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Sample records for cotinine measured exposure

  1. Estimating fetal morbidity and mortality resulting from cigarette smoke exposure by measuring cotinine levels in maternal serum.

    PubMed

    Haddow, J E; Knight, G J; Palomaki, G E; Haddow, P K

    1988-01-01

    An essay for cotinine levels in maternal serum was used to define cigarette smoking exposure level and fetal morbidity and mortality. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has a circulating half-life of about a day, making it more reliable than nicotine as an indicator or active and passive smoke exposure. Maternal smoking has been linked in previous studies with low Apgar scores, low birthweight, decreased placental blood flow, fetal activity, fetal breathing movements, depressed prostacyclin synthesis in umbilical artery, increased perinatal mortality and spontaneous abortion. In this study, 8063 2nd trimester pregnant women whose serum had been collected and frozen in 1979-1983 were analyzed for smoking habit determined from intake questionnaires. Cotinine levels correlated with 95% of those reporting no smoking, and 93% of those reporting smoking. Smokers with cotinine 10 ng/ml was higher than expected, possible because some women quit before blood was drawn. Cotinine levels did not correlate as well as number of cigarettes per day reported. There was a significant association between serum cotinine and birthweight at the 10 and 20 cigarette/day level, and a trend toward a link between cotinine and fetal deaths in 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Among infants of the 30% of women exposed to passive smoke whose serum cotinine levels were 1 ng/ml, the average birth weight was 107 g lower than those of non-exposed women, a difference remaining after controlling for maternal weight and height, infant's sex, maternal age, gravidity and education.

  2. Comparison of serum and salivary cotinine measurements by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke among smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; McGuffey, J E; Morrison, M A; Pirkle, J L

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke, both from active smoking and from passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, can be monitored by measuring cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in a variety of biological sources including blood, urine, and saliva. Previously, a sensitive atmospheric-pressure ionization, tandem mass spectrometric (LC-API-MS-MS) method for cotinine measurements in serum was developed in support of a large, recurrent national epidemiologic investigation. The current study examined the application of this LC-API-MS-MS method to both serum and saliva cotinine measurements in a group of 200 healthy adults, including both smokers and nonsmokers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum and saliva cotinine concentrations to facilitate the linking of results from epidemiologic studies using salivary cotinine measurements to existing national data based on serum cotinine analyses. The results indicate that a simple, linear relationship can be developed to describe serum and saliva cotinine concentrations in an individual, and the expression describing this relationship can be used to estimate with reasonable accuracy (approximately +/- 10%) the serum cotinine concentration in an individual given his or her salivary cotinine result. It was further confirmed that saliva cotinine samples are generally quite stable during storage after collection, even at ambient temperatures, and this sample matrix appears to be well-suited to the requirements of many epidemiologic investigations.

  3. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure: quantifying nicotine/cotinine concentration in biological samples by colorimetry, chromatography and immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Preeti

    2004-04-01

    Procedures to assess tobacco smoke exposure are reviewed and biomarkers used for determining the smoking status of an individual are compared. Methods used to extract these biomarkers from saliva, urine, and blood and the advantages and disadvantages of the assays are discussed. Finally, the procedures used to measure the levels of cortisol, a stress hormone speculated to be linked to nicotine metabolism, are discussed.

  4. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  5. Hair analysis of nicotine and cotinine for evaluating tobacco smoke exposure by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Kimura, Kazuko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2004-11-01

    A simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human hair was established. In the procedure, a hair sample (10 mg) was washed with dichloromethane and digested in 2.5 M sodium hydroxide. The digest was extracted with dichloromethane and then 25 mM hydrochloric acid in methanol was added to the extract, to prevent loss of analytes. The solution was evaporated and redissolved in the mobile phase, methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate (30/70, v/v). A 20 microL aliquot of redissolved solution was subjected to analysis. Nicotine and cotinine in human hair were quantified by using deuterated analytes as internal standards. The quantification limits were 8 microg/L for nicotine and 0.9 microg/L for cotinine. The proposed method was applied to measure the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in hair of smokers and non-smokers to evaluate their self-reported smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In both cases, the method provided good selectivity, accuracy and precision.

  6. [The assesment of health status of adolescents exposed to tobacco smoke with cotinine as an exposure biomarker].

    PubMed

    Dziuda-Gorzkowska, Maria R; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Nowacka, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the health status of adolescents exposed to tobacco smoke. The questionnaire and internal examination covered 202 of Lodz high school students. The tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by cotinine measurement in urine with the HPLC method. The results indicate intensive passive and active exposure to tobacco smoke among the examined adolescents, which was reflected in the cotinine levels in urine, 30-40 times higher in smokers than in the remaining subjects. The active smokers more frequently manifested problems of respiratory nad neurovegetative systems, however there were no differences in the subjective study results as well as in the frequency rate of using health care services by the active smokers and the remaining subjects.

  7. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among infants in southern Thailand: a study of urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Anuntaseree, Wanaporn; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Tantana, Chanpa; Ma-a-Lee, Arinda

    2008-01-01

    We performed a survey to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 1-year-old infants in Thailand. Of the 725 infants, it was reported that 73.3% had household smoking and 40.7% had detectable urinary cotinine. Twenty-five infants (3.4%) had urinary cotinine in the range of adult heavy smokers. The prevalence of ETS exposure was significantly higher in infants with a father whose education was < or = grade 6 than in those with father's education >6 years (44.0% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.039). Data on the exposure to ETS among infants will provide prevalence information and identify population subgroups at increased risk for exposure.

  9. Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

    2012-03-01

    In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS.

  10. Cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco exposure: development of a HPLC method and comparison of matrices.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Guilherme Oliveira; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Chatkin, José Miguel; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco dependence reaches one-third of the world population, and is the second leading cause of death around the world. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is the most appropriate parameter to evaluate tobacco exposure and smoking status due to its higher stability and half-life when compared to nicotine. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a RP column (Zorbax XDB C(8)), isocratic pump (0.5 mL/min of water-methanol-sodium acetate (0.1 M)-ACN (50:15:25:10, v/v/v/v), 1.0 mL of citric acid (0.034 M) and 5.0 mL of triethylamine for each liter) and HPLC-UV detection (261 nm). The analytical procedure proved to be sensitive, selective, precise, accurate and linear (r>0.99) in the range of 5-500.0 ng/mL for cotinine. 2-Phenylimidazole was used as the internal standard. The LOD was 0.18 ng/mL and the LOQ was 5.0 ng/mL. All samples from smoking volunteers were collected simultaneously to establish a comparison between serum, plasma, and urine. The urinary cotinine levels were normalized by the creatinine and urine density. A significant correlation was found (p<0.01) between all matrices. Results indicate that the urine normalization by creatinine or density is unnecessary. This method is considered reliable for determining cotinine in serum and plasma of smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  11. Contingency management for smoking cessation: enhancing feasibility through use of immunoassay test strips measuring cotinine.

    PubMed

    Schepis, Ty S; Duhig, Amy M; Liss, Thomas; McFetridge, Amanda; Wu, Ran; Cavallo, Dana A; Dahl, Tricia; Jatlow, Peter; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a powerful behavioral intervention shown to reduce the use of a variety of substances including tobacco. Use of CM techniques for smoking cessation has been restricted by the use of multiple daily measurements of breath CO as the objective indicator to reinforce abstinence. Cotinine, with its longer half-life, may be a better marker. We evaluated the use of urinary cotinine (determined using once-daily semiquantitative immunoassay test strips and verified using quantitative GC/HPLC techniques) as an abstinence indicator in treatment-seeking adult and adolescent smokers participating in a CM-based intervention program. Both techniques of determining urinary cotinine were highly sensitive and moderately specific at detecting abstinence, and they were highly concordant. However, specificity was somewhat lower during the first few days of a quit attempt and improved over time. The results were similar in adults and adolescent smokers, and suggest that during the first few days of a quit attempt it would be advisable to continue to use daily multiple CO measurements to verify abstinence. However, once abstinence is achieved, once-daily immunoassay test strips could be used for continued monitoring of urinary cotinine levels. Immunoassay testing can identify individuals who relapse to smoking, though this study cannot evaluate whether the strips can identify resumption of abstinence. These results suggest that the use of cotinine as an abstinence indicator, by reducing the number of daily appointments, could significantly enhance the feasibility and utility of CM-based interventions for smoking cessation.

  12. [Determination of urinary cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene and blood carboxyhemoglobine as the biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure].

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Wardas, Władysław; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The following biomarkers: cotinine, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) were used for the estimation of the tobacco smoke exposure. In our study urine and blood sampled from 98 volunteers were subjected to assessment of the biomarkers concentrations under investigation. According to the self-reports of the volunteers, all of the volunteers were divided into three groups: non-smokers, passive and active smokers. The mean values of the biomarker concentrations were calculated for these groups. In order to verify the tobacco smoke exposure specified by volunteers, we tested the real urinary cotinine amount. Based on obtained values of this biomarker, the another volunteer's partition into the groups of nonsmokers, passive and active smokers were done. The new mean values for all of these groups were calculated. The mean values obtained for both group partitions differed. The latter partition gave opportunity to use 1-OHP for the estimation of the tobacco smoke exposure not only for the active smokers but also for the passive smokers. When HbCO was taken into consideration as the biomarker, the estimation of the tobacco smoke exposure of the passive smokers was not significant different, as compared with the group of nonsmokers. The analysis of the correlation between the concentrations of 1-OHP and cotinine gave opportunity for the estimation to tobacco smoke exposure of the passive and active smokers. The estimation of the correlation, between the HbCO and cotinine concentrations was restricted for this purpose.

  13. Is the hair nicotine level a more accurate biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure than urine cotinine?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Delaimy, W; Crane, J; Woodward, A

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: The aim of this study was to compare the two biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); urine cotinine and hair nicotine, using questionnaires as the standard. Design: A cross sectional study of children consecutively admitted to hospital for lower respiratory illnesses during the period of the study. Settings: Three regional hospitals in the larger Wellington area, New Zealand. Participants: Children aged 3–27 months and admitted to the above hospitals during August 1997 to October 1998. A total of 322 children provided 297 hair samples and 158 urine samples. Main results: Hair nicotine levels were better able to discriminate the groups of children according to their household's smoking habits at home (no smokers, smoke only outside the home, smoke inside the house) than urine cotinine (Kruskall-Wallis; χ2=142.14, and χ2=49.5, respectively (p<0.0001)). Furthermore, hair nicotine levels were more strongly correlated with number of smokers in the house, and the number of cigarettes smoked by parents and other members of the child's households. Hair nicotine was better related to the questionnaire variables of smoking in a multivariate regression model (r2=0.55) than urine cotinine (r2=0.31). Conclusions: In this group of young children, hair nicotine was a more precise biomarker of exposure to ETS than urine cotinine levels, using questionnaire reports as the reference. Both biomarkers indicate that smoking outside the house limits ETS exposure of children but does not eliminate it. PMID:11801622

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.

    PubMed

    Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; P<0.002) and nicotine in house dust (r(s)=0.77; P<0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between lead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; P<0.001) and coarse dust (r(s)=0.57; P=0.02). Although, there was a tendency for a relation between nicotine and lead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma.

  15. Measurement of nicotine and cotinine in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Hale, Thomas W; Hackett, L Peter; Kristensen, Judith H; Ilett, Kenneth F

    2003-10-25

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human milk was developed using an extraction by liquid-liquid partition combined with back extraction into acid, and followed by reverse-phase chromatography with UV detection of analytes. The assay was linear up to 500 microg/l for both nicotine and cotinine. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) were <10% (25-500 microg/l) for both nicotine and cotinine. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 10 and 12 microg/l for nicotine and cotinine, respectively, while the limits of detection (LOD) were 8 and 10 microg/l for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The mean recoveries were 79-93% (range 25-500 microg/l) for nicotine and 78-89% (range 25-500 microg/l) for cotinine. The amount of fat in the milk did not affect the recovery. We found that this method was sensitive and reliable in measuring nicotine and cotinine concentrations in milk from a nursing mother who participated in a trial of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation.

  16. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  17. Cotinine antagonizes the behavioral effects of nicotine exposure in the planarian Girardia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Bach, Daniel J; Tenaglia, Matthew; Baker, Debra L; Deats, Sean; Montgomery, Erica; Pagán, Oné R

    2016-10-06

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs abused by humans. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that nicotine decreases motility and induces seizure-like behavior in planarians (pSLM, which are vigorous writhing and bending of the body) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nicotine also induces withdrawal-like behaviors in these worms. Cotinine is the major nicotine metabolite in humans, although it is not the final product of nicotine metabolism. Cotinine is mostly inactive in vertebrate nervous systems and is currently being explored as a molecule which possess most of nicotine's beneficial effects and few of its undesirable ones. It is not known whether cotinine is a product of nicotine metabolism in planarians. We found that cotinine by itself does not seem to elicit any behavioral effects in planarians up to a concentration of 1mM. We also show that cotinine antagonizes the aforementioned nicotine-induced motility decrease and also decreases the expression of nicotine-induced pSLMs in a concentration-dependent manner. Also cotinine prevents the manifestation of some of the withdrawal-like behaviors induced by nicotine in our experimental organism. Thus, we obtained evidence supporting that cotinine antagonizes nicotine in this planarian species. Possible explanations include competitive binding of both compounds at overlapping binding sites, at different nicotinic receptor subtypes, or maybe allosteric interactions.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection cotinine method adapted for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Mónica; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Huetos, Olga; Castaño, Argelia

    2014-06-01

    Smoking is considered to be one of the main risk factors for cancer and other diseases and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. As the anti-tobacco legislation implemented in Europe has reduced secondhand smoke exposure levels, analytical methods must be adapted to these new levels. Recent research has demonstrated that cotinine is the best overall discriminator when biomarkers are used to determine whether a person has ongoing exposure to tobacco smoke. This work proposes a sensitive, simple and low-cost method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with diode array detection for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure by cotinine determination in urine. The analytical procedure is simple and fast (20 min) when compared to other similar methods existing in the literature, and it is cheaper than the mass spectrometry techniques usually used to quantify levels in nonsmokers. We obtained a quantification limit of 12.30 μg/L and a recovery of over 90%. The linearity ranges used were 12-250 and 250-4000 μg/L. The method was successfully used to determine cotinine in urine samples collected from different volunteers and is clearly an alternative routine method that allows active and passive smokers to be distinguished.

  19. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV–VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. PMID:28244280

  20. A simple, fast, and sensitive method for the measurement of serum nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Kosewick, Justin; Wang, Sihe

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of nicotine and its metabolites has been used to monitor tobacco use. A high-sensitivity method (<1 ng/mL) is necessary for the measurement in serum or plasma to differentiate nonsmokers from passive smokers. Here, we report a novel LC-MS/MS method to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine in serum with high sensitivity. Sample preparation involved only protein precipitation, followed by online turbulent flow extraction and analysis on a porous graphitic carbon column in alkaline conditions. The chromatography time was 4 min. No significant matrix effects or interference were observed. The lower limit of quantification was 0.36, 0.32, and 0.38 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine, respectively, while accuracy was 91.6-117.1%. No carryover was observed up to a concentration of 48 , 550, and 48 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine, respectively. Total CV was <6.5%. The measurement of nicotine and cotinine was compared with an independent LC-MS/MS method and concordant results were obtained. In conclusion, this new method was simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate. It was validated to measure nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine in serum for monitoring tobacco use.

