Science.gov

Sample records for cotinine measured exposure

  1. Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children

    SciTech Connect

    Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure among Canadians: cotinine and self-report measures from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suzy L; Malaison, Eric; Hammond, David; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2013-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, respiratory infections, and decreased pulmonary function. This study provides population estimates of SHS exposure among the Canadian nonsmoking population based on self-report and urinary cotinine concentrations. The 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, collected data from Canadians aged 6-79 years, and it includes self-report and urinary cotinine measures of tobacco smoke exposure (n = 4,455). An estimated 22% of nonsmokers reported being exposed to SHS every day or almost every day. Of those, 70% of children (6-11 years) and 48% of adolescents (12-19 years) had detectable cotinine levels compared with 23% of adults (20-79 years). An estimated 77% of nonsmokers exposed to SHS only in the home had detectable cotinine levels compared with 11% of nonsmokers exposed to SHS only outside the home. Of those exposed to SHS only in the home, a higher percentage of children (5.1%) had detectable cotinine levels compared with adults (3.1%). Despite well-known health risks associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, a substantial proportion of the Canadian population continues to be exposed to SHS. Higher percentages of certain subpopulations had detectable cotinine concentrations, including children, adolescents, and those exposed to SHS in the home.

  3. Prenatal Second-Hand Smoke Exposure Measured with Urine Cotinine May Reduce Gross Motor Development at 18 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Evlampidou, Iro; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vardavas, Constantine; Koutra, Katerina; Patelarou, Evridiki; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association of second-hand smoke exposure of pregnant mothers using urine cotinine with the neurodevelopment of their children at 18 months of age in the mother-child cohort in Crete (Rhea Study). Selected participants were Greek mothers with singleton pregnancies, had never smoked, and had available urine cotinine measurements in pregnancy, and their children for whom a neurodevelopmental assessment was completed. We performed face-to-face interviews twice during pregnancy and postnatally, and assessed children's neurodevelopment at 18 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. We used linear regression and generalized additive models. Of 599 mothers, 175 (29%) met the inclusion criteria. Maternal urine cotinine levels were low (mean: 10.3 ng/mL, SD: 11.7 ng/mL). Reported passive smoking from different sources was strongly associated with urine cotinine levels. A negative association was observed between cotinine levels in pregnancy and child's gross motor function (beta = -3.22 per 10 ng/mL, 95% CI -5.09 to -1.34) after adjusting for factors potentially associated with neurodevelopment; results were similar in both sexes. A negative association was also observed for cognitive and receptive communication scales but the effect was small and not statistically significant. Maternal exposure during pregnancy to second-hand smoke measured through urine cotinine was associated with a decrease in gross motor function among 18-month-old children, even at low levels of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating fetal morbidity and mortality resulting from cigarette smoke exposure by measuring cotinine levels in maternal serum.

    PubMed

    Haddow, J E; Knight, G J; Palomaki, G E; Haddow, P K

    1988-01-01

    An essay for cotinine levels in maternal serum was used to define cigarette smoking exposure level and fetal morbidity and mortality. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has a circulating half-life of about a day, making it more reliable than nicotine as an indicator or active and passive smoke exposure. Maternal smoking has been linked in previous studies with low Apgar scores, low birthweight, decreased placental blood flow, fetal activity, fetal breathing movements, depressed prostacyclin synthesis in umbilical artery, increased perinatal mortality and spontaneous abortion. In this study, 8063 2nd trimester pregnant women whose serum had been collected and frozen in 1979-1983 were analyzed for smoking habit determined from intake questionnaires. Cotinine levels correlated with 95% of those reporting no smoking, and 93% of those reporting smoking. Smokers with cotinine 10 ng/ml was higher than expected, possible because some women quit before blood was drawn. Cotinine levels did not correlate as well as number of cigarettes per day reported. There was a significant association between serum cotinine and birthweight at the 10 and 20 cigarette/day level, and a trend toward a link between cotinine and fetal deaths in 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Among infants of the 30% of women exposed to passive smoke whose serum cotinine levels were 1 ng/ml, the average birth weight was 107 g lower than those of non-exposed women, a difference remaining after controlling for maternal weight and height, infant's sex, maternal age, gravidity and education.

  5. Prenatal tobacco exposure and cotinine in newborn dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Spector, Logan G; Murphy, Sharon E; Wickham, Katherine M; Lindgren, Bruce; Joseph, Anne M

    2014-06-01

    Tobacco smoking by pregnant women is a major public health hazard with both short- and long-term effects on offspring. This study describes the presence and level of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and compares it with the reported maternal smoking recorded on state birth registries. We hypothesize that cotinine in DBS may be a useful measure of newborn in utero tobacco exposure. An observational, cross-sectional study of 1414 DBS obtained from California, Michigan, New York, and Washington newborn screening programs was carried out. Cotinine levels in DBS were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis and compared with maternal smoking as reported in vital statistics data. Cotinine ≥0.3 ng/g was detected in 35% of newborn DBS, including DBS of 29% of newborns whose mothers reportedly did not smoke cigarettes during pregnancy, some of whom were presumably exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Twelve percent of the newborn DBS had cotinine levels that were ≥9.0 ng/g (equivalent to 6 ng/mL plasma, a level that indicates active smoking of the mother), although 41% of the mothers of these infants reportedly did not smoke. These data confirm that reported smoking during pregnancy is an imperfect measure of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine assessment in newborns may improve surveillance of tobacco use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Comparison of serum and salivary cotinine measurements by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke among smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; McGuffey, J E; Morrison, M A; Pirkle, J L

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke, both from active smoking and from passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, can be monitored by measuring cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in a variety of biological sources including blood, urine, and saliva. Previously, a sensitive atmospheric-pressure ionization, tandem mass spectrometric (LC-API-MS-MS) method for cotinine measurements in serum was developed in support of a large, recurrent national epidemiologic investigation. The current study examined the application of this LC-API-MS-MS method to both serum and saliva cotinine measurements in a group of 200 healthy adults, including both smokers and nonsmokers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum and saliva cotinine concentrations to facilitate the linking of results from epidemiologic studies using salivary cotinine measurements to existing national data based on serum cotinine analyses. The results indicate that a simple, linear relationship can be developed to describe serum and saliva cotinine concentrations in an individual, and the expression describing this relationship can be used to estimate with reasonable accuracy (approximately +/- 10%) the serum cotinine concentration in an individual given his or her salivary cotinine result. It was further confirmed that saliva cotinine samples are generally quite stable during storage after collection, even at ambient temperatures, and this sample matrix appears to be well-suited to the requirements of many epidemiologic investigations.

  7. Self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Paek, Yu Jin; Kang, Jeong Bae; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Do-Hoon; Seong, Moon-Woo; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cho, Jung Jin; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Chan Ho; Ko, Jeong Ah

    2009-06-30

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between self-reported exposure status to second-hand smoke and urinary cotinine level in pregnant nonsmokers. We recruited pregnant nonsmokers from the prenatal care clinics of a university hospital and two community health centers, and their urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Among a total of 412 pregnant nonsmokers, the proportions of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine level were 60.4% and 3.4%, respectively. Among those, 4.8% of the participants who reported exposure to second-hand smoke had cotinine levels of 40 ng/mL (the kappa value = 0.029, p = 0.049). Among those who reported living with smokers (n = 170), "smoking currently permitted in the whole house" (vs. not permitted at home) was associated with positive urinary cotinine in the univariable analysis. Furthermore, this variable showed a significant association with positive urinary cotinine in the stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis [Odds ratio (OR), 15.6; 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-115.4]. In the current study, the association between self-reported exposure status to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers was poor. "Smoking currently permitted in the whole house" was a significant factor of positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers. Furthermore, we suggest that a complete smoking ban at home should be considered to avoid potential adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes due to second-hand smoke.

  8. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure: quantifying nicotine/cotinine concentration in biological samples by colorimetry, chromatography and immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Preeti

    2004-04-01

    Procedures to assess tobacco smoke exposure are reviewed and biomarkers used for determining the smoking status of an individual are compared. Methods used to extract these biomarkers from saliva, urine, and blood and the advantages and disadvantages of the assays are discussed. Finally, the procedures used to measure the levels of cortisol, a stress hormone speculated to be linked to nicotine metabolism, are discussed.

  9. Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, S; Basagaña, X B; Pacifici, R; Garcia, O; Puig, C; Vall, O; Harris, J; Zuccaro, P; Segura, J; Sunyer, J

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of delivery. Cotinine concentration in cord serum was associated with daily exposure to nicotine in nonsmokers and with daily nicotine intake in smokers. The geometric mean of cotinine concentration in cord serum statistically discriminated between newborns from nonexposed and exposed nonsmoking mothers, and between these two classes and smokers, and furthermore was able to differentiate levels of exposure to tobacco smoke and levels of intake stratified in tertiles. Urinary cotinine levels in newborns from nonsmoking mothers exposed to more than 4 mg nicotine daily were statistically different from levels in two other categories of exposure. Cotinine concentration in urine from newborns and from mothers did not differentiate between exposure and nonexposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in nonsmoking mothers. Cord serum cotinine appeared to be the most adequate biomarker of fetal exposure to smoking at the end of pregnancy, distinguishing not only active smoking from passive smoking, but also exposure to ETS from nonexposure. PMID:11102300

  10. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  11. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration. Our aim was to examine the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration in a group of nicotine-dependent adolescent smokers. Additionally, we examined these correlations across gender, ethnicity and age. The sample consisted of 66 adolescent smokers (age 15.1 ± 1.3, 63.6% girls, 66.7% European American, CPD 18.3 ± 8.5, FTND 7.1 ± 1.3). Saliva and plasma specimens were collected before the treatment phase of a nicotine replacement therapy trial and analyzed. The relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. We performed a secondary analysis using multiple regression to compare correlations across race, gender and age. Results indicated a positive correlation between saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine concentration (r = .84, p < .001). Differences in correlations across age were significant (t = 3.03, p < .01). Differences across ethnicity approached significance (t = −1.93, p = .058). Future research should seek to further validate saliva-to-plasma cotinine concentration ratios in adolescents as well as characterize saliva-to-plasma concentration differences and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:18199474

  12. Cotinine-assessed second-hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Ebrahim, S; Wannamethee, S G; Feyerabend, C; Doig, M; McMeekin, L; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure measured by serum cotinine is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk among contemporary older British adults. Design Prospective population-based study with self-reported medical history and health behaviours. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum cotinine and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Setting Primary care centres in 25 British towns in 1998–2001. Patients 8512 60–79-year-old men and women selected from primary care registers. Main outcome measures Fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI; n=445) and stroke (n=386) during median 7.8-year follow-up. Main exposure Observational study of serum cotinine assayed from fasting blood sample using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, and self-reported smoking history. Results Among 5374 non-smokers without pre-existing CVD, geometric mean cotinine was 0.15 ng/ml (IQR 0.05–0.30). Compared with non-smokers with cotinine ≤0.05 ng/ml, higher cotinine levels (0.06–0.19, 0.2–0.7 and 0.71–15.0 ng/ml) showed little association with MI; adjusted HRs were 0.92 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.35), 1.07 (0.73 to 1.55) and 1.09 (0.69 to 1.72), p(trend)=0.69. Equivalent HRs for stroke were 0.82 (0.55 to 1.23), 0.74 (0.48 to 1.13) and 0.69 (0.41 to 1.17), p(trend)=0.065. The adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioural and CVD risk factors had little effect on the results. The HR of MI for smokers (1–9 cigarettes/day) compared with non-smokers with cotinine ≤0.05 ng/ml was 2.14 (1.39 to 3.52) and 1.03 (0.52 to 2.04) for stroke. Conclusions In contemporary older men and women, SHS exposure (predominantly at low levels) was not related to CHD or stroke risks, but we cannot rule out the possibility of modest effects at higher exposure levels. PMID:20478864

  13. Cotinine-assessed second-hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jefferis, B J; Lawlor, D A; Ebrahim, S; Wannamethee, S G; Feyerabend, C; Doig, M; McMeekin, L; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2010-06-01

    To examine whether second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure measured by serum cotinine is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk among contemporary older British adults. Prospective population-based study with self-reported medical history and health behaviours. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum cotinine and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Primary care centres in 25 British towns in 1998-2001. 8512 60-79-year-old men and women selected from primary care registers. Fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI; n=445) and stroke (n=386) during median 7.8-year follow-up. Observational study of serum cotinine assayed from fasting blood sample using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, and self-reported smoking history. Among 5374 non-smokers without pre-existing CVD, geometric mean cotinine was 0.15 ng/ml (IQR 0.05-0.30). Compared with non-smokers with cotinine < or =0.05 ng/ml, higher cotinine levels (0.06-0.19, 0.2-0.7 and 0.71-15.0 ng/ml) showed little association with MI; adjusted HRs were 0.92 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.35), 1.07 (0.73 to 1.55) and 1.09 (0.69 to 1.72), p(trend)=0.69. Equivalent HRs for stroke were 0.82 (0.55 to 1.23), 0.74 (0.48 to 1.13) and 0.69 (0.41 to 1.17), p(trend)=0.065. The adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioural and CVD risk factors had little effect on the results. The HR of MI for smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day) compared with non-smokers with cotinine < or =0.05 ng/ml was 2.14 (1.39 to 3.52) and 1.03 (0.52 to 2.04) for stroke. In contemporary older men and women, SHS exposure (predominantly at low levels) was not related to CHD or stroke risks, but we cannot rule out the possibility of modest effects at higher exposure levels.

  14. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study.

    PubMed

    Bernert, John T; Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B; Benowitz, Neal L; Sosnoff, Connie S; Doig, Mira V; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D; Langman, Loralie J

    2009-12-01

    Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas-liquid chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range.

  15. Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Martin J; Goddard, Eileen; Higgins, Vanessa; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew; Cook, Derek G

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children's exposure to passive smoking has changed since the late 1980s. Design Cross sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of secondary school children carried out between 1988 and 1998 by Office for National Statistics. Setting England. Subjects Secondary school children aged 11-15. Main outcome measures Salivary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking children. Results Cotinine concentrations in all non-smoking children almost halved between 1988 and 1998, from a geometric mean of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11) ng/ml in 1988 to 0.52 (0.43 to 0.62) ng/ml in 1998. This reduction was largely due to reductions in exposure in children from non-smoking households and to decreases in the percentage of parents who smoked. Children living with mothers or fathers who smoked experienced little reduction in exposure. Conclusions Exposure to passive smoking among children in England has approximately halved since the late 1980s. This reduction is partly explained by the fall in the percentage of both mothers and fathers who smoke and is also likely to reflect reductions of smoking in public places. However, there is only limited evidence that children from smoking households have experienced a reduction in exposure through parents' avoidance of smoking in their presence. PMID:10926591

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Tobacco Exposure as Determined by Serum Cotinine and Subclinical Myocardial Injury in Individuals Free from Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Li, Yabing; O'Neal, Wesley T; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco exposure including second-hand smoke is the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Serum cotinine, a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for tobacco exposure, is a more accurate measure of tobacco exposure than self-reported smoking status. Although the harmful effect of tobacco exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (e.g., atherosclerosis) or hard CVD outcomes (e.g., myocardial infarction) is well established, its effect on intermediate outcomes such as subclinical myocardial injury (SMI), especially in nonsmokers, is not clear. Therefore, we examined the risk of SMI, defined as a Cardiac Infarction/Injury Score of ≥10 points on the 12-lead electrocardiogram with abnormal serum cotinine levels (>15 ng/ml) in 6,264 smokers and nonsmokers who were free from CVD enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SMI was more common in those with abnormal compared with normal serum cotinine levels (25.9% vs 19.6%, respectively; p <0.01). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, race, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, abnormal (vs normal) serum cotinine was associated with a 61% increased risk of SMI (odds ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.85, p <0.01). This association was stronger in smokers, in women, and in nondiabetic and nonobese participants. In conclusion, elevated serum cotinine levels are associated with an increased risk of SMI in participants free from CVD, and this association is stronger in certain groups of participants. These findings underscore the harmful effect of both active and passive tobacco exposures on the cardiovascular system, and highlight the need for a personalized risk assessment that takes into account groups at high risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the Health Survey for England.

    PubMed

    Sims, Michelle; Mindell, Jennifer S; Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin; Wardle, Heather; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-03-01

    On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree. We examined trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults to determine whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and by household smoking status. We analyzed salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England that were collected in 7 of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke exposure as measured by the proportion of nonsmokers with undetectable levels of cotinine and by geometric mean cotinine. Secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those exposed at home and among lower-SES groups. Exposure declined markedly from 1998 to 2008 (the proportion of participants with undetectable cotinine was 2.9 times higher in the last 6 months of 2008 compared with the first 6 months of 1998 and geometric mean cotinine declined by 80%). We observed a significant fall in exposure after legislation was introduced--the odds of having undetectable cotinine were 1.5 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 1.8] and geometric mean cotinine fell by 27% (95% CI: 17%, 36%) after adjusting for the prelegislative trend and potential confounders. Significant reductions were not, however, seen in those living in lower-social class households or homes where smoking occurs inside on most days. We found that the impact of England's smokefree legislation on secondhand smoke exposure was above and beyond the underlying long-term decline in secondhand smoke exposure and demonstrates the positive effect of the legislation. Nevertheless, some population subgroups appear not to have benefitted significantly from the legislation. This finding suggests that these groups should receive more support to reduce their exposure.

  19. Did Smokefree Legislation in England Reduce Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Nonsmoking Adults? Cotinine Analysis from the Health Survey for England

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jennifer S.; Jarvis, Martin J.; Feyerabend, Colin; Wardle, Heather; Gilmore, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree. Objectives We examined trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults to determine whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and by household smoking status. Methods We analyzed salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England that were collected in 7 of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke exposure as measured by the proportion of nonsmokers with undetectable levels of cotinine and by geometric mean cotinine. Results Secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those exposed at home and among lower-SES groups. Exposure declined markedly from 1998 to 2008 (the proportion of participants with undetectable cotinine was 2.9 times higher in the last 6 months of 2008 compared with the first 6 months of 1998 and geometric mean cotinine declined by 80%). We observed a significant fall in exposure after legislation was introduced—the odds of having undetectable cotinine were 1.5 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 1.8] and geometric mean cotinine fell by 27% (95% CI: 17%, 36%) after adjusting for the prelegislative trend and potential confounders. Significant reductions were not, however, seen in those living in lower-social class households or homes where smoking occurs inside on most days. Conclusions We found that the impact of England’s smokefree legislation on secondhand smoke exposure was above and beyond the underlying long-term decline in secondhand smoke exposure and demonstrates the positive effect of the legislation. Nevertheless, some population subgroups appear not to have benefitted significantly from the legislation. This finding suggests that these groups should receive more

  20. Urine Cotinine Screening Detect Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Jain, Shonul; Dempsey, Delia A; Nardone, Natalie; St Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton

    2016-12-28

    Routine biochemical assessment of tobacco smoke exposure could lead to more effective interventions to reduce or prevent secondhand smoke (SHS)-related disease in adolescents. Our aim was to determine using urine cotinine (major nicotine metabolite) measurement the prevalence of tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents receiving outpatient care at an urban public hospital. Surplus urine was collected in 466 adolescents attending pediatric or urgent care clinics at San Francisco General Hospital, serving families with lower levels of income and education, in 2013-14. The majority were Hispanic or African American. Urine cotinine cut points of 0.05 to 0.25 ng/ml, 0.25 to 30 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml were used to classify subjects as light SHS or thirdhand smoke exposed, SHS or light/intermittent active users, and active tobacco users, respectively. Among subjects 87% were exposed, including 12% active smoking, 46% SHS and 30% lightly exposed. The SHS exposed group adjusted geometric mean cotinine values were significantly higher in African Americans (1.48 ng/mL) compared to other groups (0.56 - 1.13 ng/ml). In a city with a low smoking prevalence (12%), a large majority (87%) of adolescents seen in a public hospital clinic are exposed to tobacco. This is much higher than reported in national epidemiological studies of adolescents, which used a plasma biomarker. Since SHS is associated with significant respiratory diseases and parents and adolescents underreport exposure to SHS, routine biochemical screening should be considered as a tool to reduce SHS exposure. The clinical significance of light exposure needs to be investigated. Urine biomarker screening found that a large majority (87%) of adolescents treated in an urban public hospital are exposed to tobacco. Since secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with significant respiratory diseases and parents and adolescents underreport exposure to SHS, routine biochemical screening should be considered as a tool to reduce SHS

  1. Hair analysis of nicotine and cotinine for evaluating tobacco smoke exposure by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Kimura, Kazuko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2004-11-01

    A simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human hair was established. In the procedure, a hair sample (10 mg) was washed with dichloromethane and digested in 2.5 M sodium hydroxide. The digest was extracted with dichloromethane and then 25 mM hydrochloric acid in methanol was added to the extract, to prevent loss of analytes. The solution was evaporated and redissolved in the mobile phase, methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate (30/70, v/v). A 20 microL aliquot of redissolved solution was subjected to analysis. Nicotine and cotinine in human hair were quantified by using deuterated analytes as internal standards. The quantification limits were 8 microg/L for nicotine and 0.9 microg/L for cotinine. The proposed method was applied to measure the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in hair of smokers and non-smokers to evaluate their self-reported smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In both cases, the method provided good selectivity, accuracy and precision.

  2. [The assesment of health status of adolescents exposed to tobacco smoke with cotinine as an exposure biomarker].

    PubMed

    Dziuda-Gorzkowska, Maria R; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Nowacka, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the health status of adolescents exposed to tobacco smoke. The questionnaire and internal examination covered 202 of Lodz high school students. The tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by cotinine measurement in urine with the HPLC method. The results indicate intensive passive and active exposure to tobacco smoke among the examined adolescents, which was reflected in the cotinine levels in urine, 30-40 times higher in smokers than in the remaining subjects. The active smokers more frequently manifested problems of respiratory nad neurovegetative systems, however there were no differences in the subjective study results as well as in the frequency rate of using health care services by the active smokers and the remaining subjects.

  3. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  4. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  5. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among infants in southern Thailand: a study of urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Anuntaseree, Wanaporn; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Tantana, Chanpa; Ma-a-Lee, Arinda

    2008-01-01

    We performed a survey to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 1-year-old infants in Thailand. Of the 725 infants, it was reported that 73.3% had household smoking and 40.7% had detectable urinary cotinine. Twenty-five infants (3.4%) had urinary cotinine in the range of adult heavy smokers. The prevalence of ETS exposure was significantly higher in infants with a father whose education was < or = grade 6 than in those with father's education >6 years (44.0% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.039). Data on the exposure to ETS among infants will provide prevalence information and identify population subgroups at increased risk for exposure.

  6. Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

    2012-03-01

    In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS.

  7. Providing coaching and cotinine results to preteens to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hovell, Melbourne F; Wahlgren, Dennis R; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A; Hughes, Suzanne C; Matt, Georg E; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Swan, Gary E; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-09-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ≥ 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior.

  8. Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ≥ 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

  9. Cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco exposure: development of a HPLC method and comparison of matrices.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Guilherme Oliveira; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Chatkin, José Miguel; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco dependence reaches one-third of the world population, and is the second leading cause of death around the world. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is the most appropriate parameter to evaluate tobacco exposure and smoking status due to its higher stability and half-life when compared to nicotine. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a RP column (Zorbax XDB C(8)), isocratic pump (0.5 mL/min of water-methanol-sodium acetate (0.1 M)-ACN (50:15:25:10, v/v/v/v), 1.0 mL of citric acid (0.034 M) and 5.0 mL of triethylamine for each liter) and HPLC-UV detection (261 nm). The analytical procedure proved to be sensitive, selective, precise, accurate and linear (r>0.99) in the range of 5-500.0 ng/mL for cotinine. 2-Phenylimidazole was used as the internal standard. The LOD was 0.18 ng/mL and the LOQ was 5.0 ng/mL. All samples from smoking volunteers were collected simultaneously to establish a comparison between serum, plasma, and urine. The urinary cotinine levels were normalized by the creatinine and urine density. A significant correlation was found (p<0.01) between all matrices. Results indicate that the urine normalization by creatinine or density is unnecessary. This method is considered reliable for determining cotinine in serum and plasma of smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  10. Contingency management for smoking cessation: enhancing feasibility through use of immunoassay test strips measuring cotinine.

    PubMed

    Schepis, Ty S; Duhig, Amy M; Liss, Thomas; McFetridge, Amanda; Wu, Ran; Cavallo, Dana A; Dahl, Tricia; Jatlow, Peter; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a powerful behavioral intervention shown to reduce the use of a variety of substances including tobacco. Use of CM techniques for smoking cessation has been restricted by the use of multiple daily measurements of breath CO as the objective indicator to reinforce abstinence. Cotinine, with its longer half-life, may be a better marker. We evaluated the use of urinary cotinine (determined using once-daily semiquantitative immunoassay test strips and verified using quantitative GC/HPLC techniques) as an abstinence indicator in treatment-seeking adult and adolescent smokers participating in a CM-based intervention program. Both techniques of determining urinary cotinine were highly sensitive and moderately specific at detecting abstinence, and they were highly concordant. However, specificity was somewhat lower during the first few days of a quit attempt and improved over time. The results were similar in adults and adolescent smokers, and suggest that during the first few days of a quit attempt it would be advisable to continue to use daily multiple CO measurements to verify abstinence. However, once abstinence is achieved, once-daily immunoassay test strips could be used for continued monitoring of urinary cotinine levels. Immunoassay testing can identify individuals who relapse to smoking, though this study cannot evaluate whether the strips can identify resumption of abstinence. These results suggest that the use of cotinine as an abstinence indicator, by reducing the number of daily appointments, could significantly enhance the feasibility and utility of CM-based interventions for smoking cessation.

  11. [Determination of urinary cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene and blood carboxyhemoglobine as the biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure].

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Wardas, Władysław; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The following biomarkers: cotinine, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) were used for the estimation of the tobacco smoke exposure. In our study urine and blood sampled from 98 volunteers were subjected to assessment of the biomarkers concentrations under investigation. According to the self-reports of the volunteers, all of the volunteers were divided into three groups: non-smokers, passive and active smokers. The mean values of the biomarker concentrations were calculated for these groups. In order to verify the tobacco smoke exposure specified by volunteers, we tested the real urinary cotinine amount. Based on obtained values of this biomarker, the another volunteer's partition into the groups of nonsmokers, passive and active smokers were done. The new mean values for all of these groups were calculated. The mean values obtained for both group partitions differed. The latter partition gave opportunity to use 1-OHP for the estimation of the tobacco smoke exposure not only for the active smokers but also for the passive smokers. When HbCO was taken into consideration as the biomarker, the estimation of the tobacco smoke exposure of the passive smokers was not significant different, as compared with the group of nonsmokers. The analysis of the correlation between the concentrations of 1-OHP and cotinine gave opportunity for the estimation to tobacco smoke exposure of the passive and active smokers. The estimation of the correlation, between the HbCO and cotinine concentrations was restricted for this purpose.

  12. Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with in utero exposure to cotinine and perfluorinated alkyl compounds

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Lynn R; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Ili-Gangas, Carmen; LeBron, Cynthia; Hernandez-Arroyo, Mireya; Witter, Frank R; Apelberg, Ben J; Roystacher, Marina; Jaffe, Andrew; Halden, Rolf U; Sidransky, David

    2010-01-01

    Environmental exposures in utero may alter the epigenome, thus impacting chromosomal stability and gene expression. We hypothesized that in utero exposures to maternal smoking and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are associated with global DNA hypomethylation in umbilical cord serum. Our objective was to determine if global DNA methylation could be used as a biomarker of in utero exposures to maternal smoking and PFCs. Using an ELISA-based method, global DNA methylation was quantified in umbilical cord serum from 30 newborns with high (>10 ng/ml, mean 123.8 ng/ml), low (range 1–10 ng/ml, mean 1.6 ng/ml) and very low (<1 ng/ml, mean 0.06 ng/ml) cord serum cotinine levels. Y chromosome analysis was performed to rule out maternal DNA cross-contamination. Cord serum global DNA methylation showed an inverse dose response to serum cotinine levels (p < 0.001). Global DNA methylation levels in cord blood were the lowest among newborns with smoking mothers (mean = 15.04%; 95% CI, 8.4, 21.7) when compared to babies of mothers who were second-hand smokers (21.1%; 95% CI, 16.6, 25.5) and non-smokers (mean = 29.2%; 95% CI, 20.1, 38.1). Global DNA methylation was inversely correlated with serum PFOA (r = -0.35, p = 0.06) but not PFOS levels. Serum Y chromosome analyses did not detect maternal DNA cross-contamination. This study supports the use of global DNA methylation status as a biomarker of in utero exposure to cigarette smoke and PFCs. PMID:20523118

  13. Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with in utero exposure to cotinine and perfluorinated alkyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Goldman, Lynn R; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Ili-Gangas, Carmen; Lebron, Cynthia; Witter, Frank R; Apelberg, Ben J; Hernández-Roystacher, Marina; Jaffe, Andrew; Halden, Rolf U; Sidransky, David

    2010-08-16

    Environmental exposures in-utero may alter the epigenome, thus impacting chromosomal stability and gene expression. We hypothesized that in utero exposures to maternal smoking and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are associated with global DNA hypomethylation in umbilical cord serum. Our objective was to determine if global DNA methylation could be used as a biomarker of in utero exposures to maternal smoking and PFCs. Using an ELISA-based method, global DNA methylation was quantified in umbilical cord serum from 30 newborns with high (> 10 ng/ml, mean 123.8 ng/ml), low (range 1-10 ng/ml, mean 1.6 ng/ml) and very low (< 1 ng/ml, mean 0.06 ng/ml) cord serum cotinine levels. Y chromosome analysis was performed to rule out maternal DNA cross-contamination. Cord serum global DNA methylation showed an inverse dose response to serum cotinine levels (p< 0.001). Global DNA methylation levels in cord blood were the lowest among newborns with smoking mothers (mean=15.04%; 95% CI, 8.4, 21.7) when compared to babies of mothers who were second-hand smokers (21.1%; 95% CI, 16.6, 25.5) and non-smokers (mean=29.2%; 95% CI, 20.1, 38.1). Global DNA methylation was inversely correlated with serum PFOA (r= -0.72, p < 0.01) but not PFOS levels. Serum Y chromosome analyses did not detect maternal DNA cross-contamination. This study supports the use of global DNA methylation status as a biomarker of in utero exposure to cigarette smoke and PFCs.

  14. Is the hair nicotine level a more accurate biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure than urine cotinine?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Delaimy, W; Crane, J; Woodward, A

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: The aim of this study was to compare the two biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); urine cotinine and hair nicotine, using questionnaires as the standard. Design: A cross sectional study of children consecutively admitted to hospital for lower respiratory illnesses during the period of the study. Settings: Three regional hospitals in the larger Wellington area, New Zealand. Participants: Children aged 3–27 months and admitted to the above hospitals during August 1997 to October 1998. A total of 322 children provided 297 hair samples and 158 urine samples. Main results: Hair nicotine levels were better able to discriminate the groups of children according to their household's smoking habits at home (no smokers, smoke only outside the home, smoke inside the house) than urine cotinine (Kruskall-Wallis; χ2=142.14, and χ2=49.5, respectively (p<0.0001)). Furthermore, hair nicotine levels were more strongly correlated with number of smokers in the house, and the number of cigarettes smoked by parents and other members of the child's households. Hair nicotine was better related to the questionnaire variables of smoking in a multivariate regression model (r2=0.55) than urine cotinine (r2=0.31). Conclusions: In this group of young children, hair nicotine was a more precise biomarker of exposure to ETS than urine cotinine levels, using questionnaire reports as the reference. Both biomarkers indicate that smoking outside the house limits ETS exposure of children but does not eliminate it. PMID:11801622

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.

    PubMed

    Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; P<0.002) and nicotine in house dust (r(s)=0.77; P<0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between lead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; P<0.001) and coarse dust (r(s)=0.57; P=0.02). Although, there was a tendency for a relation between nicotine and lead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma.

  16. Measurement of nicotine and cotinine in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Hale, Thomas W; Hackett, L Peter; Kristensen, Judith H; Ilett, Kenneth F

    2003-10-25

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human milk was developed using an extraction by liquid-liquid partition combined with back extraction into acid, and followed by reverse-phase chromatography with UV detection of analytes. The assay was linear up to 500 microg/l for both nicotine and cotinine. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) were <10% (25-500 microg/l) for both nicotine and cotinine. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 10 and 12 microg/l for nicotine and cotinine, respectively, while the limits of detection (LOD) were 8 and 10 microg/l for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The mean recoveries were 79-93% (range 25-500 microg/l) for nicotine and 78-89% (range 25-500 microg/l) for cotinine. The amount of fat in the milk did not affect the recovery. We found that this method was sensitive and reliable in measuring nicotine and cotinine concentrations in milk from a nursing mother who participated in a trial of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation.

  17. Cotinine antagonizes the behavioral effects of nicotine exposure in the planarian Girardia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Bach, Daniel J; Tenaglia, Matthew; Baker, Debra L; Deats, Sean; Montgomery, Erica; Pagán, Oné R

    2016-10-06

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs abused by humans. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that nicotine decreases motility and induces seizure-like behavior in planarians (pSLM, which are vigorous writhing and bending of the body) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nicotine also induces withdrawal-like behaviors in these worms. Cotinine is the major nicotine metabolite in humans, although it is not the final product of nicotine metabolism. Cotinine is mostly inactive in vertebrate nervous systems and is currently being explored as a molecule which possess most of nicotine's beneficial effects and few of its undesirable ones. It is not known whether cotinine is a product of nicotine metabolism in planarians. We found that cotinine by itself does not seem to elicit any behavioral effects in planarians up to a concentration of 1mM. We also show that cotinine antagonizes the aforementioned nicotine-induced motility decrease and also decreases the expression of nicotine-induced pSLMs in a concentration-dependent manner. Also cotinine prevents the manifestation of some of the withdrawal-like behaviors induced by nicotine in our experimental organism. Thus, we obtained evidence supporting that cotinine antagonizes nicotine in this planarian species. Possible explanations include competitive binding of both compounds at overlapping binding sites, at different nicotinic receptor subtypes, or maybe allosteric interactions.

  18. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  19. Self-reported smoking, serum cotinine, and blood DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Florath, Ines; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Epigenome-wide profiling of DNA methylation pattern with respect to tobacco smoking has given rise to a new measure of smoking exposure. We investigated the relationships of methylation markers with both cotinine, an established marker of internal smoking exposure, and self-reported smoking. Blood DNA methylation levels across the genome and serum cotinine were measured in 1000 older adults aged 50-75 years. Epigenome-wide scans were performed to identify methylation markers associated with cotinine. The inter-dose-response relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day, cotinine concentration, and DNA methylation were modeled by restricted cubic spline regression. Of 61 CpGs that passed the genome-wide significance threshold (p<1.13×10(-7)), 40 CpGs in 25 chromosomal regions were successfully replicated, showing 0.2-3% demethylation per 10ng/ml increases in cotinine. The strongest associations were observed for several loci at AHRR, F2RL3, 2q37.1, 6p21.33, and GFI1 that were previously identified to be related to self-reported smoking. One locus at RAB34 was newly discovered. Both cotinine and methylation markers exhibited non-linear relationships with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, where the highest rates of increase in cotinine and decreases in methylation were observed at low smoking intensity (1-15 cigarettes/day) and plateaued at high smoking intensity (>15-20 cigarettes/day). A clear linear relationship was observed between cotinine concentration and methylation level. Both cotinine and methylation markers showed similar accuracy in distinguishing current from never smoker, but only methylation markers distinguished former from never smoker with high accuracy. Our study corroborates and expands the list of smoking-associated DNA methylation markers. Methylation levels were linearly related to cotinine concentration and provided accurate measures for both current and past smoking exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection cotinine method adapted for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Mónica; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Huetos, Olga; Castaño, Argelia

    2014-06-01

    Smoking is considered to be one of the main risk factors for cancer and other diseases and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. As the anti-tobacco legislation implemented in Europe has reduced secondhand smoke exposure levels, analytical methods must be adapted to these new levels. Recent research has demonstrated that cotinine is the best overall discriminator when biomarkers are used to determine whether a person has ongoing exposure to tobacco smoke. This work proposes a sensitive, simple and low-cost method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with diode array detection for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure by cotinine determination in urine. The analytical procedure is simple and fast (20 min) when compared to other similar methods existing in the literature, and it is cheaper than the mass spectrometry techniques usually used to quantify levels in nonsmokers. We obtained a quantification limit of 12.30 μg/L and a recovery of over 90%. The linearity ranges used were 12-250 and 250-4000 μg/L. The method was successfully used to determine cotinine in urine samples collected from different volunteers and is clearly an alternative routine method that allows active and passive smokers to be distinguished.

  1. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, Seunghyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong Uk; Yoon, Jin Ha

    2017-04-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV-VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV–VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. PMID:28244280

  3. How home-smoking habits affect children: a cross-sectional study using urinary cotinine measurement in Italy.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Andreoli, Roberta; Manini, Paola; Vitali, Matteo

    2012-12-01

    To assess the impact of different home-smoking rules and smoking habits of cohabitant on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of children. Information about 396 Italian children (5-11 years old) and cohabitants' smoking habits was collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was performed by determination of urinary cotinine (u-cotinine). Median u-cotinine concentrations in children significantly increased in a similar fashion as theoretical ETS exposure increase: cohabitants do not smoke (1.79 μg/g creatinine), cohabitant(s) smoker(s) never smoke at home (2.84), smoke at home only when children are out (3.90), and smoke at home even if children are in (6.02). Median u-cotinine levels of exposed children were associated to the strength of cohabitant's smoking behaviours when smoker(s) consume daily a high number of cigarettes (≥ 20) respect to light consumption (1-9) (4.52 and 3.24 μg/g creatinine). The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with smoking habits and home-smoking precautions adopted by their cohabitants. Educational interventions on parents are essential to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to teach correct behaviours to protect health of kids, especially in household environment.

  4. Second-hand smoke exposure in 4-year-old children in Spain: Sources, associated factors and urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Guxens, Mònica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-01

    Second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) in children remains as a major pollution problem, with important consequences for children's health. This study aimed to identify the sources of exposure to SHS among 4-year-old children, comparing self-reports to a urinary biomarker of exposure, and characterize the most important variables related to SHS exposure in this population. 4-year-old children's exposure to SHS was assessed by a parental-reported questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) measurements in 1757 participants from 4 different areas of the Spanish INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente - Environment and Childhood) Project. The questionnaire about SHS included information about smoking habits at home by household members, and about exposure to SHS in other places including other homes, bars, restaurants or transportation. The association between quantified UC levels (>4ng/ml) and sociodemographic variables and the different sources of SHS exposure was examined using logistic regression. Based on parental reports, 21.6% of the children were exposed to SHS at home and 47.1% elsewhere; making a total 55.9% of the children exposed to SHS. In addition, 28.2% of the children whose parents reported being not regularly exposed to SHS had quantified UC values. Children from younger mothers (<34 vs. ≥39.4 y) had a higher odds of exposure to SHS [OR (95% CI): 2.28 (1.70-3.05) per year], as well as from families with a lower educational level [OR secondary: 2.12 (1.69-2.65); primary or less: 2.91 (2.19-3.88)]. The odds of quantifiable UC in children dropped after the smoking ban in public places [OR=0.59 (0.42-0.83)]. Regarding the sources of SHS exposure we observed that quantifiable UC odds was increased in children whose parents smoked at home in their presence [OR mother occasionally: 13.39 (7.03-25.50); mother often: 18.48 (8.40-40.66); father occasionally: 10.98 (6.52-18.49); father often: 11.50 (5.96-22.20)] or in children attending other confined places, mainly other

  5. A simple, fast, and sensitive method for the measurement of serum nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Kosewick, Justin; Wang, Sihe

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of nicotine and its metabolites has been used to monitor tobacco use. A high-sensitivity method (<1 ng/mL) is necessary for the measurement in serum or plasma to differentiate nonsmokers from passive smokers. Here, we report a novel LC-MS/MS method to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine in serum with high sensitivity. Sample preparation involved only protein precipitation, followed by online turbulent flow extraction and analysis on a porous graphitic carbon column in alkaline conditions. The chromatography time was 4 min. No significant matrix effects or interference were observed. The lower limit of quantification was 0.36, 0.32, and 0.38 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine, respectively, while accuracy was 91.6-117.1%. No carryover was observed up to a concentration of 48 , 550, and 48 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine, respectively. Total CV was <6.5%. The measurement of nicotine and cotinine was compared with an independent LC-MS/MS method and concordant results were obtained. In conclusion, this new method was simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate. It was validated to measure nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine in serum for monitoring tobacco use.

  6. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. A Randomized Trial of Parental Behavioral Counseling and Cotinine Feedback for Lowering Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Harold J.; Knowles, Sarah B.; Lavori, Philip W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure impairs the control of pediatric asthma. Evidence of the efficacy of interventions to reduce children’s exposure and improve disease outcomes has been inconclusive. Methods: Caregivers of 519 children aged 3 to 12 years with asthma and reported smoke exposure attended two baseline assessment visits, which involved a parent interview, sampling of the children’s urine (for cotinine assay), and spirometry (children ≥ 5 years). The caregivers and children (n = 352) with significant documented exposure (cotinine ≥ 10 ng/mL) attended a basic asthma education session, provided a third urine sample, and were randomized to the Lowering Environmental Tobacco Smoke: LET’S Manage Asthma (LET’S) intervention (n = 178) or usual care (n = 174). LET’S included three in-person, stage-of-change-based counseling sessions plus three follow-up phone calls. Cotinine feedback was given at each in-person session. Follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months postrandomization repeated the baseline data collection. Multivariate regression analyses estimated the intervention effect on the natural logarithm of the cotinine to creatinine ratio (lnCCR), use of health-care services, and other outcomes. Results: In the sample overall, the children in the LET’S intervention had lower follow-up lnCCR values compared with the children in usual care, but the group difference was not significant (β coefficient = −0.307, P = .064), and there was no group difference in the odds of having > one asthma-related medical visit (β coefficient = 0.035, P = .78). However, children with high-risk asthma had statistically lower follow-up lnCCR values compared with children in usual care (β coefficient = −1.068, P = .006). Conclusions: The LET’S intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in tobacco smoke exposure or use of health-care services in the sample as a whole. However, it appeared effective in reducing exposure

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  9. Tolerance for and potential indicators of second-hand smoke exposure among nonsmokers: a comparison of self-reported and cotinine verified second-hand smoke exposure based on nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bo Yoon; Lim, Min Kyung; Yun, E Hwa; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Park, Eun Young; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the extent to which self-reported exposure to SHS underestimates the actual exposure to SHS and what factors are associated with a tolerance for SHS exposure in the Korean setting where the smoke-free policy is incomplete. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol drinking and smoking was collected for 7948 nonsmokers aged ≥ 19 years from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Self-reported and cotinine verified SHS exposures were compared. Potential factors associated with cotinine verified but not self-reported SHS exposures were assessed using a logistic regression model. Self-reported SHS exposure significantly underestimated the actual SHS exposure as determined by cotinine verification (kappa coefficient: 0.1066). At younger age, frequent alcohol drinking in females and a longer smoking duration in males were positively associated with cotinine verified exposure but not with the self-reported SHS exposure; they were also positively associated with cotinine verified exposure irrespective of self-reported SHS exposure. Our findings show a tolerance for smoking in Korea. The current partial ban on smoking does not fully protect people from exposure to SHS. Smoking should be banned in all public places. In addition, efforts to de-normalize smoking in the Korean culture need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Application of the immunoassay for determination of cotinine in the urine].

