part of an international movement towards post-secondary privatization. Costa Rica stands apart from other developing countries in that all 50 of the nation's private universities are proprietary, resulting in a…

  11. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  12. Comparative study of general public owl knowledge in Costa Rica, Central America and Malawi, Africa

    Treesearch

    Paula A. Enriquez; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    The public knowledge of owls in Central America and Africa was compared based on 162 interviews in Costa Rica and 147 in Malawi. General knowledge of owls included: species, common names, habitats, food, and calls, and was quite similar in both study areas. In Malawi, more than 90 percent of the respondents connected owls with bad luck, witchcraft, and death. In Costa...

  13. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... water supply reliability. A 60 TAF expansion option would expand the reservoir to 160 TAF. This second option would primarily be operated to improve Contra Costa Water District (CCWD) dry year water supply... Environmental Policy Act Federal lead agency, and the Contra Costa Water District, as the California...

  14. The Impact of Post-Secondary Privatization: The Case of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.; Santos, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, the Central American country of Costa Rica experienced rapid and unprecedented private university growth as part of an international movement towards post-secondary privatization. Costa Rica stands apart from other developing countries in that all 50 of the nation's private universities are proprietary, resulting in a…

  15. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  16. Crack cocaine use among persons with tuberculosis--Contra Costa County, California, 1987-1990.

    PubMed

    1991-07-26

    From January 1, 1987, through June 30, 1990, 44 cases of tuberculosis (TB) occurred among residents of Contra Costa County, California, who were known to use crack cocaine. To investigate a possible association between crack cocaine use and TB, local health officials conducted a retrospective study of TB cases among residents of Contra Costa County.

  17. Special Education and Severe Disabilities in Costa Rica: Developing Inclusion in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of special education in Costa Rica is provided. Costa Rica has promulgated four educational service models that extend special education expertise: consulting teachers, educational assistance teams, itinerant teams, and resource centers. Their educational classification system describes the level of modifications required by students.…

  18. Setup of an interface for operation of IAGOS (In-service Aircraft Global Observing System) CORE instruments onboard the IAGOS CARIBIC platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Berg, Marcel; Franke, Harald; Zahn, Andreas; Boenisch, Harald; Perim de Faria, Julia; Berkes, Florian; Petzold, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in-situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platforms. The infrastructure is built from two complementary approaches: The "CORE" component comprises the implementation and operation of autonomous instruments installed on up to 20 long-range aircraft of international airlines for continuous measurements of important reactive gases and greenhouse gases, as well as aerosol particles, dust and cloud particles. The fully automated instruments are designed for operation aboard the aircraft in unattended mode for several months and the data are transmitted automatically. The complementary "CARIBIC" component consists of the monthly deployment of a cargo container equipped with instrumentation for a larger suite of components. The CARIBIC container has equipment for measuring ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, water vapor and airborne particles. Furthermore the container is equipped with a system for collecting air samples. These air samples are analyzed in the laboratory. For each sample measurements for more than 40 trace gases including CFC's prohibited by the Montreal protocol, and all greenhouse gases are performed. The Interface described in this work is designed to host one of IAGOS CORE (Package2) instruments. Available are: P2a, P2b, measuring { NO_y} and {NO_x} em P2c, measuring the aerosol size-distribution (0.25

  19. Submicrometer aerosol particle distributions in the upper troposphere over the mid-latitude North Atlantic-results from the third route of `CARIBIC'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, M.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Heintzenberg, J.; Martinsson, B. G.; Schlager, H.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2008-02-01

    Particle number and mass concentrations of submicrometer aerosol particles were determined for the upper troposphere over the mid-latitude North Atlantic within the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container project (CARIBIC, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). Between May 2001 and April 2002, 22 flights from Germany to the Caribbean were conducted using an automated measurement container on a B767 passenger aircraft. Spatial and seasonal probability distributions for ultrafine and Aitken mode particles as well as mass concentrations of particulate sulphur in 8-12 km altitude are presented. High particle number concentrations (mostly 2500-15 000 particles cm-3 STP) are particularly found in summer over the western North Atlantic Ocean close to the North American continent. The distributions together with an analysis of particle source processes show that deep vertical transport is the dominant process leading to most of the events with high particle number concentrations (>~8000 particles cm-3 STP) for ultrafine particles as well as for Aitken mode particles. This study emphasizes the importance of deep vertical transport and cloud processing for the concentration of aerosol particles in the upper troposphere.

  20. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    PubMed

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes.

  1. New species of Edessa Fabricius, 1803 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin; Silva, Valeria Juliete Da; Correia, Andre Oliveira; Nunes, Benedito Mendes

    2015-08-12

    The edessines from Costa Rica are little known; only 18 species have been registered or described from this country so far. Mainly based in a large sample from Instituto Nacional de Biodiverdidad (INBio), Costa Rica, we decided to update the information concerning Edessinae from Costa Rica. We present a list of species from Costa Rica raising the number of known species from Costa Rica to 65. We are also describing nine new species: Edessa bella Fernandes & Silva, E. bruneolineata Fernandes & Correia, E. curvata Fernandes & Nunes, E. lewisi Fernandes & Silva, E. nigroangulata Fernandes & Silva, E. osae Fernandes & Nunes, E. oxcarti Fernandes & Correia, E. pallidoangulata Fernandes & Nunes and E. puravida Fernandes & Correia. Species were described, illustrated and photographed. Distribution maps for the species are also provided.

  2. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention.

  3. Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in persons. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  4. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni. PMID:22303103

  5. [The Purruja mangrove, Golfito, Costa Rica: a management model].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Margarita; Carrillo, Norma Natalia

    2004-12-01

    The Purruja mangrove (Golfito, Costa Rica) has an estimated area of 70 ha. A socio-biological research was the ground to set initial goals to manage the resources and to identify the mangrove biological condition. Community participation and the local organization were key factors in developing an integrated model for the management of natural resources. Constant monitoring and institutional networks were the other two factors to manage the mangrove. The constant profesional support was a tool to facilitate the acomplishment of goals and to establish an institucional network to promote local group iniciatives for collaborative management of the Purruja mangrove.

  6. Infant botulism in Costa Rica: first report from Central America.

    PubMed

    Hernández-de Mezerville, Marcela; Rojas-Solano, Mariela; Gutierrez-Mata, Alfonso; Hernández-Con, Laura; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando

    2014-01-15

    Clostridium botulinum is known to cause descending paralysis in infants throughout the world. The subject of this study was a three-month-old Costa Rican boy who was hospitalized because of poor suction and feeding, hypotonia, and constipation. Clinical history and physical examination findings suggested infant botulism. Samples were sent to the Winnipeg Public Health Laboratory, where Clostridium botulinum toxin A was identified by PCR and culture from the stools, making this the first report of infant botulism in Central America. Although infant botulism is a known disease, the limitations in identifying it in Central America contributes to the misdiagnosis and under-reporting of this disease.

  7. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Costa Rica: Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Wong-McClure, Roy; Gregg, Edward W; Barcelo, Alberto; Sanabria-Lopez, Laura; Lee, Kahye; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Cervantes-Loaiza, Marvin; Luman, Elizabeth T

    2016-09-01

    The projected rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in developing countries warrants careful monitoring. The aim of this study was to present the results of the Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Surveillance System, which provides the first national estimates of diabetes and IFG prevalence among adults in Costa Rica. A cross-sectional survey of 3653 non-institutionalized adults aged ≥20 years (87.8% response rate) following the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was built on a probabilistic sample of the non-institutionalized population during 2010. Known diabetes was defined as self-reported diagnosis, the use of insulin, or hypoglycemic oral treatment as consequence of diabetes during at least the previous 2 weeks before the survey. Unknown diabetes was defined no self-reported diabetes but with venous blood concentrations of fasting glucose >125 mg/dL determined by laboratory testing. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG prevalence was estimated according gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), educational level, and physical activity level. Overall diabetes prevalence was 10.8% (9.5% known and 1.3% unknown diabetes) and IFG prevalence was 16.5%. The prevalence of known diabetes was higher among women >65 years compared with men of the same age group. Both known and unknown diabetes were significantly associated with higher BMI, increased WC, and low education level (P = 0.01). The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Costa Rica is comparable to that in developed countries and indicates an urgent need for effective preventive interventions. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  9. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  10. [Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence].

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Chaves, Sandra; Méndez-Muñoz, Jesús; Bejarano-Orozco, Julio; Guerrero-López, Carlos Manuel; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2017-01-01

    To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013) and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013). The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  11. Smoking: attitudes of Costa Rican physicians and opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, D. W.; Knox, J. J.; Nash, C.; Jiménez, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information, using a written questionnaire, on the knowledge, smoking behaviour, and attitudes of Costa Rican physicians about smoking as a health issue. A random sample of 650 physicians was chosen from a list of active physicians; 287 of them were covered by survey between August 1993 and October 1994, and 217 (76%) responded with data for the study. While 40% of the physicians who participated were ex-smokers, 19% were current smokers; 67% of these two groups combined reported smoking in the workplace. Only 49% believed that physicians could be a nonsmoking role model; the majority (87%) had asked patients about their smoking status. The only cessation technique consistently used (90%) was counselling about the dangers of smoking. Measures such as setting a date to quit smoking and nicotine replacement were rarely recommended (< or = 2%). Nearly all the physicians (99%) considered smoking to be a major health issue. These results showed a high prevalence of smoking among Costa Rican physicians, with little recognition of the need for them to set an example as a role model. While they were knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking, they did not recommend any of the proven techniques to help their patients to quit smoking. A clear consensus for more strict tobacco regulation exists, but to date little has been done to act on this. PMID:10327710

  12. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  13. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999–2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003–2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended. PMID:28793352

  14. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980's, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public.

  15. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Roger; Chavarría, Juan B

    2004-12-01

    Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA). Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters) artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ) Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1) with a seasonal component of the Yt = lamda(t-1) + gammaS12 + a(t) type.

  16. Mantle Xenoliths of Cerro Mercedes, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Carr, M. J.; Herzberg, C. T.; Feigenson, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mantle peridotite occurs as xenoliths in lavas and bombs at Cerro Mercedes, a Plio-Quaternary potassic alkaline basalt volcano approximately 70 km behind the volcanic front of northern Costa Rica (Tournon and Alvarado, 1997). Mineral exploration led to the first discovery of abundant mantle xenoliths in Central America (Vargas and Alfaro, 1992). The compositions of 71 xenoliths recovered in January 2003 include dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and olivine websterite. Twenty xenoliths have a diameter of at least 3 cm. The nodules are abundant in basalt outcrops and the rare bombs. In spite of substantial soil development in a rain forest environment, both xenoliths and host lava remain well preserved. Olivine, pyroxenes and spinel are common, plagioclase is present and garnet appears to be absent. There is no obvious shearing or deformation and several pyroxenes are as much as 1 cm in diameter. The mineralogy suggests a relatively shallow upper mantle source, within either the lithosphere or possibly the uppermost asthenosphere. Cerro Mercedes, at latitude 10° 58' N and longitude 82° 21' W, lies along the Rio San Juan, which is locally the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Central America. This location approximately coincides with a boundary between dominantly depleted mantle to the northwest and OIB or Galapagos-like mantle to the southeast. We will use mineralogical data to better define the likely depths and oxidation states of representative nodules and isotopic data to define the type of mantle source.

  17. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  18. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  19. Costas loop lock detection in the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The advanced receiver currently being developed uses a Costas digital loop to demodulate the subcarrier. Previous analyses of lock detector algorithms for Costas loops have ignored the effects of the inherent correlation between the samples of the phase-error process. Accounting for this correlation is necessary to achieve the desired lock-detection probability for a given false-alarm rate. Both analysis and simulations are used to quantify the effects of phase correlation on lock detection for the square-law and the absolute-value type detectors. Results are obtained which depict the lock-detection probability as a function of loop signal-to-noise ratio for a given false-alarm rate. The mathematical model and computer simulation show that the square-law detector experiences less degradation due to phase jitter than the absolute-value detector and that the degradation in detector signal-to-noise ratio is more pronounced for square-wave than for sine-wave signals.

  20. [Mass screening for gastric cancer performed in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Yumiko; Sasagawa, Tsuyoshi; Takasaki, Ken

    2002-06-01

    We performed mass screening for gastric cancer by means of X-ray in Costa Rica from 1996 through 1999. Screening was performed on 10,064 subjects and 69 gastric cancers were detected (screening group). During the same period 172 gastric cancer patients were referred to us (non-screening group). Results of screening in Japan (Japanese group) were quoted from the annual report of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterological Mass Survey. This study is a comparison of these 3 groups. The detection rate was 0.68% in the screening group, 0.11% in the Japanese group. The operability was 92.7%, 76.1%, 97.0%, the resectability 96.8%, 83.2%, 98.6%, the rate of early gastric cancer 64.5%, 30.3%, 65.9%, and the rate of curability A 79.0%, 38.5%. 82.6% in the screening group, non-screening group and Japanese group respectively. The results in the screening group were exactly equal to those in the Japanese group. These results show that the same results can be obtained in Costa Rica as in Japan, if screening is performed with the same diagnostic level and skill as in Japan.

  1. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  2. [Unnecessary premature and avoidable mortality in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Llorca Castro, Fernando; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    With the intention of establishing economic inequities, the article analyzes the variations of the Unnecessarily Premature and Sanitarily Avoidable Mortality (MIPSE) of each of the 81 cantons of Costa Rica during 2000-2005. It is important to identify those inequities, to establish policies and strategies trying to mitigate them. It applies the MIPSE classification proposed by members of the Information and Studies Service, of the Catalunya's Sanitary Resources Headquarter, Spain. By an Indicator of Socioeconomic Development (IDSE) of a University of Costa Rica economist's team, it organised each canton in groups of quintiles (I for the richest, V for the poorest), previous people standardization. We found as a major causes of mortality MIPSE in the country: Heart Isquemic Disease (19,55% MIPSE causes), Traffic Accidents with Motor Vehicles (11,60%), Brain Vascular Disease (6,95%), Perinatal (6,92%) and Suicide (5,14%). The VIH infection - AIDS mortality, the Best Cancer in Women, Uterus Cancer, Skin Cancer and Hepatic Disease Secondary to Alcohol Consumption, affects more the cantons with better financial conditions and the Prostate Benign Hyperplasia mortality, Mothers mortality related with Pregnancy, Childbirth or Puerperal Stage and the Abdominal Hernia mortality, affects more to those with worst economic level. Two MIPSE groups were identified with similar inequality: Leukaemia and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease.

  3. Reconnaissance of selected PPCP compounds in Costa Rican surface waters.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Acuña, Jenaro; Vargas, José; Murillo, Manuel; Umaña, Gerardo; Gómez, Eddy; Perez, Greivin

    2011-12-15

    Eighty-six water samples were collected in early 2009 from Costa Rican surface water and coastal locations for the analysis of 34 pharmaceutical and personal care product compounds (PPCPs). Sampling sites included areas receiving treated and untreated wastewaters, and urban and rural runoff. PPCPs were analyzed using a combination of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The five most frequently detected compounds were doxycycline (77%), sulfadimethoxine (43%), salicylic acid (41%), triclosan (34%) and caffeine (29%). Caffeine had the maximum concentration of 1.1 mg L(-1), possibly due to coffee bean production facilities upstream. Other compounds found in high concentrations include: doxycycline (74 μg L(-1)), ibuprofen (37 μg L(-1)), gemfibrozil (17 μg L(-1)), acetominophen (13 μg L(-1)) and ketoprofen (10 μg L(-1)). The wastewater effluent collected from an oxidation pond had similar detection and concentrations of compounds compared to other studies reported in the literature. Waters receiving runoff from a nearby hospital showed higher concentrations than other areas for many PPCPs. Both caffeine and carbamazepine were found in low frequency compared to other studies, likely due to enhanced degradation and low usage, respectively. Overall concentrations of PPCPs in surface waters of Costa Rica are inline with currently reported occurrence data from around the world, with the exception of doxycycline.

  4. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D; Fuchs, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species.

  5. Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Jorge; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Leal, Alejandro; Gerlovin, Hanna; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a "longevity island," particularly for males. We estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity. Older Nicoyans had higher Amerindian ancestry compared to younger Nicoyans (43.3% vs 36.0%, P = .04). Each 10% increase of Amerindian ancestry was associated with more than twice the odds of being long-lived (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03-5.25). To our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian-specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  7. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  8. Is Geriatric Medicine Possible in a Middle-Income Country? The Case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Morales-Martínez, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the current and future-projected demographic data, organization, networks for the care of older people, and perspectives in Costa Rica in relation to the challenges resulting from exponential growth of the older adult population, most notably those aged 80 and older. It includes consideration of the Norms of Integrated Care of the Older Adult of Costa Rica's national social security system and contributions from other public and private institutions. It also makes note of commentaries on the need for ever-increasing efforts to manage the care of Costa Rica's burgeoning older adult population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Hydraulic Model Investigation: Walnut Creek Flood-Control Project Contra Costa County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT HL-87-14 WALNUT CREEK FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECT CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Hydraulic Model Investigation by W. G. Davis O11C tLE...34’ : AA Ii iA e d S O a :::: SCALE IN MILES 5 0 5 10 Figure 1. Vicinity map 4~ 4.. %- . " . " %____ WALNUT CREEK FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECT CONTRA COSTA COUNTY...Pleasant Hi-1, nd Martinez, California, on its way to the Suisin Bay. All of th.e planned imcrovements are located in Contra Costa County, California

  10. [Changes in the brain content of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in caribe colorado, Pygocentrus notatus, during the reproductive cycle].