  1. A Randomized Trial of Parental Behavioral Counseling and Cotinine Feedback for Lowering Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Harold J.; Knowles, Sarah B.; Lavori, Philip W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure impairs the control of pediatric asthma. Evidence of the efficacy of interventions to reduce children’s exposure and improve disease outcomes has been inconclusive. Methods: Caregivers of 519 children aged 3 to 12 years with asthma and reported smoke exposure attended two baseline assessment visits, which involved a parent interview, sampling of the children’s urine (for cotinine assay), and spirometry (children ≥ 5 years). The caregivers and children (n = 352) with significant documented exposure (cotinine ≥ 10 ng/mL) attended a basic asthma education session, provided a third urine sample, and were randomized to the Lowering Environmental Tobacco Smoke: LET’S Manage Asthma (LET’S) intervention (n = 178) or usual care (n = 174). LET’S included three in-person, stage-of-change-based counseling sessions plus three follow-up phone calls. Cotinine feedback was given at each in-person session. Follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months postrandomization repeated the baseline data collection. Multivariate regression analyses estimated the intervention effect on the natural logarithm of the cotinine to creatinine ratio (lnCCR), use of health-care services, and other outcomes. Results: In the sample overall, the children in the LET’S intervention had lower follow-up lnCCR values compared with the children in usual care, but the group difference was not significant (β coefficient = −0.307, P = .064), and there was no group difference in the odds of having > one asthma-related medical visit (β coefficient = 0.035, P = .78). However, children with high-risk asthma had statistically lower follow-up lnCCR values compared with children in usual care (β coefficient = −1.068, P = .006). Conclusions: The LET’S intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in tobacco smoke exposure or use of health-care services in the sample as a whole. However, it appeared effective in reducing exposure

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  3. [Application of the immunoassay for determination of cotinine in the urine].

    PubMed

    Stanek, Artur; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Anholcer, Andrzej; Chuchracki, Marek; Gomołka, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Kedziora, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Verification of the results of questionnaire studies of exposure to tobacco smoke require determination of the biomarkers in body fluids. For performing such measurements the fast and simple method is needed. The aim of this study was to estimate usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in routine cotinine determination in urine of active smokers and compare it with reference high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the study participated 15 non smoking and 15 smoking women. In the urine of tese women cotinine concentration of cotinine was measured by the means of HPLC and ELISA methods. The ELISA method, used in quantity measurement of cotinine in urine, is of great accuracy, sensitivity and specificity which were proved by comparison with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) reference method. Number of false positive and false negative results obtained by ELISA method did not exceed 10%. A high correlation coefficient, r=0.9056, between results of determining cotinine in urine by means of ELISA and HPLC methods, confirmed the utility of ELISA method to estimate the tobacco smoke exposure. The differences in cotinine concentration values obtained by ELISA and HPLC methods did not depend on cotinine concentrations in the urine samples. Although numerous advantages of ELISA method used to detect and determine cotinine, it should be taken into consideration that results might be overestimated and cross-reactivity with other xenobiotics present in urine must be concern.

  4. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

  5. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  6. Antepartum fetal and maternal carboxyhemoglobin and cotinine levels among cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hayde, M; Bernaschek, G; Stevenson, D K; Knight, G J; Haddow, J E; Widness, J A

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and plasma cotinine levels among pregnant women who smoke cigarettes and their fetuses. Fifteen pregnant women who smoked and their fetuses undergoing cordocentesis had blood samples analysed simultaneously for COHb and cotinine. Linear regression was used to test for associations among study variables. Significant maternal-fetal associations were observed both with COHb (r = 0.72, p = 0.003) and with cotinine (r = 0.96, p = 0.003). Maternal cotinine levels were correlated with maternal and fetal COHb levels (r = 0.96, p = 0.003; r = 0.99, p = 0.0003, respectively). Fetal cotinine levels were correlated with COHb in maternal and in fetal blood (r = 0.81, p = 0.0003; r = 0.88, p<0.0001, respectively). The strong direct associations of maternal and fetal levels of COHb and cotinine indicate that maternal COHb and cotinine measurements may be interpreted as surrogates of fetal COHb levels. However, the specificity, ex vivo stability and ease of measurement of cotinine offer advantages over using COHb in quantifying fetal CO exposure following maternal cigarette smoking.

  7. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  8. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-03

    A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  9. Cotinine concentrations in semen, urine, and blood of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Vine, M F; Hulka, B S; Margolin, B H; Truong, Y K; Hu, P C; Schramm, M M; Griffith, J D; McCann, M; Everson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine levels in the semen, urine, and blood of 88 male smokers and nonsmokers, aged 18 to 35, were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Detectable cotinine levels were found in all three body fluids, and cotinine levels in all three fluids were highly correlated. Cotinine levels in semen and blood were of similar magnitude; cotinine levels in urine were an order of magnitude or more higher. In all three fluids, cotinine levels increased with an increase in cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:8363014

  10. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  11. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in meconium from Greek neonates and correlation with birth weight and gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Tsinisizeli, Nikoleta; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Xenakis, Aristotelis; Lykeridou, Katerina E

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is a major factor of morbidity and mortality for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Several studies in the past have detected and quantified tobacco smoke biomarkers in infant meconium samples. Aim of this study was to measure prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by detecting nicotine and cotinine in meconium and to try to evaluate the extent of exposure to smoke through passive smoking as well as the relationship between tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes. Tobacco smoke biomarkers nicotine and cotinine were detected and quantitated in meconium from tobacco exposed and non-exposed Greek neonates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study included 45 neonates from active, passive and non-smoking women during pregnancy. The results showed significant values of nicotine and cotinine concentration in neonates from both active and passive smokers which reached 125 ng g(-1) for nicotine and 98.5 ng g(-1) for cotinine and varied according to the type and level of exposure. In general nicotine and cotinine concentrations correlated with the degree of active smoking by the mother. Similarly, nicotine and cotinine were measured in the meconium of infants of passive smokers at concentrations comparable to those of infants whose mothers were moderate smokers. Our findings show that exposure of the fetus to tobacco biomarkers can be substantial even in passive maternal smoking and there is a statistically significant negative correlation between nicotine or cotinine concentrations in meconium and birth weight or gestational age at birth.

  12. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    PubMed

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals.

  13. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mørck, Thit A.; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N.; Siersma, Volkert D.; Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K.; Skaanild, Mette T.; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Esteban, Marta; and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  14. [Cotinine in urine of mother and their newborn and in cord serum and placenta as a biomarker of foetal exposure to tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Basior, Aneta; Wolna, Małgorzata; Hubert, Agnieszka; Seńczuk, Monika

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, tobacco smoking by women in a procreational age as well as the pregnant women is a common phenomenon. The aim of the conducted research was to assess the usefulness of cotinine markers in different biological materials--mother and newborn's urine, cord blood se. rum, placenta--as a biomarker of tobacco smoking by delivering women, and dependence between these biomarkers and the newborn's health state. 218 pregnant women (117 smokers and 101 non-smokers), who were checked in at the Perinatology and Gynecology Clinic of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, took part in the first stage of the research (period between the twelfth and sixteenth week of pregnancy) carried out between years 2004-2006. In the second stage, 201 pairs of women (89 smokers and 112 non-smokers) and their newborns were checked after the women came to hospital to deliver. The research that was conducted showed that both cotinine in the urine of delivering women and in the urine of newborns as well as in the cord blood serum may be used as a biomarker of exposure of a foetus to tobacco smoke. For practical reasons, it must be assumed that the delivering women urine should be the material from choice. The research did not indicate the usefulness of the determination of cotinine in the placenta, in order to assess the exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke. On the other hand, again it confirmed the influence of tobacco smoking on the newborn's birth parameters, a correlation between the birth weight, body length and cotinine concentration in the urine of a mother makes it possible to predict the lowering of the antropometric parameters of the newborn as a result of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

  15. Simultaneous serum nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine quantitation with minimal sample volume for tobacco exposure status of solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Wang, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites in blood are indicative of patients' current tobacco exposure, and their quantifications have been clinically applied to multiple assessments including demonstration of abstinence prior to heart-lung transplantation. For the purpose of transplant evaluation, the laboratory work up is extensive; thereby an assay with minimal sample volume is preferred. We developed and validated a rapid LC-MS/MS assay to simultaneously quantitate nicotine and its major metabolites, Cotinine and trans-3'-OH-cotinine (3-OH-Cot), in serum. 100μL of serum was spiked with deuterated internal standards and extracted by Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. Nicotine and metabolites in the reconstituted serum extract were separated by Agilent Eclipse XDB-C8 3.5μm 2.1mm×50mm HPLC column within 4.7min, and quantified by MS/MS with positive mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Ion suppression was insignificant, and extraction efficiency was 79-110% at 50ng/mL for all compounds. Limit of detection was 1.0ng/mL for nicotine and 3-OH-Cot, and <0.5ng/mL for Cotinine. Linearity ranges for nicotine, cotinine and 3-OH-Cot were 2-100, 2-1000, and 5-1000ng/mL with recoveries of 86-115%. Within-day and twenty-day imprecision at nicotine/cotinine/3-OH-Cot levels of 22/150/90, 37/250/150, and 50/800/500ng/mL were all 1.1-6.5%. The reconstituted serum extracts were stable for at least 7 days stored in the HPLC autosampler at 5°C. Our method correlates well with alternative LC-MS/MS methods. We successfully developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay to quantitate concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites in serum with minimal sample volume to assess tobacco exposure of heart-lung transplant patients.

  16. Cotinine exposure increases Fallopian tube PROKR1 expression via nicotinic AChRalpha-7: a potential mechanism explaining the link between smoking and tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julie L V; Oliver, Elizabeth; Lee, Kai-Fai; Entrican, Gary; Jabbour, Henry N; Critchley, Hilary O D; Horne, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, its etiology is uncertain. In EP, embryo retention within the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to be due to impaired smooth muscle contractility (SMC) and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. Smoking is a major risk factor for EP. FTs from women with EP exhibit altered prokineticin receptor-1 (PROKR1) expression, the receptor for prokineticins (PROK). PROK1 is angiogenic, regulates SMC, and is involved in intrauterine implantation. We hypothesized that smoking predisposes women to EP by altering tubal PROKR1 expression. Sera/FT were collected at hysterectomy (n=21). Serum levels of the smoking metabolite, cotinine, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FTs were analyzed by q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting for expression of PROKR1 and the predicted cotinine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α-7 (AChRα-7). FT explants (n=4) and oviductal epithelial cells (cell line OE-E6/E7) were treated with cotinine and an nAChRα-7 antagonist. PROKR1 transcription was higher in FTs from smokers (P<0.01). nAChRα-7 expression was demonstrated in FT epithelium. Cotinine treatment of FT explants and OE-E6/E7 cells increased PROKR1 expression (P<0.05), which was negated by cotreatment with nAChRα-7 antagonist. Smoking targets human FTs via nAChRα-7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to EP.

  17. Relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and urinary cotinine levels in passive smokers at their residence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lim, Youngwook; Lee, Seokju; Park, Soungeun; Kim, Changsoo; Hong, Cheinsoo; Shin, Dongchun

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using measured air concentrations are subject to bias. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite detected in urine, has been recommended as a quantitative measure of nicotine intake and thus as a marker for ETS exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to correlate home indoor ETS levels with passive smokers' urinary cotinine levels. The urinary cotinine concentrations of 57 non-smoking women who spend >19 h a day at home and the nicotine levels in their living room air were measured over a period of 24 h. Nicotine and urinary cotinine levels were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC/UV, respectively. In addition, information was collected regarding the smoking habits of the subjects' families. A significant correlation was found between the nicotine levels in indoor air and the urinary cotinine to creatinine ratio of the passive smokers. The smoking habits of the subjects' family members were also correlated to the urinary cotinine levels of the passive smokers.

  18. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J; Jenkins, Roger A; Counts, Richard Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  19. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in the hair of hospitality workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Dimich-Ward, H; Gee, H; Brauer, M; Leung, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if hair nicotine and cotinine levels reflect relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in subjects who worked in the hospitality industry, where public smoking was permitted. Hair samples from 26 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry techniques for nicotine and cotinine. An exposure gradient was shown for nicotine but not cotinine. Among nonsmokers, those working in bars where there are no public smoking restrictions had the highest hair nicotine levels, which were close to levels found in smokers. Nicotine measured in hair is useful as a biological marker for exposure to ETS from multiple sources. Bar workers in particular are exposed to high levels of ETS, which may adversely affect the health of nonsmokers.

  20. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E.; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A. Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana; and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  1. Validation of Self-Reported Smokeless Tobacco Use by Measurement of Serum Cotinine Concentration Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ≥18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003–2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non–tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity = 97.0%, specificity = 93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL. PMID:25125690

  2. Validation of self-reported smokeless tobacco use by measurement of serum cotinine concentration among US adults.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A

    2014-10-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ≥18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003-2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non-tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity=97.0%, specificity=93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL.

  3. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    Biomarkers are desirable for quantitating human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and for predicting potential health risks for exposed individuals. A number of biomarkers of ETS have been proposed. At present cotinine, measured in blood, saliva, or urine, appears to be the most specific and the most sensitive biomarker. In nonsmokers with significant exposure to ETS, cotinine levels in the body are derived primarily from tobacco smoke, can be measured with extremely high sensitivity, and reflect exposure to a variety of types of cigarettes independent of machine-determined yield. Under conditions of sustained exposure to ETS (i.e., over hours or days), cotinine levels reflect exposure to other components of ETS. Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers. Images Figure 1 PMID:10350520

  4. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  5. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that cotinine measurements may underestimate exposure of passive smokers to the lung carcinogen NNK in secondhand cigarette smoke. The total NNAL:total cotinine (× 103) ratio may provide an improved biomarker for evaluating the health effects of passive smoking. PMID:21812592

  6. [The exposure to tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The exposition to tobacco smoke is overall: in home, work and public places. For the examination of the presence and concentration of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in indoor environments the nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are determined. A variety of biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, protein and DNA adducts) are propose for measurement of exposure to tobacco smoke. The most popular is measurement of cotinine concentration in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva). Plasma cotinine concentration correlated to numbers of cigarettes smoked and to various biological effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS. Other biomarkers as carboxyhemoglobin, thiocyanate, and amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adduct can be also use.