    PubMed

    Stanek, Artur; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Anholcer, Andrzej; Chuchracki, Marek; Gomołka, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Kedziora, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Verification of the results of questionnaire studies of exposure to tobacco smoke require determination of the biomarkers in body fluids. For performing such measurements the fast and simple method is needed. The aim of this study was to estimate usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in routine cotinine determination in urine of active smokers and compare it with reference high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the study participated 15 non smoking and 15 smoking women. In the urine of tese women cotinine concentration of cotinine was measured by the means of HPLC and ELISA methods. The ELISA method, used in quantity measurement of cotinine in urine, is of great accuracy, sensitivity and specificity which were proved by comparison with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) reference method. Number of false positive and false negative results obtained by ELISA method did not exceed 10%. A high correlation coefficient, r=0.9056, between results of determining cotinine in urine by means of ELISA and HPLC methods, confirmed the utility of ELISA method to estimate the tobacco smoke exposure. The differences in cotinine concentration values obtained by ELISA and HPLC methods did not depend on cotinine concentrations in the urine samples. Although numerous advantages of ELISA method used to detect and determine cotinine, it should be taken into consideration that results might be overestimated and cross-reactivity with other xenobiotics present in urine must be concern.

  11. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  12. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

  13. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  14. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Cotinine Level in Tobacco Users: A Review.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mitali; Garg, Aarti; Yadav, Pramod; Jha, Kunal; Handa, Sahil

    2016-03-01

    The greatest disease-producing product known to man is tobacco. It is a cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. In India, tobacco is available in smokeless and smoking form. Tobacco contains nicotine which metabolises to form a toxic alkaloid i.e. cotinine. It stimulates autonomic ganglia and central nervous system. Cotinine is the best indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. Various methods are used to measure cotinine level in blood, saliva and urine such as high performance liquid chromatography, colorimetric assay, gas chromatography, NicAlert saliva test, etc. Thus such wide range of methods for cotinine detection in tobacco users requires a detailed discussion regarding their utility. This review will help readers to compare various methods for cotinine detection and enable them to make scientifically informative decision.

  15. Antepartum fetal and maternal carboxyhemoglobin and cotinine levels among cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hayde, M; Bernaschek, G; Stevenson, D K; Knight, G J; Haddow, J E; Widness, J A

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and plasma cotinine levels among pregnant women who smoke cigarettes and their fetuses. Fifteen pregnant women who smoked and their fetuses undergoing cordocentesis had blood samples analysed simultaneously for COHb and cotinine. Linear regression was used to test for associations among study variables. Significant maternal-fetal associations were observed both with COHb (r = 0.72, p = 0.003) and with cotinine (r = 0.96, p = 0.003). Maternal cotinine levels were correlated with maternal and fetal COHb levels (r = 0.96, p = 0.003; r = 0.99, p = 0.0003, respectively). Fetal cotinine levels were correlated with COHb in maternal and in fetal blood (r = 0.81, p = 0.0003; r = 0.88, p<0.0001, respectively). The strong direct associations of maternal and fetal levels of COHb and cotinine indicate that maternal COHb and cotinine measurements may be interpreted as surrogates of fetal COHb levels. However, the specificity, ex vivo stability and ease of measurement of cotinine offer advantages over using COHb in quantifying fetal CO exposure following maternal cigarette smoking.

  16. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-03

    A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  17. Cotinine concentrations in semen, urine, and blood of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Vine, M F; Hulka, B S; Margolin, B H; Truong, Y K; Hu, P C; Schramm, M M; Griffith, J D; McCann, M; Everson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine levels in the semen, urine, and blood of 88 male smokers and nonsmokers, aged 18 to 35, were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Detectable cotinine levels were found in all three body fluids, and cotinine levels in all three fluids were highly correlated. Cotinine levels in semen and blood were of similar magnitude; cotinine levels in urine were an order of magnitude or more higher. In all three fluids, cotinine levels increased with an increase in cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:8363014

  18. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  19. The role of air nicotine in explaining racial differences in cotinine among tobacco-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen E; Kahn, Robert S; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2007-03-01

    African-American children have higher rates of tobacco-associated morbidity. Few studies have objectively measured racial differences in the exposure of children to tobacco smoke. The objective of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of cotinine compared to white children while accounting for ambient measures of tobacco smoke. Community-based sample of asthmatic children (n = 220) enrolled in an environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reduction trial. A biracial sample (55% African American) of children with asthma aged 5 to 12 years who were routinely exposed to ETS. We measured cotinine levels in serum and hair samples at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We measured the level of ETS exposure over a 6-month period by placing air nicotine dosimeters in the homes of the children at baseline and at 6-month study visits. African-American children had significantly higher levels of cotinine at all time points in the study. At the 12-month visit, African-American children had higher levels of serum cotinine (1.39 mug/dL vs 0.80 mug/dL, p = 0.001) and hair cotinine (0.28 ng/mg vs 0.08 ng/mg, p < 0.0001) when compared with white children. In a repeated-measures analysis, African-American children had significantly higher levels of serum cotinine (beta = 0.28, p = 0.04) and hair cotinine (beta = 1.40, p < 0.0001) compared with white children. Air nicotine levels and housing volume were independently associated with higher levels of cotinine. Among children with asthma, African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine compared with white children.

  20. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    PubMed

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals.

  1. Time course of nicotine and cotinine incorporation into samples of nonsmokers' beard hair following a single dose of nicotine polacrilex.

    PubMed

    Bernert, John T; Alexander, Joseph R; Sosnoff, Connie S; McGuffey, James E

    2011-01-01

    Hair nicotine and cotinine have been proposed as longer-term markers of exposure to secondhand smoke. In this study, we evaluated the rate and extent of nicotine and cotinine deposition into beard hair among six male nonsmokers following a single exposure to 4 mg of nicotine in Nicorette(®) (nicotine polacrilex) gum. We collected beard hair samples daily for 12 days following exposure and urine samples for 6 days after exposure. Using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, we found that both nicotine and cotinine could be detected in beard samples within 24 h of the exposure and reached a maximum of about 71 pg nicotine and 47 pg cotinine/mg hair, respectively, within 1-2 days, followed by a gradual decline. Compared to beard hair concentrations, nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine were excreted in urine at much higher levels and also peaked on the day after exposure (mean ± SD urine cotinine = 300 ± 183 ng/mL). Our results confirmed that both nicotine and cotinine can be measured in beard hair samples following a single dose of nicotine. However, both the time-course and extent of deposition of these analytes in beard hair in this study differed from the results reported previously from a similar evaluation.

  2. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mørck, Thit A.; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N.; Siersma, Volkert D.; Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K.; Skaanild, Mette T.; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Esteban, Marta; and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  3. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in meconium from Greek neonates and correlation with birth weight and gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Tsinisizeli, Nikoleta; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Xenakis, Aristotelis; Lykeridou, Katerina E

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is a major factor of morbidity and mortality for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Several studies in the past have detected and quantified tobacco smoke biomarkers in infant meconium samples. Aim of this study was to measure prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by detecting nicotine and cotinine in meconium and to try to evaluate the extent of exposure to smoke through passive smoking as well as the relationship between tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes. Tobacco smoke biomarkers nicotine and cotinine were detected and quantitated in meconium from tobacco exposed and non-exposed Greek neonates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study included 45 neonates from active, passive and non-smoking women during pregnancy. The results showed significant values of nicotine and cotinine concentration in neonates from both active and passive smokers which reached 125 ng g(-1) for nicotine and 98.5 ng g(-1) for cotinine and varied according to the type and level of exposure. In general nicotine and cotinine concentrations correlated with the degree of active smoking by the mother. Similarly, nicotine and cotinine were measured in the meconium of infants of passive smokers at concentrations comparable to those of infants whose mothers were moderate smokers. Our findings show that exposure of the fetus to tobacco biomarkers can be substantial even in passive maternal smoking and there is a statistically significant negative correlation between nicotine or cotinine concentrations in meconium and birth weight or gestational age at birth.

  4. [Cotinine in urine of mother and their newborn and in cord serum and placenta as a biomarker of foetal exposure to tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Basior, Aneta; Wolna, Małgorzata; Hubert, Agnieszka; Seńczuk, Monika

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, tobacco smoking by women in a procreational age as well as the pregnant women is a common phenomenon. The aim of the conducted research was to assess the usefulness of cotinine markers in different biological materials--mother and newborn's urine, cord blood se. rum, placenta--as a biomarker of tobacco smoking by delivering women, and dependence between these biomarkers and the newborn's health state. 218 pregnant women (117 smokers and 101 non-smokers), who were checked in at the Perinatology and Gynecology Clinic of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, took part in the first stage of the research (period between the twelfth and sixteenth week of pregnancy) carried out between years 2004-2006. In the second stage, 201 pairs of women (89 smokers and 112 non-smokers) and their newborns were checked after the women came to hospital to deliver. The research that was conducted showed that both cotinine in the urine of delivering women and in the urine of newborns as well as in the cord blood serum may be used as a biomarker of exposure of a foetus to tobacco smoke. For practical reasons, it must be assumed that the delivering women urine should be the material from choice. The research did not indicate the usefulness of the determination of cotinine in the placenta, in order to assess the exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke. On the other hand, again it confirmed the influence of tobacco smoking on the newborn's birth parameters, a correlation between the birth weight, body length and cotinine concentration in the urine of a mother makes it possible to predict the lowering of the antropometric parameters of the newborn as a result of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, M; Evans, D S; Hammond, S K; Repace, J L; Byrne, M

    2005-12-01

    To investigate whether the Irish smoking ban has had an impact on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures for hospitality workers. Before and after the smoking ban a cohort of workers (n = 35) from a sample of city hotels (n = 15) were tested for saliva cotinine concentrations and completed questionnaires. Additionally, a random sample (n = 20) of city centre bars stratified by size (range 400-5000 square feet), were tested for air nicotine concentrations using passive samplers before and after the ban. Salivary cotinine concentrations (ng/ml), duration of self reported exposures to secondhand smoke, air nicotine (microg/cubic metre). Cotinine concentrations reduced by 69%, from 1.6 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml median (SD 1.29; p < 0.005). Overall 74% of subjects experienced decreases (range 16-99%), with 60% showing a halving of exposure levels at follow up. Self reported exposure to SHS at work showed a significant reduction from a median 30 hours a week to zero (p < 0.001). There was an 83% reduction in air nicotine concentrations from median 35.5 microg/m3 to 5.95 microg/m3 (p < 0.001). At baseline, three bars (16%) were below the 6.8 microg/m3 air nicotine significant risk level for lung cancer alone; at follow up this increased to 10 (53%). Passive smoking and associated risks were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated. Exposure to SHS is still possible for those working where smoking is still allowed and those working where smoke may migrate from outdoor areas. Further research is required to assess the true extent and magnitude of these exposures.

  6. Simultaneous serum nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine quantitation with minimal sample volume for tobacco exposure status of solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Wang, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites in blood are indicative of patients' current tobacco exposure, and their quantifications have been clinically applied to multiple assessments including demonstration of abstinence prior to heart-lung transplantation. For the purpose of transplant evaluation, the laboratory work up is extensive; thereby an assay with minimal sample volume is preferred. We developed and validated a rapid LC-MS/MS assay to simultaneously quantitate nicotine and its major metabolites, Cotinine and trans-3'-OH-cotinine (3-OH-Cot), in serum. 100μL of serum was spiked with deuterated internal standards and extracted by Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. Nicotine and metabolites in the reconstituted serum extract were separated by Agilent Eclipse XDB-C8 3.5μm 2.1mm×50mm HPLC column within 4.7min, and quantified by MS/MS with positive mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Ion suppression was insignificant, and extraction efficiency was 79-110% at 50ng/mL for all compounds. Limit of detection was 1.0ng/mL for nicotine and 3-OH-Cot, and <0.5ng/mL for Cotinine. Linearity ranges for nicotine, cotinine and 3-OH-Cot were 2-100, 2-1000, and 5-1000ng/mL with recoveries of 86-115%. Within-day and twenty-day imprecision at nicotine/cotinine/3-OH-Cot levels of 22/150/90, 37/250/150, and 50/800/500ng/mL were all 1.1-6.5%. The reconstituted serum extracts were stable for at least 7 days stored in the HPLC autosampler at 5°C. Our method correlates well with alternative LC-MS/MS methods. We successfully developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay to quantitate concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites in serum with minimal sample volume to assess tobacco exposure of heart-lung transplant patients.

  7. Cotinine exposure increases Fallopian tube PROKR1 expression via nicotinic AChRalpha-7: a potential mechanism explaining the link between smoking and tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julie L V; Oliver, Elizabeth; Lee, Kai-Fai; Entrican, Gary; Jabbour, Henry N; Critchley, Hilary O D; Horne, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, its etiology is uncertain. In EP, embryo retention within the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to be due to impaired smooth muscle contractility (SMC) and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. Smoking is a major risk factor for EP. FTs from women with EP exhibit altered prokineticin receptor-1 (PROKR1) expression, the receptor for prokineticins (PROK). PROK1 is angiogenic, regulates SMC, and is involved in intrauterine implantation. We hypothesized that smoking predisposes women to EP by altering tubal PROKR1 expression. Sera/FT were collected at hysterectomy (n=21). Serum levels of the smoking metabolite, cotinine, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FTs were analyzed by q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting for expression of PROKR1 and the predicted cotinine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α-7 (AChRα-7). FT explants (n=4) and oviductal epithelial cells (cell line OE-E6/E7) were treated with cotinine and an nAChRα-7 antagonist. PROKR1 transcription was higher in FTs from smokers (P<0.01). nAChRα-7 expression was demonstrated in FT epithelium. Cotinine treatment of FT explants and OE-E6/E7 cells increased PROKR1 expression (P<0.05), which was negated by cotreatment with nAChRα-7 antagonist. Smoking targets human FTs via nAChRα-7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to EP.

  8. Relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and urinary cotinine levels in passive smokers at their residence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lim, Youngwook; Lee, Seokju; Park, Soungeun; Kim, Changsoo; Hong, Cheinsoo; Shin, Dongchun

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using measured air concentrations are subject to bias. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite detected in urine, has been recommended as a quantitative measure of nicotine intake and thus as a marker for ETS exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to correlate home indoor ETS levels with passive smokers' urinary cotinine levels. The urinary cotinine concentrations of 57 non-smoking women who spend >19 h a day at home and the nicotine levels in their living room air were measured over a period of 24 h. Nicotine and urinary cotinine levels were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC/UV, respectively. In addition, information was collected regarding the smoking habits of the subjects' families. A significant correlation was found between the nicotine levels in indoor air and the urinary cotinine to creatinine ratio of the passive smokers. The smoking habits of the subjects' family members were also correlated to the urinary cotinine levels of the passive smokers.

  9. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J; Jenkins, Roger A; Counts, Richard Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  10. A randomized trial of parental behavioral counseling and cotinine feedback for lowering environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children with asthma: results of the LET'S Manage Asthma trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sandra R; Farber, Harold J; Knowles, Sarah B; Lavori, Philip W

    2011-03-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure impairs the control of pediatric asthma. Evidence of the efficacy of interventions to reduce children's exposure and improve disease outcomes has been inconclusive. Caregivers of 519 children aged 3 to 12 years with asthma and reported smoke exposure attended two baseline assessment visits, which involved a parent interview, sampling of the children's urine (for cotinine assay), and spirometry (children≥5 years). The caregivers and children (n=352) with significant documented exposure (cotinine≥10 ng/mL) attended a basic asthma education session, provided a third urine sample, and were randomized to the Lowering Environmental Tobacco Smoke: LET'S Manage Asthma (LET'S) intervention (n=178) or usual care (n=174). LET'S included three in-person, stage-of-change-based counseling sessions plus three follow-up phone calls. Cotinine feedback was given at each in-person session. Follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months postrandomization repeated the baseline data collection. Multivariate regression analyses estimated the intervention effect on the natural logarithm of the cotinine to creatinine ratio (lnCCR), use of health-care services, and other outcomes. In the sample overall, the children in the LET'S intervention had lower follow-up lnCCR values compared with the children in usual care, but the group difference was not significant (β coefficient=-0.307, P=.064), and there was no group difference in the odds of having>one asthma-related medical visit (β coefficient=0.035, P=.78). However, children with high-risk asthma had statistically lower follow-up lnCCR values compared with children in usual care (β coefficient=-1.068, P=.006). The LET'S intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in tobacco smoke exposure or use of health-care services in the sample as a whole. However, it appeared effective in reducing exposure in children at high risk for subsequent exacerbations. ClinicialTrials.gov; No.: NCT

  11. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in the hair of hospitality workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Dimich-Ward, H; Gee, H; Brauer, M; Leung, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if hair nicotine and cotinine levels reflect relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in subjects who worked in the hospitality industry, where public smoking was permitted. Hair samples from 26 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry techniques for nicotine and cotinine. An exposure gradient was shown for nicotine but not cotinine. Among nonsmokers, those working in bars where there are no public smoking restrictions had the highest hair nicotine levels, which were close to levels found in smokers. Nicotine measured in hair is useful as a biological marker for exposure to ETS from multiple sources. Bar workers in particular are exposed to high levels of ETS, which may adversely affect the health of nonsmokers.

  12. Validation of self-reported smokeless tobacco use by measurement of serum cotinine concentration among US adults.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A

    2014-10-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ≥18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003-2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non-tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity=97.0%, specificity=93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL.

  13. Validation of Self-Reported Smokeless Tobacco Use by Measurement of Serum Cotinine Concentration Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ≥18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003–2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non–tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity = 97.0%, specificity = 93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL. PMID:25125690

  14. Lung function and exposure to workplace second-hand smoke during exemptions from smoking ban legislation: an exposure-response relationship based on indoor PM2.5 and urinary cotinine levels.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Repace, James; So, Ching; Lu, Qiu-Ying; McGhee, Sarah M; Fielding, Richard; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The effects of workplace second-hand smoke (SHS) on lung function remain uncertain because of a lack of objective measures for SHS exposures. To determine whether an exposure-response association exists between lung function and two different markers of SHS based on indoor fine particulate (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine levels in non-smoking catering workers. A cross-sectional study during a 1.5-year exemption of licensed catering premises from smoke-free legislation. Participants 186 non-smoking catering workers aged 18-65 years in Hong Kong were recruited. A declared non-smoking status was accepted in workers with exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels <6 ppm and urinary cotinine levels <100 ng/ml. Lung function measures of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1) in litres), forced vital capacity (FVC in litres) and forced expiratory flow as 25-75% of FVC (FEF(25-75) in l/s) were recorded. Indoor fine particulate (PM(2.5)) concentrations were 4.4 times as high in smoking premises (267.9 μg/m(3)) than in non-smoking premises (60.3 μg/m(3)) and were strongly associated with the probability of permitted smoking (R(2)=0.99). Smoking was the dominant source of particulates (R(2)=0.66). Compared with workers exposed to the lowest indoor PM(2.5) stratum (<25 μg/m(3)), lung function was lower in the three higher PM(2.5) strata (25-75, 75-175, >175 μg/m(3)) with FEV(1) -0.072 (95% CI -0.123 to -0.021), -0.078 (95% CI -0.132 to -0.024), -0.101 (95% CI -0.187 to -0.014); FEF(25-75) -0.368 (95% CI -0.660 to -0.077), -0.489 (95% CI -0.799 to -0.179), -0.597 (95% CI -0.943 to -0.251); and FEV(1)/FVC (%) -2.9 (95% CI -4.8 to -1.0), -3.2 (95% CI -5.1 to -1.4) and -4.4 (95% CI -7.4 to -1.3), respectively. Urinary cotinine was associated positively with indoor PM(2.5) but negatively with lung function. Consistently lower values for lung function per unit increase of indoor PM(2.5) were found. Lung function is inversely associated with workplace SHS. Workplace exemptions and

  15. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E.; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A. Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana; and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  16. Serum cotinine levels and diabetes mellitus in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Elbaz, Hosam A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure evident by serum cotinine level, and diabetes mellitus in never smokers. Previous studies suggest that active tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with diabetes mellitus risk. However it is not clear if the low-level "background" ETS exposure is associated with diabetes among never smokers. We present evidence from five independent replications based on the US nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted 2003-12. Our exposure of interest is ETS exposure among never smokers, measured by serum cotinine levels (ng/mL), and our main outcome is diabetes mellitus assessed via self-reported physician-diagnosis, current use of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medications, plasma fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL or glycohemoglobin levels ≥6.5%. The conceptual model encompassed age, sex, ethnic self-identification, education, poverty-income ratio, alcohol drinking, total cholesterol and body mass index. In never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus (the meta-analytic summary estimate is 1.2, 95% CI=1.1, 1.2). This association was not evident among never smokers with cotinine levels below 3ng/mL. These replications help sustain evidence of ETS-diabetes mellitus association, which might be explained by shared psychosocial characteristics. Prospective studies with appropriate biomarkers are needed to further investigate this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Mark D; Balmes, John; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P; Hammond, S Katherine; Benowitz, Neal; Blanc, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL), and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9) and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7) after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054), disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063), and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p < 0.05), although the confidence intervals did not always exclude the no effect level. Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking. PMID:16756671

  18. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    Biomarkers are desirable for quantitating human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and for predicting potential health risks for exposed individuals. A number of biomarkers of ETS have been proposed. At present cotinine, measured in blood, saliva, or urine, appears to be the most specific and the most sensitive biomarker. In nonsmokers with significant exposure to ETS, cotinine levels in the body are derived primarily from tobacco smoke, can be measured with extremely high sensitivity, and reflect exposure to a variety of types of cigarettes independent of machine-determined yield. Under conditions of sustained exposure to ETS (i.e., over hours or days), cotinine levels reflect exposure to other components of ETS. Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers. Images Figure 1 PMID:10350520

  19. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  20. Error in smoking measures: effects of intervention on relations of cotinine and carbon monoxide to self-reported smoking. The Lung Health Study Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, R P; Connett, J E; Lauger, G G; Voelker, H T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Sources of measurement error in assessing smoking status are examined. METHODS. The Lung Health Study, a randomized trial in 10 clinical centers, includes 3923 participants in a smoking cessation program and 1964 usual care participants. Smoking at first annual follow-up was assessed by salivary cotinine, expired air carbon monoxide, and self-report. Each of these measures is known to contain some error. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by comparing a biochemical measure with self-report to produce an undifferentiated estimate of error. Classification error rates due to imprecision of the biochemical measures and to the error in self-report were estimated separately. RESULTS. For cotinine compared with self-report, the sensitivity was 99.0% and the specificity 91.5%. For carbon monoxide compared with self-report, the sensitivity was 93.7% and the specificity 87.2%. The classification error attributed to self-report, estimated by comparing the results from intervention and control groups, was associated with the responses of 3% and 5% of participants, indicating a small but significant bias toward a socially desirable response. CONCLUSIONS. In absolute terms in these data, both types of error were small. PMID:8363000

  1. Partner smoking and maternal cotinine during pregnancy: Implications for negative control methods☆

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E.; Davey Smith, George; Bares, Cristina B.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparison of the associations of maternal and mother's partner smoking with offspring outcomes is, in theory, a useful method for assessing whether there may be an intrauterine effect of tobacco exposure on these outcomes. However, this approach assumes that the effects of passive smoking from exposure to partner smoking during pregnancy are minimal. We evaluated this assumption using a biochemical measure of tobacco exposure in pregnant women. Methods Cotinine levels taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were measured in a sample of 3928 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Median cotinine values were compared across categories of smoking heaviness (cigarettes per day) of the women during the first trimester and in non-smoking women by the smoking heaviness of their partner. Results Cotinine levels were substantially higher in women who smoked compared to non-smokers (range of medians across smoking heaviness categories: 900–5362 ng/ml versus 20 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) (0–63) for non-smokers). In contrast, cotinine levels in non-smoking women were only very weakly related to partner smoking status (range of medians in women with smoking partners: 34–69 ng/ml versus 12 ng/ml, IQR (0–48) in women with non-smoking partners). Conclusions Levels of tobacco exposure from partner smoking, as assessed by cotinine, were low in non-smoking pregnant women. This suggests that using mother's partner's smoking as a negative control for investigating intrauterine effects is valid. PMID:24726428

  2. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that cotinine measurements may underestimate exposure of passive smokers to the lung carcinogen NNK in secondhand cigarette smoke. The total NNAL:total cotinine (× 103) ratio may provide an improved biomarker for evaluating the health effects of passive smoking. PMID:21812592

  3. A Comparison of Survey Measures and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes several adverse physical health outcomes. Conceptual differences in survey measures of 'psychosocial' (SHS exposure from smokers in an individual's life) and 'physical' (environments where an individual is exposed to SHS) SHS exposure exist. Few studies have examined the association between psychosocial and physical SHS exposures measures in comparison to biomarkers of SHS exposure. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was examined among a convenience sample of 20 adults. Data included survey items on SHS exposure and hair nicotine and saliva cotinine levels. Spearman analysis was used to assess correlations among variables. Medium and strong correlations were found among SHS exposure measures with the exception of saliva cotinine levels. Strong correlations were found among and between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. Hair nicotine levels had medium strength associations with only perceived frequency of SHS exposure. As psychosocial measures of exposure were associated with biomarkers, such measures (particularly perceived frequency of SHS exposure) should be added to surveys in addition to physical SHS exposure measures to enhance accuracy of SHS measurement. Future explorations with robust sample sizes should further examine the strength of relationship between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Passive smoking by self report and serum cotinine and the prevalence of respiratory and coronary heart disease in the Scottish heart health study.

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Brown, C A; Woodward, M; Tavendale, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To explore the relationship between self reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure (or passive smoking), the serum cotinine concentration, and evidence of respiratory or coronary disease in men and women who have never smoked. DESIGN--Cross sectional random population survey identifying disease markers and relating them to measures of passive smoking. Disease markers were previous medical diagnoses, response to standard symptom questionnaires, and electrocardiographic signs. SETTING--Samples of men and women aged 40-59 years drawn from general practitioner lists in 22 local government districts of Scotland, between 1984 and 1986. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 786 men and 1492 women who reported never having smoked tobacco, and who had serum cotinine concentrations below 17.5 ng/ml, the cut off point for smoking "deceivers", took part. RESULTS--Fewer than one third of never smokers reported no recent exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the same proportion had no detectable cotinine. Women had lower cotinine values than men but reported more exposure to smoke. The correlation between the measures of exposure was poor. Self-reported exposure showed strong, statistically significant, dose response relationships with respiratory symptoms and with the coronary disease markers. These relationships were weak or absent for serum cotinine, except for diagnosed coronary heart disease. Here the dose response gradient was as strong as that for self report, with an odds ratio of 2.7 (95% CI 1.3, 5.6) for the highest v the lowest exposure group, adjusted for age, housing tenure, total cholesterol, and blood pressure, and not explained by fibrinogen. CONCLUSIONS--The validity of different measures of tobacco smoke exposure needs further investigation. The gradient of diagnosed coronary heart disease with both self reported exposure and serum cotinine was, however, surprisingly strong, statistically significant, and unexplained by other factors. These

  5. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed.

  6. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  7. [The exposure to tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The exposition to tobacco smoke is overall: in home, work and public places. For the examination of the presence and concentration of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in indoor environments the nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are determined. A variety of biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, protein and DNA adducts) are propose for measurement of exposure to tobacco smoke. The most popular is measurement of cotinine concentration in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva). Plasma cotinine concentration correlated to numbers of cigarettes smoked and to various biological effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS. Other biomarkers as carboxyhemoglobin, thiocyanate, and amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adduct can be also use.

  8. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L; Aerts, D; Biot, P; Katsonouri, A; Cerna, M; Knudsen, L E; Castano, A; Rudnai, P; Gutleb, A; Ligocka, D; Lupsa, I-R; Berglund, M; Horvat, M; Halzlova, K; Schoeters, G; Koppen, G; Hadjipanayis, A; Krskova, A; Középesy, S; Arendt, M; Fischer, M E; Janasik, B; Gurzau, A E; Gurzau, E S; Grandér, M; Larsson, K; Jajcaj, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bartolome, M; Cutanda, F; Mazej, D; Nielsen, J K S; Snoj-Tratnik, J; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Seiwert, M; Govarts, E; Den Hond, E; Koch, H M; Lopez, A; Joas, A; Joas, R

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10-0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80-39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Cotinine and Chronic Pain: NHANES 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R Constance

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be the leading preventable risk factor for many diseases and has the potential to be a risk factor for chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of chronic pain with smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and non-smoking using serum cotinine (and self-report of living with someone who smokes in the home) to identify the tobacco exposure groups. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 was used for this study. Participants were queried about pain duration and had serum cotinine levels determined during the course of the NHANES examination/survey. Participants, ages 20 years and above, with complete data on chronic pain, cotinine level, sex, race/ethnicity, and responses concerning living with someone who smoked in the home were included in the study (n=4429). Results The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco smoke exposure on chronic pain was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.59; p=0.0220) for participants with a serum cotinine level >10 ng/mg (smokers) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. For individuals with a serum cotinine level >0.011 ng/mg to 10 ng/mg who identified as living with someone who smoked in the home, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.65; p=0.6785) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. Conclusion Chronic pain is a complex situation with many factors affecting it. Similarly, smoking is a complex addiction. The interplay of chronic pain and cotinine levels in this study were significant. PMID:26835515

  10. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

  11. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

  12. Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, M J; Mindell, J; Gilmore, A; Feyerabend, C; West, R

    2009-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of smoke-free homes in England between 1996 and 2007 and their impact on children's exposure to second-hand smoke via a series of annual cross-sectional surveys: the Health Survey for England. These comprised nationally representative samples of non-smoking children aged 4-15 (n = 13 365) and their parents interviewed in the home. Main outcome measures were cotinine measured in saliva, smoke-free homes defined by "no" response to "Does anyone smoke inside this house/flat on most days?", self-reported smoking status of parents and self-reported and cotinine validated smoking status in children. The proportion of homes where one parent was a smoker that were smoke free increased from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2007, and where both parents were smokers from 6% to 21%. The overwhelming majority of homes with non-smoking parents were smoke free (95% in 1996; 99% in 2007). For children with non-smoking parents and living in a smoke-free home the geometric mean cotinine across all years was 0.22 ng/ml. For children with one smoking parent geometric mean cotinine levels were 0.37 ng/ml when the home was smoke free and 1.67 ng/ml when there was smoking in the home; and for those with two smoking parents, 0.71 ng/ml and 2.46 ng/ml. There were strong trends across years for declines in cotinine concentrations in children in smoke-free homes for the children of smokers and non-smokers. There has been a marked secular trend towards smoke-free homes, even when parents themselves are smokers. Living in a smoke-free home offers children a considerable, but not complete, degree of protection against exposure to parental smoking.

  13. Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure measures during pregnancy in the development of a clinical prediction model for small-for-gestational-age among non-smoking Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ding, Peng; Liu, Tao; He, Yanhui; Lin, Jianmiao; Yuan, Shixin; Guo, Xiaoling; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA among 545 Chinese pregnant women, and then used the optimal SHS measure along with other clinically available factors to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA. We fit logistic regression models to predict SGA by single measures of SHS exposure (self-report, serum cotinine and CYP2A6*4) and different combinations (self-report+cotinine, cotinine+CYP2A6*4, self-report+CYP2A6*4 and self-report+cotinine+CYP2A6*4). We found that self-reported SHS exposure alone predicted SGA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), 0.578) better than the other two single measures (cotinine, 0.547; CYP2A6*4, 0.529) or as accurately as combined SHS measures (0.545-0.584). The final prediction model that contained self-reported SHS exposure, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain velocity during the second and third trimesters, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and the third-trimester biparietal diameter Z-score could predict SGA fairly accurately (AUROC, 0.698). Self-reported SHS exposure at peribirth performs better in predicting SGA than a single measure of serum cotinine at the same time, although repeated biochemical cotinine assessments throughout pregnancy may be optimal. Our simple prediction model is fairly accurate and can be potentially used in routine prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Association between urine cotinine levels, continuous performance test variables, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cho, S C; Hong, Y C; Kim, J W; Park, S; Park, M H; Hur, J; Park, E J; Hong, S B; Lee, J H; Shin, M S; Kim, B N; Yoo, H J; Cho, I H; Bhang, S Y; Hahn, S; Han, S K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children. In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and learning disability evaluation scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways. After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.

  15. Effect of mint drink on metabolism of nicotine as measured by nicotine to cotinine ratio in urine of Jordanian smoking volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Abdulrahman M; Salhab, Abdulazim S; Arafat, Tawfiq A; Irshaid, Yacoub M

    2011-08-01

    Variation in nicotine metabolism may be due to genetic alterations in CYP 2A6, environmental factors, and diet. The purpose of this research was to evaluate mint drink effect on nicotine metabolism as judged by nicotine/cotinine ratio in urine of Jordanian smokers. Twenty-four Jordanian smoker volunteers were allocated randomly into two groups. They either received mint drink 3 times a day for 1 week during the mint drink period or avoided menthol-containing products and mint drink for 1 week during the off-menthol period. One group treatment sequence was mint drink, off-menthol, while the other group treatment was off-menthol, mint drink. Early morning urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each period. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the nicotine and cotinine concentrations. Nicotine/cotinine ratio was calculated and compared among the different periods for each participant using the paired t test. All participants showed a consistent pattern of higher nicotine/cotinine ratios during mint drink compared with off-menthol periods, although to a variable extent. Mean nicotine/cotinine ratio during mint drink for all participants (1.327 ± 0.707) was higher than that during off-menthol (0.993 ± 0.547). Paired t test statistical analysis revealed a p < .0001. The mean difference in nicotine/cotinine ratio between the two periods was (-0.335), and the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference was (-0.451) - (-0.219). Mint drink increased nicotine/cotinine ratio in urine, suggesting a reduction in conversion of nicotine to cotinine.

  16. The detection of cotinine in hydrolyzed meconium samples.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D; Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-06-28

    To date, the screening of meconium for the determination of tobacco exposure in newborns has proven difficult. It was hypothesized that cotinine forms reversible Schiff base bonds with free amino functions on proteins, therefore, hydrolysis of meconium would be necessary for the detection of 'free' cotinine. One-hundred-and-two (102) meconium samples received into our laboratory were extracted using a routine non-hydrolysis screening procedure for drugs of abuse. Separate aliquots of the specimens were hydrolyzed and re-extracted according to the same procedure. The results of the two methods were compared using a highly specific cotinine micro-plate enzyme immunoassay procedure (EIA). Of the non-hydrolyzed samples, 33% were positive for cotinine, while 79% of the hydrolyzed samples were cotinine-positive. Common drugs of abuse did not interfere with the analysis. Micro-plate EIA provides a rapid, simple and reliable screening method for the determination of cotinine in meconium following hydrolysis and extraction. In general, the meconium specimens received into our laboratory are from newborns considered to be at risk for post-natal problems due to suspected drug and/or alcohol abuse during pregnancy.

  17. Chapter one: exposure measurements.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Engelbrecht, Johann P; Freeman, Natalie C G; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Jantunen, Matti; Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Saenz de Tejada, Sandra; Watson, John G; Wei, Fusheng; Wilson, William E; Yasuno, Mayayuki; Zhu, Tan

    2002-12-01

    Determining human exposure to suspended particulate concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these are typically measured with time-integrated samples on filters that are later submitted to laboratory analyses. This requires substantial sample handling, quality assurance, and data reduction. Newer technologies are being developed that allow in-situ, time-resolved measurements for mass, carbon, sulfate, nitrate, particle size, and other variables. These are large measurement systems that are more suitable for fixed monitoring sites than for personal applications. Human exposure studies need to be designed to accomplish specific objectives rather than to serve too many purposes. Resources need to be divided among study design, field sampling, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, data management, and data analysis phases. Many exposure projects allocated too little to the non-measurement activities.

  18. Association Between Genetic Variants on Chromosome 15q25 Locus and Objective Measures of Tobacco Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Maria N.; Morris, Richard W.; Prieto-Merino, David; Sattar, Naveed; Brennan, Paul; Johnstone, Elaine C.; Relton, Caroline; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Walther, Donna; Whincup, Peter H.; Casas, Juan P.; Uhl, George R.; Vineis, Paolo; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Jefferis, Barbara J.; Amuzu, Antoinette; Riboli, Elio; Upton, Mark N.; Aveyard, Paul; Ebrahim, Shah; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Watt, Graham; Palmer, Tom M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    Background Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1051730 and rs16969968, located within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q25 locus, are associated with heaviness of smoking, risk for lung cancer, and other smoking-related health outcomes. Previous studies have typically relied on self-reported smoking behavior, which may not fully capture interindividual variation in tobacco exposure. Methods We investigated the association of rs1051730 and rs16969968 genotype (referred to as rs1051730–rs16969968, because these are in perfect linkage disequilibrium and interchangeable) with both self-reported daily cigarette consumption and biochemically measured plasma or serum cotinine levels among cigarette smokers. Summary estimates and descriptive statistical data for 12 364 subjects were obtained from six independent studies, and 2932 smokers were included in the analyses. Linear regression was used to calculate the per-allele association of rs1051730–rs16969968 genotype with cigarette consumption and cotinine levels in current smokers for each study. Meta-analysis of per-allele associations was conducted using a random effects method. The likely resulting association between genotype and lung cancer risk was assessed using published data on the association between cotinine levels and lung cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Pooled per-allele associations showed that current smokers with one or two copies of the rs1051730–rs16969968 risk allele had increased self-reported cigarette consumption (mean increase in unadjusted number of cigarettes per day per allele = 1.0 cigarette, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57 to 1.43 cigarettes, P = 5.22 × 10−6) and cotinine levels (mean increase in unadjusted cotinine levels per allele = 138.72 nmol/L, 95% CI = 97.91 to 179.53 nmol/L, P = 2.71 × 10−11). The increase in cotinine levels indicated an increased risk of lung cancer with each additional copy of the rs

  19. Validation of students' self-reported cigarette smoking status with plasma cotinine levels.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C L; Eng, A; Botvin, G J; Hill, P; Wynder, E L

    1979-01-01

    Plasma cotinine levels were measured in 137 students (ages 14 to 17 years), as an independent validation of self-reported cigarette smoking status. Ninety-five per cent of the students who reported daily cigarette smoking had detectable cotinine levels. In contract, only 2 per cent of students who reported that they never smoke cigarettes had detectable levels of plasma cotinine. Results suggest that adolescents can report accurately on their smoking status if sufficient assurance of confidentiality is stressed. PMID:507259

  20. No increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in smokers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis P; Niopas, Ioannis; Kafantari, Anna; Kanaze, Feraz Imad; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Melissidis, Petros; Gamvrula, Katerina; Fokas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking cigarettes has repeatedly been found to be greater in schizophrenia as compared with other psychiatric patients and the general population. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to engage in heavy smoking and consumption of higher doses of nicotine, probably by deeper inhalation of cigarettes. The aim of the current study was to assess nicotine exposure through smoking by measuring urinary cotinine, the major nicotine metabolite, in a group of smokers from Greece of smokers with schizophrenia and smokers from the general population. Participants were current smokers and belonged to one of two groups: 35 patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy controls matched in age, education, and gender. The quantitative analysis of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, in urine samples was performed by a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Patients with schizophrenia who smoke presented a significantly larger time interval between last cigarette smoked and urine sample collection, as well as a significantly higher average number of cigarettes consumed daily than normal smokers. Urinary cotinine levels of patients with schizophrenia who smoke did not significantly differ from that of normal smokers when adjusted for average number of cigarettes per day and time interval between last cigarette smoked and urine collection. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia did not present higher nicotine exposure through smoking compared with smokers from the community. The pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of nicotine, as well as patient medications of the patients may explain our findings.

  1. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H; Olesen, Rasmus H; Larsen, Agnete; Ernst, Erik; Kelsey, Thomas W; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2017-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine - the primary metabolite of nicotine - were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24 maternal blood samples were obtained together with 34 placental samples and 108 foetal organs. PFASs and cotinine were assayed by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. In foetal organs, the average concentrations of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDa), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were 0.6ng/g, 0.2ng/g, 0.1ng/g, 0.1ng/g, and 0.1ng/g, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the exposure duration, defined as foetal age, and foetal to maternal ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108ng/g in placenta, and 61ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however, with different efficiencies. The concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDA in foetal organs were much lower than the maternal concentrations. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the exposure duration and all of the evaluated PFASs

  2. N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism increases cotinine levels in Caucasian children exposed to secondhand smoke: the CCAAPS birth cohort.

    PubMed

    LeMasters, G K; Khurana Hershey, G K; Sivaprasad, U; Martin, L J; Pilipenko, V; Ericksen, M B; Burkle, J W; Lindsey, M A; Bernstein, D I; Lockey, J E; Gareri, J; Lubetsky, A; Koren, G; Biagini Myers, J M

    2015-04-01

    Cotinine is a proxy for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Genetic variation along nicotine and cotinine metabolic pathways may alter the internal cotinine dose, leading to misinterpretations of exposure-health outcome associations. Caucasian children with available SHS exposure and hair cotinine data were genotyped for metabolism-related genes. SHS-exposed children had 2.4-fold higher hair cotinine (0.14±0.22 ng mg(-1)) than unexposed children (0.06±0.05 ng mg(-1), P<0.001). SHS-exposed children carrying the NAT1 minor allele had twofold higher hair cotinine (0.18 ng mg(-1) for heterozygotes and 0.17 ng mg(-1) for homozygotes) compared with major allele homozygotes (0.09 ng mg(-1), P=0.0009), even after adjustment for SHS dose. These findings support that NAT1 has a role in the metabolic pathway of nicotine/cotinine and/or their metabolites. The increased cotinine levels observed for those carrying the minor allele may lead to SHS exposure misclassification in studies utilizing cotinine as a biomarker. Additional studies are required to identify functional single-nucleotide polymorphism(s) (SNP(s)) in NAT1 and elucidate the biological consequences of the mutation(s).