    PubMed

    Marcano, D; Guerrero, H; Gentile, F

    1989-01-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotrophic hormone-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) was detected in extracts from optic tectum, cerebellum and brain stem of the Venezuelan freshwater fish "caribe colorado", Pygocentrus notatus by means of radioimmunoassay. Like most fishes from the area P. notatus, has a reproductive cycle closely related to environmental conditions changes. Our results show a correlation between gonadal maturation, express as Gonosomatic Index (GI) and the beginning of the rainy season (April-May) in males and females of this species. Fluctuations in the ir-GnRH levels that depend of the reproductive state and environmental conditions occurred in the optic tectum and cerebellum extract obtained from female fish. On the other hand, in males no striking variation were found in any of the structures mentioned, except for the optic tectum, were a significant increase in the ir-GnRH content was observed in May.

  11. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae).

    PubMed

    Kurina, Olavi; Hippa, Heikki; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The following five species are described as new: Manota clavasp. n. (Colombia), Manota multilobatasp. n. (Colombia), Manota perplexasp. n. (Costa Rica), Manota setilobatasp. n. (Colombia) and Manota subaristatasp. n. (Colombia). In addition, new records for the following 11 species are presented: Manota acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota arenalensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota corcovado Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota costaricensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, Costa Rica), Manota minutula Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota multisetosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota parva Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Costa Rica), Manota pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia) and Manota squamulata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica). Distribution patterns include (1) species known only locally in Costa Rica or Colombia, (2) distributions connecting Central America to west Andes lowlands, and (3) north-west Neotropical components, extending from Central America to Brazilian Amazonia. The possible biogeographical and taxonomical context of Manota species with a widespread distribution is considered.

  12. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Hippa, Heikki; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The following five species are described as new: Manota clava sp. n. (Colombia), Manota multilobata sp. n. (Colombia), Manota perplexa sp. n. (Costa Rica), Manota setilobata sp. n. (Colombia) and Manota subaristata sp. n. (Colombia). In addition, new records for the following 11 species are presented: Manota acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota arenalensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota corcovado Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota costaricensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, Costa Rica), Manota minutula Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota multisetosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota parva Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Costa Rica), Manota pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia) and Manota squamulata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica). Distribution patterns include (1) species known only locally in Costa Rica or Colombia, (2) distributions connecting Central America to west Andes lowlands, and (3) north-west Neotropical components, extending from Central America to Brazilian Amazonia. The possible biogeographical and taxonomical context of Manota species with a widespread distribution is considered. PMID:28769645

  13. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast

  14. Variably Depleted Peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): A Possible Record of Subduction Initiation beneath the Greater Antilles Paleo-Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Butjosa, L.; Lewis, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of Cpx-bearing harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and (Opx-bearing) dunite, locally intruded by gabbroic rocks of Barremian age (~ 125 Ma). Mg# of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (90), to higher values in Cpx-harzburgite (91), harzburgite (92) and dunite (92-94). Cr# of spinel spans from 0.23 in lherzolite to 0.87 in dunite, and progressively increases from fertile to refractory lithologies. These variations overlap the mineral compositions of both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of whole rocks are variable (0.002 < LREEN < 0.11 and 0.003 < HREEN < 1.02), and the HREE contents generally reflect the fertility of the samples. Similar to mineral chemistry, these trace element abundances overlap the compositions of both highly depleted supra-subduction and more fertile abyssal peridotites. Peridotites are variably enriched in the most incompatible and fluid-mobile trace elements (Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Pb), and show negative anomalies of Nb and Ta. MREE/HREE fractionations in whole rocks and clinopyroxene support that these rocks are residues after initial fractional melting (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field and additional melting (~ 5-15%) in the spinel peridotite facies. The relative enrichment in incompatible and fluid-mobile elements (e.g., LILE and LREE) probably resulted from interaction of melting residues with ascending fluids/melts. We interpret the compositional variability of the Loma Caribe peridotite as reflecting different stages of generation of sub-oceanic mantle lithosphere during the Lower Cretaceous initiation of subduction beneath the Greater Antilles Paleo-arc.

  15. Methyl chloride as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere inferred from IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Oram, D. E.; Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) obtained from air samples collected by the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (IAGOS-CARIBIC) passenger aircraft observatory for the period 2008-2012. To correct for the temporal increase of atmospheric N2O, the CARIBIC N2O data are expressed as deviations from the long-term trend at the northern hemispheric baseline station Mauna Loa, Hawaii (ΔN2O). ΔN2O undergoes a pronounced seasonal variation in the LMS with a minimum in spring. The amplitude increases going deeper in the LMS (up to potential temperature of 40 K above the thermal tropopause), as a result of the seasonally varying subsidence of air from the stratospheric overworld. Seasonal variation of CH3Cl above the tropopause is similar in phase to that of ΔN2O. Significant correlations are found between CH3Cl and ΔN2O in the LMS from winter to early summer, both being affected by mixing between stratospheric air and upper tropospheric air. This correlation, however, disappears in late summer to autumn. The slope of the CH3Cl-ΔN2O correlation observed in the LMS allows us to determine the stratospheric lifetime of CH3Cl to be 35 ± 7 years. Finally, we examine the partitioning of stratospheric air and tropical/extratropical tropospheric air in the LMS based on a mass balance approach using ΔN2O and CH3Cl. This analysis clearly indicates efficient inflow of tropical tropospheric air into the LMS in summer and demonstrates the usefulness of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air.

  16. Laryngeal malformations in the Richieri-Costa and Pereira form of acrofacial dysostosis.

    PubMed

    Tabith Júnior, A; Gonçalves, C G

    1996-12-30

    We report on laryngeal malformations in 5 subjects, 4 females and 1 male, with the autosomal-recessive Richieri-Costa and Pereira form of acrofacial dysostosis. Characteristics of the voice are described.

  17. Costa Rica's payment for environmental services program: intention, implementation, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan Andres; Boomhower, Judson P

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the intention, implementation, and impact of Costa Rica's program of payments for environmental services (PSA), which was established in the late 1990s. Payments are given to private landowners who own land in forest areas in recognition of the ecosystem services their land provides. To characterize the distribution of PSA in Costa Rica, we combined remote sensing with geographic information system databases and then used econometrics to explore the impacts of payments on deforestation. Payments were distributed broadly across ecological and socioeconomic gradients, but the 1997-2000 deforestation rate was not significantly lower in areas that received payments. Other successful Costa Rican conservation policies, including those prior to the PSA program, may explain the current reduction in deforestation rates. The PSA program is a major advance in the global institutionalization of ecosystem investments because few, if any, other countries have such a conservation history and because much can be learned from Costa Rica's experiences.

  18. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  19. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-11-29

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  20. Personnel viewing posters showing how NASA activities have made an impact on Costa Rican people

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    L-R; Jorge Andres Diaz, Director of the Costa Rican National Hangar for Airborne Research division of the National Center for High Technology(CENAT); NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe; and Fernando Gutierrez, Costa Rican Minister of Science and Technology(MICIT), viewing posters showing how NASA activities have made an impact on Costa Rican people. Mr. O'Keefe was in Costa Rica to participate in the AirSAR 2004 Mesoamerica campaign, which used NASA DFRC's DC-8 airborne laboratory aircraft. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  1. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  2. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication.

  3. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Sims, Katharine R. E.; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B.

    2010-01-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty. PMID:20498058

  4. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  5. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Sims, Katharine R E; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B

    2010-06-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty.

  6. Costa Rica Turrialba Volcano, Continued Activity seen by NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-06

    The March, 2015 eruption of Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica caught everyone by surprise as seen in this image from the ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft. Activity had greatly diminished when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired this nighttime thermal infrared image on April 2, 2015. The hot summit crater appears in white, indicating continued volcanic unrest. To the west, Poas Volcano's hot crater lake also appears white, though its temperature is considerably less than Turrialba's crater. The large image covers an area of 28 by 39 miles (45 by 63 kilometers); the insets 2 by 2 miles (3.1 by 3.1 kilometers). The image is centered at 10.1 degrees north, 84 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19355

  7. The chemical and hydrologic structure of Poas volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, G.L.; Brantley, S.L.; Fernandez, J.F.; Borgia, A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the volcano are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin on the northwestern flank are the only waters on Poas that are affected by leakage of acid brines from the summit hydrothermal system. Acid sulfate waters found on the northwestern flank are produced by the interaction of surface and shallow groundwater with dry and wet acid deposition of SO2 and H2SO4 aerosols, respectively. The acid deposition is caused by a plume of acid gases that is released by a shallow magma body located beneath the active crater of Poas. -from Authors

  8. Arbutoid mycorrhizas of the genus Cortinarius from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kühdorf, K; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2016-08-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizas of Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Arbutoidea, Ericaceae) from neotropical montane forests are rarely described. To date, only mycorrhizal associations with the fungal species Leccinum monticola, Leotia lubrica and Sebacina sp. are known from literature. The genus Cortinarius is one of the most species-rich ectomycorrhizal taxa with over 2000 assumed species. In this study, two sites in the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica were sampled, where Com. arbutoides is endemic and grows together with Quercus costaricensis. Using a combined method of rDNA sequence analysis and morphotyping, 33 sampled mycorrhizal systems of Cortinarius were assigned to the subgenera Dermocybe, Phlegmacium and Telamonia. Specific plant primers were used to identify the host plant. Here, we present the phylogenetic data of all found Cortinarii and describe four of the arbutoid mycorrhizal systems morphologically and anatomically.

  9. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  10. Contra Costa County's one-year experience with gasohol

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, L.M.; Gilbert, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Starting August 1, 1979, a one-year gasohol test was conducted by Contra Costa County. A total of 30 county pool cars were on test - 15 on gasohol and 15 similar cars on gasoline as a control group. Findings were as follows. There were no fuel-related maintenance problems in either the gasohol or gasoline groups of cars. Cool weather driveability for the gasohol cars was the same or better than gasoline cars. No vapor lock or other hot driveability problems were reported for either fuel. Fuel economy of the gasohol cars was about 5% poorer than that of the gasoline cars. Fuel system deposits with gasohol were increased and differed in character compared to gasoline. Also, the gasohol carburetors showed more inlet needle valve tip wear. However, to date, the observed deposits and wear with gasohol have not caused any apparent problems.

  11. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  12. The Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) species group in Costa Rica (Geometridae, Ennominae)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Historically, the name Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) has been applied to what is a complex of three undescribed species in Costa Rica. They are very similar in maculation, but can be differentiated by genitalic characters and barcodes. P. alajuela Sullivan, sp. n. occurs at lower altitudes in the northwestern part of Costa Rica whereas P. intermediata Sullivan, sp. n. and P. esperanza Sullivan, sp. n. are found at partially overlapping altitudes in the central mountain ranges. PMID:25061377

  13. The Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) species group in Costa Rica (Geometridae, Ennominae).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the name Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) has been applied to what is a complex of three undescribed species in Costa Rica. They are very similar in maculation, but can be differentiated by genitalic characters and barcodes. P. alajuela Sullivan, sp. n. occurs at lower altitudes in the northwestern part of Costa Rica whereas P. intermediata Sullivan, sp. n. and P. esperanza Sullivan, sp. n. are found at partially overlapping altitudes in the central mountain ranges.

  14. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  15. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations, Contra Costa, County, California. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    for example, plastic beverage bottles, cardboard, wood, yardwastes, textiles , rubber, and leather. In addition to traditional activities, a central...a 6000-foot-long dredged channel. The 200-acre parcel is crossed with a number of drainage ditches, constructed by the Contra Costa Mosquito ...incoming flow at the high tide. It is the only point of discharge for flood water and is maintained by the Contra Costa Mosquito Abatement District

  16. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  17. A radio voice for women. Organizing for change: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Suarez Toro, M

    1995-01-01

    The Feminist Radio Endeavor (FIRE) was organized in Costa Rica in 1991 and broadcasts in English and Spanish for two hours every day on its own short-wave radio station, Radio for Peace International. In January 1995, FIRE discovered that the Costa Rican government planned to create a huge garbage land-fill proximate to a unique forest reserve which is the last primary forest reserve near the city of San Jose. The 100 acres of forest rests in a transitional zone between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts and hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna. On one side of the forest, a small village is situated whose inhabitants have protected the forest for decades. On the other side, the indigenous Quitirisi continue their centuries-old protection of the forest. In February, FIRE staff traveled by horseback and used walkie-talkie radios to air a live Radio Eco-tour of the forest and its neighboring village. People from over 100 countries listened to the broadcast. Within days, the staff was broadcasting live from outside the municipal building where delegates were discussing the growing protest over the dump site. The delegates emerged to announce that they would oppose the use of the road for dump trucks. FIRE then invited call-ins to their broadcast, and the lines were flooded with people expressing fears and frustration with the delegates for refusing to discuss the issues. Callers from the US stated that hearing the voices of the people affected brought the issue to life for them. To FIRE, this is the essential element of global communications.

  18. Seismic reflection images of the accretionary wedge of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The large-scale structure of modern accretionary wedges is known almost entirely from seismic reflection investigations using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. The authors will report on the first three-dimensional seismic reflection data volume collected of a wedge. This data set covers a 9-km-wide {times} 22-km-long {times} 6-km-thick volume of the accretionary wedge just arcward of the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. The three-dimensional processing has improved the imaging ability of the multichannel data, and the data volume allows mapping of structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size. These data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the wedge shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. Reflections from within the wedge define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular convergent margin. So far, the analysis shows that the subdued basement relief (horst and graben structures seldom have relief of more than a few hundred meters off Costa Rica) does affect the larger scale through going structural features within the wedge. The distribution of mud volcanoes and amplitude anomalies associated with the large-scale wedge structures suggests that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region at a distance of 50-100 km. Offscraping of the uppermost (about 45 m) sediment occurs within 4 km of the trench, creating a small pile of sediments near the trench lower slope. Underplating of parts of the 400-m-thick subducted sedimentary section begins at a very shallow structural level, 4-10 km arcward of the trench. Volumetrically, the most important accretionary process is underplating.

  19. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems.

  20. Health care in Costa Rica: boom and crisis.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Lago, C

    1985-01-01

    In 1960-1980 Costa Rica experienced a health boom, achieving significant improvements which moved that country into the number two position in Latin America for indicators such as population coverage, infant mortality, life expectancy and health services. In addition, there was a gradual process of integration of health services. But in the same period, the cost of health care as a percentage of GNP increased almost 5-fold and in 1980 was the fourth highest in the region. The economic crisis of the 1980s aggravated the financial difficulties; to cope with them, the government introduced an austere program to reduce costs and plans to transform the current model of health care into a more efficient one capable of maintaining Costa Rica's high health standards in the future. The paper is divided into five sections: summary of the historical development of health care, and description of its current organization and of its gradual process of integration; estimation of population coverage and its trends, evaluation of inequalities in coverage, and identification of the non-covered group; analysis of health-care financing and its sources, as well of the recent financial desequilibrium, its causes and measures to restore the equilibrium; description of health care benefits and their differences among groups and regions, analysis of the country's advances in health-care facilities and standards, and measurement of the impact of the health care system in income distribution; and description of the rising cost of health care and the current crisis, analysis of the causes of both phenomena, and review of the measures that have been and should be implemented to solve these problems.

  1. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica.

  2. Nicaraguan migration and the prevalence of adolescent childbearing in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sintonen, Heidi; Bonilla-Carrión, Roger Enrique; Ashorn, Per

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the dynamics of adolescent childbearing of Nicaraguan-born and Costa Rican-born adolescents in Costa Rica and examines the association between socio-demographic factors and adolescent childbearing in the country. We studied Nicaraguan-born and Costa Rican adolescents using the data of the 2000 Census. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between country of origin and adolescent childbearing, while controlling for socio-demographic factors (age, education, union, urbanization and poverty). 26% of Nicaraguan-born migrants and 9.5% of Costa Ricans had given birth during adolescence. The migrants' increased odds of pregnancy decreased from 3.34 (CI 3.21, 3.48) to 1.88 (CI 1.79, 1.97) when controlling for socio-demographic factors. Age, low educational attainment, urban residence, poverty and union were all significant predictors of adolescent pregnancy. Nicaraguan-born status is associated with adolescent childbearing in Costa Rica. Further research is needed to understand what factors, other than socio-demographic indicators, contribute to the differing prevalence of adolescent childbearing in Costa Rica.

  3. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Meera N.; Harhay, Michael O.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socioeconomic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. Methods We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5 – 21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95%CI 1.07–1.10, p<0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 meters above sea level of residence, subjects’ odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15–1.38, p<0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30%–50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26–46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. PMID:26466575

  4. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Harhay, Meera N; Harhay, Michael O; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Rosero Bixby, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socio-economic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) . The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5-21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95% CI 1.07-1.10, P < 0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 m above sea level of residence, subjects' odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15-1.38, P < 0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30-50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26-46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socio-economic status. We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  6. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  7. Crustal structure along the active Costa Rican volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarralde, D.; Holbrook, W. S.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Alvarado, G. E.; Harder, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from an explosion-source seismic refraction transect along the entire active Costa Rican volcanic arc. The seismic data were acquired in 2005 as part of the TICO-CAVA experiment with the goals of delineating the basic crustal architecture of this relatively young volcanic arc, understanding magmatic emplacement processes, and estimating the bulk composition and growth rates of arc crust. The seismic transect extends ~280 km along the axis of the arc and consists of 16 shots (200 - 1200 kg) recorded by 710 seismometers. The active Costa Rican arc consists of two segments with distinct morphologies, the Guanacaste Cordillera (GC) in the north and Central Cordillera (CC) in the south. This segmentation is linked to the subducting Cocos ridge, which occurs beneath the CC and has a northern boundary roughly coincident with the arc segment boundary. Volcanoes of the GC rise from a plateau of ~500 m elevation to maximum heights of ~1500 m, while the CC volcanoes rise from ~1500 m to heights of 3500 m. The crustal structure beneath these segments is distinctly different. The entire arc is covered by a ~5-km-thick carapace with velocities of 4.5-5.8 km/s that probably represent volcaniclastics, flows and small plutons. Beneath the GC, a 1- to 2-km-thick “grainitic” layer (6.0-6.1 km/s) lies beneath the carapace. Velocities below this granitic layer suggest a somewhat more mafic composition, but they increase slowly with depth from 6.2-6.3 km/s between 6-15 km depth. Total crustal thickness beneath the GC is ~40 km, but analysis of crustal thickness is ongoing. The crust beneath Guanacaste thus has a velocity structure very similar to average continental crust, though with slightly slower velocities, perhaps due to high temperatures beneath the arc. As the arc has only been active in this location for <5 m.y., this suggests that either the earlier Neogene arc to the west substantially modified the oceanic-plateau crustal foundation here or that the

  8. Rates of weathering rind formation on Costa Rican basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Peter B.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Murphy, Katherine; Brantley, Susan L.