  7. Serum Cotinine and Chronic Pain: NHANES 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R Constance

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be the leading preventable risk factor for many diseases and has the potential to be a risk factor for chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of chronic pain with smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and non-smoking using serum cotinine (and self-report of living with someone who smokes in the home) to identify the tobacco exposure groups. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 was used for this study. Participants were queried about pain duration and had serum cotinine levels determined during the course of the NHANES examination/survey. Participants, ages 20 years and above, with complete data on chronic pain, cotinine level, sex, race/ethnicity, and responses concerning living with someone who smoked in the home were included in the study (n=4429). Results The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco smoke exposure on chronic pain was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.59; p=0.0220) for participants with a serum cotinine level >10 ng/mg (smokers) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. For individuals with a serum cotinine level >0.011 ng/mg to 10 ng/mg who identified as living with someone who smoked in the home, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.65; p=0.6785) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. Conclusion Chronic pain is a complex situation with many factors affecting it. Similarly, smoking is a complex addiction. The interplay of chronic pain and cotinine levels in this study were significant. PMID:26835515

  8. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

  9. The detection of cotinine in hydrolyzed meconium samples.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D; Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-06-28

    To date, the screening of meconium for the determination of tobacco exposure in newborns has proven difficult. It was hypothesized that cotinine forms reversible Schiff base bonds with free amino functions on proteins, therefore, hydrolysis of meconium would be necessary for the detection of 'free' cotinine. One-hundred-and-two (102) meconium samples received into our laboratory were extracted using a routine non-hydrolysis screening procedure for drugs of abuse. Separate aliquots of the specimens were hydrolyzed and re-extracted according to the same procedure. The results of the two methods were compared using a highly specific cotinine micro-plate enzyme immunoassay procedure (EIA). Of the non-hydrolyzed samples, 33% were positive for cotinine, while 79% of the hydrolyzed samples were cotinine-positive. Common drugs of abuse did not interfere with the analysis. Micro-plate EIA provides a rapid, simple and reliable screening method for the determination of cotinine in meconium following hydrolysis and extraction. In general, the meconium specimens received into our laboratory are from newborns considered to be at risk for post-natal problems due to suspected drug and/or alcohol abuse during pregnancy.

  10. No increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in smokers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis P; Niopas, Ioannis; Kafantari, Anna; Kanaze, Feraz Imad; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Melissidis, Petros; Gamvrula, Katerina; Fokas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking cigarettes has repeatedly been found to be greater in schizophrenia as compared with other psychiatric patients and the general population. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to engage in heavy smoking and consumption of higher doses of nicotine, probably by deeper inhalation of cigarettes. The aim of the current study was to assess nicotine exposure through smoking by measuring urinary cotinine, the major nicotine metabolite, in a group of smokers from Greece of smokers with schizophrenia and smokers from the general population. Participants were current smokers and belonged to one of two groups: 35 patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy controls matched in age, education, and gender. The quantitative analysis of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, in urine samples was performed by a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Patients with schizophrenia who smoke presented a significantly larger time interval between last cigarette smoked and urine sample collection, as well as a significantly higher average number of cigarettes consumed daily than normal smokers. Urinary cotinine levels of patients with schizophrenia who smoke did not significantly differ from that of normal smokers when adjusted for average number of cigarettes per day and time interval between last cigarette smoked and urine collection. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia did not present higher nicotine exposure through smoking compared with smokers from the community. The pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of nicotine, as well as patient medications of the patients may explain our findings.

  11. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations) and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%), cotinine (69%), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57%) in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants. PMID:20799929

  12. Determination of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, S; Stray-Pedersen, A; Olsen, L; Vege, A; Rognum, T O; Mørland, J; Christophersen, A S

    2009-05-01

    Cotinine is the main metabolite of nicotine and is used as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke. A method has been developed for quantification of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood collected from autopsy casework involving cases of infant death. Sample clean-up was achieved by solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode column. Cotinine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Positive ionization was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two transitions were monitored for the analyte and one for the internal standard, cotinine-d(3). The calibration range was 0.9-176 ng/mL for cotinine in both matrixes. The recovery of the analyte ranged from 86 to 92%, and the between-assay precisions ranged from 4 to 6% relative standard deviation. Whole blood and pericardial fluid samples from 95 infant deaths obtained during autopsy were analyzed. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was found between the cotinine concentrations in pericardial fluid and blood. The correlation was not affected by the postmortem time interval. This study demonstrates that pericardial fluid may be an alternative specimen to blood for quantification of cotinine in forensic autopsies.

  13. Chairside quantitative immunochromatographic evaluation of salivary cotinine and its correlation with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Surya, Chamarthi; Swamy, Devulapally Narasimha; Chakrapani, Swarna; Kumar, Surapaneni Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is an established and modifiable risk factor for periodontitis. Periodontitis appears to be dose-dependent on smoking. The purpose of this study was to assess a reliable marker of tobacco smoke exposure (salivary cotinine) chairside and to confirm the quantitative association between smoking and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 80 males, aged 30–60 years, with chronic periodontitis, were evaluated chairside using NicAlert™ cotinine test strips (NCTS). Patients were divided into two groups: A (cotinine negative) and B (cotinine positive). Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession (GR) were compared between the two groups and among the subjects of group B. Results: Comparison showed that the severity of PPD (P<0.001), CAL (P<0.001), and GR (P<0.001) was more in group B than in group A. Severity of all periodontal parameters increased with increased salivary cotinine among the subjects in group B. Conclusion: Quantitative direct association can be established between salivary cotinine and the severity of periodontitis. Immunochromatography-based cotinine test strips are a relatively easy method for quantification of salivary cotinine chairside. Immediate and personalized feedback from a chairside test can improve compliance, quit rates, and ease reinforcing smoking cessation. PMID:23492903

  14. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea.

  15. Simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue using microdialysis coupled with liquid chromatography: pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Pi-Lo; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Tien, Jung-Hsiung; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2005-09-23

    To elucidate the disposition of nicotine in the brain is important because the neuropharmacological effects from nicotine exposure are centrally predominated. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of unbound nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue. We coupled a multiple sites microdialysis sampling technique with HPLC-UV system to characterize the pharmacokinetics of both nicotine and cotinine. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the jugular vein/right atrium and brain striatum of Sprague-Dawley rats, and nicotine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered via the femoral vein. Dialysates were collected every 10 min and injected directly into a HPLC system. Both nicotine and cotinine were separated by a phenyl-hexyl column (150 mm x 4.6 mm) from dialysates within 12 min. The mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-methanol-20 mM monosodium phosphate buffer (55:45:900, v/v/v, pH adjusted to 5.1) with a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the UV detector was set at 260 nm. The limit of quantification for nicotine and cotinine were 0.25 microg/ml and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of both measurements fell well within the predefined limits of acceptability. The blood and brain concentration-time profile of nicotine and cotinine suggests that nicotine is easily to get into the central nervous system and cotinine exhibits a long retention time and accumulates in blood.

  16. Determination of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine in meconium using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, J; Pochopień, G; Baranowska, I

    1998-04-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode-array detection for the determination of nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and caffeine, in meconium is described. This method is suitable to assess foetus exposure to tobacco smoke. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction before chromatography. From among 30 meconium samples 11 were positive for cotinine (20-86 ng/g) and 27 for caffeine (10-45 ng/g). No nicotine was present in the samples because of its rapid metabolism into cotinine.

  17. CYP1A1 Ile462Val and GSTT1 modify the effect of cord blood cotinine on neurodevelopment at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Liao, Hua-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Su, Yi-Ning; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Yu, Shih-Ni; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2008-09-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported to be associated with children's neurobehavioral development but there was no studies investigating the genetic susceptibilities to maternal ETS exposure on children's neurodevelopment. The aim of the study was to explore the modification effect of metabolic gene polymorphisms to cord blood cotinine on children's neurodevelopment at the 2 years of age. This study is one investigation of the Taiwan Birth Panel Study and a total of 145 pregnant women and their neonates were recruited between April 2004 and January 2005. We interviewed them by a structured questionnaire after delivery and collected umbilical cord blood at birth. Cotinine in umbilical cord blood as an indicator of environmental tobacco smoke was analyzed by using HPLC-MS/MS and the detection limited of this method was 0.05ng/mL. Four metabolic genes, CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 Ile462Val, GSTT1 and GSTM1 were identified. The Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) was used for assessing children's neurodevelopment at the 2 years of age accompanying with the measurement of Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate the effects of cord blood cotinine and gene modification. Cotinine levels were significantly negatively associated with developmental quotients (DQs) of the whole test, and cognitive, language, fine-motor and social subtests of the CDIIT. Lower cognitive and language DQs were found in exposed group with absent type of GSTT1. In addition, the lowest scores in fine-motor and whole test DQs were detected in exposed group with CYP1A1 Ile462Val variant type and GSTT1 absent type. It can be concluded that CYP1A1 Ile462Val and GSTT1 metabolic genes can modify the effect of cord blood cotinine on early child neurodevelopment especially for language and fine motor development.

  18. Cotinine in Human Placenta Predicts Induction of Gene Expression in Fetal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Haley, Kathleen J.; Sharma, Sunita; Dai, Hongying; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Leeder, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain unknown due, in part, to the absence or unreliability of information regarding maternal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Our goal was to determine if placental cotinine could be a reliable biomarker of fetal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Cotinine levels were determined in placentas from 47 women who reported smoking during pregnancy and from 10 women who denied cigarette smoke exposure. Cotinine levels were significantly higher in placentas from women reporting cigarette smoking (median = 27.2 ng/g) versus women who reported no smoke exposure (2.3 ng/g, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified an optimal cut point of 7.5 ng/g (sensitivity = 78.7%, specificity = 100%) to classify placenta samples from mothers who smoked versus those from mothers who did not. Among 415 placentas for which maternal cigarette smoking status was unavailable, 167 had cotinine levels > 7.5 ng/g and would be considered positive for cigarette smoke exposure. Data from quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that in utero cigarette smoke exposure predicted by cotinine in placenta is associated with changes in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fetal tissues. CYP1A1 mRNA in fetal lung and liver tissue and CYP1B1 mRNA in fetal lung tissue were significantly induced when cotinine was detected in placenta. These findings indicate that cotinine in placenta is a reliable biomarker for fetal exposure and response to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. PMID:23209192

  19. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at

  20. [Concentration of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and its glucuronides in urine of smoking pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Kedziora, Hanna; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Anholcer, Andrzej; Gomółka, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Stanek, Artur

    2007-01-01

    To assess the exposure to tobacco smoke constituents, the biomarkers are used. In most studies conducted among active smokers, the cotinine is usually utilised as such a biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate an application of determining two nicotine metabolites, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) in order to assess cigarette smoking among pregnant women. There were 25 patients (15 smokers, 10 non-smokers) admitted to Delivery Ward in Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. The free and total form of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in urine were determined by the means of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometry detection. The results of this studies indicated that in urine both cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine are conjugated with glucoronide acid in the high degree. The linear correlation between free and conjugated form of cotinine and whole cotinine concentration indicates the possibility of application of all three of them as biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. The high conjugation of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine with glucuronic acid (over 80 %), and high correlation between glucuronide and total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentration proves necessity of having the urine samples hydrolysed or determining the 3'-hydroxycotinine glucoronide, when application of 3-HC as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. Our studies confirm other authors' observations that division of 3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine concentrations might be used as a predictor of differences in cotinine metabolite ratio (polimorphism). The studies shown that using analytical equipment, nowadays available in the most laboratories (HPLC), it is possible to determined two biomarkers which are very useful and give various information, no matter whether they are conjugated with glucuronic acid, or not.

  1. Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L; Styn, Mindi A; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective measure of nicotine dose than smoking quantity. Previous genetic association studies of serum cotinine have focused on individual genes. We conducted a genetic association study of the biomarker in African American (N=365) and European American (N=315) subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using a chip containing densely-spaced tag SNPs in ∼2100 genes. We found that rs11187065, located in the non-coding region (intron 1) of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), was the most strongly associated SNP (p=8.91 × 10(-6)) in the African American cohort, whereas rs11763963, located on chromosome 7 outside of a gene transcript, was the most strongly associated SNP in European Americans (p=1.53 × 10(-6)). We then evaluated how the top variant association in each population performed in the other group. We found that the association of rs11187065 in IDE was also associated with the phenotype in European Americans (p=0.044). Our top SNP association in European Americans, rs11763963 was non-polymorphic in our African American sample. It has been previously shown that psychostimulant self-administration is reduced in animals with lower insulin because of interference with dopamine transmission in the brain reward centers. Our finding provides a platform for further investigation of this, or additional mechanisms, involving the relationship between insulin and self-administered nicotine dose.

  2. Determinants of Salivary Cotinine among Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Rumana; Shah, Sarwat; Mushtaq, Nasir; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of all smokeless tobacco (ST) products in the world are consumed in South Asia; yet little is known about their consumption behaviour, addictiveness, and toxic properties. This paper, for the first time, describes associations between salivary cotinine concentrations among ST users in Bangladesh and their socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviours. Methods In a survey of ST users in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we purposively recruited 200 adults who were non-smokers but consumed ST on a regular basis. In-person interviews were conducted to obtain information about socio-demographic and ST use behaviours, and saliva samples were collected to measure cotinine concentration. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test associations between the log transformed salivary cotinine concentration and other study variables. Results The geometric mean of cotinine concentration among ST users was 380ng/ml (GSD:2). Total duration of daily ST use in months had a statistically significant association with cotinine concentration. Other ST use characteristics including type and quantity of ST use, swallowing of tobacco juice, urges and strength of urges and attempts to cut down on tobacco use were not found to be associated with cotinine concentration in a multivariable model. Conclusion This is the first report from Bangladesh studying cotinine concentration among ST users and it points towards high levels of addiction. This warrants effective tobacco control policies to help ST cessation and prevention. PMID:27504912

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  4. Biomarkers of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Automobiles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ian; St Helen, Gideon; Meyers, Matthew; Dempsey, Delia A.; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Northcross, Amanda; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle using biomarkers, (2) to describe the time-course of the biomarkers over 24 h, and (3) to examine the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and airborne concentrations of SHS markers. Methods Eight nonsmokers were individually exposed to SHS in cars with fully open front windows and closed back windows over an hour from a smoker who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 min intervals. The nonsmokers sat in the backseat-passenger side, while the smoker sat in the driver’s seat. Plasma cotinine and urine cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine (3HC), and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) were compared in samples taken at baseline and several time-points after exposure. Nicotine, particulate matter (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured inside and outside the vehicle and ventilation rates in the cars were measured. Results Average plasma cotinine and the molar sum of urine cotinine and 3HC (COT+3HC) increased 4-fold, urine cotinine increased 6-fold, and urine NNAL increased ~27 times compared to baseline biomarker levels. Plasma cotinine, urine COT+3HC and NNAL peaked at 4–8 hours post-exposure while urine cotinine peaked within 4 hours. Plasma cotinine was significantly correlated to PM2.5 (Spearman correlation (rs = 0.94) and CO (rs = 0.76) but not to air nicotine. The correlations between urine biomarkers, cotinine, COT+3HC, and NNAL and air nicotine, PM2.5, and CO were moderate but non-significant (rs range, 0.31 – 0.60). Conclusion Brief SHS exposure in cars resulted in substantial increases in levels of tobacco biomarkers in nonsmokers. For optimal characterization of SHS exposure, tobacco biomarkers should be measured within 4–8 h post-exposure. Additional studies are needed to better describe the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and environmental markers of SHS. PMID:23349229

  5. Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Pearl, Michelle; Jacob, Peyton; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Havel, Christopher; Kharrazi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Disease Screening Program provided dried blood spots from 428 newborns delivered in 2001–2003 with known umbilical cord blood cotinine levels. Cotinine in dried blood spots was measured in 6.35­-mm punches by using liquid chromatography­–tandem mass spectrometry (quantitation limit, 3.1 ng/mL). Repeated measures of cotinine in dried blood spots were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) among 100 dried blood spots with cotinine quantitated in 2 separate punches. Linear regression revealed that cotinine levels in dried blood spots were slightly lower than those in umbilical cord blood and predicted umbilical cord blood cotinine levels well (β = 0.95, R2 = 0.80, and P < 0.001 for both cotinine levels in log10 scale). When defining active smoking as a cotinine level of 10 ng/mL or more and using umbilical cord blood cotinine as the criterion standard, we found that measurements of cotinine in dried blood spots had high sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (99.7%) in the prediction of maternal active smoking. Cotinine levels in dried blood spots are an accurate biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. PMID:24068198

  6. In vitro evaluation of the effect of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cogo, Karina; Montan, Michelle Franz; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia; D Andrade, Eduardo; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on the viability of some oral bacterial species. It also evaluated the ability of these bacteria to metabolize those substances. Single-species biofilms of Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Fusobacterium nucleatum and dual-species biofilms of S. gordonii -- F. nucleatum and F. nucleatum -- P. gingivalis were grown on hydroxyapatite discs. Seven species were studied as planktonic cells, including Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces naeslundii, and the species mentioned above. The viability of planktonic cells and biofilms was analyzed by susceptibility tests and time-kill assays, respectively, against different concentrations of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations in the culture media after the assays. Susceptibility tests and viability assays showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine cannot reduce or stimulate bacterial growth. High-performance liquid chromatography results showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations were not altered after bacteria exposure. These findings indicate that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine, in the concentrations used, cannot affect significantly the growth of these oral bacterial strains. Moreover, these species do not seem to metabolize these substances.