  3. Determination of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, S; Stray-Pedersen, A; Olsen, L; Vege, A; Rognum, T O; Mørland, J; Christophersen, A S

    2009-05-01

    Cotinine is the main metabolite of nicotine and is used as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke. A method has been developed for quantification of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood collected from autopsy casework involving cases of infant death. Sample clean-up was achieved by solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode column. Cotinine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Positive ionization was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two transitions were monitored for the analyte and one for the internal standard, cotinine-d(3). The calibration range was 0.9-176 ng/mL for cotinine in both matrixes. The recovery of the analyte ranged from 86 to 92%, and the between-assay precisions ranged from 4 to 6% relative standard deviation. Whole blood and pericardial fluid samples from 95 infant deaths obtained during autopsy were analyzed. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was found between the cotinine concentrations in pericardial fluid and blood. The correlation was not affected by the postmortem time interval. This study demonstrates that pericardial fluid may be an alternative specimen to blood for quantification of cotinine in forensic autopsies.

  4. Chairside quantitative immunochromatographic evaluation of salivary cotinine and its correlation with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Surya, Chamarthi; Swamy, Devulapally Narasimha; Chakrapani, Swarna; Kumar, Surapaneni Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is an established and modifiable risk factor for periodontitis. Periodontitis appears to be dose-dependent on smoking. The purpose of this study was to assess a reliable marker of tobacco smoke exposure (salivary cotinine) chairside and to confirm the quantitative association between smoking and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 80 males, aged 30–60 years, with chronic periodontitis, were evaluated chairside using NicAlert™ cotinine test strips (NCTS). Patients were divided into two groups: A (cotinine negative) and B (cotinine positive). Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession (GR) were compared between the two groups and among the subjects of group B. Results: Comparison showed that the severity of PPD (P<0.001), CAL (P<0.001), and GR (P<0.001) was more in group B than in group A. Severity of all periodontal parameters increased with increased salivary cotinine among the subjects in group B. Conclusion: Quantitative direct association can be established between salivary cotinine and the severity of periodontitis. Immunochromatography-based cotinine test strips are a relatively easy method for quantification of salivary cotinine chairside. Immediate and personalized feedback from a chairside test can improve compliance, quit rates, and ease reinforcing smoking cessation. PMID:23492903

  5. Second-hand smoke, cotinine levels, and risk of circulatory mortality in a large cohort study of never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Neasham, David; Airoldi, Luisa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boeing, Heiner; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Arriola, Larraitz; Lund, Eiliv; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Melander, Olle; Hallmans, Goran; Riboli, Elio; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Exposure to second-hand smoke has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Our aim was to investigate the risk of circulatory death associated with exposure to second-hand smoke in never-smokers in a very large prospective study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A secondary aim was to use cotinine levels for cross-validating self-reported second-hand smoke exposure. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the risk of death due to circulatory causes associated with second-hand smoke exposure in 135,233 never-smokers. Exposure to second-hand smoke was assessed through a questionnaire at enrollment and then validated against plasma cotinine measurements in a subsample. Study participants who reported second-hand smoke exposure at home had higher cotinine levels (median plasma cotinine concentration in exposed = 0.82 microg/L; in those unexposed 0.02 microg/L). Second-hand smoke exposure at home was associated with an increased risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.90]), all circulatory diseases (1.28 [0.98-1.69]), and coronary heart disease (1.31 [0.83-2.08]) after adjustment for age, sex, education, physical activity, and body mass index. Dose-response relationships were observed between exposure to second-hand smoke at home and risk of circulatory death (HR per each additional hour/d = 1.25 [1.04-1.50]). Having a partner who smokes more than 30 cigarettes per day considerably increased the risk of a circulatory death (2.94 [1.11-7.78]). Second-hand smoke exposure at home was not associated with total mortality (1.03 [0.93-1.13]). Exposure to second-hand smoke at home (as confirmed by plasma cotinine levels) increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality.

  6. Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E

    2017-09-05

    This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p < 0.01), cotinine +3-hydroxycotinine levels, (0.0787 mol/L vs. 0.0675 mol/L, p = 0.01), puff volumes (52.95 mL vs. 44.77 mL, p < 0.01), and a lower nicotine metabolite ratio (0.396 vs. 0.475, p = 0.01) than women. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score did not differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, nicotine metabolite levels were not significantly different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.

  7. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1; p<.006 trial 2). These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  8. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations) and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%), cotinine (69%), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57%) in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants. PMID:20799929

  9. Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, A; Grgurinovich, N; Ryan, P

    1986-01-01

    The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg creatinine). A linear dose response relation between mother's smoking rate and infant urine cotinine level was observed among breast-fed infants (r = 0.79, p less than 0.001). The relation was weaker among infants fed by both breast and bottle (r = 0.56, p = 0.01) and was not apparent among bottle-fed infants (r = 0.15, p = 0.16). In addition to mode of feeding and mother's smoking rate, mother's smoking "hygiene" (assessed by the reported frequency of smoking while feeding and with infant in same room) was independently associated with infant urine cotinine level. Father's smoking pattern and exposure to smoke outside the household did not relate significantly to infant cotinine levels. We conclude that when mothers smoke, breast feeding is the principal determinant of cotinine in infants' urine. It is likely that most of this cotinine comes from cotinine in mothers' breast milk, but further research is needed to establish how much nicotine is ingested by breast-fed infants of mothers who smoke, and to investigate possible health effects. PMID:3655623

  10. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Denise B; Schaffran, Christine; Griesler, Pamela C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Davies, Mark; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-08-01

    The present study examined the extent and sources of discrepancies between self-reported cigarette smoking and salivary cotinine concentration among adolescents. The data are from household interviews with a cohort of 1,024 adolescents from an urban school system. Histories of tobacco use in the last 7 days and saliva samples were obtained. Logistic regressions identified correlates of three inconsistent patterns: (a) Pattern 1-self-reported nonsmoking among adolescents with cotinine concentration above the 11.4 ng/mg cutpoint (n = 176), (b) Pattern 2-low cotinine concentration (below cutpoint) among adolescents reporting having smoked within the last 3 days (n = 155), and (c) Pattern 3-high cotinine concentration (above cutpoint) among adolescents reporting not having smoked within the last 3 days (n = 869). Rates of inconsistency were high among smokers defined by cotinine levels or self-reports (Pattern 1 = 49.1%; Pattern 2 = 42.0%). Controlling for other covariates, we found that reports of nonsmoking among those with high cotinine (Pattern 1) were associated with younger age, having few friends smoking, little recent exposure to smokers, and being interviewed by the same interviewer as the parent and on the same day. Low cotinine concentration among self-reported smokers (Pattern 2) was negatively associated with older age, being African American, number of cigarettes smoked, depth of inhalation, and exposure to passive smoke but positively associated with less recent smoking and depressive symptoms. High cotinine concentrations among self-reported nonsmokers was positively associated with exposure to passive smoke (Pattern 3). The data are consonant with laboratory findings regarding ethnic differences in nicotine metabolism rate. The inverse relationship of cotinine concentration with depressive symptoms has not previously been reported. Depressed adolescent smokers may take in smaller doses of nicotine than nondepressed smokers; alternatively, depressed

  11. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea.

  12. Simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue using microdialysis coupled with liquid chromatography: pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Pi-Lo; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Tien, Jung-Hsiung; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2005-09-23

    To elucidate the disposition of nicotine in the brain is important because the neuropharmacological effects from nicotine exposure are centrally predominated. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of unbound nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue. We coupled a multiple sites microdialysis sampling technique with HPLC-UV system to characterize the pharmacokinetics of both nicotine and cotinine. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the jugular vein/right atrium and brain striatum of Sprague-Dawley rats, and nicotine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered via the femoral vein. Dialysates were collected every 10 min and injected directly into a HPLC system. Both nicotine and cotinine were separated by a phenyl-hexyl column (150 mm x 4.6 mm) from dialysates within 12 min. The mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-methanol-20 mM monosodium phosphate buffer (55:45:900, v/v/v, pH adjusted to 5.1) with a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the UV detector was set at 260 nm. The limit of quantification for nicotine and cotinine were 0.25 microg/ml and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of both measurements fell well within the predefined limits of acceptability. The blood and brain concentration-time profile of nicotine and cotinine suggests that nicotine is easily to get into the central nervous system and cotinine exhibits a long retention time and accumulates in blood.

  13. Determination of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine in meconium using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, J; Pochopień, G; Baranowska, I

    1998-04-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode-array detection for the determination of nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and caffeine, in meconium is described. This method is suitable to assess foetus exposure to tobacco smoke. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction before chromatography. From among 30 meconium samples 11 were positive for cotinine (20-86 ng/g) and 27 for caffeine (10-45 ng/g). No nicotine was present in the samples because of its rapid metabolism into cotinine.

  14. Trends in exposure to second hand smoke at home among children and nonsmoker adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-15

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012 were used to evaluate trends in exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) at home among children aged 3-11 years and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 12,815 children and 10,269 adolescents were included in the analyses. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker for exposure to SHS at home. Regression models with log10 transformed values of serum cotinine as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, NHANES survey year, and family poverty income ratio as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status were used in models for those with and without exposure to SHS at home. In addition, for those with exposure to SHS at home, number of smokers smoking inside home and number of cigarettes smoked at home every day were also used as independent variables. There was a biennial increase of 1.05 ng/L in adjusted serum cotinine levels for children with exposure to SHS at home over the period of 1999-2012. Serum cotinine levels among nonsmoker adolescents with exposure to SHS at home did not change over time. When there was no exposure to SHS at home, there was a statistically significant downward trend for serum cotinine levels for both children and nonsmoker adolescents. Serum cotinine levels attributable to SHS exposure increased with age among nonsmoker adolescents (p≤0.02) but decreased with age among children (p<0.01). For a unit decrease in family poverty income ratio, SHS exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels (Table 6) increased by 1.18 ng/L among children and by 1.30 ng/L among nonsmoker adolescents. In general, observed serum cotinine levels associated with SHS exposure at home were higher for children than they were for nonsmoker adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cotinine in Human Placenta Predicts Induction of Gene Expression in Fetal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Haley, Kathleen J.; Sharma, Sunita; Dai, Hongying; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Leeder, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain unknown due, in part, to the absence or unreliability of information regarding maternal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Our goal was to determine if placental cotinine could be a reliable biomarker of fetal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Cotinine levels were determined in placentas from 47 women who reported smoking during pregnancy and from 10 women who denied cigarette smoke exposure. Cotinine levels were significantly higher in placentas from women reporting cigarette smoking (median = 27.2 ng/g) versus women who reported no smoke exposure (2.3 ng/g, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified an optimal cut point of 7.5 ng/g (sensitivity = 78.7%, specificity = 100%) to classify placenta samples from mothers who smoked versus those from mothers who did not. Among 415 placentas for which maternal cigarette smoking status was unavailable, 167 had cotinine levels > 7.5 ng/g and would be considered positive for cigarette smoke exposure. Data from quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that in utero cigarette smoke exposure predicted by cotinine in placenta is associated with changes in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fetal tissues. CYP1A1 mRNA in fetal lung and liver tissue and CYP1B1 mRNA in fetal lung tissue were significantly induced when cotinine was detected in placenta. These findings indicate that cotinine in placenta is a reliable biomarker for fetal exposure and response to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. PMID:23209192

  16. CYP1A1 Ile462Val and GSTT1 modify the effect of cord blood cotinine on neurodevelopment at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Liao, Hua-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Su, Yi-Ning; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Yu, Shih-Ni; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2008-09-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported to be associated with children's neurobehavioral development but there was no studies investigating the genetic susceptibilities to maternal ETS exposure on children's neurodevelopment. The aim of the study was to explore the modification effect of metabolic gene polymorphisms to cord blood cotinine on children's neurodevelopment at the 2 years of age. This study is one investigation of the Taiwan Birth Panel Study and a total of 145 pregnant women and their neonates were recruited between April 2004 and January 2005. We interviewed them by a structured questionnaire after delivery and collected umbilical cord blood at birth. Cotinine in umbilical cord blood as an indicator of environmental tobacco smoke was analyzed by using HPLC-MS/MS and the detection limited of this method was 0.05ng/mL. Four metabolic genes, CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 Ile462Val, GSTT1 and GSTM1 were identified. The Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) was used for assessing children's neurodevelopment at the 2 years of age accompanying with the measurement of Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate the effects of cord blood cotinine and gene modification. Cotinine levels were significantly negatively associated with developmental quotients (DQs) of the whole test, and cognitive, language, fine-motor and social subtests of the CDIIT. Lower cognitive and language DQs were found in exposed group with absent type of GSTT1. In addition, the lowest scores in fine-motor and whole test DQs were detected in exposed group with CYP1A1 Ile462Val variant type and GSTT1 absent type. It can be concluded that CYP1A1 Ile462Val and GSTT1 metabolic genes can modify the effect of cord blood cotinine on early child neurodevelopment especially for language and fine motor development.

  17. [Concentration of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and its glucuronides in urine of smoking pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Kedziora, Hanna; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Anholcer, Andrzej; Gomółka, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Stanek, Artur

    2007-01-01

    To assess the exposure to tobacco smoke constituents, the biomarkers are used. In most studies conducted among active smokers, the cotinine is usually utilised as such a biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate an application of determining two nicotine metabolites, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) in order to assess cigarette smoking among pregnant women. There were 25 patients (15 smokers, 10 non-smokers) admitted to Delivery Ward in Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. The free and total form of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in urine were determined by the means of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometry detection. The results of this studies indicated that in urine both cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine are conjugated with glucoronide acid in the high degree. The linear correlation between free and conjugated form of cotinine and whole cotinine concentration indicates the possibility of application of all three of them as biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. The high conjugation of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine with glucuronic acid (over 80 %), and high correlation between glucuronide and total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentration proves necessity of having the urine samples hydrolysed or determining the 3'-hydroxycotinine glucoronide, when application of 3-HC as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. Our studies confirm other authors' observations that division of 3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine concentrations might be used as a predictor of differences in cotinine metabolite ratio (polimorphism). The studies shown that using analytical equipment, nowadays available in the most laboratories (HPLC), it is possible to determined two biomarkers which are very useful and give various information, no matter whether they are conjugated with glucuronic acid, or not.

  18. Measuring prenatal secondhand smoke exposure in mother–baby couplets

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Ellen; Hall, Lynne; Rayens, Mary K.; Noland, Melody; Collins, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant women often underreport their smoking status and extent of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Biomarker confirmation is the recommended method to assess smoking behaviors and SHS exposure in both mothers and infants. Objectives: The primary aims are to (a) examine the relationship between smoking behaviors and SHS exposure in mother–baby couplets using maternal and infant hair nicotine and maternal urine cotinine analyses and (b) determine whether there is an association between maternal and infant hair nicotine samples obtained shortly after birth. Discussion: A cross-sectional study with a multiethnic sample of 210 mother–baby couplets assessing SHS exposure. Results: The level of maternal hair nicotine (MHN) was significantly different among three groups: nonsmoking, nonsmoking/passive exposed, and smoking (p < .0001), with nonsmoking and nonexposed women having the lowest level. Urine cotinine was strongly associated with self-reported smoking status (ρ = .88; p < .0001). Maternal and infant hair nicotine were correlated, although MHN correlated more strongly with smoking status (ρ = .46, p < .0001) than infant hair nicotine (ρ = .39, p < .0001). Conclusions: MHN was a more precise biomarker of prenatal SHS exposure than infant hair nicotine; mothers’ urine cotinine was strongly correlated with self-reported smoking status. PMID:20038509

  19. Simultaneous determination of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël

    2014-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous automated solid-phase extraction and quantification of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in human urine. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges studied (R2 > 0.99). The limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL for both analytes. The limits of detection were 0.06 ng/mL for cotinine (COT) and 0.02 ng/mL for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT). Accuracy for COT ranged from 0.98 to 5.28% and the precision ranged from 1.24 to 8.78%. Accuracy for OH-COT ranged from −2.66 to 3.72% and the precision ranged from 3.15 to 7.07%. Mean recoveries for cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine ranged from 77.7 to 89.1%, and from 75.4 to 90.2%, respectively. This analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine will be used to monitor tobacco smoking in pregnant women and will permit the usefulness of trans-3-hydroxycotinine as a specific biomarker of tobacco exposure to be determined. © 2014 The Authors. Biomedical Chromatography published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24616054

  20. Brief intervention to preteens and adolescents to create smoke-free homes and cotinine results: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgün; Karacan, Can Demir

    2013-10-01

    Little research has focused on brief and practical strategies for addressing environmental tobacco smoke exposure through interventions focused explicitly on creating a smoke-free home. We used a two-group (intervention and control groups) repeated-measures randomized controlled trial design. Families were randomized to the intervention (n = 176) or control (n = 176) condition after the baseline interview, with outcome assessments for reported and urine cotinine measures at 2 (post-intervention), 6 (follow-up) and 12 (follow-up) months. Baseline urinary cotinine levels of both groups were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05); however, post-intervention urinary cotinine levels were significantly different at 2, 6 and 12 months after start of the study (P < 0.001). As a physician-based brief intervention, our intervention was effective. Clinical providers might offer feedback and brief interventions to preteens and adolescents. Because of the ease of intervention on delivery, this intervention has the potential to have significant impact if widely disseminated.

  1. Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L; Styn, Mindi A; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective measure of nicotine dose than smoking quantity. Previous genetic association studies of serum cotinine have focused on individual genes. We conducted a genetic association study of the biomarker in African American (N=365) and European American (N=315) subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using a chip containing densely-spaced tag SNPs in ∼2100 genes. We found that rs11187065, located in the non-coding region (intron 1) of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), was the most strongly associated SNP (p=8.91 × 10(-6)) in the African American cohort, whereas rs11763963, located on chromosome 7 outside of a gene transcript, was the most strongly associated SNP in European Americans (p=1.53 × 10(-6)). We then evaluated how the top variant association in each population performed in the other group. We found that the association of rs11187065 in IDE was also associated with the phenotype in European Americans (p=0.044). Our top SNP association in European Americans, rs11763963 was non-polymorphic in our African American sample. It has been previously shown that psychostimulant self-administration is reduced in animals with lower insulin because of interference with dopamine transmission in the brain reward centers. Our finding provides a platform for further investigation of this, or additional mechanisms, involving the relationship between insulin and self-administered nicotine dose.

  2. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at

  3. Determinants of Salivary Cotinine among Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Rumana; Shah, Sarwat; Mushtaq, Nasir; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of all smokeless tobacco (ST) products in the world are consumed in South Asia; yet little is known about their consumption behaviour, addictiveness, and toxic properties. This paper, for the first time, describes associations between salivary cotinine concentrations among ST users in Bangladesh and their socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviours. Methods In a survey of ST users in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we purposively recruited 200 adults who were non-smokers but consumed ST on a regular basis. In-person interviews were conducted to obtain information about socio-demographic and ST use behaviours, and saliva samples were collected to measure cotinine concentration. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test associations between the log transformed salivary cotinine concentration and other study variables. Results The geometric mean of cotinine concentration among ST users was 380ng/ml (GSD:2). Total duration of daily ST use in months had a statistically significant association with cotinine concentration. Other ST use characteristics including type and quantity of ST use, swallowing of tobacco juice, urges and strength of urges and attempts to cut down on tobacco use were not found to be associated with cotinine concentration in a multivariable model. Conclusion This is the first report from Bangladesh studying cotinine concentration among ST users and it points towards high levels of addiction. This warrants effective tobacco control policies to help ST cessation and prevention. PMID:27504912

  4. Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body 2008: 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine in urine of the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sul, Donggeun; Ahn, Ryoungme; Im, Hosub; Oh, Eunha; Kim, Jae Hyoun; Kim, Jin Gyoung; Kim, PanGyi; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Park, Won Yeul; Son, Bu Soon; Shin, Daeyewn; Shim, Ae-Sug; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Kee Jae; Lee, Sun-dong; Lee, Jong Wha; Lee, Chae Kwan; Jang, Bong-Ki; Choi, Kyungho; Han, Don-Hee; Hwang, Moon-Young; Lee, Jin Heon

    2012-10-01

    The Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body conducts representative Korean population studies, which were first initiated in 2005 in Korea. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2009 to determine the exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. The study population consisted of 4702 adult subjects from 196 sampling locations including coastal, rural, and urban areas. The urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine were measured for exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine. The geometric means of the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol and cotinine concentrations in the Korean general population were 0.15 μg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.17), 3.84 μg/L (95% CI: 3.57-4.11) and 47.42 μg/L (95% CI: 40.52-54.32) respectively. When these values were compared with reference ranges for the United States and Germany, the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine were very similar for Korea and Germany, however, these levels were slightly lower in the United States. This study is the first nationwide survey of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in Korea and provides a background reference range for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  6. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    PubMed

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p < .001), as well as breath CO (p < .001) and urinary cotinine levels (p < .001) decreased significantly 3 months after implementation of the law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  7. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  8. In vitro evaluation of the effect of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cogo, Karina; Montan, Michelle Franz; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia; D Andrade, Eduardo; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on the viability of some oral bacterial species. It also evaluated the ability of these bacteria to metabolize those substances. Single-species biofilms of Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Fusobacterium nucleatum and dual-species biofilms of S. gordonii -- F. nucleatum and F. nucleatum -- P. gingivalis were grown on hydroxyapatite discs. Seven species were studied as planktonic cells, including Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces naeslundii, and the species mentioned above. The viability of planktonic cells and biofilms was analyzed by susceptibility tests and time-kill assays, respectively, against different concentrations of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations in the culture media after the assays. Susceptibility tests and viability assays showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine cannot reduce or stimulate bacterial growth. High-performance liquid chromatography results showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations were not altered after bacteria exposure. These findings indicate that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine, in the concentrations used, cannot affect significantly the growth of these oral bacterial strains. Moreover, these species do not seem to metabolize these substances.

  9. Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Pearl, Michelle; Jacob, Peyton; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Havel, Christopher; Kharrazi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Disease Screening Program provided dried blood spots from 428 newborns delivered in 2001–2003 with known umbilical cord blood cotinine levels. Cotinine in dried blood spots was measured in 6.35­-mm punches by using liquid chromatography­–tandem mass spectrometry (quantitation limit, 3.1 ng/mL). Repeated measures of cotinine in dried blood spots were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) among 100 dried blood spots with cotinine quantitated in 2 separate punches. Linear regression revealed that cotinine levels in dried blood spots were slightly lower than those in umbilical cord blood and predicted umbilical cord blood cotinine levels well (β = 0.95, R2 = 0.80, and P < 0.001 for both cotinine levels in log10 scale). When defining active smoking as a cotinine level of 10 ng/mL or more and using umbilical cord blood cotinine as the criterion standard, we found that measurements of cotinine in dried blood spots had high sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (99.7%) in the prediction of maternal active smoking. Cotinine levels in dried blood spots are an accurate biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. PMID:24068198

  10. Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian A; St Helen, Gideon; Meyers, Matthew J; Dempsey, Delia A; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Northcross, Amanda; Hammond, S Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterise the exposure of non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle using biomarkers, (2) to describe the time course of the biomarkers over 24 h, and (3) to examine the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and airborne concentrations of SHS markers. Eight non-smokers were individually exposed to SHS in cars with fully open front windows and closed back windows over an hour from a smoker who smoked three cigarettes at 20 min intervals. The non-smokers sat in the back seat on the passenger side, while the smoker sat in the driver's seat. Plasma cotinine and urine cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine (3HC) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) were compared in samples taken at baseline (BL) and several time-points after exposure. Nicotine, particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured inside and outside the vehicle and ventilation rates in the cars were measured. Average plasma cotinine and the molar sum of urine cotinine and 3HC (COT+3HC) increased four-fold, urine cotinine increased six-fold and urine NNAL increased ∼27 times compared to BL biomarker levels. Plasma cotinine, urine COT+3HC and NNAL peaked at 4-8 h post-exposure while urine cotinine peaked within 4 h. Plasma cotinine was significantly correlated to PM2.5 (Spearman correlation rs=0.94) and CO (rs=0.76) but not to air nicotine. The correlations between urine biomarkers, cotinine, COT+3HC and NNAL, and air nicotine, PM2.5 and CO were moderate but non-significant (rs range =  0.31-0.60). Brief SHS exposure in cars resulted in substantial increases in levels of tobacco biomarkers in non-smokers. For optimal characterisation of SHS exposure, tobacco biomarkers should be measured within 4-8 h post-exposure. Additional studies are needed to better describe the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and environmental markers of SHS.

  11. Biomarkers of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Automobiles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ian; St Helen, Gideon; Meyers, Matthew; Dempsey, Delia A.; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Northcross, Amanda; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle using biomarkers, (2) to describe the time-course of the biomarkers over 24 h, and (3) to examine the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and airborne concentrations of SHS markers. Methods Eight nonsmokers were individually exposed to SHS in cars with fully open front windows and closed back windows over an hour from a smoker who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 min intervals. The nonsmokers sat in the backseat-passenger side, while the smoker sat in the driver’s seat. Plasma cotinine and urine cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine (3HC), and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) were compared in samples taken at baseline and several time-points after exposure. Nicotine, particulate matter (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured inside and outside the vehicle and ventilation rates in the cars were measured. Results Average plasma cotinine and the molar sum of urine cotinine and 3HC (COT+3HC) increased 4-fold, urine cotinine increased 6-fold, and urine NNAL increased ~27 times compared to baseline biomarker levels. Plasma cotinine, urine COT+3HC and NNAL peaked at 4–8 hours post-exposure while urine cotinine peaked within 4 hours. Plasma cotinine was significantly correlated to PM2.5 (Spearman correlation (rs = 0.94) and CO (rs = 0.76) but not to air nicotine. The correlations between urine biomarkers, cotinine, COT+3HC, and NNAL and air nicotine, PM2.5, and CO were moderate but non-significant (rs range, 0.31 – 0.60). Conclusion Brief SHS exposure in cars resulted in substantial increases in levels of tobacco biomarkers in nonsmokers. For optimal characterization of SHS exposure, tobacco biomarkers should be measured within 4–8 h post-exposure. Additional studies are needed to better describe the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and environmental markers of SHS. PMID:23349229

  12. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring.

  13. GC-MS determined cotinine in an epidemiological study on smoking status at delivery.

    PubMed

    Chazeron, Ingrid de; Daval, Sandrine; Ughetto, Sylvie; Richard, Damien; Nicolay, Alain; Lemery, Didier; Llorca, Pierre M; Coudoré, François

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the plasma cotinine levels in pregnant women and their newborns using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in an epidemiological-delivered population with a wide range of tobacco intakes. Nearly 1000 pregnant women from regional maternity wards (n=1007) were selected for the study. Each patient kept a tobacco diary and underwent a blood test to assess cotinine levels and at the same time that the newborns' cordonal plasma was taken. These values were then cross-checked. Cotinine was estimated using a selected-ion monitoring mode with a 1.5 ng/ml quantification limit. The cotinine levels in mothers and newborns were highly correlated, whatever the mother's smoking status, with a calculated cut-off for cotinine levels in active smokers of 21.5 ng/ml. Finally, the cotinine determined through this GC-MS method offered a sensitive and accurate measure of tobacco exposition of the pregnant women and their babies.

  14. Does raising awareness in families reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in wheezy children?

    PubMed Central

    Can, Demet; Gunay, Ilker; Karkıner, Canan Sule Unsal; Gunay, Turkan; Cimrin, Dilek; Nalcabasmaz, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is thought to increase the severity and number of attacks in wheezy children. Objective assessments are needed to change the behavior of families to reduce the exposure of wheezy children to ETS. Aim To determine whether informing families about their children’s urinary cotinine levels curtailed the exposure of children to ETS. Material and methods A survey was used to determine the ETS exposure level, and the urinary cotinine level of each patient was tested. Children with positive urinary cotinine levels were included in the second part of the study. The families were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group that was advised about urinary cotinine levels by telephone and a non-intervention group that was not so advised. The groups were followed-up 2 months later, and urinary cotinine levels were measured once again. Results The intervention group contained 65 children of average age of 24.4 ±8.9 months, of whom 46 (70.8%) were male. The non-intervention group contained 69 children of average age of 25.3 ±9.8 months (p > 0.05), of whom 52 (75.4%) were male. The urinary cotinine levels at the time of the second interview were lower in both groups. The number of cigarettes that fathers smoked at home decreased in the intervention group (p = 0.037). Conclusions Presenting objective evidence on ETS exposure to families draws attention to their smoking habits. Measurement of cotinine levels is cheap, practical, and noninvasive. Combined with education, creating awareness by measuring cotinine levels may be beneficial. PMID:28951711

  15. Combined analysis of the tobacco metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine.

    PubMed

    Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-02-03

    Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively, to the best of our knowledge, by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [(13)C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds.

  16. Medical swab touch spray-mass spectrometry for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Wei; Wang, Jia-Chun; Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Newborn screening is one of public health concerns designed to screen infants shortly after birth. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke such as nicotine has been reported to affect babies. Levels of nicotine and cotinine in meconium were widely used to evaluate the tobacco exposure of foetuses during pregnancy in a polluted environment. In this study, medical swabs were applied by using touch spray-mass spectrometry (TS-MS) to collect meconium from newborn infants for detection of nicotine and cotinine. Parameters such as choice of spray solvents, solvent volume and collision energy for screening of nicotine and cotinine were optimized. The limits of detection, reproducibility and matrix effect for analysis of meconium were also investigated. In this study, the levels of nicotine and cotinine in 54 puerpera volunteers were screened by TS-MS and were validated by using traditional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results showed that medical swab TS-MS would be useful for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium with high reproducibility, speed, sensitivity and specificity. The use of disposable medical swabs involves no sample preparation and no chromatographic separation, significantly reducing the cost and time required for screening a large number of clinical sample. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A new molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of cotinine from urine samples by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Yan; Cai, Ji-Bao; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Su, Qing-De

    2006-02-01

    Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine in human body, is widely used as a biomarker for assessment of direct or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. A method for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of cotinine from human urine has been investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with good selectivity and affinity for cotinine was synthesized using cotinine as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for use as a SPE sorbent, in tests with aqueous standards, by comparing recovery data obtained using the imprinted form of the polymer and a non-imprinted form (NIP). Extraction from the aqueous solutions resulted in more than 80% recovery. A range of linearity for cotinine between 0.05 and 5 microg mL-1 was obtained by loading 1 mL blank urine samples spiked with cotinine at different concentrations in acetate buffer of pH 9.0, and by using double basic washing and acidic elution. The intra-day coefficient of variation (CV) was below 7% and inter-day CV was below 10%. This investigation has provided a reliable MISPE-HPLC method for determination of cotinine in human urine from both active smokers and passive smokers.

  18. Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior, working memory deficits, and synaptic loss associated with chronic stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Grizzell, J Alex; Iarkov, Alexandre; Holmes, Rosalee; Mori, Takahashi; Echeverria, Valentina

    2014-07-15

    Chronic stress underlies and/or exacerbates many psychiatric conditions and often results in memory impairment as well as depressive symptoms. Such afflicted individuals use tobacco more than the general population and this has been suggested as a form of self-medication. Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, may underlie such behavior as it has been shown to ameliorate anxiety and memory loss in animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of cotinine on working memory and depressive-like behavior in mice subjected to prolonged restraint. Cotinine-treated mice displayed better performance than vehicle-treated cohorts on the working memory task, the radial arm water maze test. In addition, with or without chronic stress exposure, cotinine-treated mice engaged in fewer depressive-like behaviors as assessed using the tail suspension and Porsolt's forced swim tests. These antidepressant and nootropic effects of cotinine were associated with an increase in the synaptophysin expression, a commonly used marker of synaptic density, in the hippocampus as well as the prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of restrained mice. The beneficial effects of cotinine in preventing various consequences of chronic stress were underscored by the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 β in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our results show for the first time that cotinine reduces the negative effects of stress on mood, memory, and the synapse.

  19. Determination of urinary and salivary cotinine using gas and liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H W; Yang, J S; Chiu, M C

    2002-03-05

    The objective of this study was to compare cotinine concentrations in urine and saliva using gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety-four subjects were selected (27 smokers and 67 non-smokers) and interviewed using questionnaire. Of the non-smokers, 39 had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 28 had not been exposed to ETS. Cotinine levels among smokers were highest using all three measurements, followed by ETS exposed subjects and non-smokers. Cotinine levels in urine, using HPLC, correlated significantly with levels measured using ELISA (r=0.92) and GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) (r=0.92). Salivary cotinine levels measured using ELISA did not correlate significantly with either HPLC (r=0.37) or GC-NPD (r=0.33) measurements. Multiple regression models were used to adjust for age, gender, drug use and health status, and it was found that cotinine levels in urine and saliva were significantly correlated with smoking pack-year. The authors conclude that urinary cotinine concentration is a more accurate biomarker for ETS than salivary cotinine concentration.

  20. Lower urinary cotinine level is associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nam, G E; Hwang, B E; Lee, Y-C; Paik, J-S; Yang, S-W; Chun, Y-H; Han, K; Park, Y G; Park, S H

    2017-07-01

    PurposeTo investigate the association between urinary cotinine levels as an objective biological marker for exposure to nicotine and refractive status.Patients and methodsThis cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. A total of 1139 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years were enrolled. Urinary cotinine concentrations and other potential risk factors for myopia were examined. Correlation analyses and multivariate regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between urinary cotinine level and refractive error.ResultsSpherical equivalent correlated significantly with urinary cotinine concentration (r=0.104, P=0.011). Lower urinary cotinine level was associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors (P for trend=0.003). After adjusting for age, sex, area of residence, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, parental income level, and receipt of basic livelihood security, subjects with a low urinary cotinine level had a significantly increased risk of myopia <-0.5 D (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.21), <-3.0 D (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.29-3.2), and <-6.0 D (OR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.15-4.23) when compared with subjects with a high urinary cotinine level. As urinary cotinine level decreased, the risks of myopia <-0.5 D, <-3.0 D, and <-6.0 D increased significantly (P for trend <0.05).ConclusionA trend toward less myopic refractive error was observed among Korean adolescents with higher urinary cotinine levels. This result provides the epidemiologic evidence implying nicotine as a potential modulator related with refractive development. Further studies with full consideration for myopia-associated risk factors are required to yield clear answers on the direct effect of smoking to the refractive status.

  1. Dose-related association between urinary cotinine-verified smoking status and dyslipidemia among Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Ko, Byung Joon; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Baek, Sung Joon

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectionally designed study was based on data collected during the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total 3231 South Korean men aged more than 19 years were included. Urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Smoking status was defined using questionnaire responses and urinary cotinine concentrations. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary cotinine concentrations with the prevalence of dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia. There is a significant dose-related association between smoking as assessed by urinary cotinine concentration and dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia among South Korean men.

  2. Relationship of cotinine-verified and self-reported smoking status with metabolic syndrome in 116,094 Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Rhee, Eun Jung; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    No study has reported the relationship between cotinine-verified and self-reported smoking status with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between urinary cotinine-verified and self-reported smoking status with MetS and determine the effects of unobserved smokers on MetS in Korean adults. A total of 116,094 individuals (66,875 men and 49,219 women) with mean age of 36.7 ± 6.8 years included in Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were enrolled. Cotinine-verified current smoking was defined as urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/mL. Unobserved smoking was defined as urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/mL in self-reported never smokers. The overall prevalence rates of cotinine-verified current smokers and MetS were 22.9% and 10.5%, respectively. The misclassification rate to cotinine-verified current smokers among self-reported never smokers was 1.7%. A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for variables with univariate relationship (model 1) showed that cotinine-verified current smokers significantly increased the odds ratio for MetS compared with cotinine-verified never smokers (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.30 [1.23, 1.37]). Log-transformed cotinine levels were also associated with MetS (1.04 [1.03, 1.05]). However, the association was not significant in the previously mentioned model including the traditional 5 components of MetS (model 2). Unobserved smokers significantly increased the ORs for MetS in both model 1 (1.43 [1.23, 1.67]) and model 2 (1.57 [1.06, 2.33]). This study shows that unobserved smoking and cotinine-verified current smoking are associated with MetS but urinary cotinine could be 1 conditional factor that interacts with traditional MetS components. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  4. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Jakubowski, Marek; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Den Hond, Elly; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Schoeters, Greet; Reis, M Fátima

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by the questionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this

  5. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  6. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in young inner-city children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Butz, Arlene M; Halterman, Jill S; Bellin, Melissa; Tsoukleris, Mona; Donithan, Michele; Kub, Joan; Thompson, Richard E; Land, Cassia Lewis; Walker, Jennifer; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    To examine the association of social and environmental factors with levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, as measured by salivary cotinine, in young inner-city children with asthma. We used data drawn from a home-based behavioral intervention for young high-risk children with persistent asthma post-emergency department (ED) treatment (N = 198). SHS exposure was measured by salivary cotinine and caregiver reports. Caregiver demographic and psychological functioning, household smoking behavior, and asthma morbidity were compared with child cotinine concentrations. Chi-square and ANOVA tests and multivariate regression models were used to determine the association of cotinine concentrations with household smoking behavior and asthma morbidity. Over half (53%) of the children had cotinine levels compatible with SHS exposure and mean cotinine concentrations were high at 2.42 ng/ml (SD 3.2). The caregiver was the predominant smoker in the home (57%) and 63% reported a total home smoking ban. Preschool aged children and those with caregivers reporting depressive symptoms and high stress had higher cotinine concentrations than their counterparts. Among children living in a home with a total home smoking ban, younger children had significantly higher mean cotinine concentrations than older children (cotinine: 3-5 year olds, 2.24 ng/ml (SD 3.5); 6-10 year olds, 0.63 ng/ml (SD 1.0); p < .05). In multivariate models, the factors most strongly associated with high child cotinine concentrations were increased number of household smokers (β = 0.24) and younger child age (3-5 years) (β = 0.23; p < .001, R(2) = 0.35). Over half of the young inner-city children with asthma were exposed to SHS, and caregivers are the predominant household smokers. Younger children and children with depressed and stressed caregivers are at significant risk of smoke exposures, even when a household smoking ban is reported. Further advocacy for these high-risk children is needed to help

  7. Structural Studies of Nicotinoids: Cotinine versus Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, Iciar; Pérez, Cristóbal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Basterretxea, Francisco J; Lesarri, Alberto; Fernández, José A; Cocinero, Emilio J

    2017-02-17

    Nicotinoids are agonists of the acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and play important biochemical and pharmacological roles. Herein, we report on the structure and conformation of cotinine, and compare its molecular properties with the nicotine prototype, from which it only differs in the addition of a carbonyl group. This investigation included a theoretical survey of the effects of rotamerization of the pyridine moiety, the puckering of the pyrrolidinone ring and the internal rotation of the methyl group. The experimental work examined the rotational spectrum of the molecule in a supersonic expansion, using both broadband chirped-pulse excitation techniques and cavity microwave spectrometers. Two conformers were observed for cotinine, and the fine and hyperfine structures arising from the two quadrupolar (14) N nuclei and the methyl internal rotor were fully analyzed. The two observed conformers share the same twisted conformation of the five-membered ring, but differ in a roughly 180° rotamerization around the C-C bond connecting the two rings. The energy barriers for the internal rotation of the methyl group in cotinine (4.55(4) and 4.64(3) kJ mol(-1) , respectively) are much lower than in nicotine (estimated in 16.5 kJ mol(-1) ). The combination of different intramolecular electronic effects, hydrogen bonding and possible binding differences to receptor molecules arising from the carbonyl group could explain the lower affinity of cotinine for nAChRs.

  8. Urinary Cotinine Levels Among Latino Tobacco Farmworkers in North Carolina Compared to Latinos Not Employed in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Laurienti, Paul J.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Chen, Haiying; Howard, Timothy D.; Summers, Phillip; Quandt, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This analysis describes urinary cotinine levels of North Carolina Latino farmworkers, compares cotinine levels of farmworkers to those of Latinos non-farmworkers, determines factors associated with farmworker cotinine levels, and determines if differences in farmworker and non-farmworker cotinine levels are associated with smoking. Methods: Data are from 63 farmworkers and 44 non-farmworkers who participated in a larger study of occupational exposures. Questionnaire data and urine samples collected in 2012 and 2013 are analyzed. Results: Farmworkers had urinary cotinine levels that were far greater than the non-farmworker group. Geometric mean (GM) urinary cotinine levels for farmworkers were 1808.22ng/ml in 2012, and 396.03ng/ml in 2013; corresponding GM levels for non-farmworkers were 4.68ng/ml and 9.03ng/ml. Farmworker GM cotinine levels were associated with harvesting tobacco (1242.77ng/ml vs. 471.26ng/ml; P = .0048), and working in wet shoes (1356.41ng/ml vs. 596.93ng/ml; P = .0148). Smoking did not account for cotinine level differences; the GM cotinine level for farmworkers who did not smoke was 541.31ng/ml; it was 199.40ng/ml for non-farmworkers who did smoke. Conclusion: North Carolina farmworkers experience large nicotine doses. The long-term health effects of these doses are not known. Although procedures to reduce occupational nicotine exposure are known, no changes in work practices or in policies to protect workers have been implemented. Research on the health effects of occupational nicotine exposure must become a priority. Current knowledge of occupational transdermal nicotine exposure must be used to improve occupational safety practice and policy for tobacco workers. Implications: This study documents the heavy burden of nicotine exposure and dose experienced by tobacco workers in North Carolina. Hundreds of thousands of farmworkers and farmers in the United States and Canada, as well as agricultural workers around the world, share

  9. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Ballbè, Montse; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; and others

    2014-11-15

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and cotinine

  10. [Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Woźniak, Anna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke.

  11. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human serum by means of LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Baumann, F; Regenthal, R; Burgos-Guerrero, I L; Hegerl, U; Preiss, R

    2010-01-01

    As part of a joint clinical research project to study the effects of nicotine on the brain, a HPLC electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry method with a solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed for the quantitative determination of nicotine and cotinine in human serum in volunteers. The measured concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were used as control for smoking behaviour. A X-Bridge-column from Waters, and a SSQ 7000 single quadropole mass spectrometer with a TSP liquid chromatographic system were used. The method includes a simple and robust sample preparation and this assay has been shown to be of a sufficient sensitivity for this application. The limits of quantification were 5 and 2ng/ml for cotinine and nicotine, respectively. A simultaneous study was conducted to measure nicotine receptor availability and the vigilance in the same group of volunteers.