    2004-04-01

    Weathering rind thicknesses were measured on ˜ 200 basaltic clasts collected from three regionally extensive alluvial fill terraces (Qt 1, Qt 2, and Qt 3) preserved along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Mass balance calculations suggest that conversion of unweathered basaltic core minerals (plagioclase and augite) to authigenic minerals in the porous rind (kaolinite, allophane, gibbsite, Fe oxyhydroxides) is iso-volumetric and Ti and Zr are relatively immobile. The hierarchy of cation mobility (Ca ≈ Na > K ≈ Mg > Si > Al > Fe ≈ P) is similar to other tropical weathering profiles and is indicative of differential rates of mineral weathering (anorthite > albite ≈ hypersthene > orthoclase ≫ apatite). Alteration profiles across the cm-thick rinds document dissolution of plagioclase and augite and the growth of kaolinite, with subsequent dissolution of kaolinite and precipitation of gibbsite as weathering rinds age. The rate of weathering rind advance is evaluated using a diffusion-limited model which predicts a parabolic rate law for weathering rind thickness, r r, as a function of time, t( r r = κt), and an interface-limited model which predicts a linear rate law for weathering rind thickness as a function of time ( r r = k appt ). In these rate laws, κ is a diffusion parameter and k app is an apparent rate constant. The rate of advance is best fit by the interface model. Terrace exposures are confined to the lower reaches of streams draining the Pacific slope near the coast where the stream gradient is less than ˜3 m/km, and terrace deposition is influenced by eustatic sea level fluctuations. Geomorphological evidence is consistent with terrace deposition coincident with sea level maxima when the stream gradient would be lowest. Assigning the most weathered regionally extensive terrace Qt 1 (mean rind thickness 6.9 ± 0. 6cm) to oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 7 (ca. 240 ka), and assuming that at time = 0 rind thickness = 0, it is inferred that terrace Qt 2

  9. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  10. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  11. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  12. Mineral and whole rock compositions of peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): insights into the evolution of the oceanic mantle in the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Konc, Z.; Hidas, K.; Lewis, J.; Lidiak, E.

    2012-04-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate, especially in Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic and is considered to have been emplaced in Aptian time as result of the collision between an oceanic plateau (the Duarte plateau terrane) and the primitive Caribbean island arc. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and dunite which mainly have porphyroclastic texture with strongly deformed orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, as commonly observed in ophiolitic mantle tectonites. Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)] of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (89-90), to higher values in harzburgite (89-91) and dunite (91-92). Orthopyroxene in harzburgite has higher Mg# (91-92) and lower Al2O3 (0.89 to 1.12 wt.%) than in lherzolite (Mg# = 89-91; Al2O3 = 2.4-3.5wt.%), similarly to clinopyroxene (Mg# = 94-95 and Al2O3 = 0.89-1.10 wt% in harzburgite, versus Mg# = 86-94 and Al2O3 = 2.3-4.0 wt% in lherzolite). Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] of spinel spans from 0.30 in lherzolite to 0.88 in dunite. These variations in terms of Mg# in olivine and Cr# in spinel overlap the mineral compositions in both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of peridotites are variable (0.002 < LREE chondrite-normalized < 0.11 and 0.002 < HREE chondrite-normalized < 1.02) and their HREE contents generally reflect the clinopyroxene proportions in the samples, i.e. harzburgite has lower HREE abundances than lherzolite. These trace element abundances are transitional between those of highly depleted supra-subduction peridotites from ophiolites in eastern Cuba and those of fertile mantle rocks in ultramafic massifs from Puerto Rico. Chondrite-normalized patterns are U-shaped (i.e., relatively

  13. A system for high-quality CO2 isotope analyses of air samples collected by the CARIBIC Airbus A340-600.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S; Taylor, P; Brenninkmeijer, C A M

    2009-05-01

    delta18O(CO2) on the VPDB-CO2 scale, estimated on runs of CO2-air mixtures, is +/-0.040 per thousand and 0.060 per thousand (2-sigma values). Inter-comparison with MPI-BGC resulted in a scale discrepancy of a similar magnitude. Although the reason(s) for this discrepancy still need to be understood, this basically confirms the approach of using specifically prepared CO2-air mixtures as a calibration carrier, in order to achieve scale unification among laboratories. As important practical application and as a critical test, JRC-IRMM took part in the passenger aircraft-based global monitoring project CARIBIC (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). In this way, reliable CO2 isotope data for the tropopause region and the free troposphere were obtained. From June 2007 to January 2009, approximately 500 CARIBIC air samples have been analysed. Some flights demonstrated a compact correlation of both delta13C(CO2) and delta18O(CO2) with respect to CO2 concentration, demonstrating mixing of tropospheric and stratospheric air masses. These excellent correlations provide an independent, realistic data quality check. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. New 40Ar/39Ar Ages Support The Dominant Right-Lateral Transform Motion Within The CARIB-SOAM PBZ Since Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamira, A.; Burke, K.; Copeland, P.; Foster, D.

    2006-12-01

    New 40Ar/3939Ar ages in amphiboles (84±2 to 95±2 Ma) and in white micas (86±3 to 95±2 Ma) from the Villa de Cura Blue Schist Belt (VdC) in Central Venezuela are in agreement with those ages reported by Smith et al., 1999 (96-80 Ma). We found that amphiboles and white micas reached their closure temperature at approximately the same time, suggesting a rapid cooling from 500°C to 300°C. The ages are very similar throughout the VdC, with no evident trend variations in any particular direction. We also report 40Ar/3939Ar amphibole ages from different localities along the Caribbean South America Plate Boundary Zone (CARIB-SOAM PBZ): 1) Batholithic granite in Aruba (88±9 Ma); 2) Ultramafic sliver in the northern coast of the Araya Peninsula, near San Juan de las Galdonas (145±14 Ma); 3) Dragon gneiss, in the extreme eastern tip of the Paria Peninsula (91±5 Ma); 4) Ultramafic rock from the Chacao Complex (122±17 Ma); 5) Three samples from Las Hermanas Formation, North of San Sebastian and South of VdC (134±4, 129±6 and 97±4 Ma). The igneous and high P/T metamorphic ages reported above were sampled in the thrust belts of Venezuela and are older than 70 Ma, when the Great Arc of the Caribbean struck the west coast of SOAM. The Venezuelan island of Los Testigos gave an 40Ar/3939Ar age for amphibole from a diorite of 41±2 Ma; this younger igneous age is located in the northern part of the PBZ; we interpret Los Testigos as a fragment of the southern end of the Lesser Antillean arc dragged into the PBZ as the arc slid by. All the ages are consistent with the predictions made by Burke et al., 2005, in which they proposed dominant right-lateral transform motion with limited flower structural strain-partitioning involving shortening (in thrusts) and extension (in pull-aparts) within the CARIB- SOAM PBZ and do not require a component of oblique convergence for the Caribbean-South America margin.

  15. Acetone-CO enhancement ratios in the upper troposphere based on 7 years of CARIBIC data: new insights and estimates of regional acetone fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Bönisch, Harald; Neumaier, Marco; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Orphal, Johannes; Brito, Joel; Becker, Julia; Sprung, Detlev; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) are two important trace gases controlling the oxidation capacity of the troposphere; enhancement ratios (EnRs) are useful in assessing their sources and fate between emission and sampling, especially in pollution plumes. In this study, we focus on in situ data from the upper troposphere recorded by the passenger-aircraft-based IAGOS-CARIBIC (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) observatory over the periods 2006-2008 and 2012-2015. This dataset is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial variation of acetone-CO EnRs. Furthermore, we utilize a box model accounting for dilution, chemical degradation and secondary production of acetone from precursors. In former studies, increasing acetone-CO EnRs in a plume were associated with secondary production of acetone. Results of our box model question this common presumption and show increases of acetone-CO EnR over time without taking secondary production of acetone into account. The temporal evolution of EnRs in the upper troposphere, especially in summer, is not negligible and impedes the interpretation of EnRs as a means for partitioning of acetone and CO sources in the boundary layer. In order to ensure that CARIBIC EnRs represent signatures of source regions with only small influences by dilution and chemistry, we limit our analysis to temporal and spatial coherent events of high-CO enhancement. We mainly focus on North America and Southeast Asia because of their different mix of pollutant sources and the good data coverage. For both regions, we find the expected seasonal variation in acetone-CO EnRs with maxima in summer, but with higher amplitude over North America. We derive mean (± standard deviation) annual acetone fluxes of (53 ± 27) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 and (185 ± 80) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 for North America and Southeast Asia, respectively. The derived flux for North America

  16. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  17. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  18. The Galapagos-OIB signature of the central Costa Rican volcanic front: arc-hotspot interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.; Hoernle, K.; Feigenson, M. D.; Hauff, F.; Szymanski, D.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2008-12-01

    Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America have isotopic and trace element compositions with an OIB affinity, similar to the Galapagos hotspot lavas. Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene-Pliocene ca. 6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hotspot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridges) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively low Nd isotopic ratios and enriched geochemical signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hotspot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridges (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hotspot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ~8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hotspot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

  19. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  20. The fertility plateau in Costa Rica: a review of causes and remedies.

    PubMed

    Holl, K D; Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1993-01-01

    Costa Rica achieved a substantial reduction in its overall fertility rate in a very short period of time. The halving of the fertility rate which occurred in less than ten years in Costa Rica transpired over the course of 100 years in France and 170 in Sweden. The level of contraceptive use in Costa Rica is twice that in other Central American nations. The authors summarize the recent demographic history of Costa Rica and review factors influencing its remarkable fertility decline. They then discuss possible explanations for the ensuing fertility plateau and conclude by suggesting strategies for affecting a further decrease in fertility rates. With regard to the reasons for the fertility plateau, cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, declining government commitment and family planning services, education, and the Church are considered. To reduce the level of fertility even further, the authors recommend that the government adopt a clear population policy which could serve as a basis for other changes such as increased support of family planning programs, improvements in the educational system, increased women's status and employment opportunities, and extensive education in schools and through the mass media on the socioeconomic and environmental effects of overpopulation. It is important to increase Costa Ricans' understanding of the negative impacts of continued population growth and the role of individual family planning decisions in that growth.

  1. Population structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica reveals shared haplotype diversity with Southeast Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Munoz, Miguel; Gomez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean B

    2017-08-18

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis Deighton is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20-80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in bananas. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared to Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. One hundred and eighteen isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared to a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  2. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  3. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hastert, Theresa A; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Participants include 1994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994-2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals.

  5. Urban structure and dengue fever in Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Fuller, Douglas O.; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Solano, Mayra E.; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most important arboviral disease globally and is usually associated with built environments in tropical areas. Remotely sensed information can facilitate the study of urban mosquito-borne diseases by providing multiple temporal and spatial resolutions appropriate to investigate urban structure and ecological characteristics associated with infectious disease. In this study, coarse, medium and fine resolution satellite imagery (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and QuickBird respectively) and ground-based data were analyzed for the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica for the years 2002–04. The results showed that the mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was generally higher in the localities with lower incidence of dengue fever during 2002, although the correlation was statistically significant only in the dry season (r=−0.40; p=0.03). Dengue incidence was inversely correlated to built area and directly correlated with tree cover (r=0.75, p=0.01). Overall, the significant correlations between dengue incidence and urban structural variables (tree cover and building density) suggest that properties of urban structure may be associated with dengue incidence in tropical urban settings. PMID:20161131

  6. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women's health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women's rights to life and health.

  7. Conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in northwest Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Amy E; Cumming, Graeme S

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are more threatened than any other ecosystem type, with losses exceeding 50% of their original extent worldwide. Despite the small portion of the Earth's surface that they comprise, wetlands contribute significantly to global ecosystem services. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the location and rate of change in wetland amount in the Tempisque Basin of northwest Costa Rica is predictable from landscape setting. Our results demonstrate that a strong potential exists for developing predictive models of wetland conversion based on an understanding of wetland location and surrounding trends of land use. We found that topography was the single most important predictor of wetland conversion in this area, entraining other conversion processes, and that spatial patterns of wetland loss could consistently be predicted from landscape-level variables. Areas with highest probabilities of conversion were found in the most accessible, non-protected regions of the landscape. While Palo Verde National Park made a substantial contribution to wetland conservation, our results highlight the dependence of lower-lying protected areas on upland processes, adding a little-addressed dimension of complexity to the dialogue about protected area management. Conservation strategies aimed at reducing wetland loss in tropical habitats will benefit from careful analysis of the dominant land use system(s) at a relatively broad scale, and the subsequent development of management and policy responses that take into account dynamic opportunities and constraints in the landscape.

  8. Phytoplankton production and grazing balances in the Costa Rica Dome.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michael R; Selph, Karen E; Décima, Moira; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Stukel, Michael R; Taylor, Andrew G; Pasulka, Alexis L

    2016-03-01

    We investigated phytoplankton production rates and grazing fates in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) during summer 2010 based on dilution depth profiles analyzed by flow cytometry and pigments and mesozooplankton grazing assessed by gut fluorescence. Three community production estimates, from (14)C uptake (1025 ± 113 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) and from dilution experiments analyzed for total Chla (990 ± 106 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) and flow cytometry populations (862 ± 71 mg C m(-2) day(-1)), exceeded regional ship-based values by 2-3-fold. Picophytoplankton accounted for 56% of community biomass and 39% of production. Production profiles extended deeper for Prochlorococcus (PRO) and picoeukaryotes than for Synechococcus (SYN) and larger eukaryotes, but 93% of total production occurred above 40 m. Microzooplankton consumed all PRO and SYN growth and two-third of total production. Positive net growth of larger eukaryotes in the upper 40 m was balanced by independently measured consumption by mesozooplankton. Among larger eukaryotes, diatoms contributed ∼3% to production. On the basis of this analysis, the CRD region is characterized by high production and grazing turnover, comparable with or higher than estimates for the eastern equatorial Pacific. The region nonetheless displays characteristics atypical of high productivity, such as picophytoplankton dominance and suppressed diatom roles.

  9. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    PubMed

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  10. Meiofauna associated with a Pacific coral reef in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Héctor M.; Obando, Vilma L.; Cortés, Jorge

    1987-10-01

    The meiofauna of two coral reef habitats at Isla del Naño, Costa Rica was studied over a one year period. The dominant groups were: Foraminifera (21.2%), Copepoda (19.7%), Nematoda (19.1%), Gastropoda (16.5%), Polychaeta (7.2%) and Bivalvia (6.6%). The highest diversity was found in coarse, heterogeneous sands with the highest percentage of carbonates. The meiofauna showed a high degree of horizontal aggregation, which is a characteristic pattern for macro- and meiofauna in sediments of variable composition. No vertical variation in distribution was evident, probably due to the deep location of the Redox Potential Discontinuity layer. The total densities of organisms found in this study (99 to 575 ind/10 cm2) are low compared with densities in similar non-reefal sands (7 to 6116), and from fine sediments (80 to 17 000), but are comparable to densities found in other reef areas (39 to 609.5 ind/10 cm2). This is the first report on meiofauna from the eastern Pacific, and the first time that foraminiferans are the dominant group.

  11. Health insurance and child mortality in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dow, William H; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2003-09-01

    This study uses a natural experiment approach to evaluate the effect of health insurance on infant and child mortality. In the 1970s Costa Rica adopted national health insurance, which expanded children's insurance coverage from 42 percent in 1973 to 73 percent by 1984. Aggregate infant and child mortality rates dropped rapidly during this period, but this trend had begun prior to the insurance expansion, and may be related to other changes during this period. We use county-level vital statistics and census data to isolate the causal insurance effect on mortality using county fixed effects models. We find that insurance increases are strongly related to mortality decreases at the county level before controlling for other time-varying factors. However, after controlling for changes in other correlated maternal, household, and community characteristics, fixed effects models indicate that the insurance expansion could have explained only a small portion of the mortality change. These results question the proposition that health insurance can lead to large improvements in infant and child mortality, and that expanding insurance to the poor can substantially narrow socioeconomic differentials in mortality.

  12. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330

  13. Ocular disease in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Millichamp, Nicholas J; Barrantes, Luz Denia Barrantes; Barr, Brady R; Montero, Juan R Bolaños; Platt, Steven G; Abel, Mike T; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2011-04-01

    Beginning in early 2006, an ocular disease of unknown etiology was routinely observed in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) inhabiting the highly polluted Tarcoles River in west-central Costa Rica. We examined the nature and incidence of ocular disease in Tarcoles crocodiles and assessed the possible association between the disease and accumulation of chemical pollutants in diseased individuals. During 12-15 September and 12-13 December 2007, crocodiles were captured and examined for ocular disease and sampled to determine environmental contaminant accumulation. Three of 11 (27.3%) crocodiles captured (all males) exhibited unilateral ocular disease, primarily characterized by corneal opacity and scarring, anterior synechia, and phthisis bulbi. Multiple pollutants were detected in crocodile caudal scutes (organochlorine pesticides [OCPs] and metals), crocodile blood (OCPs), and sediments (OCPs and metals) from the Tarcoles, but no associations were found between contaminant accumulation and the incidence of eye disease. On the basis of the limited number of diseased animals examined and the potential exposure of crocodiles to pathogens and other pollutants not targeted in this study, we cannot rule out infection or chemical toxicosis as causes of the eye lesions. However, circumstantial evidence suggests that the observed ocular disease is likely the result of injury-induced trauma (and possibly secondary infection) inflicted during aggressive encounters (e.g., territorial combat) among large adult crocodiles living at relatively high densities.