  7. Combined analysis of the tobacco metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine.

    PubMed

    Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-02-03

    Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively, to the best of our knowledge, by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [(13)C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds.

  8. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring.

  9. GC-MS determined cotinine in an epidemiological study on smoking status at delivery.

    PubMed

    Chazeron, Ingrid de; Daval, Sandrine; Ughetto, Sylvie; Richard, Damien; Nicolay, Alain; Lemery, Didier; Llorca, Pierre M; Coudoré, François

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the plasma cotinine levels in pregnant women and their newborns using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in an epidemiological-delivered population with a wide range of tobacco intakes. Nearly 1000 pregnant women from regional maternity wards (n=1007) were selected for the study. Each patient kept a tobacco diary and underwent a blood test to assess cotinine levels and at the same time that the newborns' cordonal plasma was taken. These values were then cross-checked. Cotinine was estimated using a selected-ion monitoring mode with a 1.5 ng/ml quantification limit. The cotinine levels in mothers and newborns were highly correlated, whatever the mother's smoking status, with a calculated cut-off for cotinine levels in active smokers of 21.5 ng/ml. Finally, the cotinine determined through this GC-MS method offered a sensitive and accurate measure of tobacco exposition of the pregnant women and their babies.

  10. Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior, working memory deficits, and synaptic loss associated with chronic stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Grizzell, J Alex; Iarkov, Alexandre; Holmes, Rosalee; Mori, Takahashi; Echeverria, Valentina

    2014-07-15

    Chronic stress underlies and/or exacerbates many psychiatric conditions and often results in memory impairment as well as depressive symptoms. Such afflicted individuals use tobacco more than the general population and this has been suggested as a form of self-medication. Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, may underlie such behavior as it has been shown to ameliorate anxiety and memory loss in animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of cotinine on working memory and depressive-like behavior in mice subjected to prolonged restraint. Cotinine-treated mice displayed better performance than vehicle-treated cohorts on the working memory task, the radial arm water maze test. In addition, with or without chronic stress exposure, cotinine-treated mice engaged in fewer depressive-like behaviors as assessed using the tail suspension and Porsolt's forced swim tests. These antidepressant and nootropic effects of cotinine were associated with an increase in the synaptophysin expression, a commonly used marker of synaptic density, in the hippocampus as well as the prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of restrained mice. The beneficial effects of cotinine in preventing various consequences of chronic stress were underscored by the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 β in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our results show for the first time that cotinine reduces the negative effects of stress on mood, memory, and the synapse.

  11. A new molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of cotinine from urine samples by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Yan; Cai, Ji-Bao; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Su, Qing-De

    2006-02-01

    Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine in human body, is widely used as a biomarker for assessment of direct or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. A method for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of cotinine from human urine has been investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with good selectivity and affinity for cotinine was synthesized using cotinine as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for use as a SPE sorbent, in tests with aqueous standards, by comparing recovery data obtained using the imprinted form of the polymer and a non-imprinted form (NIP). Extraction from the aqueous solutions resulted in more than 80% recovery. A range of linearity for cotinine between 0.05 and 5 microg mL-1 was obtained by loading 1 mL blank urine samples spiked with cotinine at different concentrations in acetate buffer of pH 9.0, and by using double basic washing and acidic elution. The intra-day coefficient of variation (CV) was below 7% and inter-day CV was below 10%. This investigation has provided a reliable MISPE-HPLC method for determination of cotinine in human urine from both active smokers and passive smokers.

  12. Medical swab touch spray-mass spectrometry for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Wei; Wang, Jia-Chun; Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Newborn screening is one of public health concerns designed to screen infants shortly after birth. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke such as nicotine has been reported to affect babies. Levels of nicotine and cotinine in meconium were widely used to evaluate the tobacco exposure of foetuses during pregnancy in a polluted environment. In this study, medical swabs were applied by using touch spray-mass spectrometry (TS-MS) to collect meconium from newborn infants for detection of nicotine and cotinine. Parameters such as choice of spray solvents, solvent volume and collision energy for screening of nicotine and cotinine were optimized. The limits of detection, reproducibility and matrix effect for analysis of meconium were also investigated. In this study, the levels of nicotine and cotinine in 54 puerpera volunteers were screened by TS-MS and were validated by using traditional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results showed that medical swab TS-MS would be useful for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium with high reproducibility, speed, sensitivity and specificity. The use of disposable medical swabs involves no sample preparation and no chromatographic separation, significantly reducing the cost and time required for screening a large number of clinical sample. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Determination of urinary and salivary cotinine using gas and liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H W; Yang, J S; Chiu, M C

    2002-03-05

    The objective of this study was to compare cotinine concentrations in urine and saliva using gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety-four subjects were selected (27 smokers and 67 non-smokers) and interviewed using questionnaire. Of the non-smokers, 39 had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 28 had not been exposed to ETS. Cotinine levels among smokers were highest using all three measurements, followed by ETS exposed subjects and non-smokers. Cotinine levels in urine, using HPLC, correlated significantly with levels measured using ELISA (r=0.92) and GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) (r=0.92). Salivary cotinine levels measured using ELISA did not correlate significantly with either HPLC (r=0.37) or GC-NPD (r=0.33) measurements. Multiple regression models were used to adjust for age, gender, drug use and health status, and it was found that cotinine levels in urine and saliva were significantly correlated with smoking pack-year. The authors conclude that urinary cotinine concentration is a more accurate biomarker for ETS than salivary cotinine concentration.

  14. Dose-related association between urinary cotinine-verified smoking status and dyslipidemia among Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Ko, Byung Joon; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Baek, Sung Joon

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectionally designed study was based on data collected during the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total 3231 South Korean men aged more than 19 years were included. Urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Smoking status was defined using questionnaire responses and urinary cotinine concentrations. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary cotinine concentrations with the prevalence of dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia. There is a significant dose-related association between smoking as assessed by urinary cotinine concentration and dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia among South Korean men.

  15. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Jakubowski, Marek; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Den Hond, Elly; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Schoeters, Greet; Reis, M Fátima

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by the questionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this

  16. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Ballbè, Montse; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; and others

    2014-11-15

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and cotinine

  17. Racial Disparity in the Associations of Cotinine with Insulin Secretion: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Du, Jie; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Although relationships between smoking/high cotinine and type 2 diabetes have consistently been observed, few studies have investigated the relationship between cotinine and underlying pathophysiological defects that characterize diabetes aetiology. This study aimed to test the associations between cotinine and measures of insulin resistance or insulin secretion. Methods This analysis included 5,751 non-diabetic adult American from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007–2012. Insulin function was represented with two indexes: insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion index (HOMA-B) estimated by homeostasis model assessment. We categorized cotinine levels into quartiles and estimated the odds of HOMA-IR in the 4th quartile and HOMA-B in the 1st quartile among cotinine categories using multiple logistic regression models. Results Cotinine concentration was not associated with the risk of high HOMA-IR. Association of cotinine with low HOMA-B existed and differed by race/ethnicity (P for interaction<0.05). High cotinine concentration (in the 4th quartile) was associated with an increased risk of low HOMA-B compared with low cotinine concentrations(1st -2nd quartiles) among white (odds ratio[OR], 1.51 [95% confidence interval[CI], 1.16–1.97]) or black participants (OR, 2.98 [95%CI, 1.90–4.69]) but not among Mexican (OR, 1.79 [95%CI, 0.90–3.53]) or other Hispanic(OR, 1.02 [95%CI, 0.56–1.86]) participants. Such associations remained significant even after further adjustment for HOMA-IR. Conclusions High cotinine is associated with decreased insulin secretion function only in white and black non-diabetic U.S. adult population. Results evaluating cotinine in ethnically homogeneous populations may not be broadly generalizable to other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:27992538

  18. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human serum by means of LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Baumann, F; Regenthal, R; Burgos-Guerrero, I L; Hegerl, U; Preiss, R

    2010-01-01

    As part of a joint clinical research project to study the effects of nicotine on the brain, a HPLC electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry method with a solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed for the quantitative determination of nicotine and cotinine in human serum in volunteers. The measured concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were used as control for smoking behaviour. A X-Bridge-column from Waters, and a SSQ 7000 single quadropole mass spectrometer with a TSP liquid chromatographic system were used. The method includes a simple and robust sample preparation and this assay has been shown to be of a sufficient sensitivity for this application. The limits of quantification were 5 and 2ng/ml for cotinine and nicotine, respectively. A simultaneous study was conducted to measure nicotine receptor availability and the vigilance in the same group of volunteers.

  19. A simple high-pressure liquid chromatography cotinine assay: validation of smoking status in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Greaves, R; Trotter, L; Brennecke, S; Janus, E

    2001-07-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health issue, and studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce maternal smoking require accurate measurement of smoking status. This study addresses some key issues in improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency of chemical validation of smoking status using a simplified high-pressure liquid chromatography urine cotinine method. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation trial and from non-pregnant volunteers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Analysis of ETS samples produced a maximum cotinine of 28 microg/mmol creatinine, which was established as the cut-off point for this method. This method is a relatively fast and inexpensive technique with which to analyse large batches of cotinine samples and can reliably measure smoking status.

  20. [Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Woźniak, Anna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke.

  1. Structural Studies of Nicotinoids: Cotinine versus Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, Iciar; Pérez, Cristóbal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Basterretxea, Francisco J; Lesarri, Alberto; Fernández, José A; Cocinero, Emilio J

    2017-02-17

    Nicotinoids are agonists of the acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and play important biochemical and pharmacological roles. Herein, we report on the structure and conformation of cotinine, and compare its molecular properties with the nicotine prototype, from which it only differs in the addition of a carbonyl group. This investigation included a theoretical survey of the effects of rotamerization of the pyridine moiety, the puckering of the pyrrolidinone ring and the internal rotation of the methyl group. The experimental work examined the rotational spectrum of the molecule in a supersonic expansion, using both broadband chirped-pulse excitation techniques and cavity microwave spectrometers. Two conformers were observed for cotinine, and the fine and hyperfine structures arising from the two quadrupolar (14) N nuclei and the methyl internal rotor were fully analyzed. The two observed conformers share the same twisted conformation of the five-membered ring, but differ in a roughly 180° rotamerization around the C-C bond connecting the two rings. The energy barriers for the internal rotation of the methyl group in cotinine (4.55(4) and 4.64(3) kJ mol(-1) , respectively) are much lower than in nicotine (estimated in 16.5 kJ mol(-1) ). The combination of different intramolecular electronic effects, hydrogen bonding and possible binding differences to receptor molecules arising from the carbonyl group could explain the lower affinity of cotinine for nAChRs.

  2. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  3. Measurement methods for human exposure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J

    1995-01-01

    The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites. PMID:7635110

  4. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples’ homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15–0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Conclusions Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population. PMID:27171392

  5. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  6. Measurement error in air pollution exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Navidi, W; Lurmann, F

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of an individual to an air pollutant can be assessed indirectly, with a "microenvironmental" approach, or directly with a personal sampler. Both methods of assessment are subject to measurement error, which can cause considerable bias in estimates of health effects. If the exposure estimates are unbiased and the measurement error is nondifferential, the bias in a linear model can be corrected when the variance of the measurement error is known. Unless the measurement error is quite large, estimates of health effects based on individual exposures appear to be more accurate than those based on ambient levels.

  7. Exposure measurement for air-pollution epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, B.G.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The chapter describes the evolution of air-pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studies oriented toward measurements of total exposure will be smaller and more intensive. The shift in emphasis to total human exposure also will affect health risk assessment and raise difficult issues in the regulatory domain. Considering that outdoor exposures (for which EPA has a regulatory mandate) occur in the context of exposures from other sources, the potential effect of regulatory action would probably be small. The regulatory issues are even more difficult for particulate air pollution since cigarette smoking is the strongest determinant of indoor levels but the EPA lacks regulatory responsibility for cigarette smoke.

  8. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9–52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0–6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6–29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  9. Particle counting immunoassay for urinary cotinine. Comparison with chromatography, enzyme-linked immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Galanti, L M; Dell'Omo, J; Vanbeckbergen, D; Dubois, P; Masson, P L; Cambiaso, C L

    1999-07-01

    Urinary cotinine was measured according to its inhibitory activity on the agglutination of cotinine-coated latex particles by anti-cotinine antibodies, the agglutination being measured by optical counting of the remaining non-agglutinated particles (particle counting, PaC). The detection limit was 0.03 microgram/ml and the practical range extended from 0.03 to 3.9 micrograms/ml. The correlation results of 320 urine samples with those of high pressure liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked (Coti-Tracq EIA, Serex Inc., Maywood, NJ, USA), and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (TDX instrument, Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) were r = 0.90, r = 0.69, r = 0.87, respectively, whereas the correlation coefficients between the assays other than particle counting ranged from 0.62 to 0.88. PaC does not require any separation step and can thus be easily automated.

  10. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99%) in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53%) in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45%) in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94%) increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group). Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups. PMID:20482885

  11. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  12. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  13. A simultaneous analysis method of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nicotine, cotinine and metals in human hair.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjiang; Wang, Bin; Ge, Shufang; Yan, Lailai; Liu, Yingying; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nicotine, cotinine, and metals in human hair have been used as important environmental exposure markers. We aimed to develop a simple method to simultaneously analyze these pollutants using a small quantity of hair. The digestion performances of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for human hair were compared. Various solvents or their mixtures including n-hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM) and trichloromethane (TCM), HEX:DCM32 (3/2) and HEX:TCM73 (7/3) were adopted to extract organics. The recoveries of metals were determined under an optimal operation of digestion and extraction. Our results showed that TMAH performed well in dissolving human hair and even better than NaOH. Overall, the recoveries for five solutions were acceptable for PAHs, nicotine in the range of 80%-110%. Except for HEX, other four extraction solutions had acceptable extraction efficiency for cotinine from HEX:TCM73 (88 ± 4.1%) to HEX:DCM32 (100 ± 2.8%). HEX:DCM32 was chosen as the optimal solvent in consideration of its extraction efficiency and lower density than water. The recoveries of 12 typical major or trace metals were mainly in the range of 90%-110% and some of them were close to 100%. In conclusion, the simultaneous analysis of PAHs, nicotine, cotinine, and metals was feasible. Our study provided a simple and low-cost technique for environmental epidemiological studies.