  12. A simple high-pressure liquid chromatography cotinine assay: validation of smoking status in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Greaves, R; Trotter, L; Brennecke, S; Janus, E

    2001-07-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health issue, and studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce maternal smoking require accurate measurement of smoking status. This study addresses some key issues in improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency of chemical validation of smoking status using a simplified high-pressure liquid chromatography urine cotinine method. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation trial and from non-pregnant volunteers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Analysis of ETS samples produced a maximum cotinine of 28 microg/mmol creatinine, which was established as the cut-off point for this method. This method is a relatively fast and inexpensive technique with which to analyse large batches of cotinine samples and can reliably measure smoking status.

  13. Racial Disparity in the Associations of Cotinine with Insulin Secretion: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Du, Jie; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Although relationships between smoking/high cotinine and type 2 diabetes have consistently been observed, few studies have investigated the relationship between cotinine and underlying pathophysiological defects that characterize diabetes aetiology. This study aimed to test the associations between cotinine and measures of insulin resistance or insulin secretion. Methods This analysis included 5,751 non-diabetic adult American from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007–2012. Insulin function was represented with two indexes: insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion index (HOMA-B) estimated by homeostasis model assessment. We categorized cotinine levels into quartiles and estimated the odds of HOMA-IR in the 4th quartile and HOMA-B in the 1st quartile among cotinine categories using multiple logistic regression models. Results Cotinine concentration was not associated with the risk of high HOMA-IR. Association of cotinine with low HOMA-B existed and differed by race/ethnicity (P for interaction<0.05). High cotinine concentration (in the 4th quartile) was associated with an increased risk of low HOMA-B compared with low cotinine concentrations(1st -2nd quartiles) among white (odds ratio[OR], 1.51 [95% confidence interval[CI], 1.16–1.97]) or black participants (OR, 2.98 [95%CI, 1.90–4.69]) but not among Mexican (OR, 1.79 [95%CI, 0.90–3.53]) or other Hispanic(OR, 1.02 [95%CI, 0.56–1.86]) participants. Such associations remained significant even after further adjustment for HOMA-IR. Conclusions High cotinine is associated with decreased insulin secretion function only in white and black non-diabetic U.S. adult population. Results evaluating cotinine in ethnically homogeneous populations may not be broadly generalizable to other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:27992538

  14. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  15. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  16. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  17. Smoking-related cotinine levels and host responses in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J L; Steffen, M J; Thomas, M V; Al-Sabbagh, M

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been reported to increase the risk of periodontal disease by disrupting the balance of immune responses and tissue repair processes; however, this risk varies among smokers. Cotinine levels in saliva are routinely used to measure the level of smoking, and reflect the quantity of nicotine, and other smoking-related xenobiotics that challenge host systems. This study delineated characteristics of inflammatory mediators in saliva and serum antibody responses to both periodontal pathogens and commensal bacteria in smokers as they related to cotinine levels. This case-control study (n = 279) examined salivary inflammatory mediator responses [interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-10, prostaglandin E2, myeloperoxidase and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1], and serum IgG antibody responses to three periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomyce-temcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola) and five commensal oral microorganisms (Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus sanguis, Prevotella loescheii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Capnocytophaga ochracea). The patients were stratified into health (n = 30), gingivitis (n = 55) and periodontitis (n = 184); cotinine levels correlated with reported smoking habits in health, less so with gingivitis, and were not correlated in periodontitis. Of the inflammatory mediators/acute phase proteins, only IL-1ß levels were positively associated (p < 0.001) with the pack years and cotinine levels. As might be predicted, patients with periodontitis smoked more (p < 0.001) and had higher levels of cotinine. IL-1ß and antibody to A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and T. denticola were significantly higher in the patients with periodontitis than either patients with gingivitis or who were healthy. Generally, antibody to the pathogens and commensals was lower with decreased cotinine levels. Smoking exacerbated differences in both inflammatory mediators and three antibody in periodontal disease compared to healthy

  18. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a group of Turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention.

    PubMed

    Ekerbicer, Hasan C; Celik, Mustafa; Guler, Ekrem; Davutoglu, Mehmet; Kilinc, Metin

    2007-08-10

    In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347) were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P < 0.001). Two different intervention methods were applied to parents of the exposed children. Control tests suggested a remarkable reduction in the proportion of those children demonstrating a recent exposure to ETS in both groups. Proportions of children with urinary cotinine concentrations 10 ng/ml or lower were 79.5% in Group I and 74.2% in Group II (P > 0.05). Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9-11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their children' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.

  19. Formaldehyde exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Azita; Pryor, Erica; Rice, Marti; Downs, Charles A; Turner-Henson, Anne; Fanucchi, Michelle V

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a particularly vulnerable time for exposure to indoor air pollutants, such as formaldehyde (FA), which is linked to spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations, and premature birth. To determine personal exposure to FA during pregnancy, and to identify the relationship between FA exposure levels and potential residential sources of FA. The study sample consisted of 140 pregnant women recruited from obstetrical clinics in Huntsville, Alabama. Formaldehyde exposure was measured by FA vapor monitor badges. Questionnaires were administered to participants to identify potential residential sources of FA. Urine cotinine, a surrogate for tobacco smoke exposure, was also used as an indicator of a possible source of residential exposure to FA. The mean level of FA exposure by vapor monitor badge was 0.04 parts per million (ppm) (SD = 0.06; range 0.003-0.54 ppm). Minimum risk levels of 0.03 and higher were found in 36.4% of participants. Exposure levels of FA were higher in spring than winter (p < 0.001). Exposure levels of FA were correlated with indoor temperature of dwellings (p < 0.02), installation of new carpet within last 5 years (p < 0.04), and use of nail polish (p < 0.01). No relationship was found between FA exposure and urine cotinine levels. Formaldehyde exposure may increase at various times in the lives of women; however, it is of particular concern during pregnancy because of perinatal risk to the exposed fetus.

  20. [Markers of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure].

    PubMed

    Metz-Favre, C; Donnay, C; de Blay, F

    2005-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is one of the most common air pollutants found in the indoor environment. Passive smoking is defined as the involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke present in the air. This article examines the advantages and limitations of the methods that are available to measure environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Passive smoking can be assessed either by measuring tobacco smoke pollutants found in the air directly or by using biomarker assays, an indirect measure of exposure. As far as the direct measurement of air pollutants is concerned, nicotine and 3-Ethenylpyridine levels seem most suitable because of their specificity. Four specific biological markers of tobacco smoke exposure are available: nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanates, and protein or DNA adducts. Only urinary cotinine assay can be retained as a reliable marker of exposure to tobacco smoke. It has been used as a reference in most epidemiological studies but only reflects tobacco exposure over the preceding 48 hours. The measurement of nicotine and cotinine levels in the appendages of the skin (hair and nails) reflects exposure to tobacco over the previous three months and could become a better reference marker in epidemiological and toxicological studies.

  1. [Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure].

    PubMed

    Berny, C; Boyer, J C; Capolaghi, B; De L'Homme, G; Desch, G; Garelik, D; Hayder, R; Houdret, N; Jacob, N; Koskas, T; Lainé, G; Le Moel, G; Moulsma, M; Plantin-Carrenard, E; Venembre, Ph

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory illnesses. Smoking is increasing among children and adolescents with subsequent consequences on the health. Furthermore, maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal growth. Nicotine, the most important tobacco alkaloid, is responsible for maintaining tobacco addiction. According to a recent Circulaire de la direction générale de la santé, nicotine dependence should be determined through questionnaires and quantitative estimate of nicotine metabolites. Nicotine blood level fluctuates and urinary nicotine excretion is of short duration. Nicotine is intensively metabolized in the liver and oxidized into cotinine. Urinary measurement of cotinine appears to be highly related with the degree of intoxication and to allow the differentiation between non exposed and exposed non-smokers. In order to check the present application of nicotine metabolites measurement, a survey was conducted in 340 smoking cessation units. Forty percent physicians (n = 137) answered the survey. For 17% of them, the quantification of nicotine metabolites is included in their daily practise and for 79%, guidelines about cotinine measurement should be given in France. Sixty-seven biologists answered the survey. Recommendations for immunoassay and HPLC determination of cotinine should be given as reported by 66 and 44% of them respectively. Indeed, urinary cotinine measurement with high performance liquid chromatography is highly sensitive and specific. However, immunoassays are more convenient. These two approaches are presently under investigation in order to provide guidelines for optimal use in various clinical situations. Traditional measures for nicotine dependence are the number of cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine intake expressed as mg per day, Fagerstr m questionnaire, expired air carbon monoxide, thiocyanates and cotinine levels in biological fluids. Urinary cotinine

  2. Measurement methods for human exposure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J

    1995-01-01

    The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites. PMID:7635110

  3. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS). The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years) attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM) salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37) (n = 446); for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72) (n = 432); for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40) (n = 3); for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89) (n = 33) and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member) 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97) (n = 44). Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces), parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate). Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke-free restrictions in

  4. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  5. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  6. Maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and pregnancy outcome among couples undergoing assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Meeker, J D; Missmer, S A; Cramer, D W; Hauser, R

    2007-02-01

    Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is preventable, yet common. This study assessed relationships between maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We measured cotinine (a biomarker of tobacco smoke) in urine from 921 women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) between 1994 and 1998. We also collected information on self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke at home or at work, in addition to parental smoking during the women's childhood. In crude analysis, creatinine-adjusted cotinine levels were associated with a slight decrease in implantation rate among non-smoking women (11.1% in the lowest cotinine quintile versus 8.2% in the highest cotinine quintile; P=0.13). However, in multivariate logistic regression, cotinine levels above the median were not associated with failed fertilization, failed implantation or spontaneous abortion, nor was there evidence of a dose-response relationship among cotinine quintiles. After excluding women in couples diagnosed with male factor infertility, there were increased odds of having a spontaneous abortion among non-smoking women who reported that both parents smoked while they were children growing up compared with women reporting that neither parent smoked [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-18.1]. Female exposure to second-hand smoke as a child or in utero may be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in adulthood. However, this may be a chance finding due to multiple comparisons. Similar associations should be explored in additional studies with more refined estimates of childhood and in utero exposure to tobacco smoke.

  7. Measurement error in air pollution exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Navidi, W; Lurmann, F

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of an individual to an air pollutant can be assessed indirectly, with a "microenvironmental" approach, or directly with a personal sampler. Both methods of assessment are subject to measurement error, which can cause considerable bias in estimates of health effects. If the exposure estimates are unbiased and the measurement error is nondifferential, the bias in a linear model can be corrected when the variance of the measurement error is known. Unless the measurement error is quite large, estimates of health effects based on individual exposures appear to be more accurate than those based on ambient levels.

  8. Exposure measurement for air-pollution epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, B.G.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The chapter describes the evolution of air-pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studies oriented toward measurements of total exposure will be smaller and more intensive. The shift in emphasis to total human exposure also will affect health risk assessment and raise difficult issues in the regulatory domain. Considering that outdoor exposures (for which EPA has a regulatory mandate) occur in the context of exposures from other sources, the potential effect of regulatory action would probably be small. The regulatory issues are even more difficult for particulate air pollution since cigarette smoking is the strongest determinant of indoor levels but the EPA lacks regulatory responsibility for cigarette smoke.

  9. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples’ homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15–0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Conclusions Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population. PMID:27171392

  10. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shona C; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  11. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9–52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0–6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6–29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  12. Particle counting immunoassay for urinary cotinine. Comparison with chromatography, enzyme-linked immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Galanti, L M; Dell'Omo, J; Vanbeckbergen, D; Dubois, P; Masson, P L; Cambiaso, C L

    1999-07-01

    Urinary cotinine was measured according to its inhibitory activity on the agglutination of cotinine-coated latex particles by anti-cotinine antibodies, the agglutination being measured by optical counting of the remaining non-agglutinated particles (particle counting, PaC). The detection limit was 0.03 microgram/ml and the practical range extended from 0.03 to 3.9 micrograms/ml. The correlation results of 320 urine samples with those of high pressure liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked (Coti-Tracq EIA, Serex Inc., Maywood, NJ, USA), and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (TDX instrument, Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) were r = 0.90, r = 0.69, r = 0.87, respectively, whereas the correlation coefficients between the assays other than particle counting ranged from 0.62 to 0.88. PaC does not require any separation step and can thus be easily automated.

  13. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  14. Measurement Duration and Frequency Impact Objective Light Exposure Measures.

    PubMed

    Ulaganathan, Sekar; Read, Scott A; Collins, Michael J; Vincent, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    To determine the measurement duration and frequency required to reliably quantify the typical personal light exposure patterns of children and young adults. Ambient light exposure data were obtained from 31 young adults and 30 children using a wrist-worn light sensor configured to measure ambient light exposure every 30 seconds for 14 days. To examine the influence of measurement duration upon light exposure, the daily time exposed to outdoor light levels (>1000 lux) was initially calculated based upon data from all 14 days and then recalculated from 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 randomly selected days. To examine the influence of measurement frequency, the outdoor exposure time was calculated for a 30-second sampling rate and again after resampling at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 10-minute sampling rates. Children spent significantly greater time outdoors (44 minutes higher [95% CI: 26, 62]) compared to adults (P = .001). Children spent more time outdoors during the weekdays (13 minutes higher [-7, 32]) and adults spent more time outdoors during the weekends (24 minutes higher [7, 40]) (P = .005). Calculating light exposure using a lower number of days and coarser sampling frequencies did not significantly alter the group mean light exposure (P > .05). However, a significant increase in measurement variability occurred for outdoor light exposure derived from less than 8 days and 3 minutes or coarser measurement frequencies in adults, and from less than 8 days and 4 minutes or coarser frequencies in children (all P < .05). Reducing measurement duration seemed to have a greater impact upon measurement variability than reducing the measurement frequency. These findings suggest that a measurement duration of at least 1 week and a measurement frequency of 2 minutes or finer provides the most reliable estimates of personal outdoor light exposure measures in children and young adults.

  15. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  16. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  17. A simultaneous analysis method of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nicotine, cotinine and metals in human hair.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjiang; Wang, Bin; Ge, Shufang; Yan, Lailai; Liu, Yingying; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nicotine, cotinine, and metals in human hair have been used as important environmental exposure markers. We aimed to develop a simple method to simultaneously analyze these pollutants using a small quantity of hair. The digestion performances of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for human hair were compared. Various solvents or their mixtures including n-hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM) and trichloromethane (TCM), HEX:DCM32 (3/2) and HEX:TCM73 (7/3) were adopted to extract organics. The recoveries of metals were determined under an optimal operation of digestion and extraction. Our results showed that TMAH performed well in dissolving human hair and even better than NaOH. Overall, the recoveries for five solutions were acceptable for PAHs, nicotine in the range of 80%-110%. Except for HEX, other four extraction solutions had acceptable extraction efficiency for cotinine from HEX:TCM73 (88 ± 4.1%) to HEX:DCM32 (100 ± 2.8%). HEX:DCM32 was chosen as the optimal solvent in consideration of its extraction efficiency and lower density than water. The recoveries of 12 typical major or trace metals were mainly in the range of 90%-110% and some of them were close to 100%. In conclusion, the simultaneous analysis of PAHs, nicotine, cotinine, and metals was feasible. Our study provided a simple and low-cost technique for environmental epidemiological studies.

  18. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99%) in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53%) in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45%) in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94%) increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group). Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups. PMID:20482885

  19. Transfer of Nicotine, Cotinine and Caffeine Into Breast Milk in a Smoker Mother Consuming Caffeinated Drinks.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Valeria; Escuder, Diana; Minutillo, Adele; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; García-Algar, Oscar; Pallás Alonso, Carmen Rosa; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Although the habits of cigarette smoking and associated coffee drinking are generally ceased during pregnancy, they are often reinitiated after delivery when the breastfeeding period starts. This is a case report of a 32-year-old lactating smoker mother who consumed caffeinated drinks and who agreed to donate breast milk after smoking one cigarette (containing 0.6 mg of nicotine) and drinking one cup of espresso (containing 80 mg of caffeine) for an investigation of the excretion of nicotine, its major metabolite cotinine and caffeine into the breast milk and subsequent transfer to the infant. Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine peaked in the breast milk at 0.5 h after the cigarette smoking, and caffeine peaked 2 h after drinking coffee. Moreover, the nicotine disappeared from the milk by 3 h, the caffeine required 24 h and the cotinine required 72 h. The relative infant doses of caffeine, nicotine and cotinine were found to be 8.9, 12.8 and 77.6%, respectively. In the light of these results obtained after the mother smoked only one cigarette and consumed one cup of espresso, if a lactating mother cannot refrain from smoking cigarettes, she should extend the time between the last smoked cigarette and breastfeeding to at least 3 h when the nicotine has been completely eliminated from the milk. Similarly, nursing mothers should also drink coffee sparingly and immediately after nursing and avoid coffee or caffeinated beverages for at least 4 h prior to breastfeeding to minimize the infant's exposure to caffeine.

  20. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health.

  1. Biomarkers of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Waterpipe Tobacco Venue Employees in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katherine A; Rule, Ana M; Magid, Hoda S; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Susan, Jolie; Sun, Zhuolu; Torrey, Christine; Abubaker, Salahaddin; Levshin, Vladimir; Çarkoglu, Asli; Radwan, Ghada Nasr; El-Rabbat, Maha; Cohen, Joanna E; Strickland, Paul; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-06-03

    Most smoke-free legislation to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure exempts waterpipe (hookah) smoking venues. Few studies have examined SHS exposure in waterpipe venues and their employees. We surveyed 276 employees of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. We interviewed venue managers and employees and collected biological samples from employees to measure exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), hair nicotine, saliva cotinine, urine cotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG). We estimated adjusted geometric mean ratios (GMR) of each SHS biomarker by employee characteristics and indoor air SHS measures. There were 73 non-smoking employees and 203 current smokers of cigarettes or waterpipe. In non-smokers, the median (interquartile) range concentrations of SHS biomarkers were 1.1 (0.2, 40.9) µg/g creatinine urine cotinine, 5.5 (2, 15) ng/mL saliva cotinine, 0.95 (0.36, 5.02) ng/mg hair nicotine, 1.48 (0.98, 3.97) pg/mg creatinine urine NNAL, 0.54 (0.25, 0.97) pmol/mg creatinine urine 1-OHPG, and 1.67 (1.33, 2.33) ppm exhaled CO. An 8-hour increase in work hours was associated with higher urine cotinine (GMR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.37) and hair nicotine (GMR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.43). Lighting waterpipes was associated with higher saliva cotinine (GMR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.05, 7.62). Non-smoking employees of waterpipe tobacco venues were exposed to high levels of SHS, including measurable levels of carcinogenic biomarkers (tobacco-specific nitrosamines and PAHs). Smoke-free regulation should be extended to waterpipe venues to protect non-smoking employees and patrons from the adverse health effects of SHS.

  2. The impact of chronic bupropion on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of ad lib smoking: a randomized controlled trial in unmotivated smokers.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sarwar; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Zack, Martin; Farvolden, Peter; Selby, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Bupropion is an efficacious non-nicotine medication for smoking cessation; however, its cessation-mediating mechanism is unclear. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of bupropion SR (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of smoking in 24 current daily smokers who were not trying to quit or reduce smoking. Subjective effects of smoking, as well as cue-elicited responses were assessed at bi-weekly experimental sessions using validated scales. Several indices of cigarette consumption were measured. Plasma cotinine decreased from 280 (+/-133) microg/l at baseline to 205 (+/-108) microg/l at end of treatment in the bupropion group (p=0.036), but no significant change was found in the placebo group. Daily cigarette count and puff topography did not significantly change in either group. In contrast to placebo, bupropion increased post-smoking satiety (p=0.045). Both groups reported higher craving (p=0.025) and withdrawal (p=0.014) after exposure to smoking-related pictures, compared to neutral pictures. This biased reactivity was not significantly affected by treatment condition (p>0.1). Therefore, bupropion does not appear to impact the smokers' response to conditioned smoking-related cues but influences the unconditioned subjective effects of smoking in unmotivated smokers. This study is among the first to systematically investigate the effect of chronic bupropion administration, free from the confounding effect of the smoker's motivation to quit smoking.

  3. A receiver operated curve-based evaluation of change in sensitivity and specificity of cotinine urinalysis for detecting active tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Jain, Raka

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use has been associated with various carcinomas including lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix. Biomarkers such as concentration of cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva have been used as objective measures to distinguish nonusers and users of tobacco products. A change in the cut-off value of urinary cotinine to detect active tobacco use is associated with a change in sensitivity and sensitivity of detection. The current study aimed at assessing the impact of using different cut-off thresholds of urinary cotinine on sensitivity and specificity of detection of smoking and smokeless tobacco product use among psychiatric patients. All the male subjects attending the psychiatry out-patient department of the tertiary care multispecialty teaching hospital constituted the sample frame for the current study in a cross-sectionally. Quantitative urinary cotinine assay was done by using ELISA kits of Calbiotech. Inc., USA. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the sensitivity and specificity of various cut-off values of urinary cotinine to identify active smokers and users of smokeless tobacco products. ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking provided the area under curve (AUC) of 0.434. Similarly, the ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking revealed AUC of 0.44. The highest sensitivity and specificity of 100% for smoking were detected at the urinary cut-off value greater than or equal to 2.47 ng/ml. The choice of cut-off value of urinary cotinine used to distinguish nonusers form active users of tobacco products impacts the sensitivity as well as specificity of detection.

  4. Menthol Attenuates Respiratory Irritation and Elevates Blood Cotinine in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Michael A.; Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I.; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol’s effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  5. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p<0.001) with sensitivity ≥75%, specificity >85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Self-reported cigarette smoking vs. serum cotinine among U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Giovino, Gary A; Pechacek, Terry F

    2004-02-01

    No national data have been used to compare self-reported and biochemically assessed cigarette smoking status among adolescents. We investigated discrepancies between self-reported smoking and measurement of serum cotinine concentration among adolescents aged 12-17 years in a representative sample (n=2,107) of the U.S. population. Smoking prevalence was 12.9% among teens who reported in a private interview whether they smoked during the previous 5 days (95% CI=10.9%-14.9%) and 12.5% (95% CI=10.3%-14.7%) according to serum cotinine concentration greater than 11.40 ng/ml (the cutpoint). Among teens who reported being a nonsmoker (i.e., that they did not smoke during the previous 5 days), 2.7% (95% CI=1.6%-3.8%) had a serum cotinine concentration of greater than 11.40 ng/ml. Discrepancies among self-reported nonsmokers were less likely among Mexican Americans than among Whites. Among self-reported smokers, 21.1% (95% CI=13.7%-28.5%) had a serum cotinine concentration of 11.40 ng/ml or less. This discrepancy is explained primarily by the high proportion (37.0%) of teen smokers who reported smoking, on average, less than 1 cigarette per day. We believe that social stigma or fear that their parents would find out about their survey responses may be the main explanation for the 2.7% discrepancy among self-reported nonsmokers, and that smoking patterns (including the extent of nicotine dosing) and a lack of measurement of recency of cigarette smoking are the main explanations for the 21.1% discrepancy among self-reported smokers. Efforts to improve the validity of self-reported cigarette smoking will benefit tobacco-related surveillance, evaluation, and research activities for adolescents.

  7. MEASURING DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children do not consume foods in a structured manner. Their foods contact surfaces (hands, floors, eating surfaces, etc.) that may be contaminated while they are eating them. Thus, dietary exposures of young children are difficult to accurately assess or measure. A recen...

  8. Measuring Exposure Opportunities: Using Exogenous Measures in Assessing Effects of Media Exposure on Smoking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of exposure has long been one of the most central and fundamental issues in communication research. While self-reported measures remain dominant in the field, alternative approaches such as exogenous or hybrid measures have received increasing scholarly attention and been employed in various contexts for the estimation of media exposure; however, systematic scrutiny of such measures is thin. This study aims to address the gap by systematically reviewing the studies which utilized exogenous or hybrid exposure measures for examining the effects of media exposure on tobacco-related outcomes. We then proceed to discuss the strengths and weaknesses, current developments in this class of measurement, drawing some implications for the appropriate utilization of exogenous and hybrid measures. PMID:27746848

  9. Intravenous and oral suicidal e-liquid poisonings with confirmed nicotine and cotinine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Karina; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Kulza, Maksymilian; Drużdż, Artur; Panieński, Paweł; Florek, Ewa; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The increasing availability of e-cigarettes is a potential toxicological concern. E-cigarettes appeared on the Polish market in 2006, and since 2009 they have been widely available with a new source of nicotine, the so-called e-liquid. In this paper two cases of suicidal oral and intravenous poisonings with the e-liquid are described. The clinical courses of these poisonings are presented. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the patient's blood were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. In the course of intoxication patient No. 1, classic symptoms of acute nicotine poisoning without convulsions were observed. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations measured in serum were 0.096 and 4.4mg/L, respectively. The case of patient No. 2, admission with no typical symptoms of nicotine poisoning was identified, except unconsciousness and slow respiration. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the serum at the time of No. 2 admissions were determined to be 0.8 and 1.3mg/L, respectively. With the increasing number of e-liquid poisonings cases, it should be aware that these products can be a readily available source of poison. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carme; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Monleon, Toni; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Sunyer, Jordi; Figueroa, Cecilia; Pichini, Simona; Vall, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain). Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM) 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01) and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99) compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48). Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, most of the children considered non-exposed by their mothers had detectable levels of cotinine above 1 ng/mL in their urine. Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred. PMID:18254964

  11. MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING OF RADON EXPOSURES.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancer risk caused by the inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its short-lived progeny is related to lung dose, which cannot be directly measured. The only measurable parameters which allow the determination of lung doses are the radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and related size distributions. Although lung cancers are caused by the inhaled short-lived radon progeny and not by the radon gas, it is the radon gas which is commonly measured and not its progeny. Since radon gas measurements are much easier to carry out, require less expensive equipment and are especially suited for long-term measurements, the report focuses on the measurement of the radon gas for specific exposure conditions in homes and workplaces. The first objective of this report is to provide information on how to measure radon, covering measurement techniques of radon in air and water, currently available detection systems, and measurement strategies most appropriate for the desired goal of a measurement campaign. Critical measurement strategy decisions are the selection of the measured radionuclide (i.e., radon gas or radon progeny and related size distributions), choice of the measurement period (i.e., short-term or long-term measurements), the choice of detector and its deployment, the type of measurement (i.e., areal or personal measurements), the survey strategy (i.e., integral or time-resolved measurements), or the strategy to accomplish the specific goal of a survey (i.e., measurements describing the current status or retrospective measurements). The choice of a specific strategy depends on the purpose of the survey, and differs therefore between the demands of a nation-wide indoor radon survey or an epidemiological study.The second objective of this report is how to interpret and report the results of these measurements, the associated uncertainties, and the resulting dosimetric estimates. Care should be taken when reporting and interpreting radon measurements because

  12. Cotinine: a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Valentina; Zeitlin, Ross

    2012-07-01

    Tobacco smoking has been correlated with a lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This negative correlation has been attributed to nicotine's properties. However, the undesired side-effects of nicotine and the absence of clear evidence of positive effects of this drug on the cognitive abilities of AD patients have decreased the enthusiasm for its therapeutic use. In this review, we discuss evidence showing that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, has many of the beneficial effects but none of the negative side-effects of its precursor. Cotinine has been shown to be neuroprotective, to improve memory in primates as well as to prevent memory loss, and to lower amyloid-beta (Aβ)) burden in AD mice. In AD, cotinine's positive effect on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Because stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) positively modulates these factors and memory, the involvement of these receptors in cotinine's effects are discussed. Because of its beneficial effects on brain function, good safety profile, and nonaddictive properties, cotinine may represent a new therapeutic agent against AD.

  13. Overview of Cotinine Cutoff Values for Smoking Status Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungroul

    2016-01-01

    While cotinine is commonly used as a biomarker to validate self-reported smoking status, the selection of an optimal cotinine cutoff value for distinguishing true smokers from true nonsmokers shows a lack of standardization among studies. This review describes how the cutoff values have been derived, and explains the issues involved in the generalization of a cutoff value. In this study, we conducted an English-language literature search in PubMed using the keywords “cotinine” and “cutoff” or “self-reported” and “smoking status” and “validation” for the years 1985–2014. We obtained 104 articles, 32 of which provided (1) sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value and (2) determination methods for the given cutoff value. We found that the saliva cotinine cutoff value range of 10–25 ng/mL, serum and urine cotinine cutoff of 10–20 ng/mL and 50–200 ng/mL, respectively, have been commonly used to validate self-reported smoking status using a 2 × 2 table or a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. We also found that recent large population-based studies in the U.S. and UK reported lower cutoff values for cotinine in serum (3 ng/mL) and saliva (12 ng/mL), compared to the traditionally accepted ones (15 and 14 ng/mg, respectively). PMID:27983665

  14. Approaches in measuring exposure to food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiev, G K

    1982-03-01

    Measurement of levels of contaminants in food commodities and prepared meals, and market basket surveys are feasible in countries with existing systems of food control laboratories. Monitoring body tissues for contaminants or their metabolites reflects total exposure but care should be taken to select the most appropriate pharmacokinetic model.Strict quality control acquires particular value in obtaining (with existing instrumentation and facilities) results that meet specified acceptable parameters of analytical performance.Exposure measurement of dietary contaminants as a part of epidemiological studies becomes indispensable in the risk assessment process. Dietary intakes of DDT in USA and Bulgaria are within the range of 'virtually safe doses' for liver tumors extrapolated from animal experiments by four low dose extrapolation models for risk levels of 10(-4) and 10(-6).

  15. Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, M.S.; Li, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

  16. Personal pollen exposure compared to stationary measurements.

    PubMed

    Riediker, M; Keller, S; Wüthrich, B; Koller, T; Monn, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent stationary outdoor pollen measurements are representative for estimating personal exposure to pollen. Ten subjects were studied during a total of 36 days in spring and summer Pollen was sampled using personal SKC total dust samplers and stationary Burkard pollen traps. The personal activity pattern was recorded quarter-hourly as well as the time spent outdoors. As a reference, SKC and Burkard samplers were run stationary and in parallel. Stationary comparison of the samplers showed good correlation (r = 0.981, p <0.001). However, the SKC sampler collected systematically about four times less pollen than the Burkard sampler. Taking into account the systematic difference between the sampling devices, the personal exposure data were about 30% of the stationary pollen concentrations with significant correlation (log-transformed data, r = 0.719, p <0.0001). Considering the average time the subjects spent outdoors (14% of sampling time), the indoor-outdoor ratio for pollen was 0.2. In conclusion, pollen reports are reliable for estimating personal exposure over a limited time period although personal pollen exposure is much lower.

  17. 12 CFR 217.151 - Introduction and exposure measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction and exposure measurement. 217.151... Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures § 217.151 Introduction and exposure measurement. (a) General. (1) To calculate its risk-weighted asset amounts for equity exposures that are not...

  18. Screening for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Inner City Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Halterman, Jill S.; Borrelli, Belinda; Tremblay, Paul; Conn, Kelly M.; Fagnano, Maria; Montes, Guillermo; Hernandez, Telva

    2008-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) causes increased morbidity among children with asthma, however pediatricians do not consistently screen and counsel families of asthmatic children regarding ETS. An index score based on parent report of exposure could help providers efficiently screen for ETS. Objective 1) To develop an index measure of ETS based on parent self-report of smoking behaviors; 2) To determine whether the index score is associated with children’s present and future cotinine levels. Methods Data were drawn from a community intervention for inner-city children with persistent asthma (n=226, response rate 72%). Measures of child salivary cotinine and parent self-reported ETS-related behaviors were obtained at baseline and 7–9 months later. To develop the index score, we used a 15-fold cross-validation method on 70% of our data that considered combinations of smoke exposure variables, controlling for demographics. We chose the most parsimonious model that minimized the mean square predictive error. The resulting index score included primary caregiver smoking and home smoking ban status. We validated our model on the remaining 30% of data. ANOVA and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association of the index score with children’s cotinine levels. Results 54% of asthmatic children lived with ≥1 smoker and 51% of caregivers reported a complete home smoking ban. The children’s mean baseline cotinine was 1.55ng/ml (range 0.0–21.3). Children’s baseline and follow-up cotinine levels increased as scores on the index measure increased. In a linear regression, the index score was significantly and positively associated with children’s cotinine measurements at baseline (p<.001, model R2=.37) and 7–9 months later (p<.001, R2=.38). Conclusion An index measure with combined information regarding primary caregiver smoking and household smoking restrictions helps to identify asthmatic children with the greatest exposure to ETS

  19. Assessment of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure by determining nicotine and its metabolites in meconium.

    PubMed

    Köhler, E; Avenarius, S; Rabsilber, A; Gerloff, C; Jorch, G

    2007-06-01

    Meconium samples collected from 115 neonates were analysed for nicotine, cotinine and trans -3-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify prenatal smoke exposure. The self-reported maternal smoking status during pregnancy was determined by means of a questionnaire and verified by measurements in urine prior to childbirth. The total sum of nicotine and its metabolites (Sum(tot)) of the first passed meconium samples was 1560 +/- 1024 pmol/g in newborns of smoking mothers. Smoking of less than five cigarettes was clearly detected. Sum(tot) remained constant in all meconium samples passed by a neonate in succession. However, the proportion of nicotine decreased with the time of passage after birth and the OH-cotinine proportion increased, whereas cotinine hardly changed. Nicotine or its metabolites were not detectable in meconium (detection limit < 20 pmol/g), when the mothers were only exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using the HPLC method. The hypothesis that the content of nicotine metabolites in meconium reflects long-term smoke exposure could not be confirmed in newborns whose mothers had quit smoking during the latter half of pregnancy. Determining Sum(tot) enables the intensity of continuous smoking during pregnancy to be estimated in all meconium samples passed by a newborn.

  20. Formation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine due to exposure to ethylene oxide via tobacco smoke: A risk factor for onset of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bono, R; Vincenti, M; Meineri, V; Pignata, C; Saglia, U; Giachino, O; Scursatone, E

    1999-07-01

    Human exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO) occurs mainly through inhalation of occupational polluted air and tobacco smoke. EtO is able to react with DNA and proteins producing some molecular adducts. One of these, resulting from reaction between EtO and valine in hemoglobin, is N-(2-hydroxyethyl) valine (HOEtVal). This adduct represents a biological effective dose marker, the level of which correlates linearly with the alkylating activity occurring in DNA. The aim of the present study was to measure HOEtVal in 146 urbanized adult and healthy subjects, nonoccupationally exposed to EtO, and to correlate it with smoke habits. HOEtVal showed a direct positive relationship to tobacco smoke exposure quantified by questionnaire, urinary cotinine (r=0.64509), and the number of cigarettes (r=0. 6308) actively or passively smoked. Results relative to HOEtVal and urinary cotinine in adults distinguish well between active and passive smokers but do not allow distinguishment between passive smokers and nonsmokers. Nevertheless, several authors demonstrated a very good capacity of cotinine to discriminate inside groups of adolescents passive smokers. Therefore, the future objective of the present study is a closer inspection of the two biomarkers with respect to passive exposure to tobacco smoke considering a large group of adolescents. Finally, the correlation between urinary cotinine and HOEtVal increases knowledge about early steps of the carcinogenic process due to active exposure to tobacco smoke. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Application of molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction for salivary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Vitor, Ricardo Vilela; Martins, Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Martins, Isarita

    2011-06-01

    A method constituted by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed for cotinine analysis in saliva samples. For this purpose, the separation was carried out with a C18 reversed-phase column at 20 °C. The mobile phase which was composed of a mixture of 09:91 (v/v) acetonitrile/phosphate buffer, pH 6.3, was delivered with isocratic flow rate at 1.4 mL min(-1). Employing MISPE, the best conditions were achieved with 1.5 mL of saliva plus 1.5 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) of acetate buffer, pH 5.5, which were then passed through a cartridge previously conditioned with 2 mL acetonitrile, 2 mL methanol, and 2 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. The washing was carried out with 1 mL deionized water, 1 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium hydroxide, and 1 mL hexane; finally; the cotinine elution was carried out with 3 mL methanol/water (97.5: 2.5, v/v). Linearity ranged from 30 to 500 ng mL(-1) with r > 0.99. Intra-assay, interassay precision, and accuracy ranged from 3.1% to 10.1%, 5.2% to 15.9%, and 99.22% to 111.17%, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 10 and 30 ng mL(-1), respectively. This investigation has provided a reliable method for routine cotinine determination in saliva, and it is an important tool for monitoring cigarette smoke exposure in smokers. The method was applied in five smokers' samples who consumed around five to 20 cigarettes per day and the values of cotinine in saliva were from 66.7 to 316.16 ng mL(-1).

  2. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  3. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    PubMed Central

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  4. Reduced exposure to secondhand smoke at casinos in Puerto Rico after the implementation of a workplace smoking ban in 2007: a pre-post design.

    PubMed

    Marín, Heriberto A; Díaz-Toro, Elba C

    2011-12-01

    Tobacco use and the involuntary exposition to secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the leading causes of cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the smoke free workplace ban implemented in March of 2007 in Puerto Rico on the exposure of casino workers to secondhand smoke measured in terms of fine particulate matter and cotinine level. This study used a pre-post comparison design to measure exposure to secondhand smoke before (February, 2007) and after (December, 2007 to February, 2008) the workplace smoking ban was implemented. The samples included level of cotinine in saliva from 20 randomly sampled casino union workers and indoor concentrations of fine particulate matter (2.5 microm diameter, PM2.5) in 10 casinos located in the San Juan metropolitan area. Paired t-tests were used to test any statistically significant change in particulate matter and cotinine levels before and after the ban went into effect. The average PM2.5 level in San Juan metropolitan area casinos decreased by 88.5% (95% CI: 63.9%, 96.3%) and the average cotinine level for the sample of nonsmoking casino workers decreased by 52.1% (95% CI: 40.6%, 61.4%). Both reductions were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The implementation of the smoke free workplace ban in 2007 resulted in a significant reduction of the exposure to secondhand smoke to casino workers in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico.

  5. Tobacco-induced neuronal degeneration via cotinine in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dalgic, Ali; Okay, Onder; Helvacioglu, Fatma; Daglioglu, Ergun; Akdag, Rifat; Take, Gulnur; Belen, Deniz

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals including well-characterized toxicants and carcinogens, among which is cotinine. Cotinine is the principal metabolite of nicotine that has adverse affects on the microcirculation via vasoconstriction, hypoxia and the wound-healing cascade. Its impact on spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cotinine effect on SCI. 48 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: sham-control, sham-trauma, vehicle-control, vehicle-trauma, cotinine-control, and cotinine-trauma. Initially, a defined concentration of cotinine blood level was maintained by daily intraperitoneal injection of cotinine for 14 days in the cotinine groups. The concentration was similar to the cotinine dose in the blood level of heavy smokers. Only ethyl alcohol was injected in the vehicle groups during the same period. Then, SCI was performed by a Tator clip. The cotinine groups were compared with rats subjected to vehicle and sham groups by immunohistochemical biomarkers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) expressions. Electron microscopic examination was also performed. GFAP-positive cells were noted to be localized around degenerated astrocytes. Marked vacuolization with perivascular and perineural edema was seen in the cotinin consumption groups. These findings showed the inhibition of regeneration after SCI. Similarly, vacuolization within myelin layers was noted in the cotinine groups, which was detected through reduced CNP expression. Cotinine, a main metabolite of nicotine, has harmful effects on SCI via GFAP and CNP expression. The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that tobacco causes neuronal degeneration via cotinine. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Effect of serum cotinine on vitamin D serum concentrations among american females with different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Manavi, Kiano Reza; Alston-Mills, Brenda P; Thompson, Marvin P; Allen, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of blood serum concentration of cotinine among non-smokers, passive/light smokers and active smoker females in the United States population as it compares to vitamin D blood serum concentrations. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that is designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n=22,196). The analyses demonstrated that among all three smoking categories, black female active smokers have lower vitamin D (13.374 ng/ml), than hispanic (19.213 ng/ml) or white (24.929 ng/ml) females. It was demonstrated that the active smoker black females have the highest percentage of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in the population compared to other ethnic females. The cotinine blood serum concentrations can also affect vitamin D concentrations in addition to other factors such as gender, ethnicity, dietary supplement intake and sun exposure. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Screening by Pulse CO-Oximetry for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Preanesthetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Kathryn; Pan, Zhaoxing; Boucher, Rebecca; Zuk, Jeannie; Friesen, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of multiple wavelength pulse CO-oximetry (SpCO) to screen for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children. Background Exposure to ETS is associated with an increased risk of perioperative respiratory complications in children. It is often difficult to obtain an accurate history for ETS exposure, so a preoperative screening tool is desirable. Carbon monoxide is a measurable product of tobacco combustion. Multiple wavelength pulse CO-oximetry is a recently developed point-of-care monitor. Methods Following IRB approval and parental consent, 220 children aged 1–16 years having outpatient surgical procedures were enrolled. SpCO was measured preoperatively 3 times with the Radical-7 Rainbow SET CO-oximeter (Masimo, Irvine, CA). Immediately following induction of anesthesia, a blood sample for laboratory measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and serum cotinine was obtained. Regression analysis determined the correlation of SpCO with serum cotinine values. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves analyzed the discriminating ability of SpCO or COHb to predict ETS exposure based on cotinine cutoff values known to be present in children exposed to ETS. Agreement of SpCO and COHb values was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Results SpCO did not correlate with cotinine (R2=0.005). Both SpCO and COHb had poor discriminating ability for ETS exposure (area under the ROC curve = 0.606 and 0.562, respectively). SpCO values had poor agreement with COHb values. Conclusions The point-of-care multiple wavelength pulse CO-oximeter does not appear to be a useful preoperative screening tool for ETS exposure in children. PMID:22587734

  8. Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Turner, W E; Pirkle, J L; Sosnoff, C S; Akins, J R; Waldrep, M K; Ann, Q; Covey, T R; Whitfield, W E; Gunter, E W; Miller, B B; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L; Hannon, W H; Sampson, E J

    1997-12-01

    We describe a sensitive and specific method for measuring cotinine in serum by HPLC coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer. This method can analyze 100 samples/day on a routine basis, and its limit of detection of 50 ng/L makes it applicable to the analysis of samples from nonsmokers potentially exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Analytical accuracy has been demonstrated from the analysis of NIST cotinine standards and from comparative analyses by both the current method and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Precision has been examined through the repetitive analysis of a series of bench and blind QC materials. This method has been applied to the analysis of cotinine in serum samples collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

  9. An high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of cotinine in the urine of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oruç, E E; Koçyiğit-Kaymakçioğlu, B; Yilmaz-Demircan, F; Gürbüz, Y; Kalaça, S; Küçkgüzel, S G; Ulgen, M; Rollas, S

    2006-10-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important and preventable cause of morbidity among children. Enviromental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases respiratory symptoms and disease and also decreases lung function in children who live in a household with at least one smoker. We have developed a simple and reliable HPLC method with diode array dedection to determine the urine concentrations of cotinine in children aged 3 to 6 years, exposed to ETS. The assay involved a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. The HPLC method utilized a Chromasil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and an isocratic mobile phase of phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (83:17 v/v, 0.02 M containing 0.1% triethylamine, adjusted to pH 6.72 with orthophosphoric acid), at a flow rate of 0.7 ml min(-1). The detection was performed at 260 nm and the total analysis time of analysis was less than 15 min. Linearity ranged from 0 to 80 microg L(-1); correlation coefficients (r2) for calibration curves were greater than 0.99. With 2 mL of urine for extraction, the limit of detection was 0.1 microg L(-1). The mean extraction ratio of cotinine was 88.78%. This analytical method is suitable for the determination of cotinine levels in a large number of urine samples.