  14. The crustal structure of the Cocos ridge off Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Christian H. E.

    2003-03-01

    The submarine Cocos ridge in the northwestern Panamá basin, a bathymetric feature more than 1000-km long and 250-500 km broad, is about 2 km shallower than the adjacent basin. It is generally interpreted as the trace of the Galápagos hot spot. Two 127- and 260-km long seismic wide-angle sections were recorded along and across this ridge, offshore the Osa peninsula, Costa Rica. Crustal thickening is seen everywhere along the sections. On the northwestern outer ridge flank, increased thickness is exclusively attributed to the upper crust and expressed by 2-km thick flow basalts. The Quepos plateau caps the upper crust in this area. Toward the center of the Cocos ridge, the Moho deepens from 11-12 to 21 km depth and crustal thickening is almost entirely attributed to the lower crust which makes up 80% of the crust and is three times the thickness of normal oceanic lower crust. It is homogeneously structured and the velocities which range from 6.5 km/s at the top to 7.35 km/s at the base are comparable to normal lower crust under these depth conditions and suggest no differences to a gabbroic rock composition. Similarities to the crustal velocity structure of Iceland, central Kerguelen plateau, and Broken ridge are consistent with a formation of this 13-15 Ma old Cocos ridge segment by excessive magmatism in a near-plate boundary setting.

  15. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  17. Volcanic gas impacts on vegetation at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, R.; Jenkins, M.; Pushnik, J.; Houpis, J. L.; Brown, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Turrialba volcano is an active composite stratovolcano that is located approximately 40 km east of San Jose, Costa Rica. Seismic activity and degassing have increased since 2005, and gas compositions reflect further increased activity since 2007 peaking in January 2010 with a phreatic eruption. Gas fumes dispersed by trade winds toward the west, northwest, and southwest flanks of Turrialba volcano have caused significant vegetation kill zones, in areas important to local agriculture, including dairy pastures and potato fields, wildlife and human populations. In addition to extensive vegetative degradation is the potential for soil and water contamination and soil erosion. Summit fumarole temperatures have been measured over 200 degrees C and gas emissions are dominated by SO2; gas and vapor plumes reach up to 2 km (fumaroles and gases are measured regularly by OVSICORI-UNA). A recent network of passive air sampling, monitoring of water temperatures of hydrothermal systems, and soil pH measurements coupled with measurement of the physiological status of surrounding plants using gas exchange and fluorescence measurements to: (1) identify physiological correlations between leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of plants under long term stress induced by the volcanic gas emissions, and (2) use measurements in tandem with remotely sensed reflectance-derived fluorescence ratio indices to track natural photo inhibition caused by volcanic gas emissions, for use in monitoring plant stress and photosynthetic function. Results may prove helpful in developing potential land management strategies to maintain the biological health of the area.

  18. Anomalies in seasonal runoff patterns of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovskaia, I.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about seasonal runoff patterns is indispensable for water management, for example, for sustainable hydropower regulation schemes. Seasonal runoff patterns have been identified for 56 27-years long monthly runoff series for Costa Rica. The high intrinsic dimensionality of many monthly runoff series analysed reveals high instability of their seasonal patterns suggesting differences in patterns demonstrated during individual years and the average seasonal pattern. In this study the focus was put on patterns observed during individual years and their relation to teleconnections. To match the scale of variations of these latter the analyses were performed on five grouped samples of monthly runoff that represent different geographical regions. In some of the groups there was a significant correlation between the presence of the seasonal patterns studied and individual teleconnections but the values of the correlation coefficient were rather low. Analyses of the contingency tables showing the phase (higher/lower than the mean) of teleconnection or their combinations and the frequency of seasonal patterns in a group with different lags showed that for certain combinations of phases these frequencies increase considerably. This finding opens for a possibility of probabilistic forecasts of seasonal patterns using information on teleconnections.

  19. [Trace metals in coastal sediments from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Céspedes, Jairo; Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A

    2004-12-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 microg/g, respectively) and lower in Moín Bay (3.4% and 52 microg/g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 microg/g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 microg/g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moín Bay (6.4 microg/g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 microg/g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moín Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition.

  20. [The phytoplankton community of Punta Morales, Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica ].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli Olivera, E; Morales Ramirez, A

    2001-12-01

    Three daily samplings of the phytoplankton community were made at two consecutive days in March, April, May, September, October, November and December 1997, at Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Samples were collected during each tide at depths of 50% and 10% of light penetration using a Niskin bottle. A total of 43 taxa were identified. Centric diatoms, pennates and flagellates represented 90% of total phytoplankton abundance. In the phytoplankton fraction (cells > 30 microm), diatoms were the most abundant group, and Skeletonema costatum (32%) dominated. In nannophytoplankton (cells < 30 microm), Chaetoceros (23.7%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by flagellates (23%) and Cylindrotheca closterium (13.1%). These results agree with previous surveys and suggest that a typical net phytoplankton community persist through time in the Punta Morales zone. The number of nannophytoplankton fraction cells varied seasonally and suggests quantitative changes in species abundance, with possible modifications of cellular size or chain length in filamentous species. The codominance between S. costatum and Chaetoceros spp. during the rainy season suggested the ocurrence of an early ecological sucession, and nutrients could be the factor generating such population changes.

  1. [A biogeochemical model for the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In agreement with the Broecker and Penn two-boxes model, I generated a biogeochemical balance model for the Gulf of Nicoya (Guanacaste, Costa Rica) using two nutrient reservoirs: surface water and deep water. The mixing zone was located at a depth of 20 m. There is a balance between surface waters descending to the bottom and upwelling waters that carry nutrients and other chemical elements to the surface. The main source of nitrogen (nitrate), was the outlet of the Tempisque and Tárcoles rivers. The Gulf of Nicoya is a net source of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) with an availability rate of 87 x 10(3) mol day(-1) in the dry season and 3044 x 10(3) mol day(-1)in the rainy season. Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate (DIP) was estimated in 27 mol day(-1) in the dry season and 207 mol day(-1) in the rainy season. The dynamics of these biolimited nutrients, in relation to runoff seasonal variations, fits the biological processes reported for the gulf, for example, for variations in primary productivity levels, and maturity and reproduction seasons for species with short and long life cycles.

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  3. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  4. Phytoplankton production and grazing balances in the Costa Rica Dome

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Michael R.; Selph, Karen E.; Décima, Moira; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Stukel, Michael R.; Taylor, Andrew G.; Pasulka, Alexis L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated phytoplankton production rates and grazing fates in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) during summer 2010 based on dilution depth profiles analyzed by flow cytometry and pigments and mesozooplankton grazing assessed by gut fluorescence. Three community production estimates, from 14C uptake (1025 ± 113 mg C m−2 day−1) and from dilution experiments analyzed for total Chla (990 ± 106 mg C m−2 day−1) and flow cytometry populations (862 ± 71 mg C m−2 day−1), exceeded regional ship-based values by 2–3-fold. Picophytoplankton accounted for 56% of community biomass and 39% of production. Production profiles extended deeper for Prochlorococcus (PRO) and picoeukaryotes than for Synechococcus (SYN) and larger eukaryotes, but 93% of total production occurred above 40 m. Microzooplankton consumed all PRO and SYN growth and two-third of total production. Positive net growth of larger eukaryotes in the upper 40 m was balanced by independently measured consumption by mesozooplankton. Among larger eukaryotes, diatoms contributed ∼3% to production. On the basis of this analysis, the CRD region is characterized by high production and grazing turnover, comparable with or higher than estimates for the eastern equatorial Pacific. The region nonetheless displays characteristics atypical of high productivity, such as picophytoplankton dominance and suppressed diatom roles. PMID:27275036

  5. A Cross-Country Comparison of Virtual Discussion Board Use in United States and Costa Rican Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Kari; Saxon, Terrill F.; Trumble, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of virtual discussion boards in various educational settings in the United States and Costa Rica. Participants included professors of education, in-service and pre-service teachers in the United States and Costa Rica where a survey was used that included demographic, knowledge, attitude, and…

  6. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  7. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  8. A Cross-Country Comparison of Virtual Discussion Board Use in United States and Costa Rican Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Kari; Saxon, Terrill F.; Trumble, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of virtual discussion boards in various educational settings in the United States and Costa Rica. Participants included professors of education, in-service and pre-service teachers in the United States and Costa Rica where a survey was used that included demographic, knowledge, attitude, and…

  9. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America.

  10. Two new species and a new combination in Protium (Burseraceae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Aguilar, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Laura P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Protium (Burseraceae) are described and illustrated: Protium aguilarii sp. nov., from the Pacific slope of the Osa Peninsula, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica; and Protium hammelii sp. nov., from wet forests on the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In addition, Protium brenesii comb. nov., is proposed as a new combination based on Trichilia brenesii, a name that was based on a specimen collected with flowers in the mountains near San Ramón, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. It is compared with Protium costaricense, a similar species with which it has been confused for more than 90 years. Finally, illustrations and specimen citations are provided for all the aforementioned taxa, and some others with which they have been confused. PMID:28228688

  11. Babies and belonging: reproduction, citizenship, and undocumented nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Goldade, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from an ethnographic study of 43 Nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica, among whom two thirds were undocumented. Drawing from more than a year of field research, this research explores how undocumented migrant women parlayed reproductive capacities in a context of a modernizing democratic host nation-state increasingly limited in its capacity to fulfill longstanding national ideals of "health for all." Pregnancy and postpartum periods presented unique opportunities for achieving gains related to citizenship. As the third most common migrant destination context in the Western hemisphere, Costa Rica is grappling with its dual role as a nation of emigration and immigration and is attempting to maintain its "exceptional" national identity in the face of rapid globalization. Due to the jus soli citizenship model, the health care system has become a site for struggle over inclusion in the Costa Rican nation-state.

  12. Space geodetic studies of crustal deformation in subduction zones: The Central Andes and Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, Edmundo O.

    Subduction zones are regions that account for most of the total energy released by large earthquakes around the world. Two of these regions, the Costa Rica Margin and the southern Peru Margin, historically prone to devastating earthquakes with severe social and economic impact, are the focus of my dissertation. I use GPS derived velocity fields estimated from time series of coordinates of campaign stations deployed between 1994 and 2001 over the Costa Rica and Peru subduction zones to infer fault geometry and slip distribution on the plate boundary, and study the corresponding seismogenic zones. Regions of locking are associated with asperities that may break at the end of the corresponding earthquake cycle; their area extent may signify amount of energy to be released. I also show that fore-arc motion in Costa Rica, as well as postseismic relaxation, are factors that contribute to or alter the observed velocity fields and must be taken into account.

  13. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  14. Two new species and a new combination in Protium (Burseraceae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Aguilar, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Laura P

    2017-01-01

    Two new species of Protium (Burseraceae) are described and illustrated: Protium aguilariisp. nov., from the Pacific slope of the Osa Peninsula, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica; and Protium hammeliisp. nov., from wet forests on the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In addition, Protium brenesiicomb. nov., is proposed as a new combination based on Trichilia brenesii, a name that was based on a specimen collected with flowers in the mountains near San Ramón, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. It is compared with Protium costaricense, a similar species with which it has been confused for more than 90 years. Finally, illustrations and specimen citations are provided for all the aforementioned taxa, and some others with which they have been confused.

  15. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Ma de los A; Goris, M G A; González, V; Anchia, M E; Díaz, P; Ahmed, A; Hartskeerl, R A

    2013-09-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in the cross agglutinin absorption test (CAAT). Therefore, JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were considered to represent two new serovars, designated Corredores and Costa Rica of the serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively. Multilocus sequence genotyping revealed that both strain INCIENSA 04 and strain JICH 05 belong to Leptospira santarosai. These two new serovars are in addition to various other recently identified highly virulent serovars, including the new L. santarosai, serovar Arenal. Considering the fact that isolation and typing of leptospires from patients has only recently been introduced in Costa Rica, these findings suggest that various known and unknown virulent serovars of Leptospira are circulating in this country and probably beyond, thus posing a severe threat to public and probably veterinary health in the region.

  16. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  17. A highly sensitive search strategy for clinical trials in Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) was developed.

    PubMed

    Manríquez, Juan J

    2008-04-01

    Systematic reviews should include as many articles as possible. However, many systematic reviews use only databases with high English language content as sources of trials. Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) is an underused source of trials, and there is not a validated strategy for searching clinical trials to be used in this database. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive search strategy for clinical trials in LILACS. An analytical survey was performed. Several single and multiple-term search strategies were tested for their ability to retrieve clinical trials in LILACS. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each single and multiple-term strategy were calculated using the results of a hand-search of 44 Chilean journals as gold standard. After combining the most sensitive, specific, and accurate single and multiple-term search strategy, a strategy with a sensitivity of 97.75% (95% confidence interval [CI]=95.98-99.53) and a specificity of 61.85 (95% CI=61.19-62.51) was obtained. LILACS is a source of trials that could improve systematic reviews. A new highly sensitive search strategy for clinical trials in LILACS has been developed. It is hoped this search strategy will improve and increase the utilization of LILACS in future systematic reviews.

  18. Modeling a tsunami from the Nicoya, Costa Rica, seismic gap and its potential impact in Puntarenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia E.; Protti, Marino

    2011-04-01

    Although subduction zones around the world are known to be the source of earthquakes and/or tsunamis, not all segments of these plate boundaries generate destructive earthquakes and catastrophic tsunamis. Costa Rica, in Central America, has subduction zones on both the Pacific and the Caribbean coasts and, even though large earthquakes (Mw = 7.4-7.8) occur in these convergent margins, they do not produce destructive tsunamis. The reason for this is that the seismogenic zones of the segments of the subduction zones that produce large earthquakes in Costa Rica are located beneath land (Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limón) and not off shore as in most subduction zones around the world. To illustrate this particularity of Costa Rican subduction zones, we show in this work the case for the largest rupture area in Costa Rica (under the Nicoya peninsula), capable of producing Mw ˜ 7.8 earthquakes, but the tsunamis it triggers are small and present little potential for damage even to the largest port city in Costa Rica. The Nicoya seismic gap, in NW Costa Rica, has passed its ˜50-year interseismic period and therefore a large earthquake will have to occur there in the near future. The last large earthquake, in 1950 generated a tsunami which slightly affected the southwest coast of the Nicoya Peninsula. We present here a simulation to study the possible consequences that a tsunami generated by the next Nicoya earthquake could have for the city of Puntarenas. Puntarenas has a population of approximately eleven thousand people and is located on a 7.5 km long sand bar with a maximum height of 2 m above the mean sea level. This condition makes Puntarenas vulnerable to tsunamis.

  19. US fossil fuel technologies for developing countries: Costa Rica country packet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-21

    Costa Rica presents long-term opportunities for US participation in the power generation sector. A growing industrial base, high economic growth, and an increasing living standard will continue to require more reliable electric generation. Although the country has depended upon hydropower to meet much of its energy needs, coal could become a more reliable form of energy in the near term, based on estimated indigenous resources and proximity to food quality imports. Thus, trade opportunities exist for the United States, in the electric power sector, for the US advanced fossil fuel technologies and related services. This report describes the Costa Rican energy situation; examines the financial, economic, and trade issues; and discusses project opportunities in Costa Rica. Costa Rica appears to have a positive climate for trade and investment activities, stimulated by the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Although the economy has recently slowed, the economic outlook appears healthy. Application for membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is pending. Due to an unexpectedly large growth in electricity demand, the Costa Rican utility Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is evaluating the need for construction of a coal-fired power plant in the size range of 60 to 125 MW, with an in-service data of the mid-1990s. A decision is expected by the end of 1988 concerning the required size, source of coal, and timing of this coal-fired plant. Based on conditions in Costa Rica, US advanced fossil-fuel technologies were chosen for continued study in conjunction with the identified potential project opportunities. These technologies are the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor and coal-water mixtures. They could play a major role in meeting the utility expansion and/or industrial conversion opportunities summarized in Table I.1. The value of such projects could approximate US $160 million.

  20. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlotzin Schaus (1892) is removed from Symmerista and assigned to the genus Elymiotis Walker as a new combination. PMID:25061379

  1. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro A; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlotzin Schaus (1892) is removed from Symmerista and assigned to the genus Elymiotis Walker as a new combination.

  2. [Costa Rica: a geographical approach to the study of its population (1522-1984)].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Alvarado, G

    1990-01-01

    The author provides a geographical interpretation of population dynamics in Costa Rica from 1522 to 1984. Sections are included on Spanish colonialism as a demographic catastrophe, 1500-1821; the country's stable demographic behavior after obtaining its independence in 1821; the population as a product of cross-breeding; the unequal spatial distribution of the country's population; model demographic growth, 1900-1984; low mortality and high fertility as factors driving population growth; the age structure of the population; regional migration in Costa Rica and areas of migratory attraction; the growth of the urban population and the extent of assimilation of diverse groups; and the problem of poverty.