  14. Transfer of Nicotine, Cotinine and Caffeine Into Breast Milk in a Smoker Mother Consuming Caffeinated Drinks.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Valeria; Escuder, Diana; Minutillo, Adele; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; García-Algar, Oscar; Pallás Alonso, Carmen Rosa; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Although the habits of cigarette smoking and associated coffee drinking are generally ceased during pregnancy, they are often reinitiated after delivery when the breastfeeding period starts. This is a case report of a 32-year-old lactating smoker mother who consumed caffeinated drinks and who agreed to donate breast milk after smoking one cigarette (containing 0.6 mg of nicotine) and drinking one cup of espresso (containing 80 mg of caffeine) for an investigation of the excretion of nicotine, its major metabolite cotinine and caffeine into the breast milk and subsequent transfer to the infant. Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine peaked in the breast milk at 0.5 h after the cigarette smoking, and caffeine peaked 2 h after drinking coffee. Moreover, the nicotine disappeared from the milk by 3 h, the caffeine required 24 h and the cotinine required 72 h. The relative infant doses of caffeine, nicotine and cotinine were found to be 8.9, 12.8 and 77.6%, respectively. In the light of these results obtained after the mother smoked only one cigarette and consumed one cup of espresso, if a lactating mother cannot refrain from smoking cigarettes, she should extend the time between the last smoked cigarette and breastfeeding to at least 3 h when the nicotine has been completely eliminated from the milk. Similarly, nursing mothers should also drink coffee sparingly and immediately after nursing and avoid coffee or caffeinated beverages for at least 4 h prior to breastfeeding to minimize the infant's exposure to caffeine.

  15. The impact of chronic bupropion on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of ad lib smoking: a randomized controlled trial in unmotivated smokers.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sarwar; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Zack, Martin; Farvolden, Peter; Selby, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Bupropion is an efficacious non-nicotine medication for smoking cessation; however, its cessation-mediating mechanism is unclear. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of bupropion SR (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of smoking in 24 current daily smokers who were not trying to quit or reduce smoking. Subjective effects of smoking, as well as cue-elicited responses were assessed at bi-weekly experimental sessions using validated scales. Several indices of cigarette consumption were measured. Plasma cotinine decreased from 280 (+/-133) microg/l at baseline to 205 (+/-108) microg/l at end of treatment in the bupropion group (p=0.036), but no significant change was found in the placebo group. Daily cigarette count and puff topography did not significantly change in either group. In contrast to placebo, bupropion increased post-smoking satiety (p=0.045). Both groups reported higher craving (p=0.025) and withdrawal (p=0.014) after exposure to smoking-related pictures, compared to neutral pictures. This biased reactivity was not significantly affected by treatment condition (p>0.1). Therefore, bupropion does not appear to impact the smokers' response to conditioned smoking-related cues but influences the unconditioned subjective effects of smoking in unmotivated smokers. This study is among the first to systematically investigate the effect of chronic bupropion administration, free from the confounding effect of the smoker's motivation to quit smoking.

  16. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health.

  17. Intravenous and oral suicidal e-liquid poisonings with confirmed nicotine and cotinine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Karina; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Kulza, Maksymilian; Drużdż, Artur; Panieński, Paweł; Florek, Ewa; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The increasing availability of e-cigarettes is a potential toxicological concern. E-cigarettes appeared on the Polish market in 2006, and since 2009 they have been widely available with a new source of nicotine, the so-called e-liquid. In this paper two cases of suicidal oral and intravenous poisonings with the e-liquid are described. The clinical courses of these poisonings are presented. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the patient's blood were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. In the course of intoxication patient No. 1, classic symptoms of acute nicotine poisoning without convulsions were observed. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations measured in serum were 0.096 and 4.4mg/L, respectively. The case of patient No. 2, admission with no typical symptoms of nicotine poisoning was identified, except unconsciousness and slow respiration. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the serum at the time of No. 2 admissions were determined to be 0.8 and 1.3mg/L, respectively. With the increasing number of e-liquid poisonings cases, it should be aware that these products can be a readily available source of poison.

  18. Screening for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Inner City Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Halterman, Jill S.; Borrelli, Belinda; Tremblay, Paul; Conn, Kelly M.; Fagnano, Maria; Montes, Guillermo; Hernandez, Telva

    2008-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) causes increased morbidity among children with asthma, however pediatricians do not consistently screen and counsel families of asthmatic children regarding ETS. An index score based on parent report of exposure could help providers efficiently screen for ETS. Objective 1) To develop an index measure of ETS based on parent self-report of smoking behaviors; 2) To determine whether the index score is associated with children’s present and future cotinine levels. Methods Data were drawn from a community intervention for inner-city children with persistent asthma (n=226, response rate 72%). Measures of child salivary cotinine and parent self-reported ETS-related behaviors were obtained at baseline and 7–9 months later. To develop the index score, we used a 15-fold cross-validation method on 70% of our data that considered combinations of smoke exposure variables, controlling for demographics. We chose the most parsimonious model that minimized the mean square predictive error. The resulting index score included primary caregiver smoking and home smoking ban status. We validated our model on the remaining 30% of data. ANOVA and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association of the index score with children’s cotinine levels. Results 54% of asthmatic children lived with ≥1 smoker and 51% of caregivers reported a complete home smoking ban. The children’s mean baseline cotinine was 1.55ng/ml (range 0.0–21.3). Children’s baseline and follow-up cotinine levels increased as scores on the index measure increased. In a linear regression, the index score was significantly and positively associated with children’s cotinine measurements at baseline (p<.001, model R2=.37) and 7–9 months later (p<.001, R2=.38). Conclusion An index measure with combined information regarding primary caregiver smoking and household smoking restrictions helps to identify asthmatic children with the greatest exposure to ETS

  19. MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING OF RADON EXPOSURES.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancer risk caused by the inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its short-lived progeny is related to lung dose, which cannot be directly measured. The only measurable parameters which allow the determination of lung doses are the radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and related size distributions. Although lung cancers are caused by the inhaled short-lived radon progeny and not by the radon gas, it is the radon gas which is commonly measured and not its progeny. Since radon gas measurements are much easier to carry out, require less expensive equipment and are especially suited for long-term measurements, the report focuses on the measurement of the radon gas for specific exposure conditions in homes and workplaces. The first objective of this report is to provide information on how to measure radon, covering measurement techniques of radon in air and water, currently available detection systems, and measurement strategies most appropriate for the desired goal of a measurement campaign. Critical measurement strategy decisions are the selection of the measured radionuclide (i.e., radon gas or radon progeny and related size distributions), choice of the measurement period (i.e., short-term or long-term measurements), the choice of detector and its deployment, the type of measurement (i.e., areal or personal measurements), the survey strategy (i.e., integral or time-resolved measurements), or the strategy to accomplish the specific goal of a survey (i.e., measurements describing the current status or retrospective measurements). The choice of a specific strategy depends on the purpose of the survey, and differs therefore between the demands of a nation-wide indoor radon survey or an epidemiological study.The second objective of this report is how to interpret and report the results of these measurements, the associated uncertainties, and the resulting dosimetric estimates. Care should be taken when reporting and interpreting radon measurements because

  20. Assessment of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure by determining nicotine and its metabolites in meconium.

    PubMed

    Köhler, E; Avenarius, S; Rabsilber, A; Gerloff, C; Jorch, G

    2007-06-01

    Meconium samples collected from 115 neonates were analysed for nicotine, cotinine and trans -3-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify prenatal smoke exposure. The self-reported maternal smoking status during pregnancy was determined by means of a questionnaire and verified by measurements in urine prior to childbirth. The total sum of nicotine and its metabolites (Sum(tot)) of the first passed meconium samples was 1560 +/- 1024 pmol/g in newborns of smoking mothers. Smoking of less than five cigarettes was clearly detected. Sum(tot) remained constant in all meconium samples passed by a neonate in succession. However, the proportion of nicotine decreased with the time of passage after birth and the OH-cotinine proportion increased, whereas cotinine hardly changed. Nicotine or its metabolites were not detectable in meconium (detection limit < 20 pmol/g), when the mothers were only exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using the HPLC method. The hypothesis that the content of nicotine metabolites in meconium reflects long-term smoke exposure could not be confirmed in newborns whose mothers had quit smoking during the latter half of pregnancy. Determining Sum(tot) enables the intensity of continuous smoking during pregnancy to be estimated in all meconium samples passed by a newborn.

  1. Cotinine: a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Valentina; Zeitlin, Ross

    2012-07-01

    Tobacco smoking has been correlated with a lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This negative correlation has been attributed to nicotine's properties. However, the undesired side-effects of nicotine and the absence of clear evidence of positive effects of this drug on the cognitive abilities of AD patients have decreased the enthusiasm for its therapeutic use. In this review, we discuss evidence showing that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, has many of the beneficial effects but none of the negative side-effects of its precursor. Cotinine has been shown to be neuroprotective, to improve memory in primates as well as to prevent memory loss, and to lower amyloid-beta (Aβ)) burden in AD mice. In AD, cotinine's positive effect on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Because stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) positively modulates these factors and memory, the involvement of these receptors in cotinine's effects are discussed. Because of its beneficial effects on brain function, good safety profile, and nonaddictive properties, cotinine may represent a new therapeutic agent against AD.

  2. Overview of Cotinine Cutoff Values for Smoking Status Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungroul

    2016-01-01

    While cotinine is commonly used as a biomarker to validate self-reported smoking status, the selection of an optimal cotinine cutoff value for distinguishing true smokers from true nonsmokers shows a lack of standardization among studies. This review describes how the cutoff values have been derived, and explains the issues involved in the generalization of a cutoff value. In this study, we conducted an English-language literature search in PubMed using the keywords “cotinine” and “cutoff” or “self-reported” and “smoking status” and “validation” for the years 1985–2014. We obtained 104 articles, 32 of which provided (1) sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value and (2) determination methods for the given cutoff value. We found that the saliva cotinine cutoff value range of 10–25 ng/mL, serum and urine cotinine cutoff of 10–20 ng/mL and 50–200 ng/mL, respectively, have been commonly used to validate self-reported smoking status using a 2 × 2 table or a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. We also found that recent large population-based studies in the U.S. and UK reported lower cutoff values for cotinine in serum (3 ng/mL) and saliva (12 ng/mL), compared to the traditionally accepted ones (15 and 14 ng/mg, respectively). PMID:27983665

  3. Approaches in measuring exposure to food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiev, G K

    1982-03-01

    Measurement of levels of contaminants in food commodities and prepared meals, and market basket surveys are feasible in countries with existing systems of food control laboratories. Monitoring body tissues for contaminants or their metabolites reflects total exposure but care should be taken to select the most appropriate pharmacokinetic model.Strict quality control acquires particular value in obtaining (with existing instrumentation and facilities) results that meet specified acceptable parameters of analytical performance.Exposure measurement of dietary contaminants as a part of epidemiological studies becomes indispensable in the risk assessment process. Dietary intakes of DDT in USA and Bulgaria are within the range of 'virtually safe doses' for liver tumors extrapolated from animal experiments by four low dose extrapolation models for risk levels of 10(-4) and 10(-6).

  4. Personal pollen exposure compared to stationary measurements.

    PubMed

    Riediker, M; Keller, S; Wüthrich, B; Koller, T; Monn, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent stationary outdoor pollen measurements are representative for estimating personal exposure to pollen. Ten subjects were studied during a total of 36 days in spring and summer Pollen was sampled using personal SKC total dust samplers and stationary Burkard pollen traps. The personal activity pattern was recorded quarter-hourly as well as the time spent outdoors. As a reference, SKC and Burkard samplers were run stationary and in parallel. Stationary comparison of the samplers showed good correlation (r = 0.981, p <0.001). However, the SKC sampler collected systematically about four times less pollen than the Burkard sampler. Taking into account the systematic difference between the sampling devices, the personal exposure data were about 30% of the stationary pollen concentrations with significant correlation (log-transformed data, r = 0.719, p <0.0001). Considering the average time the subjects spent outdoors (14% of sampling time), the indoor-outdoor ratio for pollen was 0.2. In conclusion, pollen reports are reliable for estimating personal exposure over a limited time period although personal pollen exposure is much lower.

  5. 12 CFR 217.151 - Introduction and exposure measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction and exposure measurement. 217.151... Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures § 217.151 Introduction and exposure measurement. (a) General. (1) To calculate its risk-weighted asset amounts for equity exposures that are...

  6. Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, M.S.; Li, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

  7. Screening by Pulse CO-Oximetry for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Preanesthetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Kathryn; Pan, Zhaoxing; Boucher, Rebecca; Zuk, Jeannie; Friesen, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of multiple wavelength pulse CO-oximetry (SpCO) to screen for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children. Background Exposure to ETS is associated with an increased risk of perioperative respiratory complications in children. It is often difficult to obtain an accurate history for ETS exposure, so a preoperative screening tool is desirable. Carbon monoxide is a measurable product of tobacco combustion. Multiple wavelength pulse CO-oximetry is a recently developed point-of-care monitor. Methods Following IRB approval and parental consent, 220 children aged 1–16 years having outpatient surgical procedures were enrolled. SpCO was measured preoperatively 3 times with the Radical-7 Rainbow SET CO-oximeter (Masimo, Irvine, CA). Immediately following induction of anesthesia, a blood sample for laboratory measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and serum cotinine was obtained. Regression analysis determined the correlation of SpCO with serum cotinine values. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves analyzed the discriminating ability of SpCO or COHb to predict ETS exposure based on cotinine cutoff values known to be present in children exposed to ETS. Agreement of SpCO and COHb values was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Results SpCO did not correlate with cotinine (R2=0.005). Both SpCO and COHb had poor discriminating ability for ETS exposure (area under the ROC curve = 0.606 and 0.562, respectively). SpCO values had poor agreement with COHb values. Conclusions The point-of-care multiple wavelength pulse CO-oximeter does not appear to be a useful preoperative screening tool for ETS exposure in children. PMID:22587734

  8. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  9. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    PubMed Central

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  10. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: clinical evaluation methodology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer N; Breland, Alison B; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users.

  11. Application of molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction for salivary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Vitor, Ricardo Vilela; Martins, Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Martins, Isarita

    2011-06-01

    A method constituted by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed for cotinine analysis in saliva samples. For this purpose, the separation was carried out with a C18 reversed-phase column at 20 °C. The mobile phase which was composed of a mixture of 09:91 (v/v) acetonitrile/phosphate buffer, pH 6.3, was delivered with isocratic flow rate at 1.4 mL min(-1). Employing MISPE, the best conditions were achieved with 1.5 mL of saliva plus 1.5 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) of acetate buffer, pH 5.5, which were then passed through a cartridge previously conditioned with 2 mL acetonitrile, 2 mL methanol, and 2 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. The washing was carried out with 1 mL deionized water, 1 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium hydroxide, and 1 mL hexane; finally; the cotinine elution was carried out with 3 mL methanol/water (97.5: 2.5, v/v). Linearity ranged from 30 to 500 ng mL(-1) with r > 0.99. Intra-assay, interassay precision, and accuracy ranged from 3.1% to 10.1%, 5.2% to 15.9%, and 99.22% to 111.17%, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 10 and 30 ng mL(-1), respectively. This investigation has provided a reliable method for routine cotinine determination in saliva, and it is an important tool for monitoring cigarette smoke exposure in smokers. The method was applied in five smokers' samples who consumed around five to 20 cigarettes per day and the values of cotinine in saliva were from 66.7 to 316.16 ng mL(-1).