  10. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William F.; Wolfe, Homer R.

    1962-01-01

    There is not a single pesticide for which the interrelationships between occupational exposure by different routes, the fate of the compound in the human body, and its clinical effects are all adequately known. Results of the direct measurement of exposure to pesticides may be used in evaluating the relative hazard of different routes of exposure, different operational procedures, and different protective devices. Results of the indirect measurement of exposure may be of use for the same purpose; in addition, these indirect measures may be used in relating exposures under observed conditions to clinical effects. This paper describes and evaluates detailed procedures for the use of air samples, pads, and washes in the direct measurement of the dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to pesticides. Good methods are not available for measuring oral exposure. Any measure of the absorption, storage, physiological effect, or excretion of a compound constitutes an indirect indication of exposure to it. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13888659

  11. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  12. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  13. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  14. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  15. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: clinical evaluation methodology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer N; Breland, Alison B; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users.

  16. Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hovell, Melbourne F; Zakarian, Joy M; Matt, Georg E; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A; Hofstetter, C Richard; Larson, Sarah N; Benowitz, Neal L

    2009-12-01

    We tested a combined intervention to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and help parents quit smoking. After baseline, mothers who exposed their children younger than 4 years to 10 or more cigarettes/week were randomized to the intervention (n = 76) or usual care control condition (n = 74). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Intervention families were offered 10 in-person at home and 4 telephone counseling sessions over 6 months, and additional pre- and postquit telephone sessions. Counseling procedures included behavioral contracting, self-monitoring, and problem solving. Parents' reports of their smoking and children's exposure showed moderate and significant correlations with children's urine cotinine levels and home air nicotine (r = .40-.78). Thirteen (17.1%) intervention group mothers and 4 (5.4%) controls reported that they quit smoking for 7 days prior to 1 or more study measurements, without biochemical contradiction (p = .024). Results of generalized estimating equations showed significantly greater decrease in reported SHSe and mothers' smoking in the counseled group compared with controls. Reported indoor smoking and children's urine cotinine decreased, yet group differences for changes were not significant. Nicotine contamination of the home and resulting thirdhand exposure may have contributed to the failure to obtain a differential decrease in cotinine concentration. Partial exposure to counseling due to dropouts and lack of full participation from all family members and measurement reactivity in both conditions may have constrained intervention effects. Secondhand smoke exposure counseling may have been less powerful when combined with smoking cessation.

  17. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke leads to increased mitochondrial DNA content in umbilical cord serum associated to reduced gestational age.

    PubMed

    Pirini, Francesca; Goldman, Lynn R; Soudry, Ethan; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank; Sidransky, David; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    We investigated if prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke lead to changes in mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNA) in cord serum and adversely affect newborns' health. Umbilical cord serum cotinine levels were used to determine in utero exposure to smoking. Cord serum mtDNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the genes coding for cytochrome c oxidase1 (MT-CO1) and cytochrome c oxidase2 (MT-CO2). Log transformed levels of mtDNA coding for MT-CO1 and MT-CO2 were significantly higher among infants of active smokers with higher serum level of cotinine (p < 0.05) and inversely associated with gestational age (p = 0.08; p = 0.02). Structural equation modeling results confirmed a positive association between cotinine and MT-CO1 and2 (p < 0.01) and inverse associations with gestational age (p = 0.02) and IGF-1 (p < 0.01). We identified a dose-dependent increase in the level of MT-CO1 and MT-CO2 associated to increased cord serum cotinine and decreased gestational age.

  18. The effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in a longitudinal study of British adults.

    PubMed

    Carey, I M; Cook, D G; Strachan, D P

    1999-05-01

    Small effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function have been demonstrated in many studies of children, but fewer studies have examined adults in this respect. We examined these relations in a 7-year longitudinal study of 1,623 British adults, age 18-73 years, who were nonsmokers throughout. Outcome was measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) adjusted for sex, age, and height. Exposure was assessed by asking subjects whether they lived with a smoker (at both the initial and the follow-up studies) and by salivary cotinine measurements (follow-up study only). Cross-sectionally, subjects exposed at home showed tiny FEV1 deficits at both studies of -4 ml [95% confidence limits (CL) = -31, 23] and -5 ml (95% CL = -32, 22), respectively. Cotinine adjusted for potential confounders showed a stronger association with FEV1, with the highest quintile showing a -105-ml deficit (95% CL = -174, -37) in comparison with the lowest. Longitudinally, no clear relation was apparent between change in FEV1 and average exposure or change in exposure. These results indicate that environmental tobacco smoke is associated with small deficits in adult lung function, consistent with our meta-analysis estimate of a 2.7% deficit in exposed nonsmoking adults. The relations seen with cotinine but not with household exposure may reflect the importance of exposure outside the home.

  19. 12 CFR 217.51 - Introduction and exposure measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction and exposure measurement. 217.51 Section 217.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Assets for Equity Exposures § 217.51 Introduction and exposure measurement. (a) General. (1) To calculate...

  20. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  1. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure in racial/ethnic groups at high risk for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3' hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social-environmental stressors. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification.

  2. The Association of Pipe and Cigar Use with Cotinine Levels, Lung Function and Airflow Obstruction: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Josanna; Jiang, Rui; Johnson, W. Craig; MacKenzie, Barbara A; Smith, Lewis J.; Barr, R. Graham

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but studies on the contribution of other smoking techniques are sparse. Objective We hypothesized that pipe and cigar smoking was associated with elevated cotinine levels, decrements in lung function and increased odds of airflow obstruction. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample from six US communities. Participants The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited men and women ages 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measurements The MESA Lung Study measured spirometry following American Thoracic Society guidelines and urinary cotinine levels by immunoassay. Pipe-years and cigar-years were calculated as years from self-reported age of starting to quitting (or to current age among current users) × pipefuls or cigars per day. Results Of 3,528 participants, 8% reported pipe smoking (median 15 pipe-years), 11% reported cigar smoking (median 6 cigar-years), and 52% reported cigarette smoking (median 18 pack-years). Self-reported current pipe and cigar smokers had elevated urinary cotinine levels compared to never smokers. Pipe-years were associated with decrements in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and cigar-years were associated with decrements in the FEV1 and the ratio of the FEV1 to the forced vital capacity. Participants who smoked pipes or cigars had an increased odds of airflow obstruction whether they had also smoked cigarettes (Odds ratio 3.43; 95% CI: 1.75, 6.71; P<0.001) or had never smoked cigarettes (Odds ratio 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04, 5.11; P=0.039) compared to participants with no smoking history. Limitations Cross-sectional design. Conclusions Pipe and cigar smoking increased urinary cotinine levels and was associated with decrements in lung function and increased odds of airflow obstruction, even among participants who never smoked cigarettes. PMID:20157134

  3. Can a minimal intervention reduce secondhand smoke exposure among children with asthma from low income minority families? Results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Streja, Leanne; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan; Wong, Glenn C; Jones, Craig A; Bernert, John T; Tashkin, Donald; Hammond, S Katharine; Berman, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of a low-intensity behavioral intervention to reduce second hand smoke (SHS) exposure of children with asthma from low income minority households in Los Angeles, California. In this study, 242 child/adult dyads were randomized to a behavioral intervention (video, workbook, minimal counseling) or control condition (brochure). Main outcome measures included child's urine cotinine and parental reports of child's hours of SHS exposure and number of household cigarettes smoked. Implementation of household bans was also considered. No differences in outcomes were detected between intervention and control groups at follow-up. Limitations included high attrition and low rates of collection of objective measures (few children with urine cotinine samples). There continues to be a need for effective culturally and linguistically appropriate strategies that support reduction of household SHS exposure among children with asthma in low income, minority households.

  4. Quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gray, Teresa R; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2008-02-15

    There are no analytical methods that simultaneously quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium. Such a method could improve identification of in utero tobacco exposure, determine if maternal dose-meconium concentration relationships exist, and whether nicotine meconium concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. The first liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of these analytes in meconium was developed and validated. Specimen preparation included homogenization, enzyme hydrolysis and solid phase extraction. The linear range was 1.25 or 5-500ng/g. Method applicability was evaluated with meconium collected from an in utero tobacco exposed infant.

  5. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial function in adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Jefferis, B J; Lowe, G D O; Welsh, P; Rumley, A; Lawlor, D A; Ebrahim, S; Carson, C; Doig, M; Feyerabend, C; McMeekin, L; Wannamethee, S G; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2010-02-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with elevated CHD risks. Yet the pathways through which this may operate have not been investigated in epidemiologic studies with objective SHS exposure measures and a wide range of CHD risk factors associated with active smoking. Therefore we investigate associations between SHS exposure and CHD risk factors, to clarify how SHS exposure may raise risk of CHD. Cross-sectional population-based study of 5029 men and women aged 59-80 years from primary care practices in Great Britain. Smoking, behavioural and demographic information was reported in questionnaires; nurses made physical measurements and took blood samples for analysis of serum cotinine and markers of inflammation, hemostasis and endothelial dysfunction. Active cigarette smokers had lower albumin and higher triglycerides, CRP, IL-6, white cell count, fibrinogen, blood viscosity, factor VIII, VWF and t-PA than non-smokers. Among non-smokers, serum cotinine levels were independently positively associated with CRP, fibrinogen, factor VIII, VWF and t-PA and inversely associated with albumin, after adjustment for age, gender, social and behavioural factors. The differences in CRP, fibrinogen and albumin between cotinine < or =0.05 and >0.7 ng/ml were one-third to one half the size of differences between cotinine < or =0.05 ng/ml and current smokers, but were of similar magnitude for VWF and t-PA. Endothelial, inflammatory and haemostatic markers related to CHD risk showed independent associations with SHS exposure in the same direction as those for active smoking. Results aid understanding of the associations between SHS exposure and elevated CHD risks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  7. Biomonitoring of tobacco smoke exposure and self-reported smoking status among general population of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Parmy, Saeid; Gharibi, Hamed; Faridi, Sasan; Hasanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Mirzaei, Nezam; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to find a correlation between the self-reported smoking status of the residents of Tehran, Iran, and the urine cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. The self-reported data was collected from 222 participants who were living in the urban area of Tehran. The urine samples of participants were collected for cotinine analysis. Urine cotinine was measured by an enzymatic immunoassay technique. Tobacco smoking was reported by 76 (34.23 %) participants as the self-reported data, and the number of males in this report was higher than of females (p < 0.001). By adding the number of the self-reported non-smokers with cotinine levels above the cutoff value of >100 ng/ml to self-reported smokers, the smoking prevalence increased from 34.23 % (95 % CI 28.01-40.88 %) to 36.48 % (95 % CI 30.14-43.19 %). Using the cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the self-reported smoking status were respectively 90.12 % (95 % CI 81.46-95.64 %) and 98 % (95 % CI 93.91-99.55 %). The levels of agreement between self-reported tobacco smoking and urinary cotinine concentrations was 95.1 % (k = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95 % CI = 0.81-0.95). Based on the results, self-reported smoking can be a valid marker for assessing the tobacco exposure, and it can be of use in large epidemiological studies.

  8. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Ware, Lorraine B.; Eisner, Mark D.; Yu, Lisa; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Matthay, Michael A.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The association between tobacco smoke exposure and critical illness is not well studied, largely because obtaining an accurate smoking history from critically ill patients is difficult. Biomarkers can provide quantitative data on active and secondhand cigarette smoke exposure. We sought to compare cigarette smoke exposure as measured by biomarkers to exposure by self-report in a cohort of critically ill patients and to determine how well biomarkers of cigarette smoke exposure correlate with each other in this population. Design, Setting, and Patients Serum and urine cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, and hair and nail nicotine levels were measured in 60 subjects enrolled in an observational cohort of critically ill subjects at a tertiary academic medical center in Tennessee. Smoking history was obtained from patients, their surrogates, or the medical chart. Cigarette smoke exposure as measured by biomarkers was compared to exposure by history. Measurements and Main Results By smoking history, 29 subjects were identified as smokers, 28 were identified as nonsmokers, and 3 were identified as unknown. The combination of serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol identified 27 of the 28 nonsmokers by history either as active smokers (n = 6, 21%) or as exposed to secondhand smoke (n = 21, 75%). All biomarker levels were strongly correlated with each other (r = .69–.95, p < .0001). Conclusions The combination of serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol identified considerably more active smokers than did smoking history and detected a high prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in a critically ill population. These markers will be important for future studies investigating the relationship between active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and critical illness. PMID:20935560

  9. Racial differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen E; Kahn, Robert S; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children's having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child's exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (ss = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (ss = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses.

  10. Racial Differences in Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen E.; Kahn, Robert S.; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children’s having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child’s exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (β = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (β = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses. PMID:15743729

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Solar UVR Exposure Compared to Objectively Measured UVR Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Gies, Peter; O’Riordan, David L.; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric; McCarty, Frances; Davis, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Background Reliance on verbal self-report of solar exposure in skin cancer prevention and epidemiologic studies may be problematic if self-report data are not valid due to systematic errors in recall, social desirability bias, or other reasons. Methods This study examines the validity of self-reports of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) compared to objectively measured exposure among children and adults in outdoor recreation settings in four regions of the United States. Objective UVR exposures of 515 participants were measured using polysulfone film badge UVR dosimeters on two days. The same subjects provided self-reported UVR exposure data on surveys and 4-day sun exposure diaries, for comparison to their objectively measured exposure. Results Dosimeter data showed that lifeguards had the greatest UVR exposure (24.5% of weekday ambient UVR), children the next highest exposures (10.3% ambient weekday UVR) and parents had the lowest (6.6% ambient weekday UVR). Similar patterns were observed in self-report data. Correlations between diary reports and dosimeter findings were fair to good and were highest for lifeguards (r = 0.38 – 0.57), followed by parents (r = 0.28 – 0.29) and children (r = 0.18 – 0.34). Correlations between survey and diary measures were moderate to good for lifeguards (r = 0.20 – 0.54) and children (r = 0.35 – 0.53). Conclusions This is the largest study of its kind to date, and supports the utility of self-report measures of solar UVR exposure. Impact Overall, self-reports of sun exposure produce valid measures of UVR exposure among parents, children, and lifeguards who work outdoors. PMID:20940277

  12. Validity of self-reported solar UVR exposure compared with objectively measured UVR exposure.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Gies, Peter; O'Riordan, David L; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric; McCarty, Frances; Davis, Erica

    2010-12-01

    Reliance on verbal self-report of solar exposure in skin cancer prevention and epidemiologic studies may be problematic if self-report data are not valid due to systematic errors in recall, social desirability bias, or other reasons. This study examines the validity of self-reports of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) compared to objectively measured exposure among children and adults in outdoor recreation settings in 4 regions of the United States. Objective UVR exposures of 515 participants were measured using polysulfone film badge UVR dosimeters on 2 days. The same subjects provided self-reported UVR exposure data on surveys and 4-day sun exposure diaries, for comparison to their objectively measured exposure. Dosimeter data showed that lifeguards had the greatest UVR exposure (24.5% of weekday ambient UVR), children the next highest exposures (10.3% ambient weekday UVR), and parents had the lowest (6.6% ambient weekday UVR). Similar patterns were observed in self-report data. Correlations between diary reports and dosimeter findings were fair to good and were highest for lifeguards (r = 0.38-0.57), followed by parents (r = 0.28-0.29) and children (r = 0.18-0.34). Correlations between survey and diary measures were moderate to good for lifeguards (r = 0.20-0.54) and children (r = 0.35-0.53). This is the largest study of its kind to date, and supports the utility of self-report measures of solar UVR exposure. Overall, self-reports of sun exposure produce valid measures of UVR exposure among parents, children, and lifeguards who work outdoors. ©2010 AACR.

  13. Childhood secondhand smoke exposure and ADHD-attributable costs to the health and education system.

    PubMed

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling

    2014-10-01

    Children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) have higher rates of behavioral and cognitive effects, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the costs to the health care and education systems have not been estimated. We estimate these costs for school-aged children aged 5-15. The relative risk (RR) of ADHD from SHS exposure was obtained from our previous work. SHS exposure was measured using 2 alternative approaches--reported exposure and serum cotinine-measured exposure. RRs and SHS exposure were used to determine the number of children with SHS-attributable ADHD, and mean costs of ADHD-related health care and education services were applied to obtain SHS-attributable health care and education costs. Annual health care costs of SHS-attributable ADHD ranged from $644 million (using reported SHS exposure) to $2.05 billion (using cotinine-measured exposure). SHS-attributable costs to the education system ranged from $2.90 to $9.23 billion. The costs of SHS-attributable ADHD to the education system may total more than 4 times the costs for health care. The huge economic impact of SHS exposure on the education system has not been documented previously, and suggests that reducing childhood exposure to tobacco smoke will release substantial funds that could be used for general education of all children. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  14. Tobacco smoke exposure and multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Lai, S-H; Tseng, Y-L; Yeh, K-W; Tsai, H-J; Huang, J-L

    2016-01-01

    Although there is evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke is harmful to children's respiratory health, the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on the regulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immune responses to specific allergens remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between objectively assessed tobacco smoke exposure and specific IgE profiles for a broad spectrum of allergens in a population setting. Children aged 5-18 years (N = 1315) were assessed using serum cotinine measurement and microarray-based multiplexed detection of specific IgE against 40 allergens. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with sensitization to foods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.95; 95% CI: 1.59-15.34), cockroaches (AOR = 3.77; 95% CI: 1.49-9.51), and pollen (AOR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.20-6.73) while the association was borderline significant for animals (AOR = 2.53; 95% CI: 0.92-6.93). No associations were found for sensitization against mites, mold, and latex. When considering the degree of allergic sensitization, serum cotinine levels were positively correlated to the number of sensitization to cockroaches (P = 0.004), pollen (P = 0.006), and foods (P < 0.001), with statistically significant positive dose-response relationships (all P < 0.01). Similar results were observed when summing up specific IgE concentrations for the aforementioned allergen categories. The association between tobacco smoke exposure and IgE sensitization to environmental allergens varies for different allergens among children. This study demonstrates that elevated serum cotinine levels are significantly associated with IgE sensitization to cockroaches, grass pollen, and certain foods, with potential dose-dependent relationships. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison of measured dermal dust exposures with predicted exposures given by the EASE expert system.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Graeme W; Cherrie, John W

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is a rule-based computer expert system used by regulatory authorities within the European Union to assist in assessing exposure for both new and existing substances. It can provide estimates of both inhalation exposure levels and dermal exposure levels to the hands and forearms. This article describes the results of a study in which measurements of workplace dermal zinc exposures were collected for an industry-wide risk assessment and also compared with the levels predicted by EASE. Measurements were obtained from subjects in seven different workplaces that were producing or working with zinc metal or zinc compounds. The work activities were grouped a priori into one of three categories used by EASE for dermal exposure assessment: 'non-dispersive use with intermittent direct handling', 'wide dispersive use with intermittent direct handling' and 'wide dispersive use with extensive direct handling'. The predicted exposure ranges for these categories are 0.1-1, 1-5 and 5-15 mg cm(-2) day(-1). Although the average measured exposure levels for each of the categories increased in line with the predictions from EASE, the model overestimated dermal exposure to the hands by a factor of approximately 50 when the mid-point of the EASE range was compared with the measured mean exposure. Furthermore, a significant additional exposure was found on other parts of the workers' bodies for which EASE does not provide any estimates. Interpretation of the dermal exposure data was complicated by the use of protective gloves, which might have limited the amount of zinc dust adhering to the workers' skin. However, observation of the work activities suggested that the pattern of glove use was such that they would not provide a consistent level of protection. This study provided an opportunity to collect a large amount of dermal zinc exposure data for risk assessment purposes and also enabled a dermal sampling method to be developed

  16. Real exposure: field measurement of chemical plumes in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David D; Moore, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    In fluvial systems, organismic exposure to nonpoint source pollutants will fluctuate in frequency (exposure events), intensity (concentration), and duration. The reliance on lethal concentrations and static exposure in many laboratory studies does not adequately represent nor address exposure to in situ chemical plumes of fluvial habitats. To adequately address field exposure in a laboratory setting, one needs an understanding of the physics of chemical transmission within moving fluids. Because of the chaotic nature of turbulence, chemical plumes introduced to fluvial systems have a spatial and temporal microstructure with fluxes in chemical concentration. Consequently, time-averaged static exposure models are not ecologically relevant for the major reason of in situ distribution. The purpose of this study was to quantify in situ chemical distribution and dispersion within two physically different streams. Dopamine was introduced as a chemical tracer mimicking groundwater runoff. Chemical fluxes and stream hydrodynamics were simultaneously measured using a microelectrode and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, respectively, at three heights of three downstream locations at each research site. Fine-scale measurements of the dopamine plume microstructure showed that organisms could be exposed to chemical fluctuations where concentrations are significantly greater than the overall time-averaged concentration. These measurements demonstrate that rather than relying on static exposure, standards for pollution must consider the concept of exposure being interdependently linked to flow of the fluid medium. The relationship between fluid dynamics, pollution exposure, and organism physiology are complex and must be evaluated in ways to mimic natural systems.

  17. Real exposure: Field measurement of chemical plumes in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David D.

    In fluvial systems, organismic exposure to nonpoint source pollutants will fluctuate in frequency (exposure events), intensity (concentration), and duration. The reliance on lethal concentrations and static exposure in many laboratory studies does not adequately represent nor address exposure to in situ chemical plumes of fluvial habitats. In order to adequately address field exposure in a lab setting, one needs an understanding of the physics of chemical transmission within moving fluids. Because of the chaotic nature of turbulence, chemical plumes introduced to fluvial systems have a spatial and temporal microstructure with fluxes in chemical concentration. Consequently, time-averaged static exposure models are not ecologically relevant for the major reason of in situ distribution. The purpose of this study was to quantify in situ chemical distribution and dispersion within two physically different streams. Dopamine was introduced as a chemical tracer mimicking groundwater runoff. Chemical fluxes and stream hydrodynamics were simultaneously measured using a microelectrode and an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV), respectively, at three heights of three downstream locations at each research site. Fine-scale measurements of the dopamine plume microstructure showed organisms could be exposed to chemical fluctuations where concentrations are significantly greater than the overall time-averaged concentration. These measurements demonstrate that rather than relying on static exposure, standards for pollution need to consider the concept of exposure being interdependently linked to flow of the fluid medium. The relationship between fluid dynamics, pollution exposure and organism physiology are complex and need to be evaluated in ways to mimic natural systems.

  18. Relationship between women's smoking and laryngeal disorders based on the urine cotinine test: results of a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwoo; Cho, Sunghyoun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is a possibility of underestimation in the smoking rate surveyed by self-reported questionnaires. This study investigated the difference between the Korean female smoking rate as determined by self-reports and that determined by a biochemical test and elucidated the relationship between women's smoking and laryngeal disorders. Design Nationwide cross-sectional survey. Setting 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants 1849 women who completed the health survey, urinary cotinine test and laryngoscope examinations. Main outcome measure This study defined smokers as those with urine cotinine contents of 50 ng/mL and over. Confounding factors included age, level of education, household income, occupation and problem drinking in the past year. For statistical tests, OR and 95% CI were presented by using complex samples logistic regression. Results While there was no relationship between smoking as determined by a self-reported questionnaire and laryngeal disorders, smoking as determined by the urine cotinine test had a significant relationship with laryngeal disorders (p<0.05). After all the confounding factors were adjusted, those with urine cotinine concentrations of over 50 ng/mL had a 2.1 times higher risk of laryngeal disorders than those with urine cotinine concentrations of <50 ng/mL (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.78) (p<0.05). Conclusions This national cross-sectional study verified that smoking is a significant risk factor for laryngeal disorders. Longitudinal studies are required to identify the causal relationship between smoking and laryngeal disorders. PMID:27872114

  19. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Adverse health effects from exposure to lead are now recognized to be among industrialized society's most important health problems. This report, prepared by the National Research Council's Committee on Measuring Lead Exposure in Critical Populations, concurs with new findings issued by the Centers for Disease Control which state that lead…

  1. Analyses of magnetic-field peak-exposure summary measures.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Gabor; Bracken, T Dan; Senior, Russell; Kavet, Robert

    2006-11-01

    Two previous epidemiologic studies reported an association between the maximum magnetic field exposure logged during a 24-h measurement period and risk of miscarriage. A hypothesis was put forth which argued that the observed association may be the result of behavioral differences between women with healthy pregnancies (less physically active) and women with miscarriage. We analyzed four existing data sets with power-frequency magnetic-field personal exposure (PE) measurements to investigate the characteristics of peak-exposure measures. We found that the value of the measured maximum magnetic-field exposure varied inversely with the sampling interval between magnetic-field measurements and that maximum values demonstrated less stability over time in repeated measurements, compared to time-weighted average and 95th and 99th -percentile values. We also found that the number of activity categories entered by study subjects could be used to estimate the proportion of subjects with exposure above various threshold values. Exposure metrics based on maximum values exceeding thresholds tend to classify active people into higher exposure categories. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis suggesting that the association between maximum magnetic fields and miscarriage are possibly the result of behavioral differences between women with healthy pregnancies and women who experience miscarriages. Thus, generalization from a given study to more global exposure characterization should be made with particular caution and with due consideration to sampling interval and other characteristics of the measurement protocol potentially influencing the measured maximum. Future epidemiologic studies of peak magnetic field exposure and spontaneous abortion should carefully evaluate the potential confounding effect of the women's activity level during pregnancy.

  2. [Tobacco smoking as a source of exposure of pregnant women and newborn on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H

    2006-01-01

    An essential problem related to tobacco smoking is exposure of children in the foetal period and early childhood to toxic compounds. The aim of this paper was to assess the exposure of pregnant women and their newborns to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a consequence of tobacco smoking. The exposure to tobacco smoke was determined through surveys and cotinine measurement in the urine of pregnant women and newborns, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been determined by measure of 1-hydroxypyrene in the same biological material. The cotinine concentration in the urine of smoking women and their newborns was respectively 416.0 +/- 319.9 ng/mg of creatinine and 46.5 +/- 37.2 ng/mg of creatinine. In case of non-smoking as well as non-exposed patients and their newborns, the concentration of cotinine was 0. The correlation between the concentration of cotinine in the urine of smoking women and their newborns was shown. The mean concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smoking patients was 0.65 +/- 0.45 ng/mg of creatinine, whereas in the urine of newborns, it was 0.46 +/- 0.41 ng/mg of creatinine. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers was increased together with the increase of cotinine, and the correlation factor was 0.5128. Such dependence was not indicated for concentrations of these compounds in the urine of newborns of these women. Within the group of non-smoking women, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyene urine of women was 0.25 +/- 0.29 ng/mg of creatinine, whereas among children 0.20 +/- 0.23 ng/mg of creatinine. In both examined group (smoking and non-smoking women) there is a dependence between the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of women and their newborns. The research concerning the assessment of exposure of pregnant women and their newborns to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted, and at the same time it was proven, that the placenta does not constitute a barrier for these

  3. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lianne; Burnett, Richard T; Szpiro, Adam A; Kim, Sun-Young; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Brunekreef, Bert

    2012-06-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital status. In such studies, control for individual-level confounders such as smoking is important, as is control for area-level confounders such as neighborhood socio-economic status. In addition, there may be spatial dependencies in the survival data that need to be addressed. These issues are illustrated using the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention II cohort. Exposure measurement error is a challenge in epidemiology because inference about health effects can be incorrect when the measured or predicted exposure used in the analysis is different from the underlying true exposure. Air pollution epidemiology rarely if ever uses personal measurements of exposure for reasons of cost and feasibility. Exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology comes in various dominant forms, which are different for time-series and cohort studies. The challenges are reviewed and a number of suggested solutions are discussed for both study domains.

  4. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  5. Exposure to secondhand smoke and depression and anxiety: a report from two studies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bot, Mariska; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Kluft, Cornelis; Boomsma, Dorret I; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-11-01

    Previous population-based studies suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is related to increased depressive symptoms and poor mental health among non-smokers. We examined whether these associations could be replicated in two independent Dutch samples. Non-smoking adults were selected from two studies: 1) the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), comprising individuals with current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and healthy controls and 2) the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), comprising twin-family studies on health-related behaviors. In both studies, SHS exposure was assessed with plasma cotinine levels (1-14ng/ml vs. <1ng/ml). In NESDA, outcomes were current depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and depression and anxiety symptom severity scores. In NTR, the Adult Self Report derived DSM-subscales for depressive and anxiety problems, and anxious depressive scores were analyzed. In NESDA non-smokers (n=1757), increased plasma cotinine level (≥1ng/ml) was not related to current depressive and/or anxiety disorders [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, P=.77], nor to depression or anxiety severity indicators. Similarly, in NTR non-smokers (n=1088) cotinine levels ≥1ng/ml were not associated with the DSM-subscale for depressive problems [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) 0.04, P=.88], nor to other depression and anxiety measures. In non-smoking adults from patient and population samples, we found no evidence that plasma cotinine levels were related to either depressive and/or anxiety disorders, or to depressive and anxiety symptoms. This suggests that SHS exposure is not related to depression and anxiety in non-smoking adults. © 2013.

  6. Measurement of airborne mite allergen exposure in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Sasaki, R; Hashimoto, M; Kobayashi, C; Yasueda, H

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the extent of personal exposure to airborne mite allergens, subjects were asked to carry a personal air sampler when in their houses. The level of Der 1 allergen trapped by the sampler was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. There were great variations in airborne Der 1 exposure in each subject. When used bedding was replaced with new allergen-free bedding, we detected a decrease in the allergen level. The use of new bedding seems to be an effective measure for reducing airborne mite allergen exposure.

  7. Improved /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, G.J.; Wylie, P.; Holman, M.S.; Haddow, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    We describe an /sup 125/I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand.

  8. Cotinine replacement levels for a 21 mg/day transdermal nicotine patch in an outpatient treatment setting.

    PubMed

    Gariti, P; Alterman, A I; Barber, W; Bedi, N; Luck, G; Cnaan, A

    1999-04-01

    This study examined plasma cotinine replacement levels of 56 outpatient smokers administered a 21 mg/day transdermal nicotine patch (Nicoderm CQ ). The percentage of cotinine replacement ranged from 35 to 232% (mean 107%; median 90.5%). Four subject variables were found to be significantly correlated with percentage of cotinine replacement-baseline cotinine level, prior quit attempts, gender, and the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire score. A two-variable model consisting of baseline cotinine level and gender provided the most powerful predictor combination. The percentage of cotinine replacement was not predictive of post-treatment smoking. The relatively high levels of cotinine replacement obtained using the Nicoderm CQ 21 mg/day patch suggest cautious use of higher dose treatment with this particular patch.

  9. Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Semple, Sean; Maccalman, Laura; Naji, Audrey Atherton; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Miller, Brian G; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-10-01

    To examine changes in bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) over a 12-month period before and after the introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation on the 26 March 2006. A total of 371 bar workers were recruited from 72 bars in three cities: Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh and small towns in two rural regions (Borders and Aberdeenshire). Prior to the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, we visited all participants in their place of work and collected saliva samples, for the measurement of cotinine, together with details on work patterns, self-reported exposure to SHS at work and non-work settings and smoking history. This was repeated 2 months post-legislation and again in the spring of 2007. In addition, we gathered full-shift personal exposure data from a small number of Aberdeen bar workers using a personal aerosol monitor for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the baseline and 2 months post-legislation visits. Data were available for 371 participants at baseline, 266 (72%) at 2 months post-legislation and 191 (51%) at the 1-year follow-up. The salivary cotinine level recorded in non-smokers fell from a geometric mean of 2.94 ng ml(-1) prior to introduction of the legislation to 0.41 ng ml(-1) at 1-year follow-up. Paired data showed a reduction in non-smokers' cotinine levels of 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-92%]. For the whole cohort, the duration of workplace exposure to SHS within the last 7 days fell from 28.5 to 0.83 h, though some bar workers continued to report substantial SHS exposures at work despite the legislation. Smokers also demonstrated reductions in their salivary cotinine levels of 12% (95% CI 3-20%). This may reflect both the reduction in SHS exposure at work and falls in active cigarette smoking in this group. In a small sub-sample of bar workers, full-shift personal exposure to PM(2.5), a marker of SHS concentrations, showed average reductions of 86% between baseline and 2 months after implementation of the

  10. A rapid, quantitative GLC method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine.

    PubMed

    Verebey, K G; DePace, A; Mulé, S J; Kanzler, M; Jaffe, J H

    1982-01-01

    Published gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) methods for the determination of nicotine and cotinine have proved impractical for the analysis of a large number of clinical samples. Significant improvements over other methods have been achieved, being low sample volume (0.5 mL plasma), rapid two-step extraction from plasma, no evaporation step, and good separation. The lower limits of sensitivity for nicotine and cotinine were 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated by the analysis of plasma samples from cigarette-smoking volunteers. The method described permits the quick, routine determination of nicotine and cotinine in a large number of samples.

  11. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m(2) (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE RATIO OF 3’HYDROXYCOTININE TO COTININE IN PLASMA AND URINE

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Gary E.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Bergen, Andrew W.; He, Yungang; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The ratio of trans-3’hydroxycotinine/cotinine (3HC/COT) is a marker of CYP2A6 activity, an important determinant of nicotine metabolism. This analysis sought to conduct a combined genetic epidemiologic and pharmacogenetic investigation of the 3HC/COT ratio in plasma and urine. Methods One hundred thirty nine twin pairs (110 monozygotic [MZ] and 29 dizygotic [DZ]) underwent a 30-minute infusion of stable isotope-labeled nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, followed by an 8-hour in-hospital stay. Blood and urine samples were taken at regular intervals for analysis of nicotine, cotinine, and metabolites. DNA was genotyped to confirm zygosity and for variation in the gene for the primary nicotine metabolic enzyme, CYP2A6 (variants genotyped: *1B, *1×2, *2, *4, *9, *12). Univariate biometric analyses quantified genetic and environmental influences on each measure in the presence and absence of covariates, including measured CYP2A6 genotype. Results There was a substantial amount of variation in the free 3HC/COT ratio in plasma (6 hours post-infusion) attributable to additive genetic influences (67.4%, 95% CI = 55.9–76.2%). The heritability estimate was reduced to 61.0% and 49.4%, respectively, after taking into account the effect of covariates and CYP2A6 genotype. In urine (collected over 8 hours), the estimated amount of variation in the 3HC/COT ratio attributable to additive genetic influences was smaller (47.2%, 95% CI = 0–67.2%) and decreased to 44.6% and 42.0% after accounting for covariates and genotype. Conclusions Additive genetic factors are prominent in determining variation in plasma 3HC/COT variation but less so in determining variation in urine 3HC/COT. PMID:19300303

  13. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  14. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  15. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Neuromotor Function in Rural Children.

    PubMed

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Dietrich, Kim N; Yolton, Kimberly; Parsons, Patrick J; Aldous, Kenneth M; Haynes, Erin N

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and neuromotor function in children. We studied 404 children aged 7-9 years who were exposed to SHS and other environmental neurotoxicants. Parents reported smoking habits, and serum cotinine levels were measured in children to determine SHS exposure. The Halstead-Reitan Finger Oscillation Test, Purdue Grooved Pegboard Test-Kiddie version, and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2-Short Form were used to assess neuromotor function. Multivariable regression models that accounted for potential confounders were used to evaluate the associations. Approximately 50% of the children were exposed to SHS based on serum cotinine measures. Exposure to SHS was significantly associated with motor impairment in children, including diminished visuomotor coordination (P = .01), fine motor integration (P = .01), balance (P = .02), and strength (P = .04) after adjusting for exposures to lead and manganese, age, sex, body mass index, measures of parental cognitive abilities, parental education, and quality of home environment. SHS is a neurotoxicant that may be associated with impaired childhood neuromotor function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Neuromotor Function in Rural Children

    PubMed Central

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Dietrich, Kim N.; Yolton, Kimberly; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and neuromotor function in children. Study design We studied 404 children aged 7–9 years who were exposed to SHS and other environmental neurotoxicants. Parent reported smoking habits, and serum cotinine levels were measured in children to determine SHS exposure. Halstead-Reitan Finger Oscillation Test (HRFOT), Purdue Grooved Pegboard Test – Kiddie version (PGPT), and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2-Short form (BOT-2) were used to assess neuromotor function. Multivariable regression models that accounted for potential confounders were used to evaluate the associations. Results Approximately 50% of the children were exposed to SHS based on serum cotinine measures. Exposure to SHS was significantly associated with motor impairment in children, including diminished visuo-motor coordination (p=0.01), fine motor integration (p=0.01), balance (p=0.02), and strength (p=0.04) after adjusting for exposures to lead and manganese, age, sex, body mass index, measures of cognitive abilities of parents, parental education, and quality of home environment Conclusions We conclude that SHS is a neurotoxicant that may be associated with impaired childhood neuromotor function. PMID:25882879

  17. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  18. Urban atmospheric pollution: personal exposure versus fixed monitoring station measurements.

    PubMed

    Violante, Francesco S; Barbieri, Anna; Curti, Stefania; Sanguinetti, Giovanni; Graziosi, Francesca; Mattioli, Stefano

    2006-09-01

    We initiated the PETER (pedestrian environmental traffic pollutant exposure research) project to investigate pedestrians' exposure to traffic related atmospheric pollutants, based on data obtained with the collaboration of selected categories of pedestrian urban workers. We investigated relations between roadside personal exposure levels of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene) and particulate matter <10 microm (PM10) among traffic police (n = 126) and parking wardens (n = 50) working in downtown Bologna, Italy. Data were collected from workshifts throughout four 1-week periods in different seasons of 2000-2001. For benzene and PM10, comparisons were made with measurements by fixed monitoring stations, and influence of localized traffic intensity and meteorological parameters was examined. Roadside personal exposure to benzene correlated more strongly with other volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylenes and ethylbenzene) than with PM10. Benzene and PM10 personal exposure levels were higher than fixed monitoring station values (both p<0.0001). At multivariate analysis, benzene and PM10 data from fixed monitoring stations both correlated with meteorological variables, and were also influenced by localized traffic intensity. Plausibly because of the downtown canyon-like streets, weather conditions (during a period of drought) only marginally affected benzene personal exposure, and moderately affected PM10 personal exposure. These findings reinforce the concept that urban atmospheric pollution data from fixed air monitoring stations cannot automatically be taken as indications of roadside exposures.

  19. Measured Occupational Solar UVR Exposures of Lifeguards in Pool Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O’Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Methods Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Results The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards’ PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. Conclusions At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year. PMID:19572325

  20. Measurement of military combat exposure among women: analysis and implications.

    PubMed

    Sternke, Lisa Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine combat exposure measurement instruments utilized since the Vietnam War, determine how these instruments were developed and psychometrically tested, and if they are appropriate for use with women veterans exposed to combat. A literature search for articles concerning combat exposure instruments, their development, and their psychometric properties in relation to women was conducted in several electronic databases. Limited MeSH subject headings required keyword searches with terms such as combat stress, war trauma, and deployment stressors. Instruments were selected for analysis based on their inclusion of combat and combat-related traumatic event measures. Eight instruments were retained for critical appraisal. The majority of instruments were developed and validated based on male veterans' combat experiences from the Vietnam War through the Gulf War. Located instruments explained their methodological development and indicated the type of exposure being measured. Reliability measures for the majority were acceptable, and validity was established to varying degrees and with different methods. Limitations of all instruments included retrospective self-reporting, potential recall error, and the inability to validate individual exposure objectively. Women veterans are substantially under-represented in the development and psychometric testing of combat exposure instruments, indicating a male gender bias in most combat measures. Only two instruments utilized women veterans in their validation samples, and six instruments used gender-neutral terminology. Instruments developed and validated with male veterans for specific military conflicts may not reflect the combat experiences of women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Establishing aerosol exposure predictive models based on vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Lee, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Shih-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liou, Yuh-When; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2010-06-15

    This paper establishes particulate exposure predictive models based on vibration measurements under various concrete drilling conditions. The whole study was conducted in an exposure chamber using a full-scale mockup of concrete drilling simulator to simulate six drilling conditions. For each drilling condition, the vibration of the three orthogonal axes (i.e., a(x), a(y), and a(z)) was measured from the hand tool. Particulate exposure concentrations to the total suspended particulate (C(TSP)), PM(10) (C(PM10)), and PM(2.5) (C(PM2.5)) were measured at the downwind side of the drilling simulator. Empirical models for predicting C(TSP), C(PM10) and C(PM2.5) were done based on measured a(x), a(y), and a(z) using the generalized additive model. Good agreement between measured aerosol exposures and vibrations was found with R(2)>0.969. Our results also suggest that a(x) was mainly contributed by the abrasive wear. On the other hand, a(y) and a(z) were mainly contributed by both the impact wear and brittle fracture wear. The approach developed from the present study has the potential to provide a cheaper and convenient method for assessing aerosol exposures from various emission sources, particularly when conducting conventional personal aerosol samplings are not possible in the filed.

  2. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. Methods A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). Results The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. Conclusion The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment. PMID:26816872

  3. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment.