  3. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  4. [Consumption of fruits in an adult population from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Guzmán Padilla, Sonia; Roselló Araya, Marlene

    2002-03-01

    The consumption of fruits and it relation with the health and socioeconomic condition of an adult Costa Rican population is described. The study included a cross sectional and descriptive analysis in men and women 18 years old or older. Ten-house blocks were selected by affinity in a community or neighborhood in Cartago. Data were collected in a survey using home direct structured interviews carried out in the afternoons or during the weekend in February, 2000. Eighty percent of the 161 people interviewed were women. Results showed that the higher consumption of fruits was described in women who were older that 60 years old and, who proceed from a medium-high economic stratum or have a high schooling condition (2.3 +/- 1.0, 2.50 +/- 1.3 y 2.0 +/- 1.3 portions, respectively). No statistical significant difference was found in any of the variables evaluated. Data also showed that, in contrast with what it was expected, people that considered their health condition as bad, suffered chronic diseases, practiced physical exercise, took vitamin supplement or smoke, showed a higher consumption of fruits that those who do not have those conditions. The difference, however, showed to be no significant and the consumption of fruit showed to be not adequate in both groups. In conclusion, the amount and frequency of fruit consumption were inadequate in the population studied. The necessity of developing nutritional education strategies to promote a gradual increment in the consumption of fruits to approach the recommendation of the National Alimentary Guidelines is recommended.

  5. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Haberyan, Kurt A; Horn, Sally P; Umaña, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2, but low in dissolved O2; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic). The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1), Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.

  6. Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A.M.; Barr, D.B.; Juncos, J.; Roman, N.; Wesseling, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously screened 400 elderly Costa Ricans for neurodegenerative disease. Those reporting occupational pesticide exposure (18%) had an increased Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk (OR 2.57, 95% CI 0.91–7.26), and worse cognition (Mini-Mental States Exam (MMSE) 24.5 versus 25.9 points, p=0.01). We subsequently measured long-lasting organochlorine pesticides (β-HCH, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin) in a sub-sample (n=89). Dieldrin and β-HCH have been linked to PD, and DDE to Alzheimer’s disease. Methods We ran regression models for MMSE and tremor-at-rest to assess associations with pesticides in 89 subjects. Results The percent of β-HCH, DDE, DDT (parent compound for DDE), and dieldrin above their limit of detection (LOD) were 100%, 93%, 75%, and 57%, respectively. Tremor-at-rest was found in 21 subjects, and the mean MMSE was 25. Those who reported occupational pesticide exposure (n=36) had more detectable dieldrin samples (p=0.005), and higher mean levels of dieldrin (p=0.01), than those not reporting exposure. Other pesticides did not differ between those with and without self-reported occupational exposure. There was a positive but non-significant trend of higher risk for tremor-at-rest with higher dieldrin (p=0.10 for linear trend). Neither DDE nor DDT showed a relationship with MMSE. However, after excluding two outliers with the lowest MMSE scores, higher DDT levels showed some modest association with lower MMSE (p=0.09 for linear trend). Conclusions Our data are limited by small sample size. However, dieldrin was high in our population, has been previously linked to PD, and could be partly responsible for the excess PD risk seen in our population. PMID:25173053

  7. Hematological survey of common neotropical bat species from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Schinnerl, Martin; Aydinonat, Denise; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Voigt, Christian C

    2011-09-01

    Although bats are one of the largest groups within the class Mammalia and may carry several zoonotic diseases, basic information about their hematology is limited. In this study, hematocrit (Hct), total white blood cell counts (TWBC; leukocytes), and differential white blood cell counts (DWBC) of free-ranging Neotropical bats were quantified. Blood samples from 255 bats representing 26 species from the families of Emballonuridae (3 species; 33 individuals), Molossidae (2 species; 26 individuals), Mormoopidae (1 species; 1 individual), Phyllostomidae (18 species; 180 individuals), and Vespertilionidae (2 species; 15 individuals) were collected in a Caribbean lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. Hct was measured after centrifugation of microhematocrit capillaries, TWBCs were performed using the Unopette system and a hemocytometer, and DWBCs were performed on eosin methylene blue stained blood films. Hct of bats ranged between 51.8 +/- 0.7% for Phyllostomus discolor (n = 27) and 65.8 +/- 2.2% for Molossus sinaloae (n = 6). Bat species of the same taxonomic family had comparable TWBCs; these were lower for insectivorous emballonurid, molossid, and vespertilionid bat species than for mostly phytophagous phyllostomid bat species. However, Ectophylla alba (Phyllostomidae) exhibited exceptionally low TWBCs (836 +/- 166 /microl; n = 10); this was less than half of the TWBCs of all other bat species, which ranged from 1,714 +/- 297/microl for Molossus bondae (n = 20) to 7,339 +/- 1,503/microl for Trachops cirrhosus (n = 6). Species with higher TWBCs tended to have lower Hct values. Overall, blood cell morphology was similar to other mammalian species. A large number of polychromatophilic erythrocytes and differences in lymphocyte morphology were noted. This study provides important hematological values for Neotropical bat species and significantly expands the knowledge on basal physiological measurements of Chiroptera.

  8. Forearc sedimentation in Terraba Trough, Costa Rica, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, P.B.; Lowe, D.R.

    1987-05-01

    Sedimentary rocks of Terraba Trough, Costa Rica, were deposited in a forearc basin developed at an ocean-ocean convergent boundary. The basin developed in the middle to late Eocene when the Farallon plate began its subduction beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow-water carbonates of the Brito Formation were deposited on shoals of basement blocks. These were surrounded by deeper marine areas in which volcaniclastics and carbonate debris accumulated. The Brito Formation consists of algal-foraminiferal packstone to grainstone, rudstone, and rare wackestone formed in fore-slope, carbonate buildup, and open platform environments in a warm, tropical sea. The Eocene Brito Formation is overlain by rocks of the upper Oligocene Rio Claro Member of the Terraba Formation. It is composed of rhodolite and bioclastic grainstone deposited in shallow water. A combination of little subsidence, mild volcanism, and possible erosion at about 30 Ma during a global drop of sea level may be responsible for the absence of lower Oligocene rocks in the study area. After the deposition of the Rio Claro Member, the area subsided rapidly to become a trough possibly deeper than 2000 m. Sedimentation took place in deep water from sediment gravity flows. In the early to early middle Miocene, coarser sediments and thicker sand units containing coal fragments became more abundant, suggesting that the basin was gradually filled. This study indicates that the timing and degree of subsidence of the fore-arc basin and the vertical variation in lithology are closely related to the variation in convergence rate between lithospheric plates in this part of Central America and the eastern Pacific.

  9. Fog deposition at a windward Costa Rican cloud forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumau, K. F. A.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Tobon-Marin, C.

    2010-07-01

    The hydrological importance of tropical montane cloud forests is recognized increasingly, mostly with respect to the additional water inputs provided by the capture of fog by the forest canopy compared to a non-forested situation (e.g. pasture) in the same environmental setting. The deposition of fog (interception) consists of two components, viz. advectional impaction against roughness elements in the landscape, and vertical settlement both by turbulent diffusion and by gravitational settling. Turbulent diffusion being a function of the aerodynamic roughness of the surface it is typically enhanced over forest compared to pasture. In windward montane areas fog often consists of stratus clouds being forced uphill with the cloud being "stripped" by roughness elements in the landscape. However, due to rain-generating processes these clouds rarely have fog-sized droplets only and larger drops are present as well. Under sufficiently strong wind speeds (e.g. in the trade-wind belt), drizzle-sized droplets tend to follow the terrain and behave like fog. Consequently, there is no unbiased manner in which to separate between fog and drizzle using conventional fog and rain gauges only. Similarly, hydrologically effective precipitation (inclined rainfall) is difficult to determine in mountainous areas, which complicates the determination of fog deposition using wet-canopy water budget approaches. The deposition of fog to a windward Costa Rican montane cloud forest was studied during a full hydrological year (between 1 July 2003 and 1 July 2004). Fog deposition was estimated from the wet canopy water budget as the difference between hydrologically effective precipitation and the sum of throughfall, stemflow, and interception loss. The results show that fog interception constituted a much smaller contribution at this site compared to wind-driven drizzle.

  10. Accretionary processes along the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The geometry of large-scale structures within modern accretionary prisms is known entirely from seismic reflection studies using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. Off Costa Rica the authors collected a three-dimensional reflection data set covering a 9 km wide {times} 22 km long {times} 6 km thick volume of the accretionary prism just arcward of the Middle America Trench. The three-dimensional processing and ability to examine the prism as a volume has provided the means to map structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size with confidence. Reflections from within the prism define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular portion of the Middle America Trench. So far in the analysis, these data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the prism shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. For instance, the subducted basement relief (of several hundred meters amplitude) does seem to affect the larger scale through-going faults within the prism. Offscraping of the uppermost 45 m of sediments occurs within 4 km of the trench creating a small pile of sediments at the base of the trench. How this offscraped sediment is incorporated into the prism is still being investigated. Underplating of parts of the 400 m thick subducted section begin: at a very shallow structural level, 4 to 10 km arcward of the trench. Amplitude anomalies associated with some of the larger arcward dipping structures in the prism and surface mud volcanoes suggest that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region, a distance of 50 to 100 km.

  11. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  12. Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.; McAdoo, B. ); Langseth, M. ); Orange, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m[sup 2]) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m[sup 2] throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.

  13. Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.; McAdoo, B.; Langseth, M.; Orange, D.

    1996-12-31

    Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m{sup 2}) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m{sup 2} throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.

  14. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  15. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  16. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  17. [Allergen immunotherapy: Mechanisms of action, and therapeutic and socioeconomic impact Consensus of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Cardona, Ricardo; Caraballo, Luis; Serrano, Carlos; Ramírez, Ruth; Díez, Susana; García, Elizabeth; Segura, Ana María; Cepeda, Alfonso; Minotas, María

    2016-09-01

    Allergies comprise a set of highly prevalent diseases. When allergic processes are not controlled, they can endanger patients' health and lives, and have an important economic and social impact. The aim of this paper is to present a practical consensus of the scientific evidence on the use of immunotherapy in allergic diseases. A collaborative review made by various institutes and universities in Colombia was carried out upon request of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología, led by general practitioners, allergists, immunologists, internists and paediatricians with experience in the field of allergies. As a result, based on current national and international scientific evidence, we describe in detail what immunotherapy is about, its indications, contraindications and its economic and health benefits. Conclusions show immunotherapy as a clinically effective and safe treatment, which can substantially reduce the cost of the overall treatment of allergic patients.

  18. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  19. Peace Education: Perspectives from Costa Rica and Japan. Peace Education Miniprints No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenes, Abelardo; Ito, Takehiko

    This publication explores the views of two present members of the International Peace Research Association: Abelardo Brenes and Takehiko Ito. Brenes and Ito answer 13 questions related to peace education issues in their individual interviews. Abelardo Brenes is a professor at the University of Costa Rica and a consultant to the University for…

  20. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph; R. Mark Brigham

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover...

  1. Breeding seasons, molt patterns, and gender and age criteria for selected northeastern Costa Rican resident landbirds

    Treesearch

    Jared D. Wolfe; Peter Pyle; C. John. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Detailed accounts of molt and breeding cycles remain elusive for the majority of resident tropical bird species. We used data derived from a museum review and 12 years of banding data to infer breeding seasonality, molt patterns, and age and gender criteria for 27 common landbird species in northeastern Costa Rica. Prealternate molts appear to be rare, only occurring...

  2. A Preliminary Study of Riparian Songbirds in Costa Rica, with Emphasis on Wintering Louisiana Waterthrushes

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Master; Robert S. Mulvihill; Robert C. Leberman; Julio Sanchez; Ernesto Carmen

    2005-01-01

    We made preliminary observations on the winter distribution, ecology and behavior of Louisiana Waterthrushes (Seiurus motacilla) in Costa Rica during January 1999 and 2000. We visited 24 headwater streams in three of the four principal mountain ranges in the country (Cordilleras Tilarán, Central, and the Talamanca) and confirmed the...

  3. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Saborío, Guiselle Guzman; Clara, Alexey; Garcia, Antonio; Quesada, Fabio; Palekar, Rakhee; Minaya, Percy; Cervantes, Marvin; Lopez, Mariel; Lara, Jenny; Jara, Jorge; Blanco, Natalia; Bresee, Joseph; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ≈6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009–2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program. PMID:24750897

  4. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  5. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  6. Differential DNA methylation and lymphocyte proportions in a Costa Rican high longevity region.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Lisa M; Morin, Alexander M; Edgar, Rachel D; MacIsaac, Julia L; Jones, Meaghan J; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Kobor, Michael S; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-01-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica has one of the highest old-age life expectancies in the world, but the underlying biological mechanisms of this longevity are not well understood. As DNA methylation is hypothesized to be a component of biological aging, we focused on this malleable epigenetic mark to determine its association with current residence in Nicoya versus elsewhere in Costa Rica. Examining a population's unique DNA methylation pattern allows us to differentiate hallmarks of longevity from individual stochastic variation. These differences may be characteristic of a combination of social, biological, and environmental contexts. In a cross-sectional subsample of the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study, we compared whole blood DNA methylation profiles of residents from Nicoya (n = 48) and non-Nicoya (other Costa Rican regions, n = 47) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 microarray. We observed a number of differences that may be markers of delayed aging, such as bioinformatically derived differential CD8+ T cell proportions. Additionally, both site- and region-specific analyses revealed DNA methylation patterns unique to Nicoyans. We also observed lower overall variability in DNA methylation in the Nicoyan population, another hallmark of younger biological age. Nicoyans represent an interesting group of individuals who may possess unique immune cell proportions as well as distinct differences in their epigenome, at the level of DNA methylation.

  7. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Treesearch

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  8. Newly discovered natural hosts of tomato chlorosis virus in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is an emerging whitefly-transmitted crinivirus. ToCV was detected in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica in 2007, causing symptoms of severe yellowing and foliar chlorosis. To identify alternative hosts that may serve as viru...

  9. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  10. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  11. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  12. Lecto- and Paralectotype Designations and Redescription of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae)

    Treesearch

    Thaynara S. Martins; Felipe F. F. Moreira; Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2016-01-01

    The lecto- and a paralectotype of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 are designated to enhance nomenclatural stability. A redescription based on the type material from Rio de Janeiro deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil, is presented. Specimens are illustrated and measured in detail for the first time.

  13. Educational Leadership for Social Justice in Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Patricia; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez Gorosave, Gema; Cerdas, Victoria; Torres, Nancy; Antunez, Serafin; Briceno, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school leaders to provide social justice in three contexts: Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted under the interpretative tradition characterized by a search for an understanding of the social world from the point of view of a…

  14. An overview of a landbird monitoring program at Tortuguero, on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Margaret J. Widdowson; Robert I. Frey; Pablo A. Herrera; Brian P. O' Donnell

    2005-01-01

    Since 1994, the Tortuguero Integrated Bird Monitoring Program has been monitoring birds in a coastal lowland rain forest of northeast Costa Rica. The Program has combined the use of area searches, constanteffort mist netting, and migration counts into a longterm landbird monitoring and training program following the recommendations of the Partners In Flight &ndash...

  15. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  16. Wood anatomy of Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae) from Southern Pacific, Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Roger Moya Roque; Manuel Morales Salazar; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Poveda Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar (Canellaceae) is an endemic species from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica. It is rare and is considered to be a living fossil. The wood of P. costaricense has high density (0.92 Kg/cm3, air dry) with little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. The growth rings are marked...

  17. Pleistocene plant fossils in and near La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Sally P. Horn; Robert L. Sanford; David Dilcher; Terry A. Lott; Paul R. Renne; Michael C. Wiemann; Duane Cozadd; Orlando Vargas

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and 40 Ar/39Ar analysis of overlying tephra indicate that plant fossil assemblages exposed by stream erosion and well construction in and near La Selva Biological Station in eastern lowland Costa Rica are Pleistocene in age. We identified plant taxa based on wood, leaves, fruits, seeds, pollen, and spores examined from three sites at ca 30 m...

  18. An Analysis of Retention and Attrition at MiraCosta College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald

    A study was conducted at MiraCosta College (MCC), in Del Mar, California, to investigate various aspects of retention and attrition and to make recommendations for possible program enhancements. The study sought to determine when students drop out of classes, which students drop out of school completely, and the drop out rate for various…

  19. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  20. An Analysis of the Public Feeder High Schools in the MiraCosta Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald

    A study was conducted to analyze the enrollment patterns of high school seniors from the eight public feeder high schools in the MiraCosta Community College (MCC) District. Using the California Community Colleges Student Data System and information obtained from the County Department of Education and each feeder high school, the study examined the…

  1. Science Achievement of Costa Rican Sixth Grade Students and Its Relationship with Selected Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquivel-Alfaro, Juan Manuel; Diaz-Solis, Sofia Maria

    This study had three purposes. First, to develop and validate a criterion-referenced test to measure science knowledge of students who finished the second cycle of the Basic General Education (6th grade). Second, to assess the performance of the entire Costa Rican population of sixth graders and, third, to analyze the results according to some…

  2. The Power To Change: The Experience of the Costa Atlantica Project in Colombia (1977-1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetley, Andrew

    In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular…

  3. Hunger in the Midst of Affluence: Task Force Combats Hunger in Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Mary Lavender

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)

  4. First Report of Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Tomato in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In early 2007, severe yellowing and chlorosis symptoms were observed in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica. The symptoms resembled those of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae) and large populations of whiteflies were observed in the fields and...

  5. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration.

  6. First North American record of the Palearctic Microplax albofasciata (Costa) (Hemiptera: Lygaeoidea: Oxycarenidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microplax albofasciata (Costa), a Palearctic (mainly Mediterranean) species of the small family Oxycarenidae, is reported from California as the first record for the New World. Adults of this little-known lygaeoid bug were found in 2012 and 2013 at the Hastings Natural History Reservation in norther...

  7. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  8. Diet of some spring migrant landbirds on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Jared D. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Spring dietary patterns of migrants in tropical latitudes are largely unknown. Here I present diet data derived from an analysis of fecal samples for six migrant landbird species during spring migration along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. High levels of insectivory were detected for all six species captured. The nature of the data presented is discussed in light...