  12. The effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in a longitudinal study of British adults.

    PubMed

    Carey, I M; Cook, D G; Strachan, D P

    1999-05-01

    Small effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function have been demonstrated in many studies of children, but fewer studies have examined adults in this respect. We examined these relations in a 7-year longitudinal study of 1,623 British adults, age 18-73 years, who were nonsmokers throughout. Outcome was measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) adjusted for sex, age, and height. Exposure was assessed by asking subjects whether they lived with a smoker (at both the initial and the follow-up studies) and by salivary cotinine measurements (follow-up study only). Cross-sectionally, subjects exposed at home showed tiny FEV1 deficits at both studies of -4 ml [95% confidence limits (CL) = -31, 23] and -5 ml (95% CL = -32, 22), respectively. Cotinine adjusted for potential confounders showed a stronger association with FEV1, with the highest quintile showing a -105-ml deficit (95% CL = -174, -37) in comparison with the lowest. Longitudinally, no clear relation was apparent between change in FEV1 and average exposure or change in exposure. These results indicate that environmental tobacco smoke is associated with small deficits in adult lung function, consistent with our meta-analysis estimate of a 2.7% deficit in exposed nonsmoking adults. The relations seen with cotinine but not with household exposure may reflect the importance of exposure outside the home.

  13. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 39 hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  14. Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Turner, W E; Pirkle, J L; Sosnoff, C S; Akins, J R; Waldrep, M K; Ann, Q; Covey, T R; Whitfield, W E; Gunter, E W; Miller, B B; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L; Hannon, W H; Sampson, E J

    1997-12-01

    We describe a sensitive and specific method for measuring cotinine in serum by HPLC coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer. This method can analyze 100 samples/day on a routine basis, and its limit of detection of 50 ng/L makes it applicable to the analysis of samples from nonsmokers potentially exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Analytical accuracy has been demonstrated from the analysis of NIST cotinine standards and from comparative analyses by both the current method and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Precision has been examined through the repetitive analysis of a series of bench and blind QC materials. This method has been applied to the analysis of cotinine in serum samples collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

  15. An high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of cotinine in the urine of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oruç, E E; Koçyiğit-Kaymakçioğlu, B; Yilmaz-Demircan, F; Gürbüz, Y; Kalaça, S; Küçkgüzel, S G; Ulgen, M; Rollas, S

    2006-10-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important and preventable cause of morbidity among children. Enviromental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases respiratory symptoms and disease and also decreases lung function in children who live in a household with at least one smoker. We have developed a simple and reliable HPLC method with diode array dedection to determine the urine concentrations of cotinine in children aged 3 to 6 years, exposed to ETS. The assay involved a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. The HPLC method utilized a Chromasil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and an isocratic mobile phase of phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (83:17 v/v, 0.02 M containing 0.1% triethylamine, adjusted to pH 6.72 with orthophosphoric acid), at a flow rate of 0.7 ml min(-1). The detection was performed at 260 nm and the total analysis time of analysis was less than 15 min. Linearity ranged from 0 to 80 microg L(-1); correlation coefficients (r2) for calibration curves were greater than 0.99. With 2 mL of urine for extraction, the limit of detection was 0.1 microg L(-1). The mean extraction ratio of cotinine was 88.78%. This analytical method is suitable for the determination of cotinine levels in a large number of urine samples.

  16. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William F.; Wolfe, Homer R.

    1962-01-01

    There is not a single pesticide for which the interrelationships between occupational exposure by different routes, the fate of the compound in the human body, and its clinical effects are all adequately known. Results of the direct measurement of exposure to pesticides may be used in evaluating the relative hazard of different routes of exposure, different operational procedures, and different protective devices. Results of the indirect measurement of exposure may be of use for the same purpose; in addition, these indirect measures may be used in relating exposures under observed conditions to clinical effects. This paper describes and evaluates detailed procedures for the use of air samples, pads, and washes in the direct measurement of the dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to pesticides. Good methods are not available for measuring oral exposure. Any measure of the absorption, storage, physiological effect, or excretion of a compound constitutes an indirect indication of exposure to it. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13888659

  17. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  18. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  19. 12 CFR 217.51 - Introduction and exposure measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction and exposure measurement. 217.51 Section 217.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Assets for Equity Exposures § 217.51 Introduction and exposure measurement. (a) General. (1) To...

  20. Can a minimal intervention reduce secondhand smoke exposure among children with asthma from low income minority families? Results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Streja, Leanne; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan; Wong, Glenn C; Jones, Craig A; Bernert, John T; Tashkin, Donald; Hammond, S Katharine; Berman, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of a low-intensity behavioral intervention to reduce second hand smoke (SHS) exposure of children with asthma from low income minority households in Los Angeles, California. In this study, 242 child/adult dyads were randomized to a behavioral intervention (video, workbook, minimal counseling) or control condition (brochure). Main outcome measures included child's urine cotinine and parental reports of child's hours of SHS exposure and number of household cigarettes smoked. Implementation of household bans was also considered. No differences in outcomes were detected between intervention and control groups at follow-up. Limitations included high attrition and low rates of collection of objective measures (few children with urine cotinine samples). There continues to be a need for effective culturally and linguistically appropriate strategies that support reduction of household SHS exposure among children with asthma in low income, minority households.

  1. Biomonitoring of tobacco smoke exposure and self-reported smoking status among general population of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Parmy, Saeid; Gharibi, Hamed; Faridi, Sasan; Hasanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Mirzaei, Nezam; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to find a correlation between the self-reported smoking status of the residents of Tehran, Iran, and the urine cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. The self-reported data was collected from 222 participants who were living in the urban area of Tehran. The urine samples of participants were collected for cotinine analysis. Urine cotinine was measured by an enzymatic immunoassay technique. Tobacco smoking was reported by 76 (34.23 %) participants as the self-reported data, and the number of males in this report was higher than of females (p < 0.001). By adding the number of the self-reported non-smokers with cotinine levels above the cutoff value of >100 ng/ml to self-reported smokers, the smoking prevalence increased from 34.23 % (95 % CI 28.01-40.88 %) to 36.48 % (95 % CI 30.14-43.19 %). Using the cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the self-reported smoking status were respectively 90.12 % (95 % CI 81.46-95.64 %) and 98 % (95 % CI 93.91-99.55 %). The levels of agreement between self-reported tobacco smoking and urinary cotinine concentrations was 95.1 % (k = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95 % CI = 0.81-0.95). Based on the results, self-reported smoking can be a valid marker for assessing the tobacco exposure, and it can be of use in large epidemiological studies.

  2. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  3. Racial Differences in Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen E.; Kahn, Robert S.; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children’s having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child’s exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (β = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (β = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses. PMID:15743729

  4. Quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gray, Teresa R; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2008-02-15

    There are no analytical methods that simultaneously quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium. Such a method could improve identification of in utero tobacco exposure, determine if maternal dose-meconium concentration relationships exist, and whether nicotine meconium concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. The first liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of these analytes in meconium was developed and validated. Specimen preparation included homogenization, enzyme hydrolysis and solid phase extraction. The linear range was 1.25 or 5-500ng/g. Method applicability was evaluated with meconium collected from an in utero tobacco exposed infant.

  5. [Tobacco smoking as a source of exposure of pregnant women and newborn on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H

    2006-01-01

    An essential problem related to tobacco smoking is exposure of children in the foetal period and early childhood to toxic compounds. The aim of this paper was to assess the exposure of pregnant women and their newborns to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a consequence of tobacco smoking. The exposure to tobacco smoke was determined through surveys and cotinine measurement in the urine of pregnant women and newborns, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been determined by measure of 1-hydroxypyrene in the same biological material. The cotinine concentration in the urine of smoking women and their newborns was respectively 416.0 +/- 319.9 ng/mg of creatinine and 46.5 +/- 37.2 ng/mg of creatinine. In case of non-smoking as well as non-exposed patients and their newborns, the concentration of cotinine was 0. The correlation between the concentration of cotinine in the urine of smoking women and their newborns was shown. The mean concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smoking patients was 0.65 +/- 0.45 ng/mg of creatinine, whereas in the urine of newborns, it was 0.46 +/- 0.41 ng/mg of creatinine. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers was increased together with the increase of cotinine, and the correlation factor was 0.5128. Such dependence was not indicated for concentrations of these compounds in the urine of newborns of these women. Within the group of non-smoking women, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyene urine of women was 0.25 +/- 0.29 ng/mg of creatinine, whereas among children 0.20 +/- 0.23 ng/mg of creatinine. In both examined group (smoking and non-smoking women) there is a dependence between the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of women and their newborns. The research concerning the assessment of exposure of pregnant women and their newborns to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted, and at the same time it was proven, that the placenta does not constitute a barrier for these

  6. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  7. Relationship between women's smoking and laryngeal disorders based on the urine cotinine test: results of a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwoo; Cho, Sunghyoun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is a possibility of underestimation in the smoking rate surveyed by self-reported questionnaires. This study investigated the difference between the Korean female smoking rate as determined by self-reports and that determined by a biochemical test and elucidated the relationship between women's smoking and laryngeal disorders. Design Nationwide cross-sectional survey. Setting 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants 1849 women who completed the health survey, urinary cotinine test and laryngoscope examinations. Main outcome measure This study defined smokers as those with urine cotinine contents of 50 ng/mL and over. Confounding factors included age, level of education, household income, occupation and problem drinking in the past year. For statistical tests, OR and 95% CI were presented by using complex samples logistic regression. Results While there was no relationship between smoking as determined by a self-reported questionnaire and laryngeal disorders, smoking as determined by the urine cotinine test had a significant relationship with laryngeal disorders (p<0.05). After all the confounding factors were adjusted, those with urine cotinine concentrations of over 50 ng/mL had a 2.1 times higher risk of laryngeal disorders than those with urine cotinine concentrations of <50 ng/mL (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.78) (p<0.05). Conclusions This national cross-sectional study verified that smoking is a significant risk factor for laryngeal disorders. Longitudinal studies are required to identify the causal relationship between smoking and laryngeal disorders. PMID:27872114

  8. Comparison of measured dermal dust exposures with predicted exposures given by the EASE expert system.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Graeme W; Cherrie, John W

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is a rule-based computer expert system used by regulatory authorities within the European Union to assist in assessing exposure for both new and existing substances. It can provide estimates of both inhalation exposure levels and dermal exposure levels to the hands and forearms. This article describes the results of a study in which measurements of workplace dermal zinc exposures were collected for an industry-wide risk assessment and also compared with the levels predicted by EASE. Measurements were obtained from subjects in seven different workplaces that were producing or working with zinc metal or zinc compounds. The work activities were grouped a priori into one of three categories used by EASE for dermal exposure assessment: 'non-dispersive use with intermittent direct handling', 'wide dispersive use with intermittent direct handling' and 'wide dispersive use with extensive direct handling'. The predicted exposure ranges for these categories are 0.1-1, 1-5 and 5-15 mg cm(-2) day(-1). Although the average measured exposure levels for each of the categories increased in line with the predictions from EASE, the model overestimated dermal exposure to the hands by a factor of approximately 50 when the mid-point of the EASE range was compared with the measured mean exposure. Furthermore, a significant additional exposure was found on other parts of the workers' bodies for which EASE does not provide any estimates. Interpretation of the dermal exposure data was complicated by the use of protective gloves, which might have limited the amount of zinc dust adhering to the workers' skin. However, observation of the work activities suggested that the pattern of glove use was such that they would not provide a consistent level of protection. This study provided an opportunity to collect a large amount of dermal zinc exposure data for risk assessment purposes and also enabled a dermal sampling method to be developed

  9. Real exposure: field measurement of chemical plumes in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David D; Moore, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    In fluvial systems, organismic exposure to nonpoint source pollutants will fluctuate in frequency (exposure events), intensity (concentration), and duration. The reliance on lethal concentrations and static exposure in many laboratory studies does not adequately represent nor address exposure to in situ chemical plumes of fluvial habitats. To adequately address field exposure in a laboratory setting, one needs an understanding of the physics of chemical transmission within moving fluids. Because of the chaotic nature of turbulence, chemical plumes introduced to fluvial systems have a spatial and temporal microstructure with fluxes in chemical concentration. Consequently, time-averaged static exposure models are not ecologically relevant for the major reason of in situ distribution. The purpose of this study was to quantify in situ chemical distribution and dispersion within two physically different streams. Dopamine was introduced as a chemical tracer mimicking groundwater runoff. Chemical fluxes and stream hydrodynamics were simultaneously measured using a microelectrode and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, respectively, at three heights of three downstream locations at each research site. Fine-scale measurements of the dopamine plume microstructure showed that organisms could be exposed to chemical fluctuations where concentrations are significantly greater than the overall time-averaged concentration. These measurements demonstrate that rather than relying on static exposure, standards for pollution must consider the concept of exposure being interdependently linked to flow of the fluid medium. The relationship between fluid dynamics, pollution exposure, and organism physiology are complex and must be evaluated in ways to mimic natural systems.

  10. Real exposure: Field measurement of chemical plumes in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David D.

    In fluvial systems, organismic exposure to nonpoint source pollutants will fluctuate in frequency (exposure events), intensity (concentration), and duration. The reliance on lethal concentrations and static exposure in many laboratory studies does not adequately represent nor address exposure to in situ chemical plumes of fluvial habitats. In order to adequately address field exposure in a lab setting, one needs an understanding of the physics of chemical transmission within moving fluids. Because of the chaotic nature of turbulence, chemical plumes introduced to fluvial systems have a spatial and temporal microstructure with fluxes in chemical concentration. Consequently, time-averaged static exposure models are not ecologically relevant for the major reason of in situ distribution. The purpose of this study was to quantify in situ chemical distribution and dispersion within two physically different streams. Dopamine was introduced as a chemical tracer mimicking groundwater runoff. Chemical fluxes and stream hydrodynamics were simultaneously measured using a microelectrode and an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV), respectively, at three heights of three downstream locations at each research site. Fine-scale measurements of the dopamine plume microstructure showed organisms could be exposed to chemical fluctuations where concentrations are significantly greater than the overall time-averaged concentration. These measurements demonstrate that rather than relying on static exposure, standards for pollution need to consider the concept of exposure being interdependently linked to flow of the fluid medium. The relationship between fluid dynamics, pollution exposure and organism physiology are complex and need to be evaluated in ways to mimic natural systems.