  4. Oil Spill Field Trial at Sea: Measurements of Benzene Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gjesteland, Ingrid; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Daling, Per; Bråtveit, Magne

    2017-07-01

    Characterize personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, particularly carcinogenic benzene, during spill of two different fresh crude oils at sea. The study included 22 participants taking part in an «oil on water» field trial in the North Sea. Two types of fresh crude oils (light and heavy) were released six times over two consecutive days followed by different oil spill response methods. The participants were distributed on five boats; three open sampling boats (A, B, and C), one release ship (RS), and one oil recovery (OR) vessel. Assumed personal exposure was assessed a priori, assuming high exposure downwind and close to the oil slick (sampling boats), low exposure further downwind (100-200 m) and upwind from the oil slick (main deck of RS and OR vessel), and background exposure indoors (bridge of RS/OR vessel). Continuous measurements of total volatile organic compounds in isobutylene equivalents were performed with photoionization detectors placed in all five boats. Full-shift personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, and n-hexane was measured with passive thermal desorption tubes. Personal measurements of benzene, averaged over the respective sample duration, on Day 1 showed that participants in the sampling boats (A, B, and C) located downwind and close to the oil slick were highest exposed (0.14-0.59 ppm), followed by participants on the RS main deck (0.02-0.10 ppm) and on the bridge (0.004-0.03 ppm). On Day 2, participants in sampling boat A had high benzene exposure (0.87-1.52 ppm) compared to participants in sampling boat B (0.01-0.02 ppm), on the ships (0.06-0.10 ppm), and on the bridge (0.004-0.01 ppm). Overall, the participants in the sampling boats had the highest exposure to all of the compounds measured. The light crude oil yielded a five times higher concentration of total volatile organic compounds in air in the sampling boats (max 510 ppm) than the heavy crude oil (max 100 ppm) but rapidly declined to <20 ppm

  5. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean hearing loss in tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development. PMID:24284348

  6. Smoking, second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation in relation to leukocyte telomere length and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Serrano, Fidel Emmanuel C.; Utarini, Adi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Watkins, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the link between smoking exposure, telomere length and mortality, with emphasis on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the duration of smoking cessation. Results A total of 1,018 participants died during follow-up (mean: 10.3 years). A 50 base-pair decrease in LTL was shown among cotinine-confirmed current versus never smokers. The 90th quantile of LTL decreased with increasing cotinine among never smokers, indicating a role of SHS. Longer telomeres with smoking cessation were indicated but limited to a 3-16 year period of abstaining smoking. When assessing mortality, we observed a lower risk of all-cause death for the second quintile compared to the first among never smokers (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), and a higher risk was found among current smokers (HR: 1.89, 1.19-2.92). MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 6,456 nationally representative U.S. respondents with mortality follow-up through to 31 December 2011. Smoking status was assessed by interviews and cotinine levels. Relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multivariable linear regression was performed to examine LTL by smoking exposure, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. We further estimated the association of LTL with cotinine levels using quantile regression, and with smoking cessation dynamics. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality by smoking status and LTL. Conclusion Our findings indicated a complex association between smoking, telomere length, and mortality. LTL alterations with SHS and smoking cessation warrant further investigation for translation to public health measures. PMID:27509177

  7. Factors influencing exposure to secondhand smoke in preschool children living with smoking mothers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lynsey M; Semple, Sean E; Wilson, Inga S; MacCalman, Laura; Amos, Amanda; Ritchie, Deborah; O'Donnell, Rachel; Shaw, April; Turner, Stephen W

    2012-12-01

    The health effects on young children of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are well described. Recent work suggests that over one quarter of school-aged children in Scotland are regularly exposed to SHS in the home. The study was designed to describe SHS exposure in preschool children whose mothers smoked and identify factors that influence exposure. Smoking mothers with at least one child aged 1-5 years were recruited to the Reducing Families' Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in the Home study. Concentrations of airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size (PM(2.5)) in the home were measured together with child's salivary cotinine. Demographics including age, accommodation type, socioeconomic status, and number of cigarettes smoked at home were recorded. Data were collected from 54 homes. In 89% of the homes, concentrations of PM(2.5) exceeded health-based guidance values at some point of the day. Household PM(2.5) concentrations were highest during the evening hours of 6 p.m. to midnight. Younger children had higher salivary cotinine concentrations than older children, and the geometric mean of salivary cotinine was 2.36 ng/ml. Household smoking restrictions and maternal confidence in enforcing smoking restrictions in their own home were strongly associated with child's SHS exposure. Preschool children's exposure to SHS in homes where the mother smokes is considerable. Interventions and policy development to increase parental awareness of the health effects of SHS and provide parents with the confidence to implement smoke-free households are required to reduce the SHS exposure of preschool age children.

  8. New Insights into the Mechanisms of Action of Cotinine and its Distinctive Effects from Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grizzell, J Alex; Echeverria, Valentina

    2015-10-01

    Tobacco consumption is far higher among a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, supporting the notion that some component(s) of tobacco may underlie the oft-reported reduction in associated symptoms during tobacco use. Popular dogma holds that this component is nicotine. However, increasing evidence support theories that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, may underlie at least some of nicotine's actions in the nervous system, apart from its adverse cardiovascular and habit forming effects. Though similarities exist, disparate and even antagonizing actions between cotinine and nicotine have been described both in terms of behavior and physiology, underscoring the need to further characterize this potentially therapeutic compound. Cotinine has been shown to be psychoactive in humans and animals, facilitating memory, cognition, executive function, and emotional responding. Furthermore, recent research shows that cotinine acts as an antidepressant and reduces cognitive-impairment associated with disease and stress-induced dysfunction. Despite these promising findings, continued focus on this potentially safe alternative to tobacco and nicotine use is lacking. Here, we review the effects of cotinine, including comparisons with nicotine, and discuss potential mechanisms of cotinine-specific actions in the central nervous system which are, to date, still being elucidated.

  9. Neuroinflammation: A Therapeutic Target of Cotinine for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Valentina; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of several mental health conditions such as major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ). Inflammatory processes trigger and/or further deteriorate mental functions and are regarded as targets for therapeutic drug development. Cotinine is an alkaloid present in tobacco leaves and the main metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is safe, non-addictive and has pharmacokinetic properties adequate for therapeutic use. Research has shown that cotinine has antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties and modulates the serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems. Consistent with the modulation of these neurotransmitter systems, cotinine behaves as a positive allosteric modulator of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and has anti-inflammatory effects. The decrease in neuroinflammation induced by the stimulation of the cholinergic system seems to be a key element explaining the beneficial effects of cotinine in a diverse range of neurological and psychiatric conditions. This review discusses new evidence of the role of neuroinflammation as a key aspect in bipolar disorder, PTSD and major depression, as well as the potential use of cotinine to reduce neuroinflammation in those conditions.

  10. Cotinine enhances the extinction of contextual fear memory and reduces anxiety after fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Ross; Patel, Sagar; Solomon, Rosalynn; Tran, John; Weeber, Edwin J; Echeverria, Valentina

    2012-03-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by traumatic events. Symptoms include anxiety, depression and deficits in fear memory extinction (FE). PTSD patients show a higher prevalence of cigarette smoking than the general population. The present study investigated the effects of cotinine, a tobacco-derived compound, over anxiety and contextual fear memory after fear conditioning (FC) in mice, a model for inducing PTSD-like symptoms. Two-month-old C57BL/6J mice were separated into three experimental groups. These groups were used to investigate the effect of pretreatment with cotinine on contextual fear memory and posttreatment on extinction and stability or retrievability of the fear memory. Also, changes induced by cotinine on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were assessed after extinction in the hippocampus. An increase in anxiety and corticosterone levels were found after fear conditioning. Cotinine did not affect corticosterone levels but enhanced the extinction of contextual fear, decreased anxiety and the stability and/or retrievability of contextual fear memory. Cotinine-treated mice showed higher levels of the active forms of ERK1/2 than vehicle-treated mice after FC. This evidence suggests that cotinine is a potential new pharmacological treatment to reduce symptoms in individuals with PTSD.

  11. Miniature nanoparticle sensors for exposure measurement and TEM sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierz, Martin; Meier, Dominik; Steigmeier, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles in workplaces may pose a threat to the health of the workers involved. With the general boom in nanotechnology, an increasing number of workers is potentially exposed, and therefore a comprehensive risk management with respect to nanoparticles appears necessary. One (of many) components of such a risk management is the measurement of personal exposure. Traditional nanoparticle detectors are often cumbersome to use, large, heavy and expensive. We have developed small, reliable and easy to use devices that can be used for routine personal exposure measurement in workplaces.

  12. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β -2.02, 95%CI (-2.15, -1.89)], reported income>20K [β -1.05, 95%CI (-1.79, -0.30)], and measured % body fat [β -0.07, 95%CI (-0.12, -0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness.

  13. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β −2.02, 95%CI (−2.15, −1.89)], reported income > 20K [β −1.05, 95%CI (−1.79, −0.30)], and measured % body fat [β −0.07, 95%CI (−0.12, −0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness. PMID:25617601

  14. Backward estimation of exposure to organochlorines using repeated measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Fussman, Christopher; Muttineni, Jyotsna; Zhu, Xiaobei

    2004-01-01

    Great Lakes sport-caught fish are contaminated with various organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Through consumption of these fish, humans are subject to continuing levels of OC contamination. To assess potential adverse effects of past exposure, we compared three different backward extrapolation models. The data originated from OC determinations in a cohort of anglers and their families. Repeated PCB measurements collected in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s were used when testing the backward extrapolations. We applied a simple and a complex decay model based on assumptions used in previous studies; a third was a regression model incorporating markers of OC intake and loss. These techniques provided past exposure estimates. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated comparing measured and estimated PCB values. ICC values for the regression model equations were 0.77 and 0.89; ICC values for the simple and complex decay models were significantly lower, with ranges of 0.07-0.45 and -0.14-0.69, respectively. Plots showing trends of OC concentrations in fish and humans indicate comparable increases and decreases of PCB in fish and humans, with fish concentrations peaking approximately 10 years before that in humans. Our findings suggest that one should be cautious when using simple backward extrapolation techniques to estimate OC exposure in situations involving changing environmental exposures. Whenever repeated measurements are available, regression analyses seem to produce more accurate backward estimations of exposure. PMID:15121515

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF TIME-INTEGRATED SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Long-term, time-integrated exposure measures would be desirable to address the problem of developing appropriate residential childhood exposure classifications. ...

  16. Waterpipe smoking and nicotine exposure: A review of the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    James Neergaard, M.; Singh, Pramil; Job, Jayakaran; Montgomery, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The waterpipe, also known as shisha, hookah, narghile, goza, and hubble bubble, has long been used for tobacco consumption in the Middle East, India, and parts of Asia, and more recently has been introduced into the smokeless tobacco market in western nations. We reviewed the published literature on waterpipe use to estimate daily nicotine exposure among adult waterpipe smokers. We identified six recent studies that measured the nicotine or cotinine levels associated with waterpipe smoking in four countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, and India). Four of these studies directly measured nicotine or cotinine levels in human subjects. The remaining two studies used smoking machines to measure the nicotine yield in smoking condensate produced by the waterpipe. Meta-analysis of the human data indicated that daily use of the waterpipe produced a 24-hr urinary cotinine level of 0.785 μg/ml (95% CI = 0.578–0.991 μg/ml), a nicotine absorption rate equivalent to smoking 10 cigarettes/day (95% CI = 7–13 cigarettes/day). Even among subjects who were not daily waterpipe smokers, a single session of waterpipe use produced a urinary cotinine level that was equivalent to smoking two cigarettes in one day. Estimates of the nicotine produced by waterpipe use can vary because of burn temperature, type of tobacco, waterpipe design, individual smoking pattern, and duration of the waterpipe smoking habit. Our quantitative synthesis of the limited human data from four nations indicates that daily use of waterpipes produces nicotine absorption of a magnitude similar to that produced by daily cigarette use. PMID:17943617

  17. Isopropanol and methylformate exposure in a foundry: exposure data and neurobehavioural measurements.

    PubMed

    Sethre, T; Läubli, T; Hangartner, M; Berode, M; Krueger, H

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dose-effect relationship between solvent exposure and acute neurobehavioural effects at the worksite. In a balanced design, ten workers in a Swiss foundry were monitored for 15 days at ten different times during work. Urine samples were taken in the morning and at the time of examination, and personal exposure to isopropanol and methylformate was measured with active samplers. Neurobehavioural tests such as postural balance (bipedal, bipedal blind, monopedal), simple reaction time and digit span of the Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (NES2) and a combined memory and reaction-time test, the combi-test, were performed. A rating of well-being, and the last consumption of alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and medication were reported. Average environmental concentrations of isopropanol were at 44 ppm ( +/- 16 ppm), and at 36 ppm (+/-21 ppm) for methylformate. Maximum values of personal exposure to isopropanol reached barely the maximal allowable concentration (MAC) value (400 ppm); the methylformate personal exposure of three workers exceeded the MAC value (100 ppm). Urine concentrations of methanol were high (3.1 +/- 2.3 mg/l in the morning, 7.8 +/- 4.9 mg/l after exposure) compared with the results of other studies; concentrations of isopropanol were rather low (0.88 +/- 0.73 mg/l after exposure). Nevertheless, between personal exposure and biomonitoring, linear correlation was found. Methylformate exposure correlated with methanol and formic acid concentration in the urine, and isopropanol exposure with its concentration in the urine. With the neurobehavioural tests used, no solvent effect in relation to the dose could be determined.

  18. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  19. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  20. Examining computerized software reliability to measure individual exposure time.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aynsley M; Stuart, Michael J; Larson, Dirk; Gaz, Daniel; Twardowski, Casey; Krause, David; Benson, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological sport injury research lacks relevance when all athletes are assumed to have equal time exposed to risk. Because athletes do not play equal minutes in ice hockey games, it is important to control for players' individual exposure times (IETs) when studying risk factors for injury. Cohort study. Hockey games. Twenty-eight Minnesota Junior A hockey players. Individual exposure times were measured on all players dressed for their home games using both a manual (game clock, paper, and pencil) and a computer-based system [Time on Ice (TOI) software]. A sample of matched records was evaluated to compare the 2 methods of recording exposure. Values of individual player exposure times obtained by TOI software designed for hockey and the manual recording method were compared. Individual exposure times were measured simultaneously by computer-based and manual methods. For 26 games, it would require 156 hours to determine IET per game by the manual method. Conversely, IET totals on TOI software were computed automatically for each player per game. When IET was compared across periods and games, the computer analysis consistently totaled more IET than the manual method. Time on Ice software was user friendly, required no postgame processing, and showed a high degree of correlation to manually recorded times, although consistently higher IET per player per period than the manual method was noted.

  1. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  2. R-(+) and S-(−) Isomers of Cotinine Augment Cholinergic Responses In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Patrick M.; Bertrand, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(−) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at α4β2 or α7 nAChRs. However, a significant increase in the current evoked by a low concentration of acetylcholine was observed at α7 nAChRs exposed to 1.0 μM R-(+)- or S-(−)-cotinine. Based on these results, we used a spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) procedure for rodents to test the hypothesis that R-(+)- or S-(−)-cotinine might improve recognition memory when administered alone or in combination with the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutic agent donepezil. Although both isomers enhanced NOR performance when they were coadministered with donepezil, neither isomer was active alone. Moreover, the procognitive effects of the drug combinations were blocked by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-β-erythroidine, indicating that both α7 and α4β2 nAChRs contribute to the response. These results indicate that cotinine may sensitize α7 nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine (a previously uncharacterized mechanism), and that cotinine could be used as an adjunctive agent to improve the effective dose range of cholinergic compounds (e.g., donepezil) in the treatment of AD and other memory disorders. PMID:25503389

  3. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  4. Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity, and circadian disruption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D; Bierman, A; Figueiro, MG; Schernhammer, ES; Rea, MS

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that repeat at approximately 24 hours. In humans, circadian rhythms have an average period of 24.2 hours. The 24-hour patterns of light and dark on the retina synchronize circadian rhythms to the local time on earth. Lighting characteristics affecting circadian rhythms are very different than those affecting visual responses. Lack of synchronization between the endogenous clock and the local time has been associated with a host of maladies. Therefore, it is important to measure circadian light exposures over the course of the 24-hour day and to be able to assess circadian entrainment and disruption in actual living environments. Presented is an overview of the recently developed Daysimeter, a personal measurement device for recording activity and circadian light-exposure. When the Daysimeter is worn on the head, two light sensors near the eye are used to estimate circadian light (CLA) exposures over extended periods of time. Phasor analysis combines the measured periodic activity-rest patterns with the measured periodic light-dark patterns to assess behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. As shown, day-shift and rotating-shift nurses exhibit remarkably different levels of behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. These new ecological measurement and analysis techniques may provide important insights into the relationship between circadian disruption and well-being. PMID:23504497

  5. Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity, and circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Miller, D; Bierman, A; Figueiro, Mg; Schernhammer, Es; Rea, Ms

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that repeat at approximately 24 hours. In humans, circadian rhythms have an average period of 24.2 hours. The 24-hour patterns of light and dark on the retina synchronize circadian rhythms to the local time on earth. Lighting characteristics affecting circadian rhythms are very different than those affecting visual responses. Lack of synchronization between the endogenous clock and the local time has been associated with a host of maladies. Therefore, it is important to measure circadian light exposures over the course of the 24-hour day and to be able to assess circadian entrainment and disruption in actual living environments. Presented is an overview of the recently developed Daysimeter, a personal measurement device for recording activity and circadian light-exposure. When the Daysimeter is worn on the head, two light sensors near the eye are used to estimate circadian light (CLA) exposures over extended periods of time. Phasor analysis combines the measured periodic activity-rest patterns with the measured periodic light-dark patterns to assess behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. As shown, day-shift and rotating-shift nurses exhibit remarkably different levels of behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. These new ecological measurement and analysis techniques may provide important insights into the relationship between circadian disruption and well-being.

  6. Objectively Measured Light Exposure in Emmetropic and Myopic Adults.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A

    2017-02-01

    Light exposure has a close link with numerous aspects of human physiology including circadian rhythm, mood disorders, metabolism, and eye growth. Here, a lightweight wrist-worn device was employed to continuously measure light exposure and activity across seasons and between refractive error groups to assess objectively measured differences and compare with subjectively reported data. Subjects, aged 21-65 years (n = 55), wore an actigraph device (Actiwatch Spectrum) continuously for 14 days to quantify light exposure, activity, and sleep. Subjects were classified as emmetropic (n = 18) or myopic (n = 37), and answered an activity questionnaire. Additionally, devices were calibrated against a lux meter and UV sensor for indoor and outdoor settings, and used to measure ambient illumination in various environmental conditions. Subjects spent 1:52 ± 0:56 hours outside per day, as measured objectively. Subjectively reported measures overestimated objective measures by 0:25 ± 1:19 hours per day (range -1:49 to +4:29 hours, P < .05). Subjects spent 1:04 hours more outdoors in summer and received an increased cumulative light dose compared to winter (P < .005). There were no significant differences in objective measurements of time outdoors between myopic and emmetropic subjects. Ambient illumination measures from the Actiwatch correlated with a lux meter for all locations tested (R = 0.99, P < .001). Ambient illumination was highest in the summer at 176,497 ± 20,310 lux and lowest for indoor artificial light at 142 ± 150 lux. Subjects spent more time outdoors and received an increased light dose in summer, with no differences between refractive error groups in this adult population. Various environmental and seasonal measurements revealed significantly different available light in winter versus summer and indoors versus outdoors. Objective devices such as the Actiwatch can be valuable in studies where quantification of environmental factors is critical.

  7. Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: Impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L.; Balmes, John; Blanc, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains respiratory irritants and has the potential to adversely affect adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have evaluated the impact of SHS on COPD. Methods We used data from 72 nonsmoking participants in a cohort study of COPD. Urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) was measured as an indicator of longer term SHS exposure, whereas urine cotinine was assessed as a measure of more recent exposure. The impact of SHS exposure on COPD-related health status was examined using multivariate linear regression (controlling for age, sex, race, educational attainment, and smoking history). Health status was measured using a validated COPD severity score, reported dyspnea, a standard health status measure (Short Form-12), and activity restriction. Results The urine NNAL-to-creatinine ratio (per interquartile increment) was associated with greater COPD severity (mean score increase 1.7 points; 95% CI 0.6–2.8; p = .0003). Higher urine NNAL was also related to greater dyspnea, poorer physical health status, and more restricted activity (p ≤ .05 in all cases). When considered simultaneously, longer term exposure (NNAL) had a greater negative impact on COPD status than shorter term exposure (cotinine). Discussion Urine NNAL can be used to estimate longer term SHS exposure and negatively affects a number of health outcomes among adults with COPD. Screening for and prevention of SHS exposure among persons with COPD may be beneficial. PMID:19587064

  8. Lung function measures following simulated wildland firefighter exposures.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Matthew D; Semmens, Erin O; Weiler, Emily; Domitrovich, Joe; French, Mary; Migliaccio, Christopher; Palmer, Charles; Dumke, Charles; Ward, Tony

    2017-09-01

    Across the world, biomass smoke is a major source of air pollution and is linked with a variety of adverse health effects. This is particularly true in the western U.S. where wood smoke from wildland forest fires are a significant source of PM2.5. Wildland firefighters are impacted as they experience elevated PM2.5 concentrations over extended periods of time, often occurring during physical exertion. Various epidemiological studies have investigated wood smoke impacts on human health, including occupational field exposures experienced by wildland firefighters. As there are numerous challenges in carrying out these field studies, having the ability to research the potential health impacts to this occupational cohort in a controlled setting would provide important information that could be translated to the field setting. To this end, we have carried out a simulated wildland firefighter exposure study in a wood smoke inhalation facility. Utilizing a randomized crossover trial design, we exposed 10 participants once to clean filtered-air, 250 µg/m(3), and 500 µg/m(3) wood stove-generated wood smoke PM2.5. Participants exercised on a treadmill at an absolute intensity designed to simulate wildland firefighting for 1.5 hr. In addition to measured PM2.5 smoke concentrations, mean levels of CO2, CO, and % relative humidity were continuously monitored and recorded and were representative of occupational "real-world" exposures. Pulmonary function was measured at three time points: before, immediately after, and 1-hr post-exposure. Although there were some reductions in FVC, FEV1, and FVC:FEV1 measures, results of the spirometry testing did not show significant changes in lung function. The development of this wood smoke inhalational facility provides a platform to further address unique research questions related to wood smoke exposures and associated adverse health effects.

  9. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Tarao, Hiroo; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements.

  10. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of failed implantation and reduced IVF success

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vahratian, Anjel; Berry, Katharine F.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infertility and early pregnancy loss are prevalent as is exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (STS). Previous research has suggested a relationship between STS exposure and early pregnancy loss, but studies have been limited by small study sizes and/or imprecise methods for exposure estimation. IVF allows for the collection of follicular fluid (FF), the fluid surrounding the pre-ovulatory oocyte, which may be a more biologically relevant sample media than urine or serum in studies of early reproduction. METHODS In a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, we measured cotinine in FF collected during 3270 IVF treatment cycles from 1909 non-smoking women between 1994 and 2003 to examine the relationship between STS exposure and implantation failure. RESULTS In adjusted models, we found a significant increase in the risk of implantation failure among women exposed to STS compared with those unexposed [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20–1.92; risk ratio (RR) = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.10–1.25]. We also found a significant decrease in the odds for a live birth among STS-exposed women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57–0.99; RR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.66–0.99). CONCLUSIONS Female STS exposure, estimated through the measurement of cotinine in FF, is associated with an increased risk of implantation failure and reduced odds of a live birth. PMID:21771769

  11. Meconium Nicotine and Metabolites by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Differentiation of Passive and Nonexposure and Correlation with Neonatal Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Magri, Raquel; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meconium analysis is a diagnostically sensitive and objective alternative to maternal self-report for detecting prenatal tobacco exposure. Nicotine and metabolite disposition in meconium is poorly characterized, and correlation of analytes’ concentrations with neonatal outcomes is unexplored. Our objectives were to quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), nornicotine, norcotinine, and glucuronide concentrations in meconium, identify the best biomarkers of in utero tobacco exposure, compare meconium concentrations of tobacco-exposed and nonexposed neonates, and investigate concentration–outcome relationships. METHODS We quantified concentrations of nicotine and 4 metabolites with and without hydrolysis simultaneously in meconium from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed neonates by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We compared meconium concentrations to birth weight, length, head circumference, gestational age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar scores. RESULTS Nicotine, cotinine, and OH-cotinine were the most prevalent and abundant meconium tobacco biomarkers and were found in higher concentrations in tobacco-exposed neonates. Whereas cotinine and OH-cotinine are glucuronide bound, performing the lengthy and costly enzymatic hydrolysis identified only 1 additional positive specimen. Unconjugated nicotine, cotinine, or OH-cotinine meconium concentration >10 ng/g most accurately discriminated active from passive and nonexposed neonates. There was no significant correlation between quantitative nicotine and metabolite meconium results and neonatal outcomes, although presence of a nicotine biomarker predicted decreased head circumference. CONCLUSIONS Unconjugated nicotine, cotinine, and OH-cotinine should be analyzed in meconium to detect in utero tobacco exposure, as approximately 25% of positive specimens did not contain cotinine. Immunoassay testing monitoring cotinine only would underestimate the prevalence of prenatal

  12. Systemic nicotine exposure in tobacco harvesters.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Benowitz, N L; Muzi, G; Eisner, M D; Filiberto, S; Fantozzi, P; Montanari, L; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemics of nicotine intoxication have been described among tobacco harvesters; however, little is known about nicotine absorption under typical working conditions. To assess systemic nicotine absorption during a regular working shift, the authors performed an observational field study. Included in the study were 10 healthy, nonsmoking, female tobacco harvesters and a control group of 5 healthy, nonsmoking, female hospital workers. Nicotine and cotinine were measured in sequential samples of blood and urine during a regular workshift. Blood nicotine levels rose from a nadir value of 0.79 +/- 0.12 ng/ml to a peak value of 3.45 +/- 0.84 ng/ml (p < .05 [Tukey's modified t test]) in the exposed group. In the control group, levels were stable at 0.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml (p < .01). Moreover, the mean blood nicotine level measured 3 mo following the end of exposure in 6 of 10 exposed subjects was 0.24 +/- 0.12 ng/ml (p < .01). Corresponding higher values of urine nicotine and urine cotinine were observed in the exposed versus control group (comparative p values were < .01 and < .05, respectively). Overall, tobacco harvesters absorbed approximately 0.8 mg of nicotine daily. Given that nicotine can induce adverse health effects, the authors believe that prevention of nicotine absorption in tobacco harvesters should be sought and that workers should be informed about occupational risks.

  13. Implantable magnetic relaxation sensors measure cumulative exposure to cardiac biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yibo; Pong, Terrence; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Huang, Paul L; Cima, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Molecular biomarkers can be used as objective indicators of pathologic processes. Although their levels often change over time, their measurement is often constrained to a single time point. Cumulative biomarker exposure would provide a fundamentally different kind of measurement to what is available in the clinic. Magnetic resonance relaxometry can be used to noninvasively monitor changes in the relaxation properties of antibody-coated magnetic particles when they aggregate upon exposure to a biomarker of interest. We used implantable devices containing such sensors to continuously profile changes in three clinically relevant cardiac biomarkers at physiological levels for up to 72 h. Sensor response differed between experimental and control groups in a mouse model of myocardial infarction and correlated with infarct size. Our prototype for a biomarker monitoring device also detected doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and can be adapted to detect other molecular biomarkers with a sensitivity as low as the pg/ml range.

  14. Prospective Measurement of Patient Exposure to Radiation During Pediatric Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kokorowski, Paul J.; Chow, Jeanne S.; Strauss, Keith; Pennison, Melanie; Routh, Jonathan C.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little data have been reported regarding radiation exposure during pediatric endourologic procedures, including ureteroscopy (URS). We sought to measure radiation exposure during pediatric URS and identify opportunities for exposure reduction. Methods We prospectively observed URS procedures as part of a quality improvement initiative. Pre-operative patient characteristics, operative factors, fluoroscopy settings and radiation exposure were recorded. Our outcomes were entrance skin dose (ESD, in mGy) and midline dose (MLD, in mGy). Specific modifiable factors were identified as targets for potential quality improvement. Results Direct observation was performed on 56 consecutive URS procedures. Mean patient age was 14.8 ± 3.8 years (range 7.4 to 19.2); 9 children were under age 12 years. Mean ESD was 46.4 ± 48 mGy. Mean MLD was 6.2 ± 5.0 mGy. The most important major determinant of radiation dose was total fluoroscopy time (mean 2.68 ± 1.8 min) followed by dose rate setting, child anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, and source to skin distance (all p<0.01). The analysis of factors affecting exposure levels found that the use of ureteral access sheaths (p=0.01) and retrograde pyelography (p=0.04) were significantly associated with fluoroscopy time. We also found that dose rate settings were higher than recommended in up to 43% of cases and ideal C-arm positioning could have reduced exposure 14% (up to 49% in some cases). Conclusions Children receive biologically significant radiation doses during URS procedures. Several modifiable factors contribute to dose and could be targeted in efforts to implement dose reduction strategies. PMID:22341275

  15. Validation of an electronic device for measuring driving exposure.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Kyla D; Porter, Michelle M; Marshall, Shawn C

    2006-03-01

    This study sought to evaluate an on-board diagnostic system (CarChip) for collecting driving exposure data in older drivers. Drivers (N = 20) aged 60 to 86 years from Winnipeg and surrounding communities participated. Information on driving exposure was obtained via the CarChip and global positioning system (GPS) technology on a driving course, and obtained via the CarChip and surveys over a week of driving. Velocities and distances were measured over the road course to validate the accuracy of the CarChip compared to GPS for those parameters. The results show that the CarChip does provide valid distance measurements and slightly lower maximum velocities than GPS measures. From the results obtained in this study, it was determined that retrospective self-reports of weekly driving distances are inaccurate. Therefore, an on-board diagnostic system (OBDII) electronic device like the CarChip can provide valid and detailed information about driving exposure that would be useful for studies of crash rates or driving behavior.

  16. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    PubMed

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  17. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and mini hi-volume samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. The authors conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  18. The fear of food measure: a novel measure for use in exposure therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Byrne, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Exposure therapy for mealtime anxiety has preliminarily been effective at increasing food intake and decreasing anxiety in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). To enhance our knowledge of exposure therapy for AN researchers and clinicians need a comprehensive measure that assesses outcomes relevant to exposure therapy for AN. In the current four studies we developed Fear of Food Measure (FOFM) that assesses three cognitive and behavioral outcomes: trait anxiety about eating, food avoidance behaviors, and feared concerns related to eating. In a community (N = 399) and undergraduate female sample (N = 203) the FOFM exhibited a good three-factor structure and convergent and divergent validity. In a sample of women (N = 72) we showed that the anxiety about eating subscale significantly predicted in vivo food intake over and above other established predictors of eating (e.g., restraint). In a clinical sample diagnosed with an eating disorder (N = 41) we showed that anxiety about eating was associated with food intake and anxiety during an exposure meal and that all subscales of the FOFM significantly decreased over the course of a four-session exposure intervention. Finally, we found that participants diagnosed with an eating disorder had higher levels of fear of food than did matched controls (N = 23). The FOFM is a psychometrically valid measure that can assess if patients are improving while undergoing exposure therapy and could be used to pinpoint problematic behaviors that can be addressed in exposure therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Early Childhood BMI

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Poole, Charles; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hornung, Richard; Bernert, John T.; Khoury, Jane; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight body mass index (BMI). Less is known about the association between prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and childhood BMI. We followed 292 mother-child dyads from early pregnancy to 3 years of age. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was quantified using self-report and serum cotinine biomarkers. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between tobacco smoke exposure and BMI at birth, 4 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 years. During pregnancy, 15% of women reported SHS exposure and 12% reported active smoking, but 51% of women had cotinine levels consistent with SHS exposure and 10% had cotinine concentrations indicative of active smoking. After adjustment for confounders, children born to active smokers had higher BMI at 2 and 3 years of age (self-report or serum cotinine), compared to unexposed children. Children born to women with prenatal serum cotinine concentrations indicative of SHS exposure had higher BMI at 2 (Mean Difference [MD]:0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]:−0.1, 0.7) and 3 (MD:0.4; [0, 0.8]) years compared to unexposed children. Using self-reported prenatal exposure resulted in non-differential exposure misclassification of SHS exposures that attenuated the association between SHS exposure and BMI compared to serum cotinine concentrations. These findings suggest active and secondhand prenatal tobacco smoke exposure may be related to an important public health problem in childhood and later life. In addition, accurate quantification of prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposures is essential to obtaining valid estimates. PMID:20955230

  20. Identification of N-(hydroxymethyl) norcotinine as a major product of cytochrome P450 2A6, but not cytochrome P450 2A13-catalyzed cotinine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn M; von Weymarn, Linda B; Murphy, Sharon E

    2005-12-01

    Cotinine formation is the major pathway of nicotine metabolism in smokers, and the primary pathway of cotinine metabolism is trans-3'-hydroxylation. trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine and its glucuronide conjugate account for up to 50% of the nicotine metabolites excreted by smokers. Minor metabolites of cotinine excreted by smokers include norcotinine and cotinine N-oxide, each of which account for <5% of the nicotine dose. It has been reported that P450 2A6 is the catalyst of cotinine metabolism. However, we report here that the major product of P450 2A6-catalyzed cotinine metabolism is N-(hydroxymethyl)norcotinine, a previously unknown human metabolite of cotinine. N-(Hydroxymethyl)norcotinine was chemically synthesized, and its stability under the conditions of the enzyme reactions was confirmed. The products of P450 2A6-catalyzed [5-3H]cotinine metabolism were quantified by radioflow HPLC. The identification of N-(hydroxymethyl)norcotinine as the major metabolite was based on HPLC analysis on three unique systems and coelution with N-(hydroxymethyl)norcotinine standard. 5'-Hydroxycotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine were minor products of P450 2A6-catalyzed cotinine metabolism, accounting for 14 and 8% of the total cotinine metabolites, respectively. N-(Hydroxymethyl)norcotinine was a product of cotinine metabolism by the extrahepatic P450, 2A13, but it was a minor one. The major product of P450 2A13-catalyzed cotinine metabolism was 5'-hydroxycotinine, which was formed at twice the rate of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. The identification of all cotinine metabolites formed by both enzymes was confirmed by LC/MS/MS analysis. Kinetic parameters for cotinine metabolism were determined for P450 2A6 and P450 2A13. This work has confirmed that the major metabolite of cotinine in smokers, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, is only a minor metabolite of P450 2A6-catalyzed cotinine metabolism.

  1. Exposure Measurement Error in PM2.5 Health Effects Studies: A Pooled Analysis of Eight Personal Exposure Validation Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typ...

  2. Exposure Measurement Error in PM2.5 Health Effects Studies: A Pooled Analysis of Eight Personal Exposure Validation Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typ...

  3. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  4. Personal Exposure Monitoring Wearing Protocol Compliance: An Initial Assessment of Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure sampling provides the most accurate and representative assessment of exposure to a pollutant, but only if measures are implemented to minimize exposure misclassification and reduce confounders that may cause misinterpretation of the collected data. Poor complian...

  5. A case control study to determine the association between Perthes' disease and the recalled use of tobacco during pregnancy, and biological markers of current tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Perry, D C; Thomson, C; Pope, D; Bruce, C E; Platt, M J

    2017-08-01

    It is well established that there is a strong association between Perthes' disease and worsening socioeconomic deprivation. It has been suggested that the primary determinant driving this association is exposure to tobacco smoke. This study aimed to examine this hypothesis. A hospital case-control study (n = 149/146) examined the association between tobacco smoke exposure and Perthes' disease, adjusting for area-level socioeconomic deprivation. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by parental questionnaire of smoking habits during pregnancy, and by quantitative assay of current exposure using the urinary cotinine-creatinine ratio, which is a widely used and validated measure of tobacco smoke exposure. The odds of Perthes' disease significantly increased with reported in utero exposure after adjustment for socioeconomic deprivation (maternal smoking odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17 to 3.63; paternal smoking OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46). The cotinine-creatinine ratio was significantly greater in cases, OR 1.63 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.43), suggesting a greater 'dose' of current tobacco exposure. An association exists between tobacco smoke exposure and Perthes' disease but we remain unable to disentangle the association with socioeconomic deprivation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1102-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: disposition in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Haley, N J; Sepkovic, D W; Hoffmann, D

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated differences in the elimination of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, in smokers who quit smoking and never-smokers who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) under controlled conditions. The mean biological half-life of cotinine in urine, collected from the nine smokers was 16.5 +/- 1.2 h, in never-smokers exposed to ETS, 27.3 +/- 1.9 h. Differences in the mode of uptake and absorption of nicotine and possible differences in nicotine metabolism may play roles in the clearance rate differences between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:2751025

  7. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: in vivo measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Icayan, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed external measurement were made of internally deposited /sup 241/Am in a nuclear chemical operator involved in an americium exposure accident at the Hanford plant. Despite some interference from high-level external contamination, quantitative measurements of the /sup 241/Am content in the lung, liver, and bones were made starting on the third day after the accident. The rate of excretion of /sup 241/Am from these organs was determined. The /sup 241/Am embedded in the skin of the face and head was carefully mapped. The distribution over the total length of the body was also determined. Linear and rectilinear scanners, gamma cameras, large and small scintillation detectors, proportional counters, and Si(Li) and intrinsic germanium detectors were used to evaluate the internal deposition. Methods of calibration for quantitative measurement included simulation of the /sup 241/Am activity in both phantom and cadaver parts.

  8. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  9. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000.

  10. [Measurement of linear exposure nominal pose used in curietherapy].

    PubMed

    Bernard, M; Guille, B; Duvalet, G

    1975-11-01

    The idea, and subsequent construction, of a dose rate meter for measuring linear exposure dose originated in those pilot centres of Curietherapie which wished to replace radium by the artificial radionucleides, Irdium-192, Caesium-137 etc. The aparatus makes it possible to measure, directly and quickly, the activity of a specified length of a linear source, a measurement which has only been possible until now by dividing the exposure dose by the length whose activity it is desired to know. If the dose-rate obtained by these two methods agrees, this apparatus shortens the time for which the sources need to be handled, thereby reducing the danger of irradiation to staff and technicians. The apparatus is thus able to reveal heterogeneity of activity along the length of a line-source. In the specific case of Iridium, our experience shows that wires which have been used in several applications may develop mechanical bends and constrictions, which can lead to fluctuation in dose rate along their length. The apparatus was first constructed in 1967, after preliminary experiments in 1965. As Curietherapy has become more widely used, the apparatus has undergone many modifications which is more precise and specific than it was initially. At the present time it can only be used with Iridium as wire, and with Caesium in the form of trains of seeds (corresponding to the AGS sources) or needles. Nevertheless, a third scale is under consideration, for use with newer radioelements, which may be used in future.

  11. Measured radiofrequency exposure during various mobile-phone use scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kelsh, Michael A; Shum, Mona; Sheppard, Asher R; McNeely, Mark; Kuster, Niels; Lau, Edmund; Weidling, Ryan; Fordyce, Tiffani; Kühn, Sven; Sulser, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of mobile phone users have relied on self reporting or billing records to assess exposure. Herein, we report quantitative measurements of mobile-phone power output as a function of phone technology, environmental terrain, and handset design. Radiofrequency (RF) output data were collected using software-modified phones that recorded power control settings, coupled with a mobile system that recorded and analyzed RF fields measured in a phantom head placed in a vehicle. Data collected from three distinct routes (urban, suburban, and rural) were summarized as averages of peak levels and overall averages of RF power output, and were analyzed using analysis of variance methods. Technology was the strongest predictor of RF power output. The older analog technology produced the highest RF levels, whereas CDMA had the lowest, with GSM and TDMA showing similar intermediate levels. We observed generally higher RF power output in rural areas. There was good correlation between average power control settings in the software-modified phones and power measurements in the phantoms. Our findings suggest that phone technology, and to a lesser extent, degree of urbanization, are the two stronger influences on RF power output. Software-modified phones should be useful for improving epidemiologic exposure assessment.

  12. Determination of salivary cotinine through solid phase extraction using a bead-injection lab-on-valve approach hyphenated to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Barreiros, Luísa; Almeida, M Inês G S; Kolev, Spas D; Segundo, Marcela A

    2016-01-15

    Cotinine, the first metabolite of nicotine, is often used as a biomarker in the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure due to its long half-life. This paper reports on the development of an at-line automatic micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) method for the determination of salivary cotinine followed by its analysis via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The SPE methodology is based on the bead injection (BI) concept in a mesofluidic lab-on-valve (LOV) flow system to automatically perform all SPE steps. Three commercially available reversed-phase sorbents were tested, namely, Oasis HLB, Lichrolut EN and Focus, and the spherically shaped sorbents (i.e., Oasis HLB and Focus) provided better packing within the SPE column and hence higher column efficiency. An HILIC column was chosen based on its potential for achieving higher sensitivity and better retention of polar compounds such as cotinine. The method uses an isocratic program with acetonitrile:100mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5.8 in 95:5 v/v ratio as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Using this approach, the linear calibration range was from 10 to 1000 ng which corresponded to 5-500 μg L(-1). The corresponding μSPE-BI-LOV system was proven to be reliable in the handing and analysis of viscous biological samples such as saliva, achieving a sampling rate of 6h(-1) and a limit of detection and quantification of 1.5 and 3μgL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of an assay for the determination of cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine in human saliva using automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M C; Abrar, M; Kelk, M; Cook, J; Phillips, K

    1999-02-19

    The validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of low level cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine in human saliva is reported. Analytes and deuterated internal standards were extracted from saliva samples using automated solid-phase extraction, the columns containing a hyper cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer sorbent, and analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS-MS). Lower limits of quantitation of 0.05 and 0.10 ng/ml for cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine, respectively, were achieved. Intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy values fell within +/-17% for all quality control samples, with the exception of quality control samples prepared at 0.30 ng/ml for 3-hydroxycotinine (inter-day precision 21.1%). Results from the analysis of saliva samples using this assay were consistent with subjects' self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures, enhancing the applicability of cotinine as a biomarker for the assessment of low level ETS exposure.

  15. The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status.

    PubMed

    Connor Gorber, Sarah; Schofield-Hurwitz, Sean; Hardt, Jill; Levasseur, Geneviève; Tremblay, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of premature mortality and preventable morbidity. Surveillance is most often based on self-reported data, but studies have shown that self-reports tend to underestimate smoking status. This study systematically reviewed the literature to measure the concordance between self-reported smoking status and smoking status determined through measures of cotinine in biological fluids. Four electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies on adult populations over the age of 18 years. Searching identified 67 studies that met the eligibility criteria and examined the relationship between self-reported smoking and smoking confirmed by cotinine measurement. Overall, the data show trends of underestimation when smoking prevalence is based on self-report and varying sensitivity levels for self-reported estimates depending on the population studied and the medium in which the biological sample is measured. Sensitivity values were consistently higher when cotinine was measured in saliva instead of urine or blood. Meta-analysis was not appropriate because of the substantial heterogeneity among the cutpoints used to define smokers and the poor reporting on outcomes of interest. Further research in this field would benefit from the standardization of cutpoints to define current smokers and the implementation of standard reporting guidelines to enhance comparability across studies. Accurate estimation of smoking status is important as data from population studies such as those included in this review are used to generate regional and national estimates of smoking status and in turn are used to allocate resources and set health priorities.