  9. A new species of Erythrodiplax breeding in bromeliads in Costa Rica (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Haber, William A; Wagner, David L; De La Rosa, Carlos

    2015-04-16

    We describe a new species, Erythrodiplax laselva (Libellulidae), that breeds in bromeliads and Cochliostema (Commelinaceae) in the eastern lowlands of Costa Rica. The closest known relative is thought to be E. castanea, widespread in Central and South America, and not E. bromeliicola, which is known to breed in bromeliads in Cuba and Jamaica. The male, female, genitalia, and larva are described and illustrated.

  10. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    PubMed

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  11. Dying with AIDS in Costa Rica. Access to care and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stern, R

    1997-01-01

    Costa Rica, with a population of 3 million people, has approximately 1200 cumulative diagnosed cases of AIDS. 70% of AIDS cases in the country have been among gay men. About 500 people with AIDS (PWA) are still alive and it is estimated that just as many people may be asymptomatic carriers of HIV. At the cost of $800-1000 per month per person, approximately 700,000 people, mostly in the US and Europe, are being treated with combination drug therapy capable of managing AIDS as a fairly curable chronic illness. However, most people in Costa Rica, where the per capita annual income is $2500, cannot afford to pay for such therapy. Arguing that the drugs are too expensive, the government has not approved any of the retroviral medications for general use in its socialized medical system which otherwise guarantees appropriate medical treatment to its citizens. The pharmaceutical companies which distribute the medications in Costa Rica, Roche and Bristol Meyers, refuse to provide patients with either free or significantly discounted drugs. The author discusses social discrimination against gay people in Costa Rica and describes attempts made to negotiate drug supplies for PWA with the government and pharmaceutical companies.

  12. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  13. Insurance and other socioeconomic determinants of elderly longevity in a Costa Rican panel.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H; Laclé, Adriana

    2005-11-01

    Official figures show that life expectancy in Costa Rica is longer than in the United States (US), in spite of the fact that per capita health expenditure is only one-tenth that of the US. To check whether this is for real and to explore some of its determinants, 900 Costa Ricans aged 60+ were followed from 1984 to 2001. Follow-up household visits were made, deaths were tracked in the national death registry, and survival status in the voting registry was double-checked. In addition, the survivors were contacted in 2002. Two-thirds of the panel had died by December 2001. Kaplan-Meier curves, life tables and Cox regression were used to analyse the panel's survival. Mortality in the panel was slightly higher than the Costa Rican average and similar to that in the US, confirming the exceptional longevity of Costa Ricans. Survival was substantially lower among unmarried men and individuals with limited autonomy at the beginning of the study. The effect of socioeconomic status is weak. Insurance effects seem to be confounded by selection biases.

  14. The Power To Change: The Experience of the Costa Atlantica Project in Colombia (1977-1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetley, Andrew

    In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular…

  15. Music Education for Social Change in the Secondary Public Schools of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a recently implemented general music curriculum in secondary public schools, whose main goal is to address social issues in Costa Rica. The author describes and discusses its context, rationale, theoretical tenets, and proposed practices with the purpose of advancing theory-practice reflection on music education practices…

  16. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  17. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  18. Learning Disabilities in Costa Rica: Challenges for an "Army of Teachers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Aguirre-Roy, Ana Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history and evolution of special education services in Costa Rica, along with critical issues that impede the expansion of educational services to students with learning disabilities. These include shortages of trained personnel, geographic isolation of a large sector of the population, and severe economic limitations. (Author/CR)

  19. An Information Guide to Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; Monge, Gerardo

    The report on rehabilitation and special education in Costa Rica covers the history of special services, with emphasis on medical, educational, and vocational efforts. Future priorities for each field are noted. A second section discusses the institutions that are the main national organizational forces in rehabiliation and special education, as…

  20. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM THE KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMPHASTOS SULFURATUS) FROM COSTA RICA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pectoral muscles from a captive keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) from the Costa Rican were fed to a Toxoplasma gondii-free cat and the cat shed oocysts. Laboratory mice fed these oocysts developed antibodies to T. gondii in their sera and T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains. The DNA ext...

  1. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  2. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  3. Intelligent Behavior, Art Costa, and the Role of the Library Media Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Art Costa's 14 Intelligent Behavior Characteristics and gives examples of picture books that apply to each characteristic, including persistence, decreasing impulsivity, listening, cooperative thinking, flexibility, metacognition, accuracy and precision, sense of humor, questioning, using past knowledge, risk taking, using all senses,…

  4. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  5. Teaching Special Education in Costa Rica: Using a Learning Strategy in an Inclusive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, special education in Costa Rica has seen profound changes from creating primarily segregated services to developing innovative service models that promote inclusion. This article describes those changes and takes a look at current challenges in this small country, including teacher shortages and adequate funding. (Contains…

  6. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  7. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  8. Register and Forms of Address in Costa Rica: Sociolinguistic Realities and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; LeLoup, Jean W.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of sociolinguistic research investigating the use of second-person singular pronouns in Costa Rica. The study was carried out onsite and involved 132 interviewees from all seven provinces of the country. These subjects reacted to scenarios in which they had to choose their preferred pronoun of use…

  9. Music Education for Social Change in the Secondary Public Schools of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a recently implemented general music curriculum in secondary public schools, whose main goal is to address social issues in Costa Rica. The author describes and discusses its context, rationale, theoretical tenets, and proposed practices with the purpose of advancing theory-practice reflection on music education practices…

  10. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  11. An Analysis of Retention and Attrition at MiraCosta College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald

    A study was conducted at MiraCosta College (MCC), in Del Mar, California, to investigate various aspects of retention and attrition and to make recommendations for possible program enhancements. The study sought to determine when students drop out of classes, which students drop out of school completely, and the drop out rate for various…

  12. Hunger in the Midst of Affluence: Task Force Combats Hunger in Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Mary Lavender

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)

  13. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  14. Perceptions of Older Adults: Differences by Age and Sex among Children in a Costa Rican Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Mathews, Holly F.

    1987-01-01

    Identified two subdimensions of an index designed to measure children's perceptions of older adults in responses from 120 Afro-Caribbean children living in a rural Costa Rican community. Findings showed older females were perceived as more authoritative and older males as more affective. Used ethnographic techniques with survey results to…

  15. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  16. Evaluation of the Third Year of Operation of the Contra Costa College Mobile Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Howard

    During 1971, the third year of operation of Contra Costa College's (California) mobile counseling unit, the priorities established for that program were (a) to make the mobile counseling unit and program as widely known in the community as possible, and (b) to concentrate on the services to the client. The counseling unit and program were…

  17. Evaluation of the Second Year of Operation of the Contra Costa Mobile Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Anthony T.

    Second year operations of this mobile center have validated many of the assumptions on which it was founded (see ED 031 243), including a reduction in the communications gap between Contra Costa College and the community at large. While attempts to compare this year's results with last year's can be considered premature, some findings may be of…

  18. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  19. Evaluation of the First Year of Operation of the Contra Costa College Mobile Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Anthony T.

    Contra Costa College tried several ways to reach potential students who were unaware that they were eligible or even that the college had anything to offer them. Articulation with high schools, contacts with other agencies, and the mass media were of little help. The idea of a central, off-campus counseling center was abandoned in favor of the…

  20. An Emerging Institution: The University for Peace in Costa Rica. Discussion Paper Series, No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A new United Nations college, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, is discussed. After providing a brief historical sketch on peace efforts since the Ancient Greeks, the objectives of the United Nations University are identified. The University for Peace is a new international university that is part of the United Nations University network, a…

  1. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  2. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  3. Two new species of the Hagnagora anicata complex (Geometridae, Larentiinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the lectotype (here designated) reveals that Hagnagora anicata (Felder & Rogenhofer) does not occur in Costa Rica. Instead two new species are described, Hagnagora eliannesp. n. and Hagnagora unniasp. n., and their distribution is discussed. The previous treatment of Hagnagora anicata as a single widespread species ranging from Jamaica and Mexico to Bolivia needs to be critically evaluated.

  4. Longitudinal Relation of Community-Level Income Inequality and Mortality in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Modrek, Sepideh; Ahern, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The controversy regarding the direct relationship between income distribution and health remains unresolved. Empirical evidence has often failed to advance our understanding because in the countries studied there was limited ability to distinguish hypotheses. This study examines the relation between inequality and mortality in the context of Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s unique social and political structure makes confounding through resource and political channels less likely, thus any effects would work predominantly through direct psychosocial channels. Using mortality data extracted from the Vital Statistics Registry, we evaluate the longitudinal relations between income inequality and cause-specific mortality in Costa Rica from 1989–2005. For those aged 15–60, results indicate that there is a significant adverse relation between increases in lagged inequality and mortality from liver disease, and marginal adverse relations with mortality from diabetes and suicide. For those aged 60 and over, there is a limited evidence of a relation between inequality and health. These results suggest increases in inequality may impact health behavior of the working aged population in Costa Rica. PMID:21873102

  5. STR data for 11 autosomal STR markers from Costa Rica, Central America.

    PubMed

    Sanóu, I; Núñez, G; Rodríguez, A; Silva, S; García, O; Uriarte, J; Espinoza, M

    2005-10-29

    Allele frequencies for 11 STR autosomal loci (F13A01, F13B, FESFPS, LPL, CSF1PO, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D16S539, D7S820 and D13S317) were obtained from a sample of 200 unrelated individuals from Costa Rica, Central America.

  6. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  7. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  8. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  9. A Further Review of the California State University's Contra Costa Center. Commission Report 89-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    A follow-up report on the California State University's Contra Costa Center, a proposed permanent off-campus center, is presented. The California Postsecondary Education Commission approved the original proposal in 1987, contingent on finding solutions to concerns about transportation access and services to disadvantaged students. The university…

  10. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  11. Seismogenic zone structure along the Middle America subduction zone, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshon, Heather Rene

    Most large (MW > 7.0) underthrusting earthquakes nucleate along a shallow region of unstable frictional stability on or near the subducting plate interface termed the seismogenic zone. The studies presented here investigate along-strike spatial and temporal variability in microseismicity and seismic velocity and provide spatial constraints on the updip and downdip limits of microseismicity within the Middle America subduction offshore western Costa Rica. All chapters utilize data recorded by the Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone Experiment (CRSEIZE), a collaborative seismic and geodetic study undertaken from September 1999--June 2001 to better understand subduction zone behavior near the Osa and Nicoya Peninsulas, Costa Rica. Chapter 1 serves as a broad introduction to the thesis while Chapter 2 provides an overview of Costa Rica seismicity, the CRSEIZE experiment setup, data processing, and data quality. Chapter 3 discusses simultaneous inversion for 1D P- and S-wave velocity models, station corrections, and hypocenter parameters for both the Nicoya and Osa experiments and presents a refined location for the continental Moho in northern Costa Rica. Chapter 4 presents absolute and relative relocations of ˜300 aftershocks of the 1999 Quepos, Costa Rica, underthrusting earthquake and analyzes seismogenic zone structure offshore central Costa Rica during a period of increased seismicity rate. Subduction of highly disrupted seafloor north of the Osa Peninsula has established a set of conditions that presently limit the seismogenic zone to be between 10--35 km below sea level, 30--95 km from the trench axis. Chapter 5 presents high resolution earthquake locations and P-wave and P-wave/S-wave 3D velocity models for the locked Nicoya Peninsula segment of the Middle America subduction zone calculated using an iterative, damped least squares local tomography method. In the southern Nicoya Peninsula, microseismicity along the plate interface extends from 12--26 km depth, 73

  12. The costa of trichomonads: A complex macromolecular cytoskeleton structure made of uncommon proteins.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Caruso, Marjolly Brigido; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Gonzaga, Luiz; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene

    2017-06-01

    The costa is a prominent striated fibre that is found in protozoa of the Trichomonadidae family that present an undulating membrane. It is composed primarily of proteins that have not yet been explored. In this study, we used cell fractionation to obtain a highly enriched costa fraction whose structure and composition was further analysed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed that the costa, which is a periodic structure with alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent bands, displays three distinct regions, named the head, neck and body. Fourier transform analysis showed that the electron-lucent bands present sub-bands with a regular pattern. An analysis of the costa fraction via one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 54 hypothetical proteins. Fourteen of those proteins were considered to be major components of the fraction. The costa of T. foetus is a complex and organised cytoskeleton structure made of a large number of proteins which is assembled into filamentous structures. Some of these proteins exhibit uncharacterised domains and no function related according to gene ontology, suggesting that the costa structure may be formed by a new class of proteins that differ from those previously described in other organisms. Seven of these proteins contain prefoldin domains displaying coiled-coil regions. This propriety is shared with proteins of the striated fibres of other protozoan as well as in intermediate filaments. Our observations suggest the presence of a new class of the cytoskeleton filaments in T. foetus. We believe that our data could auxiliate in determining the specific locations of these proteins in the distinct regions that compose the costa, as well as to define the functional roles of each component. Therefore, our study will help in the better understanding of the

  13. Handling and aflatoxin contamination of white maize in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, M; Lacey, J

    1997-01-01

    Projects funded by International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and the European Commission have enabled the examination of more than 3000 samples of maize collected from all regions of Costa Rica at different stages, from the growing crop through storage to final sale, and at different water contents. Contamination with Aspergillus flavus was frequent and about 80% of samples contained more than 20 ng aflatoxins g(-1) grain. Average contamination with aflatoxins in the Brunca Region was > 274 ng g(-1) while that in other regions was < 70 ng g(-1). Except in Brunca region, where it averaged 376 ng g(-1), contamination of grain from commercial sources was slightly less than of that from farms (< or = 15 ng g(-1)). It appeared that samples kept on the cob after harvest contained almost no aflatoxin while shelled samples were frequently highly contaminated. Experiments were therefore done in Brunca and Huetar Atlantic Regions, utilising 34 experimental maize crops to study in detail the development of A. flavus and aflatoxin from before harvest, through postharvest treatment before drying and through storage for six months. A. flavus was isolated more frequently from maize shelled immediately after harvest than from that kept on the cob until it could be dried, and from more samples from the Brunca Region than from the Huetar Atlantic Region. Samples harvested with > or = 18% water content often contains > 70% of grains infected with A. flavus but sometimes there were few grains infected. As found in the initial survey, more aflatoxin contamination developed in shelled maize than in that handled on the cob during the period from harvesting to drying, especially if the delay was more than 5 days, and more in Brunca than in Huetar. Shelled grain contained 400-800 ng aflatoxin g(-1) in Brunca but < 100 ng g(-1) in Huetar while grain kept on the cob contained < 30 ng g(-1), even with > 18% water content. Incidence of Fusarium spp. exceeded 50% except where A

  14. The modeling of daily precipitation in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, John Michael

    The understanding of precipitation and its underlying processes is important to many human activities. Agricultural planning, hydroelectric resource management, and industrial infrastructure development all rely heavily on being able to make reasonable predictions concerning rainfall. The lack of sufficient rainfall can have devastating social and economic consequences for developing nations that are reliant on subsistence agriculture and hydroelectric power. This study examines the means by which daily precipitation in Costa Rica can be modeled, and how the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects the precipitation generating mechanisms. A selection of three meteorological stations are used to test how daily rainfall can be characterized by the occurrence and intensity of the individual rainfall events. The occurrence is modeled using a two-state first-order Markov model, which provides insight into the relative length of wet and dry spells. The intensity model uses L-moments to determine the optimum statistical distribution. These statistical parameters are used to understand the inter-annual and inter-seasonal variations in the precipitation-generating mechanisms as they are modified by the ENSO phenomenon. The parameters are also combined to create monthly rainfall simulations based on the state of the ENSO, as well as test whether accurate forecasts can be created up to one year in advance. It is found that the ENSO plays an important role in the daily rainfall process, by altering the behavior of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the Northeast Trade Winds, and the advance of cold air masses from North America during the winter. The eastern Caribbean slope of the country receives proportionally more rainfall during El Nino events, while the western Pacific slope receives less rainfall during the same period. Cold front (norte) intrusion is minimized by the El Nino, resulting in less winter rainfall during El Nino years. Simulations based on the

  15. A new approach to detect local correlations of tropospheric acetone and carbon monoxide sampled onboard the IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Neumaier, Marco; Safadi, Layal; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Since 2005 a Lufthansa passenger aircraft is regularly used as a platform for in-situ measurements in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UTLMS). Accommodated in a modified airfreight container 15 instruments are deployed in the cargo bay of the aircraft on four selected intercontinental flights per month measuring ~100 species and aerosol parameters. In contrast to other projects of this scope, using a chemical mass spectrometer also volatile organic compounds like acetone (CH3COCH3) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) are detected enabling an investigation of their relationship with other tracers. On a global scale acetone is predominantly emitted from the biosphere (~37 Tg/a; MEGAN-MACC, Sinderarova et al. 2014) and comparably small amounts are directly emitted from biomass burning (~2 Tg/a; GFED3, Van der Werf et al. 2010) and other anthropogenic sources (~1 Tg/a; MACCity, Granier et al. 2011). However, at local levels the contributions from the different sources can strongly differ. Acetone is also secondarily produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of various precursors, e.g. pinene and propane. The emissions of these precursors and their contribution to the total acetone source are not well known and a topic of ongoing discussions. In this context it is initially surprising that generally a good correlation between acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) has been observed in the lower atmosphere by different authors (e.g. de Reus et al. 2003). As a product of incomplete combustion CO is regularly used as a tracer for anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning. In this study we present an improved method to detect local correlations in IAGOS-CARIBIC flights instead of mixing data from different flights or measured over great distances. Furthermore, a cluster analysis is applied to prevent the consideration of artificial correlations between two well separated clouds of data points. We use the concept of enhancement ratios (EnR) and a simple box model to

  16. Revisiting the isotopes of CO in the troposphere: Comprehensive modeling with the EMAC model and UTLS observations from the CARIBIC platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, S. S.; Joeckel, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    CO is small. We find that inaccurate surface emission estimates are responsible for roughly half of the 13CO discrepancy between our model and observations in the northern hemisphere. Scrutinizing the remote southern hemisphere CO compositions suggests that the most credible explanation for the large underestimation of tropospheric 13CO (not conflicting with the high CH4→CO yield) is the missing larger fractionation during the CO+OH sink at lower temperatures. The comparison of simulated CO compositions with UTLS observations available from the CARIBIC-1 project also supports this conclusion. Overall, the introduced refinements (i.e., the improved emissions and new KIE parameterization) account for an additional overall tropospheric enrichment of 2-3‰ in 13CO content that outbalances excessive 13CO depletion caused by the CH4 contribution. Finally, a detailed analysis of the CARIBIC-1 CO isotope data is conducted. We discuss the application of these unique observations to better constraining the 13C and 18O isotope signatures of the surface and photochemical sources of tropospheric CO.