  11. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Adverse health effects from exposure to lead are now recognized to be among industrialized society's most important health problems. This report, prepared by the National Research Council's Committee on Measuring Lead Exposure in Critical Populations, concurs with new findings issued by the Centers for Disease Control which state that lead…

  13. Analyses of magnetic-field peak-exposure summary measures.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Gabor; Bracken, T Dan; Senior, Russell; Kavet, Robert

    2006-11-01

    Two previous epidemiologic studies reported an association between the maximum magnetic field exposure logged during a 24-h measurement period and risk of miscarriage. A hypothesis was put forth which argued that the observed association may be the result of behavioral differences between women with healthy pregnancies (less physically active) and women with miscarriage. We analyzed four existing data sets with power-frequency magnetic-field personal exposure (PE) measurements to investigate the characteristics of peak-exposure measures. We found that the value of the measured maximum magnetic-field exposure varied inversely with the sampling interval between magnetic-field measurements and that maximum values demonstrated less stability over time in repeated measurements, compared to time-weighted average and 95th and 99th -percentile values. We also found that the number of activity categories entered by study subjects could be used to estimate the proportion of subjects with exposure above various threshold values. Exposure metrics based on maximum values exceeding thresholds tend to classify active people into higher exposure categories. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis suggesting that the association between maximum magnetic fields and miscarriage are possibly the result of behavioral differences between women with healthy pregnancies and women who experience miscarriages. Thus, generalization from a given study to more global exposure characterization should be made with particular caution and with due consideration to sampling interval and other characteristics of the measurement protocol potentially influencing the measured maximum. Future epidemiologic studies of peak magnetic field exposure and spontaneous abortion should carefully evaluate the potential confounding effect of the women's activity level during pregnancy.

  14. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Neuromotor Function in Rural Children

    PubMed Central

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Dietrich, Kim N.; Yolton, Kimberly; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and neuromotor function in children. Study design We studied 404 children aged 7–9 years who were exposed to SHS and other environmental neurotoxicants. Parent reported smoking habits, and serum cotinine levels were measured in children to determine SHS exposure. Halstead-Reitan Finger Oscillation Test (HRFOT), Purdue Grooved Pegboard Test – Kiddie version (PGPT), and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2-Short form (BOT-2) were used to assess neuromotor function. Multivariable regression models that accounted for potential confounders were used to evaluate the associations. Results Approximately 50% of the children were exposed to SHS based on serum cotinine measures. Exposure to SHS was significantly associated with motor impairment in children, including diminished visuo-motor coordination (p=0.01), fine motor integration (p=0.01), balance (p=0.02), and strength (p=0.04) after adjusting for exposures to lead and manganese, age, sex, body mass index, measures of cognitive abilities of parents, parental education, and quality of home environment Conclusions We conclude that SHS is a neurotoxicant that may be associated with impaired childhood neuromotor function. PMID:25882879

  15. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lianne; Burnett, Richard T; Szpiro, Adam A; Kim, Sun-Young; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Brunekreef, Bert

    2012-06-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital status. In such studies, control for individual-level confounders such as smoking is important, as is control for area-level confounders such as neighborhood socio-economic status. In addition, there may be spatial dependencies in the survival data that need to be addressed. These issues are illustrated using the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention II cohort. Exposure measurement error is a challenge in epidemiology because inference about health effects can be incorrect when the measured or predicted exposure used in the analysis is different from the underlying true exposure. Air pollution epidemiology rarely if ever uses personal measurements of exposure for reasons of cost and feasibility. Exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology comes in various dominant forms, which are different for time-series and cohort studies. The challenges are reviewed and a number of suggested solutions are discussed for both study domains.

  16. Cotinine replacement levels for a 21 mg/day transdermal nicotine patch in an outpatient treatment setting.

    PubMed

    Gariti, P; Alterman, A I; Barber, W; Bedi, N; Luck, G; Cnaan, A

    1999-04-01

    This study examined plasma cotinine replacement levels of 56 outpatient smokers administered a 21 mg/day transdermal nicotine patch (Nicoderm CQ ). The percentage of cotinine replacement ranged from 35 to 232% (mean 107%; median 90.5%). Four subject variables were found to be significantly correlated with percentage of cotinine replacement-baseline cotinine level, prior quit attempts, gender, and the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire score. A two-variable model consisting of baseline cotinine level and gender provided the most powerful predictor combination. The percentage of cotinine replacement was not predictive of post-treatment smoking. The relatively high levels of cotinine replacement obtained using the Nicoderm CQ 21 mg/day patch suggest cautious use of higher dose treatment with this particular patch.

  17. Measurement of airborne mite allergen exposure in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Sasaki, R; Hashimoto, M; Kobayashi, C; Yasueda, H

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the extent of personal exposure to airborne mite allergens, subjects were asked to carry a personal air sampler when in their houses. The level of Der 1 allergen trapped by the sampler was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. There were great variations in airborne Der 1 exposure in each subject. When used bedding was replaced with new allergen-free bedding, we detected a decrease in the allergen level. The use of new bedding seems to be an effective measure for reducing airborne mite allergen exposure.

  18. Improved /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, G.J.; Wylie, P.; Holman, M.S.; Haddow, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    We describe an /sup 125/I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand.

  19. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean hearing loss in tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development. PMID:24284348

  20. Smoking, second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation in relation to leukocyte telomere length and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Serrano, Fidel Emmanuel C.; Utarini, Adi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Watkins, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the link between smoking exposure, telomere length and mortality, with emphasis on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the duration of smoking cessation. Results A total of 1,018 participants died during follow-up (mean: 10.3 years). A 50 base-pair decrease in LTL was shown among cotinine-confirmed current versus never smokers. The 90th quantile of LTL decreased with increasing cotinine among never smokers, indicating a role of SHS. Longer telomeres with smoking cessation were indicated but limited to a 3-16 year period of abstaining smoking. When assessing mortality, we observed a lower risk of all-cause death for the second quintile compared to the first among never smokers (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), and a higher risk was found among current smokers (HR: 1.89, 1.19-2.92). MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 6,456 nationally representative U.S. respondents with mortality follow-up through to 31 December 2011. Smoking status was assessed by interviews and cotinine levels. Relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multivariable linear regression was performed to examine LTL by smoking exposure, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. We further estimated the association of LTL with cotinine levels using quantile regression, and with smoking cessation dynamics. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality by smoking status and LTL. Conclusion Our findings indicated a complex association between smoking, telomere length, and mortality. LTL alterations with SHS and smoking cessation warrant further investigation for translation to public health measures. PMID:27509177

  1. A rapid, quantitative GLC method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine.

    PubMed

    Verebey, K G; DePace, A; Mulé, S J; Kanzler, M; Jaffe, J H

    1982-01-01

    Published gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) methods for the determination of nicotine and cotinine have proved impractical for the analysis of a large number of clinical samples. Significant improvements over other methods have been achieved, being low sample volume (0.5 mL plasma), rapid two-step extraction from plasma, no evaporation step, and good separation. The lower limits of sensitivity for nicotine and cotinine were 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated by the analysis of plasma samples from cigarette-smoking volunteers. The method described permits the quick, routine determination of nicotine and cotinine in a large number of samples.

  2. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  3. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  4. Measured Occupational Solar UVR Exposures of Lifeguards in Pool Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O’Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Methods Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Results The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards’ PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. Conclusions At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year. PMID:19572325

  5. Establishing aerosol exposure predictive models based on vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Lee, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Shih-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liou, Yuh-When; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2010-06-15

    This paper establishes particulate exposure predictive models based on vibration measurements under various concrete drilling conditions. The whole study was conducted in an exposure chamber using a full-scale mockup of concrete drilling simulator to simulate six drilling conditions. For each drilling condition, the vibration of the three orthogonal axes (i.e., a(x), a(y), and a(z)) was measured from the hand tool. Particulate exposure concentrations to the total suspended particulate (C(TSP)), PM(10) (C(PM10)), and PM(2.5) (C(PM2.5)) were measured at the downwind side of the drilling simulator. Empirical models for predicting C(TSP), C(PM10) and C(PM2.5) were done based on measured a(x), a(y), and a(z) using the generalized additive model. Good agreement between measured aerosol exposures and vibrations was found with R(2)>0.969. Our results also suggest that a(x) was mainly contributed by the abrasive wear. On the other hand, a(y) and a(z) were mainly contributed by both the impact wear and brittle fracture wear. The approach developed from the present study has the potential to provide a cheaper and convenient method for assessing aerosol exposures from various emission sources, particularly when conducting conventional personal aerosol samplings are not possible in the filed.

  6. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. Methods A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). Results The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. Conclusion The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment. PMID:26816872

  7. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF TIME-INTEGRATED SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Long-term, time-integrated exposure measures would be desirable to address the problem of developing appropriate residential childhood exposure classifications. ...

  9. New Insights into the Mechanisms of Action of Cotinine and its Distinctive Effects from Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grizzell, J Alex; Echeverria, Valentina

    2015-10-01

    Tobacco consumption is far higher among a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, supporting the notion that some component(s) of tobacco may underlie the oft-reported reduction in associated symptoms during tobacco use. Popular dogma holds that this component is nicotine. However, increasing evidence support theories that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, may underlie at least some of nicotine's actions in the nervous system, apart from its adverse cardiovascular and habit forming effects. Though similarities exist, disparate and even antagonizing actions between cotinine and nicotine have been described both in terms of behavior and physiology, underscoring the need to further characterize this potentially therapeutic compound. Cotinine has been shown to be psychoactive in humans and animals, facilitating memory, cognition, executive function, and emotional responding. Furthermore, recent research shows that cotinine acts as an antidepressant and reduces cognitive-impairment associated with disease and stress-induced dysfunction. Despite these promising findings, continued focus on this potentially safe alternative to tobacco and nicotine use is lacking. Here, we review the effects of cotinine, including comparisons with nicotine, and discuss potential mechanisms of cotinine-specific actions in the central nervous system which are, to date, still being elucidated.

  10. Neuroinflammation: A Therapeutic Target of Cotinine for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Valentina; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of several mental health conditions such as major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ). Inflammatory processes trigger and/or further deteriorate mental functions and are regarded as targets for therapeutic drug development. Cotinine is an alkaloid present in tobacco leaves and the main metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is safe, non-addictive and has pharmacokinetic properties adequate for therapeutic use. Research has shown that cotinine has antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties and modulates the serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems. Consistent with the modulation of these neurotransmitter systems, cotinine behaves as a positive allosteric modulator of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and has anti-inflammatory effects. The decrease in neuroinflammation induced by the stimulation of the cholinergic system seems to be a key element explaining the beneficial effects of cotinine in a diverse range of neurological and psychiatric conditions. This review discusses new evidence of the role of neuroinflammation as a key aspect in bipolar disorder, PTSD and major depression, as well as the potential use of cotinine to reduce neuroinflammation in those conditions.

  11. Cotinine enhances the extinction of contextual fear memory and reduces anxiety after fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Ross; Patel, Sagar; Solomon, Rosalynn; Tran, John; Weeber, Edwin J; Echeverria, Valentina

    2012-03-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by traumatic events. Symptoms include anxiety, depression and deficits in fear memory extinction (FE). PTSD patients show a higher prevalence of cigarette smoking than the general population. The present study investigated the effects of cotinine, a tobacco-derived compound, over anxiety and contextual fear memory after fear conditioning (FC) in mice, a model for inducing PTSD-like symptoms. Two-month-old C57BL/6J mice were separated into three experimental groups. These groups were used to investigate the effect of pretreatment with cotinine on contextual fear memory and posttreatment on extinction and stability or retrievability of the fear memory. Also, changes induced by cotinine on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were assessed after extinction in the hippocampus. An increase in anxiety and corticosterone levels were found after fear conditioning. Cotinine did not affect corticosterone levels but enhanced the extinction of contextual fear, decreased anxiety and the stability and/or retrievability of contextual fear memory. Cotinine-treated mice showed higher levels of the active forms of ERK1/2 than vehicle-treated mice after FC. This evidence suggests that cotinine is a potential new pharmacological treatment to reduce symptoms in individuals with PTSD.

  12. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β −2.02, 95%CI (−2.15, −1.89)], reported income > 20K [β −1.05, 95%CI (−1.79, −0.30)], and measured % body fat [β −0.07, 95%CI (−0.12, −0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness. PMID:25617601

  13. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β -2.02, 95%CI (-2.15, -1.89)], reported income>20K [β -1.05, 95%CI (-1.79, -0.30)], and measured % body fat [β -0.07, 95%CI (-0.12, -0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness.

  14. Meconium Nicotine and Metabolites by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Differentiation of Passive and Nonexposure and Correlation with Neonatal Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Magri, Raquel; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meconium analysis is a diagnostically sensitive and objective alternative to maternal self-report for detecting prenatal tobacco exposure. Nicotine and metabolite disposition in meconium is poorly characterized, and correlation of analytes’ concentrations with neonatal outcomes is unexplored. Our objectives were to quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), nornicotine, norcotinine, and glucuronide concentrations in meconium, identify the best biomarkers of in utero tobacco exposure, compare meconium concentrations of tobacco-exposed and nonexposed neonates, and investigate concentration–outcome relationships. METHODS We quantified concentrations of nicotine and 4 metabolites with and without hydrolysis simultaneously in meconium from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed neonates by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We compared meconium concentrations to birth weight, length, head circumference, gestational age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar scores. RESULTS Nicotine, cotinine, and OH-cotinine were the most prevalent and abundant meconium tobacco biomarkers and were found in higher concentrations in tobacco-exposed neonates. Whereas cotinine and OH-cotinine are glucuronide bound, performing the lengthy and costly enzymatic hydrolysis identified only 1 additional positive specimen. Unconjugated nicotine, cotinine, or OH-cotinine meconium concentration >10 ng/g most accurately discriminated active from passive and nonexposed neonates. There was no significant correlation between quantitative nicotine and metabolite meconium results and neonatal outcomes, although presence of a nicotine biomarker predicted decreased head circumference. CONCLUSIONS Unconjugated nicotine, cotinine, and OH-cotinine should be analyzed in meconium to detect in utero tobacco exposure, as approximately 25% of positive specimens did not contain cotinine. Immunoassay testing monitoring cotinine only would underestimate the prevalence of prenatal

  15. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of failed implantation and reduced IVF success

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vahratian, Anjel; Berry, Katharine F.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infertility and early pregnancy loss are prevalent as is exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (STS). Previous research has suggested a relationship between STS exposure and early pregnancy loss, but studies have been limited by small study sizes and/or imprecise methods for exposure estimation. IVF allows for the collection of follicular fluid (FF), the fluid surrounding the pre-ovulatory oocyte, which may be a more biologically relevant sample media than urine or serum in studies of early reproduction. METHODS In a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, we measured cotinine in FF collected during 3270 IVF treatment cycles from 1909 non-smoking women between 1994 and 2003 to examine the relationship between STS exposure and implantation failure. RESULTS In adjusted models, we found a significant increase in the risk of implantation failure among women exposed to STS compared with those unexposed [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20–1.92; risk ratio (RR) = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.10–1.25]. We also found a significant decrease in the odds for a live birth among STS-exposed women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57–0.99; RR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.66–0.99). CONCLUSIONS Female STS exposure, estimated through the measurement of cotinine in FF, is associated with an increased risk of implantation failure and reduced odds of a live birth. PMID:21771769

  16. Systemic nicotine exposure in tobacco harvesters.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Benowitz, N L; Muzi, G; Eisner, M D; Filiberto, S; Fantozzi, P; Montanari, L; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemics of nicotine intoxication have been described among tobacco harvesters; however, little is known about nicotine absorption under typical working conditions. To assess systemic nicotine absorption during a regular working shift, the authors performed an observational field study. Included in the study were 10 healthy, nonsmoking, female tobacco harvesters and a control group of 5 healthy, nonsmoking, female hospital workers. Nicotine and cotinine were measured in sequential samples of blood and urine during a regular workshift. Blood nicotine levels rose from a nadir value of 0.79 +/- 0.12 ng/ml to a peak value of 3.45 +/- 0.84 ng/ml (p < .05 [Tukey's modified t test]) in the exposed group. In the control group, levels were stable at 0.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml (p < .01). Moreover, the mean blood nicotine level measured 3 mo following the end of exposure in 6 of 10 exposed subjects was 0.24 +/- 0.12 ng/ml (p < .01). Corresponding higher values of urine nicotine and urine cotinine were observed in the exposed versus control group (comparative p values were < .01 and < .05, respectively). Overall, tobacco harvesters absorbed approximately 0.8 mg of nicotine daily. Given that nicotine can induce adverse health effects, the authors believe that prevention of nicotine absorption in tobacco harvesters should be sought and that workers should be informed about occupational risks.