  16. Manganese Exposure and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Rural School-Age Children: The Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (Ohio, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Sucharew, Heidi; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Barnas, Mary; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Beidler, Caroline; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) plays a vital role in brain growth and development, yet excessive exposure can result in neurotoxicity. Marietta, Ohio, is home to the nation’s longest-operating ferromanganese refinery, and community concern about exposure led to the development of the research study. Objectives Our overall goal was to address the community’s primary research question: “Does Mn affect cognitive development of children?” We evaluated the relationships between Mn exposure as measured by blood and hair Mn, along with other neurotoxicants including blood lead (Pb) and serum cotinine, and child cognition. Methods Children 7–9 years of age were enrolled (n = 404) in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES) from Marietta and Cambridge, Ohio, and their surrounding communities from October 2008 through March 2013. Blood and hair were analyzed for Mn and Pb, and serum was analyzed for cotinine. We used penalized splines to assess potential nonlinear associations between biological measures and IQ subscale scores, followed by multivariable regression models with categorical variables based on quartiles of the distribution for biological measures with nonlinear associations and continuous variables for biological measures with linear associations. Results Geometric mean blood (n = 327) and hair Mn (n = 370) concentrations were 9.67 ± 1.27 μg/L and 416.51 ± 2.44 ng/g, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, both low and high blood and hair Mn concentrations were associated with lower Full Scale IQ and subscale scores, with significant negative associations between the highest quartile and middle two quartiles of blood Mn (β –3.51; 95% CI: –6.64, –0.38) and hair Mn (β –3.66; 95% CI: –6.9, –0.43%) and Full Scale IQ. Conclusions Both low and high Mn concentrations in blood and hair were negatively associated with child IQ scores. Serum cotinine was negatively associated with child cognitive function. Citation

  17. Overview of aircraft radiation exposure and recent ER-2 measurements.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, P

    2000-11-01

    The intensity of the different particles making up atmospheric cosmic radiation, their energy distribution, and their potential biological effect on aircraft occupants vary with altitude, geomagnetic latitude, and time in the sun's magnetic activity cycle. Dose rates from cosmic radiation at commercial aviation altitudes are such that crews working on present-day jet aircraft are an occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose. Crews of future high speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. Present calculations of such exposures are uncertain because knowledge of important components of the radiation field comes primarily from theoretical predictions. To help reduce these uncertainties for high-altitude flight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) started the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) project. The measurement part of the AIR project is an international collaboration of 12 laboratories placing 14 instruments on multiple flights of a NASA ER-2 aircraft. This paper describes the basic features of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere as they relate to exposure of aircraft occupants and then describes the AIR ER-2 measurements and presents some preliminary results from a series of flights in June 1997.

  18. Measures for Assessing Subjective Effects of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen; O’Connor, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) may reduce toxicant exposure and thereby may possibly reduce health risks associated with conventional tobacco use. However, lessened health risk to the individual or harm to the population through use of PREPs is unknown. Research is being conducted to evaluate the possible health effects associated with PREP use. As part of this evaluation, it is critical to provide sound measures of subjective responses to PREPs to determine the use and the abuse potential of a product, that is the likelihood that this product will lead to addiction. The goal of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of scales that have been used to measure the subjective responses to PREPs and examine their characteristics. In this paper, scales are identified and the items on the scales are described. Scales are also examined to determine whether they are sensitive in testing PREPs. Furthermore, scales to assess PREPs are recommended to investigators. Where no scales exist, items that may be critical for the development and validation of new scales are identified. PMID:19959674

  19. {sup 125}I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L.; Pinhao, N. R.

    2008-08-14

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of {sup 125}I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one {mu}Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  20. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The concentrations of 23 major, minor, and trace elements in the fecal samples from the Apollo 12 and 13 astronauts are reported. Most elemental excretion rates are comparable to rates reported for earlier missions. Exceptions are noted for calcium, iron, and tin. Body calcium and iron losses appear to be reduced during the Apollo 12 and 13 missions such that losses now seem to be insignificant. Refined measurements of tin excretion rates agree with normal dietary intakes. Earlier reported tin values are in error. A new passive dosimetry canister was designed which contains foils of tantalum, copper, titanium, iron, cobalt, aluminum, and scandium. By measuring the concentrations of the various products of nuclear reactions in these metals after space exposure, the characteristics of the incident cosmic particles can be determined.

  1. Nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibit aromatase in human trophoblast in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, R L; Gochberg, J; Ryan, K J

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who smoke have lower endogenous estrogen than nonsmokers. To explore the possible link between cigarette smoking and decreased endogenous estrogens, we have examined the effects of constituents of tobacco on estrogen production in human choriocarcinoma cells and term placental microsomes. In choriocarcinoma cell cultures, nicotine, cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine), and anabasine (a minor component of cigarette tobacco) all inhibited androstenedione conversion to estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. Removal of nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine from the culture medium resulted in the complete reversal of the inhibition of aromatase. In the choriocarcinoma cell cultures, a supraphysiologic concentration of androstenedione (73 microM) in the culture medium blocked the inhibition of aromatase caused by nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine. In preparations of term placental microsomes, nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibited the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Kinetic analysis demonstrated the inhibition to be competitive with respect to the substrate. These findings suggest that some nicotinic alkaloids directly inhibit aromatase. This mechanism may explain, in part, the decreased estrogen observed in women who smoke. PMID:3711333

  2. The novel assay method for nicotine metabolism to cotinine using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kawauchi, Yumi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Oda, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco. It is taken into the body by tobacco smoking, and mainly metabolized to cotinine in the hepatic cytochrme P450 (CYP) 2A6. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive method for the determination of nicotine metabolism to cotinine using HPLC. The internal standard, trans-4'-carboxycotinine methyl ester was synthesized with a simple method. The nicotine and cotinine were separated completely and detected by C(18) 5-µm analytical column (L-column Octa decyl silyl (ODS), 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) equipped with a C(18) 5-µm guard column (L-column ODS, 10 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) and ultraviolet detection at 260 nm. The detection limit of the assay was 0.05 µM for cotinine (n=5, R.S.D) and 0.1 µM for nicotine. Thus the present results provided a sensitive and useful method for the determination of nicotine metabolism catalyzed by CYP2A6.

  3. A sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method for the determination of cotinine in urine.

    PubMed

    Apinan, Roongnapa; Choemung, Anuruk; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-07-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in human urine. The internal standard (acetaminophen) was separated from cotinine on a Hypersil Gold C(18) column with retention times of 9.3 and 13.0 min, respectively. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 10 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.4) and methanol (45:55, v/v), running through the column at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The chromatographic analysis was operated at 25 degrees C. Sample preparation was prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of methyl-t-butyl ether in dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The precision of the method based on within-day repeatability and reproducibility (day-to-day variation) was below 15% (% coefficient of variation). Good accuracy was observed for both the intra-day or inter-day assays. Limit of quantification was accepted as 0.02 ng using 100 mL samples. The mean recoveries for cotinine and the internal standard were greater than 90%. The method has been applied to the investigation of a 2-h urinary excretion of cotinine in 154 healthy non-smoking Thai volunteers (aged 18-45 years) following the administration of a half-piece (2 mg) of nicotine gum.

  4. [Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human biological materials and their significance in toxicological studies].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Nowak-Banasik, Livia; Morkowska, Anna; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Korolkiewicz, Roman; Anand, Jacek Sein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation of reliable procedure of the determination of nicotine and cotinine both in classic (serum, urine) and alternative biological materials (hair, saliva) and evaluation of their significance for clinical and forensic toxicology. Biological material samples (blood, urine, saliva) were taken from patients after Percutaneous Trans-luminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). The determination of cotinine and nicotine concentration in the biological material should be optimized depending on the aim of analysis. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC/UV-DAD are reliable, specific and relatively cheap. Serum and saliva are valuable biological materials which allow to determine temporary nicotine and cotinine content on the similar level of concentrations. In the near future it will be able to replace blood with saliva sample because of an easy and non-invasive way of sampling. Evaluation of cotinine concentration in urine allows to distinguish the passive from the active tobacco smokers. Hair analysis allows to control a nicotine abstinence as well as a long-term evaluation of the history of smoking. However usage of hair is limited because of difficulty with sampling. Interpretation of results in analysis of alternative materials (hair, saliva) pose a problem because of lack of sampling standardization and lack of standardization of final analysis method.

  5. Parenting Intervention at Age 11 and Cotinine Levels at Age 20 Among African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fu; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that African American preadolescents who participated in a family-centered parenting intervention at age 11 would show lower levels of cotinine, a biomarker for recent smoking, at age 20 than would similar participants in the control condition. The study was also designed to test the hypothesis that prevention-induced increases in supportive parenting would account for any prevention effects that emerged. African American parents and their 11-year-old children in the rural southern United States were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families program or to a control condition. Parents provided self-reported data on supportive parenting when the youth were 11 and 16 years of age. When the youth were 20 years of age, blood was drawn from which cotinine was assayed. Intervention program participants (M = 0.672, SD = 0.048) displayed significantly lower cotinine levels at age 20 years than did control participants (M = 0.824, SD = 0.059), P = .046. Mediation analyses confirmed that increases in supportive parenting accounted for intervention effects on smoking. We have demonstrated in this study that a randomized trial of a prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting reduced cotinine levels among young African American adults. The developmentally appropriate family-centered intervention buffered the risk of smoking 9 years after program participation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Nicotine and its metabolites in amniotic fluid at birth--assessment of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Köhler, E; Avenarius, S; Rabsilber, A; Gerloff, C; Jorch, G

    2010-05-01

    Amniotic fluid was collected from 78 pregnant women at birth additionally with their urine prior to delivery as well as neonatal urine and meconium. The smoking markers, nicotine and its metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The self-reported smoking status during pregnancy determined by means of a questionnaire was verified by measurement of maternal urine. In all smokers, nicotine metabolites were detected in amniotic fluid and in 80% of them nicotine as well. However, the sum of the nicotine metabolites (Sum(met)) was significantly lower (p < .001) in amniotic fluid (704 +/- 464 nmol/L) than in meconium (921 +/- 588 nmol/L), neonatal urine (1139 +/- 813 nmol/L) and maternal urine (4496 +/- 3535 nmol/L). Concentrations of nicotine metabolites in amniotic fluid correlated well (p < .001) with that in the other specimen types. After environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, no nicotine or nicotine metabolites were detectable in amniotic fluid but only in maternal and neonatal urine. Analysis of amniotic fluid at birth lends itself to verifying smoking habits during pregnancy and clearly discriminating from ETS exposure, but it is not a suitable approach to differentiating between ETS exposure and non-exposure.

  7. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.0001). When adjusted for age and gender, levels of total NNAL per milligram of creatinine were also significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). Levels of cotinine per milliliter of urine and per milligram of creatinine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). These results show similar exposures to the potent tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  8. Electromagnetic exposure compliance estimation using narrowband directional measurements.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, D; Miaoudakis, A; Xenos, T; Zacharopoulos, V

    2008-01-01

    The increased number of everyday applications that rely on wireless communication has drawn an attention to several concerns on the adverse health effects that prolonged or even short time exposure might have on humans. International organisations and countries have adopted guides and legislation for the public safety. They include reference levels (RLs) regarding field strength electromagnetic quantities. To check for RLs compliance in an environment with multiple transmitters of various types, analytical simulation models may be implemented provided that all the necessary information are available. Since this is not generally the case in the most practical situations, on-site measurements have to be performed. The necessary equipment for measurements of this type usually includes broadband field metres suitable to measure the field strength over the whole bandwidth of the field sensor used. These types of measurements have several drawbacks; to begin with, given that RLs are frequency depended, compliance evaluation can be misleading since no information is available regarding the measured spectrum distribution. Furthermore, in a multi-transmitter environment there is no way of distinguishing the contribution of a specific source to the overall field measured. Of course, this problem can be resolved using narrowband directional receiver antennas, yet there is always the need for a priori knowledge of the polarisation of the incident electromagnetic wave. In this work, the use of measurement schemes of this type is addressed. A method independent to the polarisation of the incident wave is proposed and a way to evaluate a single source contribution to the total field in a multi-transmitter environment and the polarisation of the measured incident wave is presented.

  9. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = −18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P < 0.05) was negatively significant and the relationship between the MII stage rate with TAC (Beta = 0.02, confidence interval 0.01 and 0.04, P < 0.05) was positively significant. Conclusion: The ETS exposure may alter the assisted reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment

  10. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L.; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing. PMID:26960787

  11. Root surface conditioning with nicotine or cotinine reduces viability and density of fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Aurora Esmeralda Traverso; Silverio, Karina Gonzales; Fogo, Jose Carlos; Kirkwood, Keith Lough; Rossa, Carlos

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of study was to evaluate fibroblast attachment and cellular morphology on root surfaces chemically conditioned with nicotine or cotinine. A secondary objective was to determine if mechanical scaling and root planning of these chemically conditioned surfaces would alter cellular attachment. Root surface dentin specimens were prepared from uniradicular teeth of non-smoking patients. Specimens were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: no treatment (chemical conditioning only) and scaling and root planning after conditioning (SRPC). The concentrations of the tested substances were in the range of 0-1 mg/mL (nicotine) and 0-1 g/mL (cotinine). After a 24-h conditioning period, dentin slices were incubated with continuous lineage of fibroblastic cells from rat (McCoy cells) for another 24 h. Specimens were prepared for SEM analysis and microphotographs. The statistical analysis of the data indicated significant alteration of cellular morphology on fibroblasts that were grown on root surface exposed to nicotine concentrations greater than 1 ?g/mL. This effect of nicotine was not reduced by SRPC. On the other hand, in the SRPC group cellular density was greater. For cotinine-conditioned specimens, the greater concentrations also led to alteration on morphology, and these alterations were observed in the SRPC group as well. Cotinine did not induce significant changes on cellular density. The results indicated that fibroblasts are negatively influenced by nicotine present on the dentin substrate and also that scaling may reduce these effects. Cotinine treatment on root surfaces may alter cell morphology and density but these effects were less severe than that promoted by nicotine, and were not affected by scaling.

  12. The Nature Contact Questionnaire: a measure of healthy workplace exposure.

    PubMed

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Chen, W William; Dodd, Virginia; Weiler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and promoting healthy workplaces is an important and growing area of interest in occupational health. Nature contact is a central component to the study of and promotion of healthy places. Previous findings suggest that nature contact influences health via stress appraisal process. Currently, there are no known comprehensive valid and reliable measures of nature contact, which presents obstacles to research and worksite health promotion. This study was designed to develop and test an instrument to measure nature contact at work, entitled the Nature Contact Questionnaire (NCQ), 16-item self-reported checklist to measure actual exposure. A sample of 503 (30% response rate) office staff completed the questionnaire. Office staff were sent an email with a link to the electronic survey twice, two weeks apart. Content and construct validity (KMO=0.68), internal consistency (Alpha=0.64), and test-retest reliability (r=0.85, p<0.01) were established. The NCQ is the first known comprehensive, reliable and valid survey to measure nature contact, which allows research to compare forms of nature contact to best inform practice and design of healthy places.

  13. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds: Detectability and measurement.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Anna; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; van Dijk, Jeroen; Wal, Jean-Michel; Pla, Maria

    2017-08-25

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU legislation. The presence and level of GMO-related DNA and proteins can generally be readily measured in feeds, using established analytical methods such as polymerase chain reaction and immuno-assays, respectively. Various technical challenges remain, such as the simultaneous detection of multiple GMOs and the identification of unauthorized GMOs for which incomplete data on the inserted DNA may exist. Given that transfer of specific GMO-related DNA or protein from consumed feed to the animal had seldom been observed, this cannot serve as an indicator of the individual animal's prior exposure to GM feeds. To explore whether common practices, information exchange and the specific GM feed traceability system in the EU would allow to record GM feed consumption, the dairy chain in Catalonia, where GM maize is widely grown, was taken as an example. It was thus found that this system would neither enable determination of an animal's consumption of specific GM crops, nor would it allow for quantitation of the exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure measurement error in PM2.5 health effects studies: A pooled analysis of eight personal exposure validation studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typically available surrogate exposures. Methods Daily personal and ambient PM2.5, and when available sulfate, measurements were compiled from nine cities, over 2 to 12 days. True exposure was defined as personal exposure to PM2.5 of ambient origin. Since PM2.5 of ambient origin could only be determined for five cities, personal exposure to total PM2.5 was also considered. Surrogate exposures were estimated as ambient PM2.5 at the nearest monitor or predicted outside subjects’ homes. We estimated calibration coefficients by regressing true on surrogate exposures in random effects models. Results When monthly-averaged personal PM2.5 of ambient origin was used as the true exposure, calibration coefficients equaled 0.31 (95% CI:0.14, 0.47) for nearest monitor and 0.54 (95% CI:0.42, 0.65) for outdoor home predictions. Between-city heterogeneity was not found for outdoor home PM2.5 for either true exposure. Heterogeneity was significant for nearest monitor PM2.5, for both true exposures, but not after adjusting for city-average motor vehicle number for total personal PM2.5. Conclusions Calibration coefficients were <1, consistent with previously reported chronic health risks using nearest monitor exposures being under-estimated when ambient concentrations are the exposure of interest. Calibration coefficients were closer to 1 for outdoor home predictions, likely reflecting less spatial error. Further research is needed to determine how our findings can be incorporated in future health studies. PMID:24410940

  15. The Effect of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on Markers of Elastin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Slowik, Natalie; Ma, Shuren; He, Jiangtao; Lin, Yong Y.; Soldin, Offie P.; Robbins, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor in the development of COPD. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a known risk factor in asthma, bronchitis, and coronary artery disease. Elastin is a recognized target for injury in COPD, and the amino acids desmosine and isodesmosine (D/I), which are specific for elastin degradation, are elevated in COPD. This study determined whether exposure to SHS affects elastin degradation in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: Two cohorts of asymptomatic individuals without evidence of respiratory or circulatory disease, exposed to SHS, were studied. Both cohorts comprised normal nonsmokers, active smokers, and those exposed to SHS. D/I were measured in plasma and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry by published methods. Plasma cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, was also measured. Results: In each cohort, the levels of D/I in plasma were statistically significantly higher in secondhand-smoke-exposed subjects than in the normal nonexposed subjects. Smokers had the highest levels of D/I but their levels were not statistically significantly higher than those of the secondhand-smoke-exposed. Cotinine levels were elevated in secondhand-smoke-exposed subjects and active smokers but not in most nonsmoking control subjects. Conclusions: Results indicate a tissue matrix effect of degradation of body elastin from SHS exposure and possible lung structure injury, which may result in COPD. Long-term studies of individuals exposed to SHS for the development of COPD are warranted. PMID:21415130

  16. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  17. Nanomolar concentrations of nicotine and cotinine alter the development of cultured hippocampal neurons via non-acetylcholine receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, T; Cabell, L

    1999-08-01

    We investigated the effects of nicotine and its metabolic byproduct cotinine on survival, differentiation and intracellular Ca2+ levels of cultured E18 rat hippocampal neurons. We used a range of concentrations from 1 nM to 10 microM, most of which are within the likely range of human fetal exposure from maternal smoking. Nicotine did not influence neuron survival or neurite production. However, at all concentrations tested, nicotine significantly increased branching of both axons and dendrites, an effect which was not reversed by co-culturing with alpha-bungarotoxin, which blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that predominate in hippocampal cultures (Alkondon and Albuquerque, 1993; Barrantes et al., 1995b). Cotinine at 100 nM and 1 microM significantly reduced neuron survival and neurite production of surviving neurons, but did not significantly alter axon or dendrite branching. These membrane-permeable compounds may work synergistically in the developing embryo to impair the survival and differentiation of hippocampal neurons via intracellular mechanisms.

  18. Measures of exposure versus measures of rate and extent of absorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, M L; Lesko, L; Williams, R L

    2001-01-01

    Regulatory assessment of bioavailability and bioequivalence in the US frequently relies on measures of rate and extent of absorption. Rate of absorption is not only difficult to measure but also bears little clinical relevance. This paper proposes that measures of bioavailability and bioequivalence for drugs that achieve their therapeutic effects after entry into the systemic circulation are best expressed in terms of early [partial area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)], peak plasma or serum drug concentration and total AUC exposure for a plasma or serum concentration-time profile. With suitable documentation, these systemic exposure measures can be related to efficacy and tolerability outcomes. The early measure is recommended for an immediate release drug product where a better control of drug absorption is needed, for example to ensure rapid onset of a therapeutic effect or to avoid an adverse reaction from a fast input rate. The 3 systemic exposure measures for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies can provide critical links between product quality and clinical outcome and thereby reduce the current emphasis on rate of absorption.

  19. Simultaneous quantitation of urinary cotinine and acrylonitrile-derived mercapturic acids with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Fang; Uang, Shi-Nian; Chiang, Su-Yin; Shih, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2012-02-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN), a widely used industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AN can be detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form glutathione (GSH) conjugates in vivo. It can be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 2E1 to form 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which can also be detoxified by GST to generate GSH conjugates. The GSH conjugates can be further metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs), namely, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (CEMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (HEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (CHEMA). This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantitatively profile the major AN urinary metabolites (CEMA, HEMA, and CHEMA) to assess AN exposure, as well as analyze urinary cotinine (COT) as an indicator for tobacco smoke exposure. The limits of quantitation were 0.1, 0.1, 1.0, and 0.05 μg/L for HEMA, CEMA, CHEMA, and COT, respectively. This method was applied to analyze the three AN-derived MAs in 36 volunteers with no prior occupational AN exposure. Data analysis showed significant correlations between the level of COT and the levels of these MAs, suggesting them as biomarkers for exposure to low levels of AN. The results demonstrate that a highly specific and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully developed to quantitatively profile the major urinary metabolites of AN in humans to assess low AN exposure.

  20. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC assay of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and brain.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ralph; Messina, S M; Stokes, C; Salyani, S; Alcalay, N; De Fiebre, N C; De Fiebre, C M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable assay for nicotine (NIC) and its major metabolite, cotinine (COT), in plasma and brain. A method was developed that uses an extraction method compatible with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. Sequential solid-phase extraction on silica columns followed by extraction using octadecyl (C18) columns resulted in mean percent recovery (n = 5) of 51 +/- 5, 64 +/- 10, and 52 +/- 10% for NIC, COT, and phenylimidazole (PI), respectively, in spiked 1-mL serum samples. Recovery (mean +/- SEM) of the internal standard (PI) from spiked samples of nicotine-injected rats averaged 64.1 +/- 1.5% (n = 138) from plasma, and 20.7+/-0.8% (n = 128) from brain. The limits of detection of NIC in plasma samples were approximately 8 ng per mL, and of COT, 13.6 ng per mL. Further optimization of our extraction method, using slower flow rates and solid-phase extraction on silica columns, followed by C18 column extraction, yielded somewhat better recoveries (38 +/-3%) for 1-mL brain homogenates. Interassay precision (coefficient of variation) was determined on the basis of daily calibrations for 2 months and was found to be 7%, 9%, and 9% for NIC, COT, and PI, respectively, whereas intra-assay variability was 3.9% for both NIC and COT. Limited studies were performed on analytical columns for comparison of retention, resolution, asymmetry, and column capacity. We concluded that a simple two-step solid-phase extraction method, coupled with HPLC separation and UV detection, can be used routinely to measure NIC and COT in biological fluids and tissues.

  1. Changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure over a 20-year period: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Thomson, Andrew G; Lennon, Lucy T; Feyerabend, Colin; Doig, Mira; McMeekin, Laura; Wannamethee, S Goya; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2009-03-01

    To examine long-term changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in British men between 1978 and 2000, using serum cotinine. Prospective cohort: British Regional Heart Study. General practices in 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland. Non-smoking men: 2125 studied at baseline [questionnaire (Q1): 1978-80, aged 40-59 years], 3046 studied 20 years later (Q20: 1998-2000, aged 60-79 years) and 1208 studied at both times. Non-smokers were men reporting no current smoking with cotinine < 15 ng/ml at Q1 and/or Q20. Serum cotinine to assess ETS exposure. In cross-sectional analysis, geometric mean cotinine level declined from 1.36 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.42] at Q1 to 0.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.18, 0.19) at Q20. The prevalence of cotinine levels < or = 0.7 ng/ml [associated with low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk] rose from 27.1% at Q1 to 83.3% at Q20. Manual social class and northern region of residence were associated with higher mean cotinine levels both at Q1 and Q20; older age was associated with lower cotinine level at Q20 only. Among 1208 persistent non-smokers, cotinine fell by 1.47 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.37, 1.57), 86% decline. Absolute falls in cotinine were greater in manual occupational groups, in the Midlands and Scotland compared to southern England, although percentage decline was very similar across groups. A marked decline in ETS exposure occurred in Britain between 1978 and 2000, which is likely to have reduced ETS-related disease risks appreciably before the introduction of legislation banning smoking in public places.

  2. Reducing Underserved Children’s Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley N.; Nair, Uma S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; DiSantis, Katie I.; Jaffe, Karen; Tolley, Natalie; Wileyto, E. Paul; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addressing maternal smoking and child secondhand smoke exposure is a public health priority. Standard care advice and self-help materials to help parents reduce child secondhand smoke exposure is not sufficient to promote change in underserved populations. We tested the efficacy of a behavioral counseling approach with underserved maternal smokers to reduce infant’s and preschooler’s secondhand smoke exposure. Design A two-arm randomized trial: experimental behavior counseling versus enhanced standard care (control). Assessment staff members were blinded. Setting/participants Three hundred randomized maternal smokers were recruited from low-income urban communities. Participants had a child aged <4 years exposed to two or more maternal cigarettes/day at baseline. Intervention Philadelphia Family Rules for Establishing Smokefree Homes (FRESH) included 16 weeks of counseling. Using a behavioral shaping approach within an individualized cognitive–behavioral therapy framework, counseling reinforced efforts to adopt increasingly challenging secondhand smoke exposure–protective behaviors with the eventual goal of establishing a smokefree home. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were end-of-treatment child cotinine and reported secondhand smoke exposure (maternal cigarettes/day exposed). Secondary outcomes were end-of-treatment 7-day point-prevalence self-reported cigarettes smoked/day and bioverified quit status. Results Participation in FRESH behavioral counseling was associated with lower child cotinine (β= −0.18, p=0.03) and secondhand smoke exposure (β= −0.57, p=0.03) at end of treatment. Mothers in behavioral counseling smoked fewer cigarettes/day (β= –1.84, p=0.03) and had higher bioverified quit rates compared with controls (13.8% vs 1.9%, χ2=10.56, p<0.01). There was no moderating effect of other smokers living at home. Conclusions FRESH behavioral counseling reduces child secondhand smoke exposure and promotes smoking quit

  3. POPULATION EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER: A COMPARISON OF EXPOSURE MODEL PREDICTIONS AND MEASUREMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is currently developing an integrated human exposure source-to-dose modeling system (HES2D). This modeling system will incorporate models that use a probabilistic approach to predict population exposures to environmental ...

  4. POPULATION EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER: A COMPARISON OF EXPOSURE MODEL PREDICTIONS AND MEASUREMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is currently developing an integrated human exposure source-to-dose modeling system (HES2D). This modeling system will incorporate models that use a probabilistic approach to predict population exposures to environmental ...

  5. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  6. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  7. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  8. Impact of the Spanish Smoking Law on Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke and Respiratory Health in Hospitality Workers: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A.; López, María J.; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Background A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. Methods and Finding We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01). Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068) among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475) among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml) and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml). In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05) among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Conclusions Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its

  9. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01). Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068) among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475) among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml) and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml). In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05) among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

  10. An assessment of exposure to glutaraldehyde in hospitals: typical exposure levels and recommended control measures.

    PubMed Central

    Leinster, P; Baum, J M; Baxter, P J

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of exposure to glutaraldehyde in cold sterilisation and x ray development processes was undertaken in 14 locations at six hospitals in south east England. The results obtained indicate that routine exposures of hospital workers to airborne concentrations of the compound are within the current United Kingdom occupational exposure limit of 0.7 mg m-3. There was the potential for skin contact in many of the activities observed and alternative sterilisation and disinfection procedures would have been more appropriate in some situations. Recommendations are made on reducing exposures as the current occupational exposure limit for this compound may not be appropriate. PMID:8435342

  11. Tobacco specific nitrosamines and potential reduced exposure products for smokers: a preliminary evaluation of AdvanceTM

    PubMed Central

    Breland, A; Acosta, M; Eissenberg, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method for evaluating the carcinogen delivery of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) like AdvanceTM, a PREP marketed to reduce smokers' exposure to one tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSN), NNK, a potent lung carcinogen. Design, setting, and participants: Latin square ordered, three condition, outpatient, crossover design with 12 smokers of light or ultra-light cigarettes (15 or more cigarettes/day). In each five day condition, participants either smoked own brand, AdvanceTM, or no cigarettes. Also, on the first and last day of each condition, participants smoked one cigarette in the laboratory. Main outcome measures: Subject rated measures of tobacco/nicotine withdrawal, expired air carbon monoxide, urine concentrations of cotinine and NNAL (one TSN biomarker), puff volume, duration, number, and interpuff interval. Results: Relative to own brand, AdvanceTM produced similar withdrawal suppression, slightly lower carbon monoxide, equivalent cotinine, and 51% lower NNAL concentrations. The lowest cotinine and NNAL concentrations were observed in the no cigarette condition. Participants took fewer puffs when smoking AdvanceTM. Conclusions: Past experience with PREPs that failed to reduce smoking's harm demonstrates the need for clinical methods in PREP evaluation. This study shows how assessing PREP induced changes in withdrawal and exposure to carbon monoxide, nicotine, and carcinogens may help predict PREP harm reduction potential. Adequate withdrawal suppression, slightly lower concentrations of carbon monoxide, and reduction of one TSN biomarker were observed for AdvanceTM. In the future, clinical methods like those described here may be valuable for evaluating PREPs before they are marketed publicly. PMID:12958395

  12. Measuring Drosophila (fruit fly) activity during microgravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, M S; Keller, T S

    1999-07-01

    Important advances in the understanding of the aging process could be obtained through comprehension of the changes experienced by Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) during microgravity. Previous experiments flown on Cosmos satellites and various Space Shuttle missions have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. Additionally, postflight analysis indicated an accelerated aging of the microgravity exposed male flies since they exhibited a significant decrease in mating ability and a consistently lower negative geotaxis response than the 1 g ground controls. The negative geotaxis response is the Drosophila's reaction to move opposite to the Earth's gravitational vector when disturbed in certain manners. Researchers have hypothesized that the accelerated aging, is due to an increased locomotor activity which causes a subsequent increase in mitochondrial activity. The increased mitochondrial activity, in turn, causes increased aging through accelerated damage to the mitochondrial system. An increase in locomotor activity was indicated by analyzing only a fraction (1/6th of a second) of the 15 minute video recordings of groups of Drosophila taken approximately every two days during a 14-day Space Shuttle flight. The increased locomotor activity may be related to the Drosophila's negative geotaxis response in that the flies may be reacting to the absence of normal gravity by continuously searching for the gravity vector. The aims of this study are to develop methods to accurately measure individual Drosophila activity, use these derived methods in 1 g to create a Drosophila activity baseline, and use the methods during short and long duration microgravity exposure (sounding rockets, parabolic flights, Space Shuttle, International Space Station, etc.) to examine Drosophila activity. The role of the negative geotaxis response on locomotor activity will be examined by using two strains of behaviorally selected

  13. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  14. The Measurement of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts by Radiochemical Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray-omitting radioisotopes produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all Na(T1), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The overall sensitivity of the experiment was reduced by almost all variables such as low concentrations of excreted cosmogenic radionuclides, high concentrations of injected radionuclides, low sample sizes, long delay periods before analysis, and uncertain excretion rates. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined by this technique, for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions was 330, 160, 315, 870 ? 550, 31, 110, and 250 respectively. In view of these limitations this technique would be best applied to cases of unusually high exposures, such as that encountered from solar flares.

  15. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

  16. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

  17. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the

  18. Rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nicotine and cotinine in nonsmoker human and rat urines.

    PubMed

    Oddoze, C; Pauli, A M; Pastor, J

    1998-04-24

    A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with paired-ion and UV detection has been developed for the rapid quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine. A one-step solid-liquid extraction on Extrelut was used. Separation from endogenous substances was achieved with a decreasing flow-rate. With 20 ml of urine for extraction, the limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine; linearity was obtained from 50 to 5000 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 9% for cotinine and 30% for nicotine. Average recoveries for cotinine were 92-100% and 47-86% for nicotine. The present method was applied to the urine analysis of smokers, nonsmoker children, and experimental animals.

  19. Sensitive and simple method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human urine, plasma and saliva by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Sang; Kim, Jin-Gu; Shin, Yoon-Jeong; Jee, Sun Ha

    2002-03-25

    A method is proposed for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human urine, plasma and saliva. Nicotine and cotinine were extracted from alkalinized sample with ethyl ether and concentrated to minimum volume with nitrogen stream. The volatility of nicotine was prevented by the addition of acetic acid to the organic solvent during evaporation. Peak shapes and quantitation of nicotine and cotinine are excellent, with linear calibration curves over a wide range of 1-10,000 ng/ml. The detection limits of nicotine and cotinine are 0.2 ng/ml in urine and 1.0 ng/ml in plasma and saliva. The intra-day precision of nicotine and cotinine in all samples was <5% relative standard deviation (RSD). Urine, plasma and saliva samples of 303 non-smoking and 41 smoking volunteers from a girl's high school in Korea were quantified by the described procedure. As a result, the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in plasma ranged from 6 to 498 ng/ml and 4 to 96 ng/ml. Otherwise, those of nicotine and cotinine in saliva ranged from 0 to 207 ng/ml and 0 to 42 ng/ml, and those of nicotine and cotinine in urine ranged from 0 to 1,590 ng/ml and 0 to 2,986 ng/ml, respectively. We found that the concentration of cotinine in plasma was successfully predicted from the salivary cotinine concentration by the equation y=2.31x+4.76 (x=the concentration of cotinine in saliva, y=the concentration of cotinine in plasma). The results show that through the accurate determination of cotinine in saliva, the risk of ETS-exposed human can be predicted.

  20. Benzene exposure in childhood: Role of living environments and assessment of available tools.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Guidotti, Maurizio; Manini, Paola; Petyx, Marta; La Torre, Giuseppe; Vitali, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Benzene is a widespread air pollutant and a well-known human carcinogen. Evidence is needed regarding benzene intake in the pediatric age group. We investigated the use of urinary (u) trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), and unmodified benzene (UB) for assessing exposure to low concentrations of environmental benzene and the role of living environment on benzene exposure in childhood. u-t,t-MA, u-SPMA, u-UB and u-cotinine were measured in urine samples of 243 Italian children (5-11 years) recruited in a cross-sectional study. Analytical results were compared with data obtained from questionnaires about participants' main potential exposure factors. u-UB, u-t,t-MA and u-SPMA concentrations were about 1.5-fold higher in children living in urban areas than in those in the rural group. Univariate analyses showed that u-UB was the only biomarker able to discriminate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in urban and rural children (medians=411.50 and 210.50 ng/L, respectively); these results were confirmed by the strong correlation between u-UB and u-cotinine in the SHS-exposed group and by multivariate analyses. A regression model on u-SPMA showed that the metabolite is related to residence area (p<0.001), SHS exposure (p=0.048) and gender (p=0.027). u-UB is the best marker of benzene exposure in children in the present study, and it can be used as a good carcinogen-derived biomarker of exposure to passive smoking, especially related to benzene, when urine sample is collected at the end of the day. In addition, it is important to highlight that SHS resulted the most important contributor to benzene exposure, underlining the need for an information campaign against passive smoking exposure.

  1. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Jameson, H; Woerman, A L; Perry, D C; Mendelowitz, D

    2013-08-15

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex.

  2. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, C.; Jameson, H.; Woerman, A. L.; Perry, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg−1·day−1 of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:23766497

  3. EPA/ORD NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY MEASUREMENT SCIENCE SUPPORT FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product describes the National Exposure Research Laboratory research and development support for homeland security through the proposed National Exposure Measurements Center (NEMC). Key NEMC functional areas depicted in this poster are: standardized analytical method develo...

  4. Using nicotine in scalp hair to assess maternal passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Lu, Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying population exposure level to tobacco smoke is important for investigating its adverse effects on human health. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and application of using population hair concentrations of nicotine and cotinine to indicate their exposure level to tobacco smoke among pregnant women. Our study recruited 256 mothers who delivered healthy babies and collected their hair samples from scalp, of which 172 mothers were self-reported non-passive smokers and the other 84 mothers were self-reported passive smokers. We analyzed nicotine and cotinine concentrations of the hair section grown during the early pregnancy. The linear relationship between cotinine and nicotine was developed and validated by internal cross-validation method. Our results revealed that self-reported passive smokers had higher concentrations of nicotine [2.08 (1.00-4.46) ng/mg hair, i.e. median value (inter-quartile range)] and cotinine [0.063 (0.041-0.148) ng/mg hair] than non-passive smokers [1.35 (0.58-2.59) ng/mg hair of nicotine and 0.049 (0.022-0.087) ng/mg hair of cotinine, respectively]. There existed a linear regression model between hair cotinine and nicotine concentrations, i.e. [cotinine] = 0.024 × [nicotine]+0.0184 (R(2) = 0.756) for this population. The internal cross-validation squared correlation coefficient slightly increased from 0.689 to 0.734 with the training subjects varying from 20% to 90%, suggesting that this regression model had high robustness and predictive accuracy. It was concluded that nicotine in maternal hair can evaluate the hair cotinine level and reflect maternal passive exposure level to ambient tobacco smoke with high sensitivity.

  5. The Advanced REACH Tool (ART): incorporation of an exposure measurement database.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Jody; Ritchie, Peter; Goede, Henk; Fransman, Wouter; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Tielemans, Erik; Kromhout, Hans; Warren, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    This article describes the structure, functionalities, and content of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) exposure database (version 1.5). The incorporation of the exposure database into ART allows users who do not have their own measurement data for their exposure scenario, to update the exposure estimates produced by the mechanistic model using analogous measurement series selected from the ART exposure measurement database. Depending on user input for substance category and activity (sub)classes, the system selects exposure measurement series from the exposure database. The comprehensive scenario descriptions and summary statistics assist the user in deciding if the measurement series are indeed fully analogous. After selecting one or more analogous data sets, the data are used by the Bayesian module of the ART system to update the mechanistically modeled exposure estimates. The 1944 exposure measurements currently stored in the ART exposure measurement database cover 9 exposure situations for handling solid objects (n = 65), 42 situations for handling powders, granules, or pelletized material (n = 488), 5 situations for handling low-volatility liquids (n = 88), 35 situations for handling volatile liquids (n = 870), and 26 situations for handling liquids in which powders are dissolved or dispersed (resulting in exposure to mist) (n = 433). These 117 measurement series form a good basis for supporting user exposure estimates. However, by increasing the diversity of exposure situations and the number of measurement series in the database, the usefulness of the ART system will be further improved. Suggestions to stimulate the process of sharing exposure measurement data both to increase the available data in the ART and for other purposes are made.

  6. Improved highly sensitive method for determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Yamamoto, T; Kuroiwa, Y; Yokoi, T

    2000-05-26

    A highly sensitive and reliable method for the determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. Nicotine and cotinine were extracted from alkalinized plasma with dichloromethane and the volatility of nicotine was prevented by the addition of conc. HCl to the organic solvent during evaporation. The sensitivity of quantification at 260 nm absorption was improved by using a noise-base clean Uni-3 to 0.2 ng/ml nicotine and 1.0 ng/ml cotinine. The method was validated over linear ranges of 0.2-25.0 ng/ml for nicotine and 1.0-80.0 ng/ml for cotinine. The intra-day precision and accuracy were < or = 15.9% relative standard variation (RSD) and 89.9-103.5% for nicotine and < or = 8.0% RSD and 98.7-103.0% for cotinine. The inter-day precision and accuracy were < or = 17.0% RSD and 94.2-100.9% for nicotine and < or = 8.2% RSD and 98.0-105.1% for cotinine.

  7. Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor downregulation after forced swim stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Grizzell, J Alex; Mullins, Michelle; Iarkov, Alexandre; Rohani, Adeeb; Charry, Laura C; Echeverria, Valentina

    2014-12-01

    Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, appears to act as an antidepressant. We have previously shown that cotinine reduced immobile postures in Porsolt's forced swim (FS) and tail suspension tests while preserving the synaptic density in the hippocampus as well as prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of daily oral cotinine (5 mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated, FS stress for 6 consecutive days in adult, male C57BL/6J mice. The results support our previous report that cotinine administration reduces depressive-like behavior in mice subjected or not to high salience stress. In addition, cotinine enhanced the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the hippocampus of mice subjected to repetitive FS stress. Altogether, the results suggest that cotinine may be an effective antidepressant positively influencing mood through a mechanism involving the preservation of brain homeostasis and the expression of critical growth factors such as VEGF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nezu, Yoko; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine modified measles (VMM) affects individuals with attenuated vaccine induced immunity. An outbreak of measles occurred in a junior high school, starting from an unvaccinated eighth-grade student who developed natural measles and affected a majority of students who were immunized with a low potent strain of measles vaccine (TD97). To determine whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with the development of VMM in this population, a questionnaire was used asking whether students had VMM symptoms during the outbreak and the smoking status of family members. VMM was defined in the study population as occurrence of fever and/or erythema, along with documented history of measles vaccination. A total of 513 students (85.9%) responded. Overall, the presence of in-house smokers did not differ between VMM students (49.3%) and non-VMM students (50.2%). However, in the ninth grade, presence of an in-house smoker was significantly higher in the family of VMM students (54.0%) than in non-VMM students (36.6%) (P = 0.044). Urinary cotinine levels were also measured in selected students (n = 37). Among families with at least one smoker, urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in VMM students than in non-VMM students (P = 0.032). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a high urinary cotinine level (>10 ng/mg creatinine; 13.5 percentile) was associated with the development of VMM. Our findings suggest that a high level of ETS exposure may be associated with an increased risk of VMM in a population with attenuated vaccine induced immunity against measles.

  9. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations and assessment of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, F.; Rybach, L.