  17. Searching the Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) database improves systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara; Castro, Aldemar Araujo

    2002-02-01

    An unbiased systematic review (SR) should analyse as many articles as possible in order to provide the best evidence available. However, many SR use only databases with high English-language content as sources for articles. Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) indexes 670 journals from the Latin American and Caribbean health literature but is seldom used in these SR. Our objective is to evaluate if LILACS should be used as a routine source of articles for SR. First we identified SR published in 1997 in five medical journals with a high impact factor. Then we searched LILACS for articles that could match the inclusion criteria of these SR. We also checked if the authors had already identified these articles located in LILACS. In all, 64 SR were identified. Two had already searched LILACS and were excluded. In 39 of 62 (63%) SR a LILACS search identified articles that matched the inclusion criteria. In 5 (8%) our search was inconclusive and in 18 (29%) no articles were found in LILACS. Therefore, in 71% (44/72) of cases, a LILACS search could have been useful to the authors. This proportion remains the same if we consider only the 37 SR that performed a meta-analysis. In only one case had the article identified in LILACS already been located elsewhere by the authors' strategy. LILACS is an under-explored and unique source of articles whose use can improve the quality of systematic reviews. This database should be used as a routine source to identify studies for systematic reviews.

  18. [Attitude of primary care professionals to gender violence. A comparative study between Catalonia and Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas Loría, Kattia; Gutiérrez Rosado, Teresa; Alvarado, Ricardo; Fernández Sánchez, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Describe the relationship between the attitude towards violence against women (VAW) of professionals of the health of primary care with variables such professional satisfaction, workload, orientation of professional practice, knowledge, training and use of network in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Cross-exploratory and comparative study. Primary care in Barcelona and nearby counties and the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. 235 primary health professionals of Medicine, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work. Questionnaire with eight sections about attitudes, professional satisfaction, and orientation of professional practice, workload, knowledge, training and use of network. Three types of analysis were carried out: a descriptive one by country; a bivariate analysis; and a multivariable linear regression model. Primary Health Professionals attitudes towards VAW health were similar in both contexts (Catalonia: 3.90 IC 95% 3.84-3.96; Costa Rica: 4.03 IC 95% 3.94-4.13). The variables associated with attitudes towards VAW were: Use of network resources (B=0.20, 95% CI -0.14-0.25, P=<.001), Training (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17, P=<0.001), and country, Costa Rica (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25, P=<0.001). There was no interaction between the country and the other variables, suggesting that the association between the variables and the attitude is similar in both countries. The results suggest that increased use of network resources and training are related to a positive attitude towards VWA in primary health professionals, both in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  20. The Tobosi Fault: Source of the 2011-2012 Tobosi Earthquake Swarm in Central Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M. C.; Linkimer, L.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) is a ~100 km broad zone of deformation that marks the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the Panama Microplate. From December 2011 to February 2012 an earthquake swarm took place on a portion of the CCRDB, near the town of Tobosi, in the Cartago province. In this study, we use data recorded by the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) to relocate 22 of these earthquakes and calculate focal mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the Tectonic Geomorphology of the region. Our results show a transtension structure near the town of Tobosi, which comprises at least three faults, named: the Tobosi, Tablon, and Alumbre faults. This structure is located only 5 km south of the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4). The earthquake locations analyzed are aligned with the Tobosi Fault. The events varied in moment magnitude between 2.4 and 3.9 Mw and depths of 1 and 8 km. The largest events were felt mainly in the town of Tobosi and as far as San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. We found that the Tobosi fault is an active left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component and is the source of the Tobosi earthquake swarm. The study of active faults in Central Costa Rica is significant as it may greatly improve seismic hazards assessment for this region where most of the population and the main economic activities are concentrated.

  1. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  2. Educational Gradients in Psychotropic Medication Use Among Older Adults in Costa Rica and the United States†

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Marisa E.; Dow, William H.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship among education, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication use has been explored in the United States, but little is known about patterns in poorer countries, despite their high documented burden of mental illness. Educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic use were estimated in the United States and Costa Rica – a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Methods Analyses were conducted using data on older adults (ages 60+) in nationally representative surveys from each country: the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (n=4788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (n=2827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of lower educational attainment, income and urban residence on diagnosis and on psychotropic medication use with and without an associated mental illness diagnosis. Results Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the U.S. (12% U.S.; n=598) than in, Costa Rica (20%; n=526), but may reflect differences in survey wording. Measures of self-reported and screened depression decreased with education in both countries. Psychotropic medication use among those with diagnoses increased with education in Costa Rica only. Conclusions We find similar patterns of educational gradients in diagnosis and screening between the U.S. and Costa Rica, but different patterns of medication use by education. Differences in stigma and access to care may play an important role in explaining differences between the countries, though we did not find evidence that insurance affected educational gradients in the U.S. These analyses increase the evidence on the role of education in the use of the health care system. PMID:24932755

  3. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  4. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States.

    PubMed

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  5. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  6. Differentials by socioeconomic status and institutional characteristics in preventive service utilization by older persons in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2009-08-01

    Objective.The goals of this article are to assess the level of preventive service utilization by older persons in Costa Rica and to determine whether there are differentials in utilization across socioeconomic status (SES) and institutional characteristics. Method. Using data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging (CRELES) project, a study of healthy aging in Costa Rica, the authors use self-reported information on preventive service utilization. The SES differentials are studied using logistic regressions. Results. Preventive services linked to cardiovascular disease prevention are frequently utilized; preventive services linked to cancer screening, vaccination, and sense impairments are not so widely used. Higher SES people are more likely to utilize most preventive services. Utilization rates among uninsured seniors are lower than among their insured peers. Home visits by community health workers are positively associated with higher utilization rates. Discussion. The SES disparities in preventive service utilization exist in Costa Rica, and institutional characteristics are positively associated with increasing utilization.

  7. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  8. Morphotectonic segmentation along the Nicoya Peninsula seismic gap, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Butcher, A.; Ritzinger, B.; Wellington, K.; Lafromboise, E.; Protti, M.; Gardner, T.; Spotila, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica forms a prominent morphologic high along the outer forearc of the erosive southern Middle America convergent margin. This emergent coastal landmass overlies the seismogenic zone and occupies a seismic gap that last ruptured in 1950 with a M7.7 megathrust earthquake. The edges of both the Nicoya seismic gap and the peninsula’s abrupt shorelines correspond with the aftershock limits of the more recent 1992 M7.2 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake to the north, and the 1990 M7.0 Cobano seamount rupture to the south. The coincidence of emergent topography and recent earthquake rupture zones suggests persistence of the Nicoya segment through multiple seismic cycles. Along the Nicoya Peninsula's seaward-facing coastline, net Quaternary uplift is recorded by emergent strandlines, marine terraces, and incised valley-fill alluvium. Ongoing field mapping, surveying, and isotopic dating reveal uplift variations along the Nicoya segment that coincide with three contrasting domains of subducting seafloor offshore (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). Uplift rates vary between 0.1-0.2 m/k.y. inboard of older EPR crust along the northern Nicoya coast; 0.2-0.3 m/k.y. inboard of younger CNS-1 crust along the southern Nicoya coast; and 1.0-2.0 m/k.y. inboard of CNS-2 seamounts impacting the peninsula’s southern tip. These results are consistent with geophysical observations that indicate finer scale segmentation of the Nicoya seismogenic zone related to along-strike changes in the characteristics of the subducting plate. Variable upper-plate uplift along the Nicoya segment may reflect differences in subducting-plate roughness, thermal structure, fluid flow, and seismogenic-zone locking (up-dip/down-dip limits). Based on the rapid convergence rate (9 cm/yr) and the frequency of historic seismicity, the recurrence interval for large Nicoya earthquakes is estimated at ~50 years. The most recent event, in 1950, generated >1m of coseismic uplift along the central Nicoya

  9. Tracking performance of the polarity-type costas loop at low SNR for UQPSK signal. [Unbalanced Quadri-PSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1981-01-01

    Carrier tracking performance of the polarity type costas loop is analyzed for unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keyed (UQPSK) signals at low SNR. Squaring losses for various SNR, IF bandwidth, and data rate ratios are presented. The RMS phase jitter for a particular loop is computed for various I and Q channel power and data rate ratios. Experimental results using a breadboard costas loop are also included.

  10. A Historical Study of the Effectiveness of U.S. Security Assistance to Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    LC) 4 ,SL~c, - - - 4,,.’..O, t . A HISTORI AL STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS"" OF U.S. SEC ’PlTY ASSISTANCF TO.’\\ ’ PANA"A, COSTA RICA AND NICARAGUA...Costa Rica ..... .................. ... 18 Nicaragua ...... ... ................... .1 Early History ... .. ................... ... 24 Panama...and the declining world economy combined to lower most Central Americans’ quality of life throughout history to present times. This situation

  11. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  12. PM10 Concentration Estimates over Costa Rica using Chemical Transport Modeling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno-Castillo, J. S.; Vidaurre, G.; Herrera, J.; Mora, R.; Rivera-fernandez, E. R.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol pollution has become a major issue in Costa Rica because of the urban development that induces an increase in vehicle and industrial emissions. The Metropolitan area in Costa Rica is a valley ( 1,967 km2 area) with a population of 2.6 million. This area concentrates 60% of the country's total industry and 57% of its vehicle emissions. In addition, this area is impacted by biogenic emissions coming from national forests surround it and windblown dust from the Sahara Desert transported by the Trade winds. PM10 and other criteria pollutants have been measured in the past 12 years. However, those monitor stations are single points of observation and do not represent the spatial and temporal resolution that the Costa Rican national government requires for long term policy decisions and health effects assessments. This investigation uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry version 3.7 (WRF-Chem) to forecast PM10 concentration over Costa Rica in 2013. The temporal scales take into consideration the dry, rainy, and transition seasons of the country. The spatial domain was constructed with a master domain (27 km resolution) and multiple nested-domains (9, 3, and 1 km respectively) that include the total area of Costa Rica. The meteorology data bases for this model are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (Era-Interim; Dee et al. 2011). In addition, the chemical transport model uses emissions inventories from the PREP-CHEM-SRC tool, because of the lack of an appropriate national emission inventory for this investigation. The total average of PM10 observed at the metropolitan area of Costa Rica was 26±9 μgm-3 in 2013. According to the World Health Organization, this result exceeds the PM10 standard established in the air quality guidelines (WHO 2005). The final goal of this investigation is to evaluate the chemical transport simulations with ground-level measurements from more than 10

  13. Exploring the Notion That Subduction Erosion Has Removed or Submerged Costa Rica's Early Tertiary Arc Massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2007-05-01

    Arc igneous rocks of Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene age are widely exposed in the southern, coastal region of Panama (Lissinna et al., EGU abstract, 2006). These rocks intrude or overlie mafic basement rock of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) of Late Cretaceous age that extends to the east to underlie the Caribbean Basin and form the Caribbean plate. Immediately west of Panama, in coastal Costa Rica, exposures of CLIP basement are not intruded or overlain by arc magmatic rocks of early Tertiary age. EXPLANATIONS: Potentially, the early Tertiary subduction zone that dipped beneath the Pacific margin of Panama did not extend to the west, thus no arc magmatism occurred where Costa Rica presently exists. Alternatively, the subduction zone bordering the Pacific edge of the CLIP extended below Costa Rica but former exposures of early Tertiary arc magmatic rocks piled there have been erosionally removed or buried beneath Miocene and younger arc massifs of interior mountain belts. EXPLORING A SUBDUCTION EROSION EXPLANATION Onshore and offshore evidence documents that subduction erosion thins and truncates the submerged rock framework of the Middle and South America forearc. The eroded (removed) material is transported toward and into the mantle within the subduction channel separating the upper plate of the forearc and lower plate of the subducting oceanic crust. The long-term (greater than 10 Myr) rate of truncation (i. e., migration of the trench toward a fixed, onshore reference) averages 2 to 3 km/Myr. Because of the subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge beneath Costa Rica, during at least the past 4 to 5 Myr the rate of truncation at this margin has been much higher. It is proposed that during the past 50 Myr subduction erosion has truncated the Costa Rica forearc by at least 100 km and either obliterated or deeply submerged arc massifs of early Tertiary age. Their exposed presence to the east in neighboring Panama reflects the circumstance that since

  14. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was

  15. Investigating African trace gas sources, vertical transport, and oxidation using IAGOS-CARIBIC measurements between Germany and South Africa between 2009 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, U. R.; Baker, A. K.; Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Sauvage, C.; Riede, H.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Oram, D. E.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Williams, J.

    2017-06-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011 a commercial airliner equipped with a custom built measurement container (IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory) conducted 13 flights between South Africa and Germany at 10-12 km altitude, traversing the African continent north-south. In-situ measurements of trace gases (CO, CH4, H2O) and aerosol particles indicated that strong surface sources (like biomass burning) and rapid vertical transport combine to generate maximum concentrations in the latitudinal range between 10°N and 10°S coincident with the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Pressurized air samples collected during these flights were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases including C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halocarbons. These shorter-lived trace gases, originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources, also showed near equatorial maxima highlighting the effectiveness of convective transport in this region. Two source apportionment methods were used to investigate the specific sources of NMHC: positive matrix factorization (PMF), which is used for the first time for NMHC analysis in the upper troposphere (UT), and enhancement ratios to CO. Using the PMF method three characteristic airmass types were identified based on the different trace gas concentrations they obtained: biomass burning, fossil fuel emissions, and ;background; air. The first two sources were defined with reference to previously reported surface source characterizations, while the term ;background; was given to air masses in which the concentration ratios approached that of the lifetime ratios. Comparison of enhancement ratios between NMHC and CO for the subset of air samples that had experienced recent contact with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to literature values showed that the burning of savanna and tropical forest is likely the main source of NMHC in the African upper troposphere (10-12 km). Photochemical aging patterns for the samples with PBL contact revealed that

  16. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  17. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  18. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  19. Methyl chloride in the UT/LS observed by CARIBIC: global distribution, Asian summer monsoon outflow, and use as a tracer for tropical air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Umezawa, T.; Oram, D.; Sauvage, C.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Montzka, S. A.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatiotemporal variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in the UT/LS observed mainly by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft for the years 2005-2011. The CH3Cl mixing ratio in the UT over Europe was higher than that observed at a European surface baseline station year-round, indicative of a persistent positive vertical gradient at NH mid latitudes. A series of flights over Africa and South Asia show that CH3Cl mixing ratios increase toward tropical latitudes, and the observed UT CH3Cl level over these two regions and the Atlantic was higher than that measured at remote surface sites. Strong emissions of CH3Cl in the tropics combined with meridional transport through the UT may explain such vertical and latitudinal gradients. Comparisons with CO data indicate that non-combustion sources in the tropics dominantly contribute to forming the latitudinal gradient of CH3Cl in the UT. We also observed elevated CH3Cl and CO in air influenced by biomass burning in South America and Africa, and the enhancement ratios derived for CH3Cl to CO in those regions agree with previous observations. In contrast, correlations indicate a high CH3Cl to CO ratio of 2.9±0.5 ppt ppb-1 in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and domestic biofuel emissions in South Asia are inferred to be responsible. We estimated CH3Cl emissions from South Asia to be 134±23 Gg Cl yr-1, which is higher than a previous estimate due to the higher CH3Cl to CO ratio observed in this study. We also examine the use of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the LMS, where we identified air masses with elevated CH3Cl that were however stratospheric in terms of N2O. Back trajectories suggest recent low-latitude origins of such air masses in early summer. In this season, high CH3Cl LMS air shows a clear branch connecting stratospheric and tropical tropospheric air on N2O-CH3Cl scatterplots. This distinct feature vanishes in late summer when the LMS is ventilated by tropospheric air.

  20. Plio-Pleistocene palaeogeography of the Llanura Costera del Caribe in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic): Interplay of geomorphic evolution and sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz de Neira, J. A.; Braga, J. C.; Mediato, J.; Lasseur, E.; Monthel, J.; Hernáiz, P. P.; Pérez-Cerdán, F.; Lopera, E.; Thomas, A.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct the palaeogeographic evolution of the Llanura Costera del Caribe (LCC) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) during the Pleistocene, adding new insights to published information on Pliocene-Early Pleistocene deposits. The LCC is a generally flat region comprising the unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental. Within this cover, the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Yanigua Formation,mainly consisting of marl, changes seawards to the mainly limestone Los Haitises Formation. Both units formed in a shallow-water platform rimmed by a reef barrier at least in the latest depositional stages. The overlying Pleistocene La Isabela Formation consists of two major offlapping reef terraces, in which a reef core enclosed a lagoon, and prograded over forereef bioclastic debris. Two belts in LCC's morphostructure directly reflect its sedimentary evolution. The Inner Belt extends over the marly substrate of the Yanigua Formation and the Coastal Belt comprises three major surfaces corresponding to the depositional top of the Los Haitises Formation (Upper Surface), and to the Upper and Lower terraces of the La Isabela Formation (Intermediate and Lower Surfaces, respectively). The MIS 5e age of the 10-20 m high Lower Terrace implies a low uplift rate of 0.033-0.068 mm/yr for the Lower Surface. The Pliocene-Early Pleistocene platform was emergent in the Early-Middle Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene reef barrier separated endorheic watersheds extending over the former shelf lagoon from the open ocean. Reefs built the Upper Terrace of the La Isabela Formation during one or several Middle Pleistocene highstands and the Lower Terrace during MIS 5e and previous highstands. Siliciclastic deposits in this terrace record the opening to the Caribbean Sea of watersheds in the eastern LCC. The Lower Terrace emersion and opening of the large drainage systems of the western and central LCC took place after MIS 5e. Relative sea level fall and

  1. [Incidence and altitudinal distribution of 13 virus cultures in Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae) from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Viviana; Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Rivera, Carmen

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 30 fields located at three different altitudes in Cartago, Costa Rica's main potato producing area. Twenty plants were sampled per farm, for a total of 600 samples with 200 samples per altitude. ELISA was used with commercial reagents to independently test for PVX, PVY, PVM, PVA, PVS, PLRV, PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT, APLV, APMoV and TRSV. The presence of the following viruses was determined: PVX (77 %), PAMV (62 %), PLRV (42 %), TRSV (42 %), PVT (39 %), PVV (37 %), PMTV (31%), PVY (30 %), PVS (19 %), PVM (13 %), PVA (8 %), and APMoV (8%). APLV was not detected in any sample. This is the first report in Costa Rica of the presence of the viruses PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT and APMoV. A high viral incidence in the tuber seed production area as well as a high rate of mixed infections is reported.