    1994-02-01

    In the past decade many international studies have established that the radioactive gas radon is responsible to a large extent for the radiation dose absorbed by the population. Consequently the Swiss Federal Health Office started and sponsored a research program called RAPROS (Radon Programm Schweiz, 1987-1991) to assess the relevant aspects of radon exposure in Switzerland. The average indoor radon concentration in Swiss living rooms is about 60-70 Bq m -3, this corresponds to an annual dose of about 2.2 mSv, but values largely exceeding 1000 Bq m -3 were also found. Often very strong temporal fluctuations of indoor radon concentrations were measured. The ground directly underneath buildings is the main radon source of indoor radon. The material properties that influence the radon production and transport in soils are: radium content, emanating coefficient and soil gas permeability; among them only the last one can vary over many orders of magnitude. The permeability is consequently the decisive factor that enables radon transport in the subsurface. To characterize the radon potential of soils a radon availability index ( RAV) was introduced. Our investigations have also shown that in karst systems the radon concentration in the air is often increased to 10-100 times higher than in buildings. This radon-charged air is able to travel over considerable distances through faults and cavities in the underground and reach living rooms built over karstified areas.

  10. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  11. Cigarettes with different nicotine levels affect sensory perception and levels of biomarkers of exposure in adult smokers.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Diana L; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Oldham, Michael J; Fisher, Michael T; Wang, Jingzhu; Gogova, Maria; Kobal, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Few clinical studies involving cigarettes have provided a comprehensive picture of smoke exposure, test article characterization, and insights into sensory properties combined. The purpose of these pilot studies was to determine whether cigarettes with different levels of nicotine but similar tar levels would affect sensory experience or smoking behavior so as to significantly alter levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOE). In 2 confined, double-blind studies, 120 adult smokers switched from Marlboro Gold cigarettes at baseline to either 1 of 2 lower nicotine cigarettes or 1 of 2 higher nicotine cigarettes and then to the other cigarette after 5 days. Urinary excretion of exposure biomarkers (nicotine equivalents [NE], total and free 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL], 1-hydroxypyrene, and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid) as well as carboxyhemoglobin and plasma cotinine were measured at baseline, Day 5, and Day 10. Daily cigarette consumption was monitored and sensory characteristics were rated for each cigarette. With higher nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine increased while nonnicotine BOE decreased without changes in cigarette consumption. In contrast, with lower nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine dropped while nonnicotine BOE and cigarettes per day increased. Higher nicotine cigarettes were rated harsher and stronger than at baseline while lower nicotine cigarettes were less strong. All 4 test cigarettes were highly disliked. These studies demonstrate that abrupt increases or decreases in nicotine and the resulting sensory changes impact BOE through changes in intensity or frequency of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is performing research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This act requires that pesticide exposure assessments to be conducted for all potential sources, rou...

  13. DATA COLLECTED IN THE EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S FIELD MEASUREMENT STUDIES TO EVALUATE AGGREGATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires children's risk assessments to be conducted using high quality and high quantity data. Currently, data on children's exposures and exposure factors are limited and insufficient to address risk assessments that do not rely heavil...

  14. Evaluating oral noncombustible potential-reduced exposure products for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Potential-reduced exposure products (PREPs) are marketed as a way for smokers to continue using tobacco while possibly lessening their tobacco toxicant intake. Some tobacco-based PREPs are combustible and intended to be smoked, while others are noncombustible and intended to be administered orally (e.g., Camel Snus [CS] tobacco sachets and Ariva tobacco tablets). The ability of these noncombustible PREPs to reduce smokers’ exposure to cigarette-delivered toxicants and suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms effectively is unclear. Clinical laboratory methods have been used to measure combustible PREP-associated toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression and could be applied to evaluating the effects of orally administered noncombustible PREPs. Methods: In this study, 21 smokers (6 women) participated in four 5-day conditions that differed by product used: CS, Ariva, own brand cigarettes, or no tobacco. Measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO), the urinary metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), the urinary metabolite of the carcinogen NNK (NNAL-T), and subjective effect ratings. Results: Relative to own brand, all other conditions were associated with CO and cotinine levels that were lower and abstinence symptom ratings that were greater. Only no-tobacco use was associated with significantly lower NNAL levels. Acceptability ratings were also lower in all conditions relative to own brand. Discussion: Although these oral products reduce exposure to CO, their ineffective abstinence symptom suppression and low acceptability may limit their viability as PREPs. As with combustible PREPs, clinical laboratory study of orally administered noncombustible PREPs will be a valuable part of any comprehensive PREP evaluation strategy. PMID:20159791

  15. [Nicotine and cotinine levels in body fluids of habitual smokers who committed suicide].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Furumiya, Junichi; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-12-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem because over 30,000 people commit suicide every year since 1998 in Japan. Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk for suicide and attempted suicide. We determined nicotine and cotinine levels in blood and urine of 104 deceased individuals (21 suicides and 83 non-suicides). Of the 21 suicides, 16 (76.2%) were smokers; the smoking rate in non-suicides was 41.0% (34 persons). Average levels of nicotine and cotinine in blood were significantly higher in the suicide smokers than in the non-suicide smokers (nicotine: 95.6 +/- 43.9 ng/ml vs. 28.0 +/- 15.2 ng/ml, p < 0.0001; and cotinine: 385 +/- 220 ng/ml vs. 229 +/- 181 ng/ml, p < 0.02). Average levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine also significantly higher in the suicide smokers than in the non-suicide smokers. There were eight patients with psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. Of the eight patients, four were suicide smokers; only a person used antipsychotics. Thirty-one alcohol-intoxicated decedents consisted of 8 suicides (8 smokers) and 23 non-suicides (17 smokers). Our data demonstrate that there is a marked increase in cigarette smoking in habitual smokers with psychiatric disorders before committing suicide. Quantitatively monitoring the severity of stress using blood nicotine level may enable physicians more objectively to find out nicotine dependents who are in the state of an imminent suicide attempt and timely to administer medical treatment for preventing suicide.

  16. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the validity of hair nicotine as a biomarker for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although most biomarkers of tobacco-smoke exposure have a relatively short half-life, hair nicotine can measure several months of cumulative SHS exposure. A cross-sectional study of hospitality-industry workers. Hair samples were obtained from 207 bar and restaurant workers and analyzed by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method. Self-reported tobacco use and sources of SHS exposure were assessed. Higher hair-nicotine levels were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day among smokers and a greater number of SHS-exposure sources among nonsmokers. Number of SHS exposure sources, gender, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and type of establishment predicted hair-nicotine levels. Hair nicotine is a valid measure of SHS exposure. It may be used as an alternative biomarker to measure longer term SHS exposure.

  17. [Formaldehyde exposure levels and exposure control measures during an anatomy dissecting course].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuko; Nishiyama, Keiji; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Akihiko; Maeda, Takahumi; Kaneko, Sin-ya; Onami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Masatoshi

    2003-06-01

    The evaporation of formaldehyde from cadavers can produce high exposures among students and instructors. A possible causal role for formaldehyde has been considered likely for tumor of the nasopharynx and the nasal cavities in human beings. Due to this reason, Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) has set a guideline, which includes--decrease in gaseous formaldehyde in gross anatomy dissection laboratories and a guide to medical students about the toxicity of formaldehyde and protective method to avoid damages to skin, mucous, membrane, etc, in 2002. To understand what effective plans should be regarding the awareness of students about this notification, this study measured the gaseous formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection room and also analyzed the formaldehyde-related symptoms, and frequency of using protective measures. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months during the anatomy dissection exercise. We found that immediately after removing the cadavers' plastic covering, formaldehyde concentrations in the dissection room increased sharply. The concentration reached a peak point of 0.62 ppm after 10 minutes of starting of the class. This was much above the recommended level of 0.5 ppm set by Japan Society for Occupational Health. After 30 minutes of achieving the peak the formaldehyde level started decreasing gradually to a level of 0.11 ppm. Formaldehyde-related symptoms were observed in 59% of students. They had experienced symptoms of irritation of eyes, nose, throat, airways, skin, and headache during the course. Ocular discomfort was found significantly higher in the contact lenses users compared to the spectacle users or the normal eye sight group. Although, the guidelines about toxicity of formaldehyde and its protective measures to prevent damages to skin, mucous membrane etc. were informed to every student, only 52% of the students used both the mask containing activated carbon and the rubber

  18. Association between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Among Patients Hospitalised with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Megson, Ian L.; Haw, Sally J.; Newby, David E.; Pell, Jill P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. Design An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. Setting Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. Participants Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (admission serum cotinine ≥3.0 ng/mL) were compared with 60 never smokers who had not (admission serum cotinine ≤0.1 ng/mL). Intervention None. Main outcome measures Three biomarkers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)) were measured on admission blood samples and adjusted for potential confounders. Results After adjusting for baseline differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with serum concentrations of both protein carbonyl (beta coefficient 7.96, 95% CI 0.76, 15.17, p = 0.031) and MDA (beta coefficient 10.57, 95% CI 4.32, 16.81, p = 0.001) but not ox-LDL (beta coefficient 2.14, 95% CI −8.94, 13.21, p = 0.703). Conclusions Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with increased oxidative stress. Further studies are requires to explore the role of oxidative stress in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction. PMID:24339911

  19. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  20. Nicotine and cotinine up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Brian S; Zhao, Weidong; Zhong, Dian-Sheng; Chen, Changyi

    2002-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for both vascular disease and various forms of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial-specific mitogen that is normally expressed only in low levels in normal arteries but may be involved in the progression of both vascular disease and cancer. Some clinical evidence suggests that cigarette smoking may increase plasma VEGF levels, but there is a lack of basic science studies investigating this possibility. We show here, using an intact porcine common carotid artery perfusion culture model, that nicotine and cotinine, the major product of nicotine metabolism, cause a significant increase in endothelial cell VEGF expression. VEGF mRNA levels were compared between groups using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, whereas protein level changes were demonstrated with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed significant increases in endothelial cell VEGF mRNA and protein levels because of nicotine and cotinine at concentrations representative of plasma concentrations seen in habitual smokers. VEGF immunostaining also paralleled these results. These findings may give a clue as to the mechanisms by which nicotine and cotinine from cigarette smoking increase vascular disease progression and tumor growth and metastasis.

  1. Nicotine and Toxicant Exposure among U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Users: Results from 1999 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Brian L; Chang, Cindy M; van Bemmel, Dana M; Xia, Yang; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco users have high nicotine and toxicant exposure, but studies with nationally representative data have been limited. We analyzed biomarkers of tobacco exposure for 23,684 adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2012. The biomarkers analyzed were serum cotinine, urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), blood lead, blood cadmium, blood mercury, urinary arsenic, and urinary N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine. We calculated geometric mean concentrations for each biomarker by tobacco use category and geometric mean ratios adjusting for demographic factors. Exclusive smokeless tobacco users had higher geometric mean concentrations of serum cotinine [178.9 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval (CI), 145.5-220.0] and NNAL (583.0 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI, 445.2-763.5) than exclusive cigarette smokers (130.6 ng/mL, 95% CI, 122.3-139.6 and 217.6 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI, 193.0-245.2, respectively). Smokeless tobacco users also had higher concentrations of blood lead compared with nontobacco users (adjusted geometric mean ratio = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.21-1.38). Based on limited sample sizes, NNAL concentrations for smokeless tobacco users appear to have declined from 2007 to 2008 (geometric mean = 1013.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI, 738.9-1390.8) to 2011 to 2012 (geometric mean = 325.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI, 159.6-664.9). Exclusive smokeless tobacco users have higher observed levels of exposure to nicotine and carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as measured by cotinine and NNAL biomarker concentrations, than exclusive cigarette smokers. These patterns in NNAL levels for smokeless tobacco users may be changing over time. High exposure to harmful constituents among smokeless tobacco users is a continuing health issue. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Exposure and preventive measure to reduce high and daily exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis in potted plant production.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Zervas, Athanasios; Tendal, Kira; Matthiesen, Christoffer B; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the active organism in a variety of commercially available products used worldwide as biopesticides. Bt products are applied in large outdoor areas as well as in indoor environments. Even though it has been sold for decades, not much is known about the occupational exposure to Bt. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge about the exposure to Bt subspecies israelensis (Bti) in a propagation section in a greenhouse, where Bti is applied hourly by a spray boom, and to test a preventive measure to reduce the exposure to airborne Bti. Furthermore, we wanted to study the exposure during work with potted plants treated earlier with Bti. Exposure to aerosols with Bti was measured repeatedly by personal and stationary samplers before and after the intervention. Bti was identified by polymerase chain reaction in air and soil samples. Personal exposure to inhalable Bti in the propagation section was 3×10(5) cfu m(-3) (median level, n = 22); the personal exposure of people working with plants treated earlier with Bti was 3200 cfu m(-3) (median level, n = 17). The highest single measure was found for the person working with the spray boom (7×10(5) cfu m(-3)) but airborne Bti was present at all sampling stations in the propagation section. Bti constituted a high share of the airborne cultivable bacteria and a smaller share of the soilborne bacteria in the propagation section. In a human cell assay, spiking an aerosol sample with a product with Bti increased the inflammatory potential of an aerosol sample from the greenhouse significantly. Based on the inflammatory potential and the high personal exposure, a cover around the spray boom was built as an attempt to reduce the daily exposure to Bti. The cover reduced the personal exposure to Bti from 3.0×10(5) cfu m(-3) to 1.8×10(4) cfu m(-3). The exposure was thus reduced by a factor 17, which is a considerable reduction. Bti was present in different particle size fractions with

  3. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  4. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  5. TESTING DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS FOR MEASURING PERSONAL DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary ingestion may be a significant pathway of human exposure to many potentially toxic chemicals. The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency-National Human Exposure Laboratory has made the development of methods for measuring persoanl dietary exposures a high priority for its di...

  6. TESTING DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS FOR MEASURING PERSONAL DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary ingestion may be a significant pathway of human exposure to many potentially toxic chemicals. The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency-National Human Exposure Laboratory has made the development of methods for measuring persoanl dietary exposures a high priority for its di...

  7. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LONG-TERM EXPOSURES BASED ON SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements is validated using data from a recent EPA study of exposure to fine particles. The method was developed a decade ago but long-term exposure data to validate it did not exist until recently. In this paper, ...

  8. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LONG-TERM EXPOSURES BASED ON SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements is validated using data from a recent EPA study of exposure to fine particles. The method was developed a decade ago but long-term exposure data to validate it did not exist until recently. In this paper, ...

  9. Enhancing Air Pollution Exposure Assessment in the 21st Century by Measurement and Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessments may be conducted using measurement data, modeling results, or through a combination of measurements and models. Models are required to estimate exposure when measurement data is insufficient due to spatial or temporal gaps (e.g., for refined local scale asses...

  10. Trade-offs of Personal Versus More Proxy Exposure Measures in Environmental Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Webster, Thomas F

    2017-09-01

    The technological ability to make personal measurements of toxicant exposures is growing rapidly. While this can decrease measurement error and therefore help reduce attenuation of effect estimates, we argue that as measures of exposure or dose become more personal, threats to validity of study findings can increase in ways that more proxy measures may avoid. We use directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to describe conditions where confounding is introduced by use of more personal measures of exposure and avoided via more proxy measures of personal exposure or target tissue dose. As exposure or dose estimates are more removed from the individual, they become less susceptible to biases from confounding by personal factors that can often be hard to control, such as personal behaviors. Similarly, more proxy exposure estimates are less susceptible to reverse causation. We provide examples from the literature where adjustment for personal factors in analyses that use more proxy exposure estimates have little effect on study results. In conclusion, increased personalized exposure assessment has important advantages for measurement accuracy, but it can increase the possibility of biases from personal factors and reverse causation compared with more proxy exposure estimates. Understanding the relation between more and less proxy exposures, and variables that could introduce confounding are critical components to study design.

  11. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    PubMed

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  12. Quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and varenicline in human plasma by a sensitive and specific UPLC-tandem mass-spectrometry procedure for a clinical study on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Maria; Choong, Eva; Noetzli, Muriel; Cornuz, Jacques; Ansermot, Nicolas; Eap, Chin B

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, its metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and varenicline in human plasma was developed and validated. Sample preparation was realized by solid phase extraction of the target compounds and of the internal standards (nicotine-d4, cotinine-d3, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-d3 and CP-533,633, a structural analog of varenicline) from 0.5 mL of plasma, using a mixed-mode cation exchange support. Chromatographic separations were performed on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC BEH 2.1×100 mm, 1.7 μm). A gradient program was used, with a 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3/acetonitrile mobile phase at a flow of 0.4 mL/min. The compounds were detected on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with an electrospray interface in positive ionization mode and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring. Matrix effects were quantitatively evaluated with success, with coefficients of variation inferior to 8%. The procedure was fully validated according to Food and Drug Administration guidelines and to Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques. The concentration range was 2-500 ng/mL for nicotine, 1-1000 ng/mL for cotinine, 2-1000 ng/mL for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and 1-500 ng/mL for varenicline, according to levels usually measured in plasma. Trueness (86.2-113.6%), repeatability (1.9-12.3%) and intermediate precision (4.4-15.9%) were found to be satisfactory, as well as stability in plasma. The procedure was successfully used to quantify nicotine, its metabolites and varenicline in more than 400 plasma samples from participants in a clinical study on smoking cessation.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 in human placenta: its vascular effects and activation of prostaglandin E2 formation by nicotine and cotinine.

    PubMed

    Rama Sastry, B V; Hemontolor, M E; Olenick, M

    1999-02-01

    Tobacco smoking by pregnant women increases the frequency of spontaneous abortions and preterm births. Human labor is associated with enhanced intrauterine phospholipid metabolism and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which induces labor, initiates uterine contractions and maintains the homeostasis of placental blood flow. Therefore, we studied: (a) the influence of nicotine and cotinine on the effects of PGE2 on placental vasculature in perfused human placental cotyledon, and (b) the activation of placental phospholipase A2 (PLA2) by nicotine and cotinine using 1-palmitoyl-2-[1-14C]arachidonyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 2.2 nmol) as substrate. These studies revealed that: (1) increasing concentrations of PGE2 (10- 150 ng/ml) increased umbilical perfusion pressure by 170 +/- 10% (n = 6) of control (100%). Cotinine (2 microg/ml) enhanced this effect at all concentrations of PGE2. Nicotine (2 microg/ml) prevented the effect of PGE2; (2) both cotinine (EC50 470-500 fmol/l) and nicotine (EC50 18-32 pmol/l) activated PLA2 in human placental tissues. These observations indicated that cotinine was more potent than in nicotine activating PLA2 and potentiating the vasoconstrictive effects of PGE2 on fetal placental circulation. Nicotine activates nicotinic receptors and releases placental acetylcholine, a vasodilator of placental arteries. Acetylcholine stimulates muscarinic receptors of endothelial cells resulting in the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), and possibly nitric oxide. Therefore, nicotine prevents or abolishes the vasoconstrictive effects of PGE2 through the release of EDRF. Cotinine is inactive at nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Therefore, accumulation of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, in fetal circulation may contribute to production of PGE2 and induction of preterm labor and spontaneous abortions.

  14. Variability and consistency of electric and magnetic field occupational exposure measurements.

    PubMed

    Bracken, T D; Patterson, R M

    1996-01-01

    There is widespread scientific and public interest in possible health effects from exposure to electric and magnetic fields at frequencies associated with electricity use. Electric and magnetic field exposure assessment presents specific problems, among which are the inherent variability in exposure, the lack of robust statistical summary measures, and the lack of an accepted metric based on biological response. These pose challenges in defining distinct exposure groups, a basic goal for exposure assessments used in epidemiological studies. This paper explores the extent to which distinct electric and magnetic field exposure groups can be defined, by examining the variability and consistency of occupational electric and magnetic field exposure measurements among studies and within individual studies. Principal analyses are made by job titles because they are the most frequently used descriptors for stratifying occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields. Methodological issues affecting the degree of consistency in measured electric and magnetic field exposures among occupational environments are also examined. Exposures by job title reported from electric and magnetic field measurement studies are summarized by general job category and industry. Analyses are performed both within and between job categories. Distributions of daily measured exposures for job categories taken from three large studies in the U.S. electric utility industry are compared to investigate consistency of exposures at a more detailed level. Analyses of reported personal exposure measurements from many studies and countries are consistent with less rigorous observations made heretofore on the basis of individual studies. In these studies, significantly elevated electric and magnetic field exposures are found in the electrician, lineworker, and substation worker categories; significantly elevated magnetic field exposures are also noted in the generation worker category; and magnetic

  15. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-16

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  16. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  17. Prenatal effects of maternal smoking on daughters' smoking: nicotine or testosterone exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, D B; Udry, J R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to specify the effect of prenatal fetal exposure to maternal cotinine and testosterone on daughters' smoking in adolescence and adulthood. METHODS: Longitudinal causal models were estimated among 240 White mother-daughter pairs from the Child Health and Development Study. Mothers and daughters were reinterviewed when daughters were aged 15 to 17 years, and daughters were interviewed at 27 to 30 years of age. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from adult daughters. RESULTS: Testosterone and smoking were positively correlated among mothers during their pregnancy and among adult daughters. Maternal prenatal cotinine had no direct effect on daughters' smoking; self-reported smoking in pregnancy did have a direct effect. Smoking among daughters during adolescence was determined by maternal prenatal testosterone and self-reported maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatally. Smoking among adult daughters reflected chronic smoking since adolescence and the continuing effect of postnatal maternal smoking. Prenatal maternal testosterone affected adult daughters' testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of the impact of prenatal maternal smoking depend on the measure of smoking. Prenatal testosterone exposure is a previously unrecognized risk factor for smoking among female offspring. PMID:10474556

  18. Development and comparison of two competitive ELISAs for estimation of cotinine in human exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2014-10-01

    We simultaneously set up two competitive (direct and indirect) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the same antibody for estimation of cotinine (COT) in pregnant women especially and population generally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The results show that the limits of detection (LODs) for direct competitive ELISA and indirect competitive ELISA were 0.04 μgL(-1) and 0.1 μgL(-1), respectively. Direct competitive ELISA was found to be more sensitive than indirect competitive ELISA. Thereafter, we applied our direct competitive ELISA for the detection of COT from urinary samples taken from 450 volunteers from the Zhejiang Province of China. COT was detected in 100% of participants with concentration ranging from LOD to 5358.0 μgL(-1). The GM and 95th percentile concentration of COT in pregnant women were 6.3 μgL(-1) and 57.2 μgL(-1), respectively. Males had statistically higher COT concentrations than females (P < 0.0001), active smokers had statistically higher COT concentrations than non-smokers (P < 0.0001), whereas, non-pregnant women were found to have higher COT concentration than pregnant women. We conclude that our developed direct competitive ELISA is useful for detecting the COT in urinary concentration of human. The human urinary data obtained in this study indicated that common people generally and pregnant women especially were highly exposed to COT. Further studies are needed to focus on the sources of exposure, potential health effects and risk assessment of exposure to COT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of the US Navy and Marine Corps Tobacco Policy: an assessment of secondhand smoke exposure in US Navy submariners.

    PubMed

    Yarnall, Nicholas J; Hughes, Linda M; Turnbull, Paul S; Michaud, Mark

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the US Navy and Marine Corps tobacco policy in protecting submariners from secondhand smoke (SHS) by determining if non-tobacco users experienced a significant increase in urinary cotinine levels at sea when compared with in port levels. From February to August 2009, 634 volunteers recruited from nine US Navy submarines completed a survey to collect demographic data, information on tobacco use and pre-deployment exposure to SHS. Non-tobacco users (n=239) were requested to provide two urine samples (pre-deployment and while at sea) to quantify exposure to SHS using urinary cotinine as a biomarker. Matched samples were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, deployed cotinine levels were 2.1 times the in port levels in non-tobacco using submariners (95% CI 1.8 to 2.4, p<0.001, n=197). A significant increase in deployed urinary cotinine levels was found aboard six of nine submarines (p<0.05). A subgroup of submariners (n=91) who reported no SHS exposure within 10 days prior to in port cotinine sampling had deployed cotinine levels 2.7 times the in port levels (95% CI 2.2 to 3.3, p<0.001). Applying a 4.5:1 urine cotinine to serum cotinine correction factor, submariners' deployed geometric means are similar to recent US male population values at the 75th percentile. This study provides evidence that non-tobacco using submariners were exposed to SHS. Exposure was seen in all submarine classes and was not limited to personnel working in proximity to the smoking area. The existing policy was inadequate to protect non-smokers from exposure to SHS and required revision. As a result of a policy review, informed by this study, smoking below decks was banned aboard all US Navy submarines effective 31 December 2010.

  20. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  1. Using Salivary Cotinine to Validate Self-Reports of Tobacco Use by Indian Youth Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Dhavan, Poonam; Bassi, Shalini; Stigler, Melissa. H.; Arora, Monika; Gupta, Vinay K; Perry, Cheryl. L.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-reported tobacco use among young people can underestimate the actual prevalence of tobacco use. Biochemical validation of self-reports is particularly recommended for intervention studies where cessation outcomes are to be measured. Literature on biochemical validation of self-reports of multiple forms of tobacco use in India is sparse, particularly among young people. Methods The study was conducted during the baseline household survey of a community based tobacco prevention and cessation intervention trial for youth (10–19 years old) residing in slum communities in Delhi, India in 2009. Salivary cotinine measurement on 1224 samples showed that youth were under-reporting use of chewing and smoking tobacco. Results Self-reports had a low sensitivity (36.3%) and a positive predictive value of 72.6%. No statistically significant difference in under-reporting was found between youth in the control and intervention conditions of the trial, which will be taken into consideration in assessing intervention outcomes at a later time point. Conclusion Biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use should be considered during prevention and cessation studies among youth living in low-income settings in developing countries like India. Impact The future results of biochemical validation from Project ACTIVITY (Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth) will be useful to design validation studies in resource-poor settings. PMID:22320954

  2. Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in correlation to cotinine levels with respect to the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Seelinger, Jens Udo; Philipp-Gehlhaar, Monika; Döhrel, Juliane; Schneider, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of a broad spectrum of procarcinogens. An association of the Cyp1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism with cancer as well as an impact on the enzyme activity has been described. To study gene-environmental interactions we investigated the quantitative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in smokers (N = 102) and non-smokers (N = 192) with regards to the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by serum cotinine levels. Genotypes were analysed by melting curve analysis and quantification of Cyp1B1 mRNA by real-time PCR. In comparing Cyp1B1 expression, significant differences between the two homozygote genotypes *1/*1 and *3/*3 (0.105 ± 0.019; n = 26 vs. 0.051 ± 0.017; n = 14; P = 0.039) and between the heterozygote genotype *1/*3 and *3/*3 (0.121 ± 0.029; n = 55 vs. 0.051 ± 0.017; n = 14; P = 0.039) of smokers were revealed. According to the serum cotinine levels, three subgroups (low; medium; high) were build. The group "high" (0.248 ± 0.089; n = 32) showed proportionally high Cyp1B1 mRNA expression compared to "medium" (0.101 ± 0.024; n = 33), "low" (0.086 ± 0.015; n = 32) and non-smokers (0.084 ± 0.007; n = 176). This result was reflected in the homozygote *1/*1 and the heterozygote *1/*3 genotypes. In contrast the homozygote *3/*3 genotype was missing the high Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in the cotinine subgroup "high". Our results suggest that genotypes carrying the C-allele (*1/*1 and *1/*3) at Cyp1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke than homozygote *3/*3 genotypes.

  3. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Methods Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Results Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Conclusions Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine. PMID:23731820

  4. Evaluating measurement error in estimates of worker exposure assessed in parallel by personal and biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Symanski, Elaine; Greeson, Nicole M H; Chan, Wenyaw

    2007-02-01

    While studies indicate that the attenuating effects of imperfectly measured exposure can be substantial, they have not had the requisite data to compare methods of assessing exposure for the same individuals monitored over common time periods. We examined measurement error in multiple exposure measures collected in parallel on 32 groups of workers. Random-effects models were applied under both compound symmetric and exponential correlation structures. Estimates of the within- and between-worker variances were used to contrast the attenuation bias in an exposure-response relationship that would be expected using an individual-based exposure assessment for different exposure measures on the basis of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC estimates ranged widely, indicative of a great deal of measurement error in some exposure measures while others contained very little. There was generally less attenuation in the biomarker data as compared to measurements obtained by personal sampling and, among biomarkers, for those with longer half-lives. The interval ICC estimates were often-times wide, suggesting a fair amount of imprecision in the point estimates. Ignoring serial correlation tended to over estimate the ICC values. Although personal sampling results were typically characterized by more intra-individual variability than inter-individual variability when compared to biological measurements, both types of data provided examples of exposure measures fraught with error. Our results also indicated substantial imprecision in the estimates of exposure measurement error, suggesting that greater emphasis needs to be given to studies that collect sufficient data to better characterize the attenuating effects of an error-prone exposure measure.

  5. Exposure estimates based on broadband ELF magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Pachón, Fernando T; Carrero, Julián

    2015-02-01

    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55% contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78% contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts.

  6. Can we measure encoded exposure? Validation evidence from a national campaign.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Barmada, Carlin Henry; Hornik, Robert C; Maklan, David M

    2002-01-01

    Exposure is often cited as an explanation for campaign success or failure. A lack of validation evidence for typical exposure measures, however, suggests the possibility of either misdirected measurement or incomplete conceptualization of the idea. If whether people engage campaign content in a basic, rudimentary manner is what matters when we talk about exposure, a recognition-based task should provide a useful measure of exposure, or what we might call encoded exposure, that we can validate. Data from two independent sources, the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) and purchase data from a national antidrug campaign, offer such validation. Both youth and their parents were much more likely to recognize actual campaign advertisements than to claim recognition of bogus advertisements. Also, gross rating points (GRPs) for a campaign advertisement correlated strikingly with average encoded exposure for an advertisement among both youth (r = 0.82) and their parents (r = 0.53).

  7. Surface ozone exposures measured at clean locations around the world.

    PubMed

    Lefohn, A S; Krupa, S V; Winstanley, D

    1990-01-01

    For assessing the effects of air pollution on vegetation, some researchers have used control chambers as the basis of comparison between crops and trees grown in contemporary polluted rural locations and those grown in a clean environment. There has been some concern whether the arbitrary ozone level of 0.025 ppm and below, often used in charcoal-filtration chambers to simulate the natural background concentration of ozone, is appropriate. Because of the many complex and man-made factors that influence ozone levels, it is difficult to determine natural background. To identify a range of ozone exposures that occur at 'clean' sites, we have calculated ozone exposures observed at a number of 'clean' monitoring sites located in the United States and Canada. We do not claim that these sites are totally free from human influence, but rather than the ozone concentrations observed at these 'clean' sites may be appropriate for use by vegetation researchers in control chambers as pragmatic and defensible surrogates for natural background. For comparison, we have also calculated ozone exposures observed at four 'clean' remote sites in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and at two remote sites (Whiteface Mountain, NY and Hohenpeissenberg, FRG) that are considered to be more polluted. Exposure indices relevant for describing the relationship between ozone and vegetation effects were applied. For studying the effects of ozone on vegetation, the higher concentrations are of interest. The sigmoidally-weighted index appeared to best separate those sites that experienced frequent high concentration exposures from those that experienced few high concentrations. Although there was a consistent seasonal pattern for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) sites indicating a winter/spring maximum, this was not the case for the other remote sites. Some sites in the continental United States and southern Canada

  8. Personal and Environmental Exposure Assessment Measurements at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Naomi, H.

    2000-06-01

    The research is directed to developing state-of-the-art personal and environmental exposure assessment for inhaled radionuclides at Fernald during D&D. An additional objective is the radiochemical analyses of soil samples taken around the radium (K-65) silos before and after removal of the material. Lead-210, the long lived decay product of radon released during the removal, provides a sensitive tracer to determine the entire inventory of radon released.

  9. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation.

    PubMed

    Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L

    2008-12-01

    To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P < 0.001). Salivary cotinine in employees was reduced by 75%, from 3.6 ng/ml at baseline to 0.9 ng/ml at follow-up (P < 0.001). The findings were presented to the public through press releases and interviews and were cited in over 20 media articles. The project demonstrates the positive effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in the hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.

  10. Evaluation of skin microtopography as a measure of ultraviolet exposure.

    PubMed

    Seddon, J M; Egan, K M; Zhang, Y; Gelles, E J; Glynn, R J; Tucker, C A; Gragoudas, E S

    1992-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to investigate the use of skin microtopography as a semiquantitative noninvasive method for estimating cumulative sun exposure in epidemiologic studies of eye disease. The subjects received a kit through the mail containing materials needed to make a replica of the skin texture of a sun-exposed area of the hand. Each subject previously had undergone a skin biopsy around the same site to evaluate elastotic degeneration, and all were interviewed about past sun exposures. A gradable skin impression was obtained from 96 of 115 (83%) participants after two mailings. The impressions were graded according to the degree of skin texture alteration using standard photographs; interobserver reliability was 0.73 using a weighted kappa statistic. The impression score was correlated most strongly with age (r = 0.53). Independent predictors of higher impression scores (more skin texture changes) were older age, cigar or pipe smoking, less education, lighter iris color, lighter skin color, male gender, and tendency to sunburn. After adjustment for age and the other predictor variables, the biopsy score was not correlated with the impression grade (r = 0.18, P = 0.13). Behaviors indexing sun exposure were not correlated with microtopography. These results suggest that skin microtopography as done in this study reflects aging from intrinsic parameters more than from actinic damage.

  11. Estimation methods with ordered exposure subject to measurement error and missingness in semi-ecological design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, it is often not possible to measure accurately exposures of participants even if their response variable can be measured without error. When there are several groups of subjects, occupational epidemiologists employ group-based strategy (GBS) for exposure assessment to reduce bias due to measurement errors: individuals of a group/job within study sample are assigned commonly to the sample mean of exposure measurements from their group in evaluating the effect of exposure on the response. Therefore, exposure is estimated on an ecological level while health outcomes are ascertained for each subject. Such study design leads to negligible bias in risk estimates when group means are estimated from ‘large’ samples. However, in many cases, only a small number of observations are available to estimate the group means, and this causes bias in the observed exposure-disease association. Also, the analysis in a semi-ecological design may involve exposure data with the majority missing and the rest observed with measurement errors and complete response data collected with ascertainment. Methods In workplaces groups/jobs are naturally ordered and this could be incorporated in estimation procedure by constrained estimation methods together with the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithms for regression models having measurement error and missing values. Four methods were compared by a simulation study: naive complete-case analysis, GBS, the constrained GBS (CGBS), and the constrained expectation and maximization (CEM). We illustrated the methods in the analysis of decline in lung function due to exposures to carbon black. Results Naive and GBS approaches were shown to be inadequate when the number of exposure measurements is too small to accurately estimate group means. The CEM method appears to be best among them when within each exposure group at least a ’moderate’ number of individuals have their exposures observed with error

  12. Maternal tobacco smoke exposure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, C; Emerson, R K; O'Riordan, M A; Roitman, E; Shackleton, C

    1997-01-01

    We propose that in utero exposure to tobacco smoke products places a newborn at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). To test this hypothesis, infants with PPHN were identified. Healthy newborns of similar ethnicity were identified as a comparison group. Cord blood cotinine concentrations and maternal questionnaires were obtained. The number of women exposed to tobacco smoke in each group ascertained by questionnaire was borderline significantly different (38.7% vs. 20.5%; p = 0.080). However, more PPHN infants had detectable cotinine in their cord blood (64.5% vs. 28.2%; p = 0.002), and the median cotinine concentrations were significantly higher (5.2 ng/ml vs. 2 ng/ml; p = 0.051) than the comparison infants. Among infants delivered to nonsmoking women, more PPHN infants had detectable cotinine (50% vs. 19%; p = 0.015), and the cotinine concentrations were higher (3.5 ng/ml vs. 1.65 ng/ml; p = 0.022) than the comparison group. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for PPHN. Therefore, we recommend that pregnant women cease smoking and avoid environmental tobacco smoke. Key words. cotinine, newborns, passive, persistent pulmonary hypertension, smoking, tobacco smoke pollution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9105795

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood exposure to secondhand smoke before and after smoke-free legislation in three UK countries

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F.; Currie, Dorothy; Gilmore, Gillian; Holliday, Jo C.; Moore, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) children. Legislation restricting smoking in public places has been associated with reduced childhood SHS exposure and increased smoke-free homes. This paper examines socioeconomic patterning in these changes. Methods Repeated cross-sectional survey of 10 867 schoolchildren in 304 primary schools in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Children provided saliva for cotinine assay, completing questionnaires before and 12 months after legislation. Results SHS exposure was highest, and private smoking restrictions least frequently reported, among lower SES children. Proportions of saliva samples containing <0.1 ng/ml (i.e. undetectable) cotinine increased from 31.0 to 41.0%. Although across the whole SES spectrum, there was no evidence of displacement of smoking into the home or increased SHS exposure, socioeconomic inequality in the likelihood of samples containing detectable levels of cotinine increased. Among children from the poorest families, 96.9% of post-legislation samples contained detectable cotinine, compared with 38.2% among the most affluent. Socioeconomic gradients at higher exposure levels remained unchanged. Among children from the poorest families, one in three samples contained >3 ng/ml cotinine. Smoking restrictions in homes and cars increased, although socioeconomic patterning remained. Conclusions Urgent action is needed to reduce inequalities in SHS exposure. Such action should include emphasis on reducing smoking in cars and homes. PMID:22448041

  14. High-throughput wide dynamic range procedure for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine and cotinine in multiple biological matrices using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Pascual, José A

    2015-11-01

    A straightforward, high-throughput method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of the specific tobacco biomarkers nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in a wide dynamic range and supporting the most common human biological matrices (urine, oral fluid and hair). Sample preparation was performed inside the very HPLC injection vials by pipetting 0.5 mL of the liquid samples, deuterated internal standards in alkaline solution and dichloromethane as extraction solvent. Solid samples (i.e. around 10 mg hair) were first submitted to alkaline digestion in the HPLC vials and processed accordingly. The organic phase (reached through the upper aqueous layer) was directly injected without further treatment. Instrumental analysis was performed using hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Total chromatographic time was 2 min. The method covers a wide dynamic range making it fit-for-purpose for the analysis of samples covering entire populations, irrespective of the level of exposure or tobacco use. Calibration curves (r (2) > 0.995) covered the range 1-2000 ng/mL (or 0.05-100 ng/mg hair) for nicotine and 0.1-2000 ng/mL (or 0.005-100 ng/mg hair) for cotinine. Within-run and between-run precision and accuracy were typically below 10 %, and always below 20 % at the lower limit of quantification. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of samples from different projects involving multiple matrices.

  15. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems.

  16. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: implications for use as wastewater indicators.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Barber, Larry B; Kolpin, Dana W; McMahon, Peter B; Chapelle, Francis H

    2007-06-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems.

  17. Biomass smoke exposures: health outcomes measures and study design.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Balmes, John R

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of biomass smoke health effects have been conducted in a variety of settings and with a variety of study designs. The Health Effects Workgroup discussed several approaches for the investigation of health effects in communities exposed to wood smoke from nearby wildland fires, intentional agricultural burning, or residential biomass burning devices such as woodstoves or cookstoves. This presentation briefly reviews observational and intervention studies that have been conducted within these exposure settings. The review is followed by a summary of discussion points among the workgroup members with particular emphasis on study design and the use of biomarkers for assessing outcomes in biomass smoke-exposed populations.

  18. An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error and Effect Attenuation in Bipollutant Epidemiologic Models

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Chang, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from multipollutant models difficult to interpret. Objectives: We aimed to quantify relationships between multiple pollutants and their associated exposure errors across metrics of exposure and to use empirical values to evaluate potential attenuation of coefficients in epidemiologic models. Methods: We used three daily exposure metrics (central-site measurements, air quality model estimates, and population exposure model estimates) for 193 ZIP codes in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area from 1999 through 2002 for PM2.5 and its components (EC and SO4), as well as O3, CO, and NOx, to construct three types of exposure error: δspatial (comparing air quality model estimates to central-site measurements), δpopulation (comparing population exposure model estimates to air quality model estimates), and δtotal (comparing population exposure model estimates to central-site measurements). We compared exposure metrics and exposure errors within and across pollutants and derived attenuation factors (ratio of observed to true coefficient for pollutant of interest) for single- and bipollutant model coefficients. Results: Pollutant concentrations and their exposure errors were moderately to highly correlated (typically, > 0.5), especially for CO, NOx, and EC (i.e., “local” pollutants); correlations differed across exposure metrics and types of exposure error. Spatial variability was evident, with variance of exposure error for local pollutants ranging from 0.25 to 0.83 for δspatial and δtotal. The attenuation of model coefficients in single- and bipollutant epidemiologic models relative to the true value differed across types of exposure error, pollutants, and space. Conclusions: Under a

  19. A multiple additive regression tree analysis of three exposure measures during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Li, Bin; Marx, Brian D; Mills, Jacqueline W; Pine, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and personal exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Structural exposure is measured by flood height and building damage; personal exposure is measured by the locations of 911 calls made during the response. Using these variables, this paper characterises the geography of exposure and also demonstrates the utility of a robust analytical approach in understanding health-related challenges to disadvantaged populations during recovery. Analysis is conducted using a contemporary statistical approach, a multiple additive regression tree (MART), which displays considerable improvement over traditional regression analysis. By using MART, the percentage of improvement in R-squares over standard multiple linear regression ranges from about 62 to more than 100 per cent. The most revealing finding is the modelled verification that African Americans experienced disproportionate exposure in both structural and personal contexts. Given the impact of exposure to health outcomes, this finding has implications for understanding the long-term health challenges facing this population.

  20. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in tobacco harvesters' urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Doctor, P B; Gokani, V N; Kulkarni, P K; Parikh, J R; Saiyed, H N

    2004-04-05

    A solid-phase extraction method using Drug Test-1 column containing chemically modified silica as a solid support for sample clean up and reversed phase ion-paired high-pressure liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine from the urine samples. Mobile phase was consisted of acetate buffer (containing 0.03 M sodium acetate and 0.1 M acetic acid) pH 3.1 and acetonitrile (78:22% (v/v)) containing 0.02 M sodium octanosulfonate as an ion pair agent. pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.6 with triethylamine for better resolution and to prevent peak tailing. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-10 microg/ml concentrations of nicotine and cotinine standards. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 for cotinine and 0.999 for nicotine. The recoveries were obtained in the range of 79-97% with average value of 85% for nicotine and in the range of 82-98% with average value of 88% for cotinine. The limit of detection was 2 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine with 2 ml urine for extraction, calculated by taking signal to noise ratio 10:3. The intra-day co-efficient of variation (CV) were <4 and 7% and inter-day CV were <9 and 7% for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The method was applied to the urine samples of tobacco harvesters, who suffer from green tobacco sickness (GTS) to check the absorption of nicotine through dermal route during the various processes of tobacco cultivation due to its good reproducibility and sensitivity.