  2. Costa Rican environmental service payments: The use of a financial instrument in participatory forest management.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Miriam; Dieperink, Carel; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2006-10-01

    The core element of the Costa Rican forestry policy is a financial instrument called the environmental service payment. This instrument rewards forest owners for the environmental services (the mitigation of greenhouse gases, the protection of watersheds and scenic beauty, and the development of biodiversity) their forests provide. In this article, the experiences with this new instrument are analyzed by focusing on the way interests are represented and access is granted, the openness of information exchange, whether social learning occurred, and whether decision-making authority is shared. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in the Huetar Norte Region and on in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders. The Costa Rican case indicates that financial instruments can be used to share responsibilities and that stakeholders can successfully cooperate on forest issues. It also shows that such a participatory approach is only promising if certain cultural, economic, organizational, and political conditions are met.

  3. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  4. The therapeutic exception: abortion, sterilization and medical necessity in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carranza, María

    2007-08-01

    Based on the case of Rosa, a nine-year-old girl who was denied a therapeutic abortion, this article analyzes the role played by the social in medical practice. For that purpose, it compares the different application of two similar pieces of legislation in Costa Rica, where both the practice of abortion and sterilization are restricted to the protection of health and life by the Penal Code. As a concept subject to interpretation, a broad conception of medical necessity could enable an ample use of the therapeutic exception and a liberal use of both surgeries. The practice of therapeutic sterilization has been generalized in Costa Rica and has become the legitimate way to distribute contraceptive sterilization. In contrast, therapeutic abortion is very rarely practiced. The analysis carried out proposes that it is the difference in social acceptance of abortion and sterilization that explains the different use that doctors, as gatekeepers of social morality, make of medical necessity.

  5. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital."

  6. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. I - Biphase Costas loop with passive arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) is an attractive means for transmitting two digital data streams which in general have different average powers, data rates, and data formats. Previous analyses of the tracking performance of Costas loop demodulators of unbalanced QPSK have accounted only for the filtering effect produced by the loop's two arm filters on the equivalent additive noise perturbing the loop. When the bandwidth of these filters is selected on the basis of the order of the data rate, as is typical of optimum Costas loop design, the filtering degradations of the data modulations themselves and the cross-modulation noise produced by their multiplication in the loop often cannot be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate these additional filtering effects into the analysis. Many of the results obtained herein are in the form of closed-form expressions which can easily be evaluated numerically for design and performance prediction purposes.

  7. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  8. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  9. [Bacteriological load of the fishes Cynoscion squamipinnis and Lutjanus gutattus in the marketing chain, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Marín, Carolina; Fonseca, Cristian; Arias, Sidey; Villegas, Irene; García, Andrea; Ishihara, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriological load of the fishes Cynoscion squamipinnis and Lutjanus gutattus in the marketing chain, Costa Rica. To determine the bacteriological quality of fishery products in the different stages from commercialization, monthly samples were taken during March 2004 and February 2006 from a Costa Rica marketing chain. Microbiological analyses were made to determine total coliforms (CT), faecal coliforms (CF), Escherichia coli (EC), aerobic total count (RTA), Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Three body zones were analyzed: skin, belly and muscle. There were differences in the amount of CT between parts: skin had the highest counts, 11% of samples were identified as E. coli. and 2.5% of total counts were higher than the legal limit. Only 1.3% of the samples were S. aureus-positive. Salmonella sp., V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus were absent.

  10. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  11. [The privatization of public services. The case of health services in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fuentes, M

    1993-01-01

    This article analyzes the role of the State and public enterprises in the development of nations, from a particular standing point, and inquires into the privatization issue, reviewing both its concept and the possible mechanisms for its implementation. Also, emphasis is made on the selling of public enterprises as one of the several ways to privatize. Within this context, some measures for the reorganization of the Costa Rican National Health System are proposed. These measures uphold fundamental values of social justice. This article is based on a theoretical-conceptual framework from an innovative experience in health services management in Costa Rica, in which a self-managing cooperative society (a nonprofit enterprise) manages, by contract with national health care public institutions, an urban local health care system.

  12. On the diversity and richness of understory bryophytes at Nectandra Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Daniel H; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Risk, Allen C; Lucas, Diane; Allard, Dorothy J; Rosengren, Frida; Clark, Theresa A; Fenton, Nicole; Tessler, Michael; Phephu, Nonkululo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A survey of the understory bryophytes in the Nectandra Cloud Forest Preserve yielded 1083 specimens distributed among 55 families, represented by 74 genera of mosses, 75 genera of liverworts and 3 of hornworts. We studied and analyzed the bryophytic distribution on six types of substrates: 1) corticolous, 2) epiphyllous, 3) saxicolous, 4) terricolous, 5) aquatic and 6) lignicolous. The richness and composition of bryophyte genera are compared to those of other previous bryophyte surveys from 4 other sites with different oceanic exposures, climatic and geographic conditions in Costa Rica. New information This is a report of the first extensive general survey of bryophytes at the Nectandra Reserve, a premontane cloud forest located on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica, an area much less studied compared to the Monteverde cloud forest on the Pacific slope. PMID:28765721

  13. On the diversity and richness of understory bryophytes at Nectandra Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Norris, Daniel H; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Risk, Allen C; Lucas, Diane; Allard, Dorothy J; Rosengren, Frida; Clark, Theresa A; Fenton, Nicole; Tessler, Michael; Phephu, Nonkululo; Lennette, Evelyne T

    2017-01-01

    A survey of the understory bryophytes in the Nectandra Cloud Forest Preserve yielded 1083 specimens distributed among 55 families, represented by 74 genera of mosses, 75 genera of liverworts and 3 of hornworts. We studied and analyzed the bryophytic distribution on six types of substrates: 1) corticolous, 2) epiphyllous, 3) saxicolous, 4) terricolous, 5) aquatic and 6) lignicolous. The richness and composition of bryophyte genera are compared to those of other previous bryophyte surveys from 4 other sites with different oceanic exposures, climatic and geographic conditions in Costa Rica. This is a report of the first extensive general survey of bryophytes at the Nectandra Reserve, a premontane cloud forest located on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica, an area much less studied compared to the Monteverde cloud forest on the Pacific slope.

  14. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889).

  15. Comments on article "Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans" by Costa and Klein.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Stern, Alan H

    2006-10-01

    The recent article by Costa and Klein (2006) contains several inaccuracies about the federal drinking water standard for chromium. The federal drinking water standard for chromium is 100 ppb, not 50 ppb as stated by Costa and Klein, and it is based on non-carcinogenic effects, not a one in one million cancer risk level. The question of whether or not hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic via the oral route is the focus of much current interest and has major implications for regulation of chromium in drinking water and soil. The chronic drinking water study of hexavalent chromium currently being conducted by the National Toxicology Program will provide further information that will be useful in addressing this question.

  16. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.

  18. The product is progress: rural electrification in Costa Rica. Project impact evaluation No. 22

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, G.; Goddard, P.O.; Gomez, G.; Harrison, P.

    1981-10-01

    Because Costa Rica had abundant hydroelectric potential and a government which was strongly committed to equitable growth, a considerable return was reaped from a relatively small investment in rural electrification (RE). This report details this success and A.I.D.'s contribution (1965-69). Aiming to diversify agriculture, increase income, expand agroindustry, and develop replicable RE cooperatives (REC's), the project produced positive but not wholly anticipated results.

  19. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  20. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  1. False lock performance in polarity-type Costas receivers in the presence of periodic data patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James June-Ming; Lai, Dennis Teng-Tsun; Heng, Veronica Siang-Gek; Godfrey, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors address the false-lock performance of receivers which use polarity-type Costas loops for the carrier recovery of unbalanced quadrature phase-shift keyed (QPSK), asynchronous QPSK or binary PSK (BPSK) signals in the presence of periodic data patterns. The potential false-lock frequencies are first identified. Expressions for both true-lock and false-lock components are also derived, thereby allowing numerical evaluation of various key parameters for cases of practical interest.

  2. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  3. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  4. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    PubMed

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  5. Tayloring energy levels with curvature ? An illustration of Da Costa formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando; Santos, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nanotubes are generally not perfectly straight cylinders and the local curvature can influence transport properties. As shown by da Costa [1], charged particles moving on a curved surface experience an effective potential which modifies their dynamics. In this paper, we solve a one-electron Schrödinger equation in a distorted nanotube with open boundary conditions. We find that the deformations may open bandgaps suggesting their use in the design of nanotube- based electronic devices.

  6. Rare solitary neoplasm of the costa in an adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng; Liang, Yasha; Xu, Huan; Che, Guowei

    2014-09-25

    Regional solitary plasmacytoma of the costa is a rare disease and is characterized by only one or two isolated bone lesions. We report the case of a solitary plasmacytoma of the bone of the right chest wall in an adult. The patient underwent complete enbloc resection of the chest wall including ribs, muscle and parietal pleura. The patient is asymptomatic without any recurrence after two months of follow-up.

  7. Chemical quality of ground water in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from 324 representative wells. Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts. (USGS)

  8. A new genus and species of Coenosiini from Costa Rica (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Márcia Souto; de Carvalho, Claudio José Barros

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Palpilongus gen. n. is herein described for one species – Palpilongus bifurcus sp. n., from Costa Rica, based on male and females. The striking morphological characters of the species – palpus very long, about as long as prementum; upper calypter truncate and very short and setae of male sternite 5 bifurcated, confirm that this new species is also a new genus in the tribe Coenosiini. Male and female terminalia were dissected and illustrated. PMID:23950688

  9. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  10. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Vibrio in bivalves and mud from the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García Cortés, V; Antillón, F

    1990-11-01

    The presence of enteropathogenic Vibrio was evaluated in 36 sediment samples and 41 bivalve samples obtained from 3 collecting sites in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Isolation methods for halophilic and non halophilic Vibrio were used. The biochemical profiles of the strains obtained revealed the presence of the following isolates: 224 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 V. furnissii, 1 V. damsela and 3 V. fluvialis. V. cholerae was not isolated, due principally to the use of TCBS agar.

  11. Arcobacter butzleri: first isolation report from chicken carcasses in costa rica

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Maria Laura; Cid, Adriana; Fernandéz, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Arcobacter butzleri isolation from chicken carcasses in Costa Rica is reported for the first time. The isolated strains (P and R) were presumptively identified by their phenotypic characteristics. Definitive identification was made using a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus and Arcobacter skirrowii. These first isolations indicate the necessity of further investigation about the prevalence, distribution, ecology and interactions with human beings of this and other Arcobacter species. PMID:24031682

  12. A Costas loop with tangent error signal for use in Navstar GPS avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. H.; Mcclung, D. A.; Reininger, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes an augmented Costas loop for use in low-cost avionics for the Navstar Global Positioning System. A standard loop has been augmented with supplementing feed-back to give a tracking error voltage proportional to the tangent of the phase error, rather than to the sine. The augmented loop yields increased performance in the presence of input phase acceleration and jerk, as caused by maneuvers of the GPS user vehicle. Many Monte Carlo simulation results are given.

  13. International Field Research with Undergraduate Students: Investigating Active Tectonics of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past eight years, 18 undergraduate students from 12 U.S. and Costa Rican universities and colleges have participated in field research projects investigating coastal tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. These projects have been organized around two different models: 1) a month-long "field camp" with 10 students and 5 project faculty (Keck Geology Consortium Project, 1998), and 2) several two-week field projects with 1-3 students and one faculty advisor (Cal Poly Pomona University and Trinity University). Under the direction of the authors, each of these projects has been carefully designed to provide a new piece to a larger research puzzle. The Nicoya Peninsula lies along Costa Rica's northern Pacific coast inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos and Caribbean plates converge at 10 cm/yr. In 1950, the peninsula was shaken by a ~M 7.7 subduction earthquake that produced widespread damage and 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic coastal uplift. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is viewed as a high-potential seismic gap. Field study of uplifted Quaternary marine terraces along the Nicoya coastline provides undergraduate students with a unique opportunity to examine rapid forearc deformation related to large subduction earthquakes. The field research conducted by each of these students provides the basis for a senior thesis at their home institution. In most cases, the students have focused their individual work on separate, but adjacent field areas. Collectively, each of these projects has generated significant data that contribute toward of an ongoing investigation of fore arc tectonics and subduction cycle earthquakes along the Costa Rican Pacific margin.

  14. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher; Nemeth, Nicole; Marineros, Leonel

    2006-09-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica.

  15. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs.

  16. Conservation genetics of American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, populations in Pacific Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauger, Laurie A.; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brien, Matthew L.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Spotila, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is crucial for the survival and management of threatened and endangered species. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure at neutral loci in American crocodiles, Crocodylus acutus, from several areas (Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Rio Tarcoles, and Osa Conservation Area) in Pacific Costa Rica. We genotyped 184 individuals at nine microsatellite loci to describe the genetic diversity and conservation genetics between and among populations. No population was at Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) over all loci tested and a small to moderate amount of inbreeding was present. Populations along the Pacific coast had an average heterozygosity of 0.572 across all loci. All populations were significantly differentiated from each other with both FST and RST measures of population differentiation with a greater degree of molecular variance (81%) found within populations. Our results suggest C. acutus populations in Pacific Costa Rica were not panmictic with moderate levels of genetic diversity. An effective management plan that maintains the connectivity between clusters is critical to the success of C. acutus in Pacific Costa Rica.

  17. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  18. [Claudio Costa Casaretto M.D. (1914-1999) in Revista Medica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Goic, A

    1999-10-01

    The work of Dr. Claudio Costa Casaretto covers a broad field in the history of Medicine in Chile. He contributed with the historical aspects in the Centennial issue of Revista Médica de Chile in July, 1972. He published 85 papers in this journal in a lapse of 20 years. In his works, he investigated about medical personalities with the highest relevance for Chilean medicine such as Dr. William Blest, graduated in Edinburgh and director of the first Medicine Course in Chile in 1833, the French obstetrician Dr. Lorenzo Sazie, first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile in 1843 and Dr. Eloisa Díaz, first physician graduated in Chile and South America in 1887. He published the translation from Latin of Juan Ignacio Molina's verses "Elegies to smallpox", Chilean writer and erudite of the XVIII century. He also undertook the origins of Universidad de San Felipe (1737), Universidad de Chile (1842) and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (1889) and the main educational events occurred in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, during the past century. He also published about the public health situation and sanitary care during the XIX century, about the conflict between private and public teaching and other political events of the past century. The work of Dr. Costa as a whole, is a real history textbook of Chilean Medicine. Dr. Costa and Dr. Enrique Laval are the most important Chilean medical historians of the XX century.

  19. Export-led growth as a determinant of social development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, M

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica has put considerable effort into the development of education, health care, housing and social security. In order to be sustainable, this process requires that the output of such sectors as agriculture and manufacturing expands over time. The article examines the growth of the Costa Rican economy in a long run perspective, with an emphasis on foreign trade policy. The fate of the Costa Rican economy has been highly dependent on the exports of primary products, mainly coffee and bananas, for more than a century. This, however, has created a very vulnerable economy. As a result, during the 1960s, a new development strategy emerged: production of manufactures for the Central American Common Market (CACM). At the end of the 1970s, the prices of traditional export fell and the CACM more or less collapsed. The Central American economies were thrown into an acute crisis, aggravated by faculty domestic economic policies, which also jeopardized social development. This necessitated a stabilization effort on the one hand, and the development of a new trade strategy--promotion of non-traditional exports--on the other. It would appear that both efforts have been successful, although not without difficulties.

  20. Characterization of the Mid Summer Drought in the Central Valley of Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The IAS region is characterized by climate features of unique nature, one of them is the Mid-Summer Drought (MSD) or "veranillo", an atmospheric feature rarely observed in other tropical regions. On the Pacific slope of Central America, the precipitation annual cycle is characterized by two rainfall maxima in June and September-October, an extended dry season from November to May, and a secondary precipitation minima during July-August (MSD). Three daily gauge stations records, e.g. La Argentina, Fabio Baudrit and Juan Santamaria, located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica were studied to characterize the MSD from 1937 to 2010. Among the aspects considered are the MSD duration, intensity, timing and seasonal predictability. The modulation of these aspects by climate variability sources as Equatorial Eastern Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic was lately explored, including their interannual and decadal variability. The MSD signal strongly impact social and economic life in the region like energy and the agriculture sector. Additionally, the Central Valley of Costa Rica hosts most of the Costa Rican population with the higher level of exposure and vulnerability to hydro-meteorological hazards.