  17. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  18. Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Early Childhood BMI

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Poole, Charles; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hornung, Richard; Bernert, John T.; Khoury, Jane; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight body mass index (BMI). Less is known about the association between prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and childhood BMI. We followed 292 mother-child dyads from early pregnancy to 3 years of age. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was quantified using self-report and serum cotinine biomarkers. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between tobacco smoke exposure and BMI at birth, 4 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 years. During pregnancy, 15% of women reported SHS exposure and 12% reported active smoking, but 51% of women had cotinine levels consistent with SHS exposure and 10% had cotinine concentrations indicative of active smoking. After adjustment for confounders, children born to active smokers had higher BMI at 2 and 3 years of age (self-report or serum cotinine), compared to unexposed children. Children born to women with prenatal serum cotinine concentrations indicative of SHS exposure had higher BMI at 2 (Mean Difference [MD]:0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]:−0.1, 0.7) and 3 (MD:0.4; [0, 0.8]) years compared to unexposed children. Using self-reported prenatal exposure resulted in non-differential exposure misclassification of SHS exposures that attenuated the association between SHS exposure and BMI compared to serum cotinine concentrations. These findings suggest active and secondhand prenatal tobacco smoke exposure may be related to an important public health problem in childhood and later life. In addition, accurate quantification of prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposures is essential to obtaining valid estimates. PMID:20955230

  19. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  20. Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity, and circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Miller, D; Bierman, A; Figueiro, Mg; Schernhammer, Es; Rea, Ms

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that repeat at approximately 24 hours. In humans, circadian rhythms have an average period of 24.2 hours. The 24-hour patterns of light and dark on the retina synchronize circadian rhythms to the local time on earth. Lighting characteristics affecting circadian rhythms are very different than those affecting visual responses. Lack of synchronization between the endogenous clock and the local time has been associated with a host of maladies. Therefore, it is important to measure circadian light exposures over the course of the 24-hour day and to be able to assess circadian entrainment and disruption in actual living environments. Presented is an overview of the recently developed Daysimeter, a personal measurement device for recording activity and circadian light-exposure. When the Daysimeter is worn on the head, two light sensors near the eye are used to estimate circadian light (CLA) exposures over extended periods of time. Phasor analysis combines the measured periodic activity-rest patterns with the measured periodic light-dark patterns to assess behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. As shown, day-shift and rotating-shift nurses exhibit remarkably different levels of behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. These new ecological measurement and analysis techniques may provide important insights into the relationship between circadian disruption and well-being.

  1. R-(+) and S-(−) Isomers of Cotinine Augment Cholinergic Responses In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Patrick M.; Bertrand, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(−) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at α4β2 or α7 nAChRs. However, a significant increase in the current evoked by a low concentration of acetylcholine was observed at α7 nAChRs exposed to 1.0 μM R-(+)- or S-(−)-cotinine. Based on these results, we used a spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) procedure for rodents to test the hypothesis that R-(+)- or S-(−)-cotinine might improve recognition memory when administered alone or in combination with the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutic agent donepezil. Although both isomers enhanced NOR performance when they were coadministered with donepezil, neither isomer was active alone. Moreover, the procognitive effects of the drug combinations were blocked by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-β-erythroidine, indicating that both α7 and α4β2 nAChRs contribute to the response. These results indicate that cotinine may sensitize α7 nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine (a previously uncharacterized mechanism), and that cotinine could be used as an adjunctive agent to improve the effective dose range of cholinergic compounds (e.g., donepezil) in the treatment of AD and other memory disorders. PMID:25503389

  2. Implantable magnetic relaxation sensors measure cumulative exposure to cardiac biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yibo; Pong, Terrence; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Huang, Paul L; Cima, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Molecular biomarkers can be used as objective indicators of pathologic processes. Although their levels often change over time, their measurement is often constrained to a single time point. Cumulative biomarker exposure would provide a fundamentally different kind of measurement to what is available in the clinic. Magnetic resonance relaxometry can be used to noninvasively monitor changes in the relaxation properties of antibody-coated magnetic particles when they aggregate upon exposure to a biomarker of interest. We used implantable devices containing such sensors to continuously profile changes in three clinically relevant cardiac biomarkers at physiological levels for up to 72 h. Sensor response differed between experimental and control groups in a mouse model of myocardial infarction and correlated with infarct size. Our prototype for a biomarker monitoring device also detected doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and can be adapted to detect other molecular biomarkers with a sensitivity as low as the pg/ml range.

  3. Identification of N-(hydroxymethyl) norcotinine as a major product of cytochrome P450 2A6, but not cytochrome P450 2A13-catalyzed cotinine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn M; von Weymarn, Linda B; Murphy, Sharon E

    2005-12-01

    Cotinine formation is the major pathway of nicotine metabolism in smokers, and the primary pathway of cotinine metabolism is trans-3'-hydroxylation. trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine and its glucuronide conjugate account for up to 50% of the nicotine metabolites excreted by smokers. Minor metabolites of cotinine excreted by smokers include norcotinine and cotinine N-oxide, each of which account for <5% of the nicotine dose. It has been reported that P450 2A6 is the catalyst of cotinine metabolism. However, we report here that the major product of P450 2A6-catalyzed cotinine metabolism is N-(hydroxymethyl)norcotinine, a previously unknown human metabolite of cotinine. N-(Hydroxymethyl)norcotinine was chemically synthesized, and its stability under the conditions of the enzyme reactions was confirmed. The products of P450 2A6-catalyzed [5-3H]cotinine metabolism were quantified by radioflow HPLC. The identification of N-(hydroxymethyl)norcotinine as the major metabolite was based on HPLC analysis on three unique systems and coelution with N-(hydroxymethyl)norcotinine standard. 5'-Hydroxycotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine were minor products of P450 2A6-catalyzed cotinine metabolism, accounting for 14 and 8% of the total cotinine metabolites, respectively. N-(Hydroxymethyl)norcotinine was a product of cotinine metabolism by the extrahepatic P450, 2A13, but it was a minor one. The major product of P450 2A13-catalyzed cotinine metabolism was 5'-hydroxycotinine, which was formed at twice the rate of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. The identification of all cotinine metabolites formed by both enzymes was confirmed by LC/MS/MS analysis. Kinetic parameters for cotinine metabolism were determined for P450 2A6 and P450 2A13. This work has confirmed that the major metabolite of cotinine in smokers, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, is only a minor metabolite of P450 2A6-catalyzed cotinine metabolism.

  4. Exposure Measurement Error in PM2.5 Health Effects Studies: A Pooled Analysis of Eight Personal Exposure Validation Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typ...

  5. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking.

  6. Personal Exposure Monitoring Wearing Protocol Compliance: An Initial Assessment of Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure sampling provides the most accurate and representative assessment of exposure to a pollutant, but only if measures are implemented to minimize exposure misclassification and reduce confounders that may cause misinterpretation of the collected data. Poor complian...

  7. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  8. Nicotine and its metabolites in amniotic fluid at birth--assessment of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Köhler, E; Avenarius, S; Rabsilber, A; Gerloff, C; Jorch, G

    2010-05-01

    Amniotic fluid was collected from 78 pregnant women at birth additionally with their urine prior to delivery as well as neonatal urine and meconium. The smoking markers, nicotine and its metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The self-reported smoking status during pregnancy determined by means of a questionnaire was verified by measurement of maternal urine. In all smokers, nicotine metabolites were detected in amniotic fluid and in 80% of them nicotine as well. However, the sum of the nicotine metabolites (Sum(met)) was significantly lower (p < .001) in amniotic fluid (704 +/- 464 nmol/L) than in meconium (921 +/- 588 nmol/L), neonatal urine (1139 +/- 813 nmol/L) and maternal urine (4496 +/- 3535 nmol/L). Concentrations of nicotine metabolites in amniotic fluid correlated well (p < .001) with that in the other specimen types. After environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, no nicotine or nicotine metabolites were detectable in amniotic fluid but only in maternal and neonatal urine. Analysis of amniotic fluid at birth lends itself to verifying smoking habits during pregnancy and clearly discriminating from ETS exposure, but it is not a suitable approach to differentiating between ETS exposure and non-exposure.

  9. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.0001). When adjusted for age and gender, levels of total NNAL per milligram of creatinine were also significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). Levels of cotinine per milliliter of urine and per milligram of creatinine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). These results show similar exposures to the potent tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  10. Validation of an assay for the determination of cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine in human saliva using automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M C; Abrar, M; Kelk, M; Cook, J; Phillips, K

    1999-02-19

    The validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of low level cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine in human saliva is reported. Analytes and deuterated internal standards were extracted from saliva samples using automated solid-phase extraction, the columns containing a hyper cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer sorbent, and analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS-MS). Lower limits of quantitation of 0.05 and 0.10 ng/ml for cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine, respectively, were achieved. Intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy values fell within +/-17% for all quality control samples, with the exception of quality control samples prepared at 0.30 ng/ml for 3-hydroxycotinine (inter-day precision 21.1%). Results from the analysis of saliva samples using this assay were consistent with subjects' self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures, enhancing the applicability of cotinine as a biomarker for the assessment of low level ETS exposure.

  11. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: disposition in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Haley, N J; Sepkovic, D W; Hoffmann, D

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated differences in the elimination of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, in smokers who quit smoking and never-smokers who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) under controlled conditions. The mean biological half-life of cotinine in urine, collected from the nine smokers was 16.5 +/- 1.2 h, in never-smokers exposed to ETS, 27.3 +/- 1.9 h. Differences in the mode of uptake and absorption of nicotine and possible differences in nicotine metabolism may play roles in the clearance rate differences between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:2751025

  12. Determination of salivary cotinine through solid phase extraction using a bead-injection lab-on-valve approach hyphenated to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Barreiros, Luísa; Almeida, M Inês G S; Kolev, Spas D; Segundo, Marcela A

    2016-01-15

    Cotinine, the first metabolite of nicotine, is often used as a biomarker in the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure due to its long half-life. This paper reports on the development of an at-line automatic micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) method for the determination of salivary cotinine followed by its analysis via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The SPE methodology is based on the bead injection (BI) concept in a mesofluidic lab-on-valve (LOV) flow system to automatically perform all SPE steps. Three commercially available reversed-phase sorbents were tested, namely, Oasis HLB, Lichrolut EN and Focus, and the spherically shaped sorbents (i.e., Oasis HLB and Focus) provided better packing within the SPE column and hence higher column efficiency. An HILIC column was chosen based on its potential for achieving higher sensitivity and better retention of polar compounds such as cotinine. The method uses an isocratic program with acetonitrile:100mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5.8 in 95:5 v/v ratio as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Using this approach, the linear calibration range was from 10 to 1000 ng which corresponded to 5-500 μg L(-1). The corresponding μSPE-BI-LOV system was proven to be reliable in the handing and analysis of viscous biological samples such as saliva, achieving a sampling rate of 6h(-1) and a limit of detection and quantification of 1.5 and 3μgL(-1), respectively.

  13. [Measurement of linear exposure nominal pose used in curietherapy].

    PubMed

    Bernard, M; Guille, B; Duvalet, G

    1975-11-01

    The idea, and subsequent construction, of a dose rate meter for measuring linear exposure dose originated in those pilot centres of Curietherapie which wished to replace radium by the artificial radionucleides, Irdium-192, Caesium-137 etc. The aparatus makes it possible to measure, directly and quickly, the activity of a specified length of a linear source, a measurement which has only been possible until now by dividing the exposure dose by the length whose activity it is desired to know. If the dose-rate obtained by these two methods agrees, this apparatus shortens the time for which the sources need to be handled, thereby reducing the danger of irradiation to staff and technicians. The apparatus is thus able to reveal heterogeneity of activity along the length of a line-source. In the specific case of Iridium, our experience shows that wires which have been used in several applications may develop mechanical bends and constrictions, which can lead to fluctuation in dose rate along their length. The apparatus was first constructed in 1967, after preliminary experiments in 1965. As Curietherapy has become more widely used, the apparatus has undergone many modifications which is more precise and specific than it was initially. At the present time it can only be used with Iridium as wire, and with Caesium in the form of trains of seeds (corresponding to the AGS sources) or needles. Nevertheless, a third scale is under consideration, for use with newer radioelements, which may be used in future.

  14. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000.

  15. Measured radiofrequency exposure during various mobile-phone use scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kelsh, Michael A; Shum, Mona; Sheppard, Asher R; McNeely, Mark; Kuster, Niels; Lau, Edmund; Weidling, Ryan; Fordyce, Tiffani; Kühn, Sven; Sulser, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of mobile phone users have relied on self reporting or billing records to assess exposure. Herein, we report quantitative measurements of mobile-phone power output as a function of phone technology, environmental terrain, and handset design. Radiofrequency (RF) output data were collected using software-modified phones that recorded power control settings, coupled with a mobile system that recorded and analyzed RF fields measured in a phantom head placed in a vehicle. Data collected from three distinct routes (urban, suburban, and rural) were summarized as averages of peak levels and overall averages of RF power output, and were analyzed using analysis of variance methods. Technology was the strongest predictor of RF power output. The older analog technology produced the highest RF levels, whereas CDMA had the lowest, with GSM and TDMA showing similar intermediate levels. We observed generally higher RF power output in rural areas. There was good correlation between average power control settings in the software-modified phones and power measurements in the phantoms. Our findings suggest that phone technology, and to a lesser extent, degree of urbanization, are the two stronger influences on RF power output. Software-modified phones should be useful for improving epidemiologic exposure assessment.

  16. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  17. Reducing Underserved Children’s Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley N.; Nair, Uma S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; DiSantis, Katie I.; Jaffe, Karen; Tolley, Natalie; Wileyto, E. Paul; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addressing maternal smoking and child secondhand smoke exposure is a public health priority. Standard care advice and self-help materials to help parents reduce child secondhand smoke exposure is not sufficient to promote change in underserved populations. We tested the efficacy of a behavioral counseling approach with underserved maternal smokers to reduce infant’s and preschooler’s secondhand smoke exposure. Design A two-arm randomized trial: experimental behavior counseling versus enhanced standard care (control). Assessment staff members were blinded. Setting/participants Three hundred randomized maternal smokers were recruited from low-income urban communities. Participants had a child aged <4 years exposed to two or more maternal cigarettes/day at baseline. Intervention Philadelphia Family Rules for Establishing Smokefree Homes (FRESH) included 16 weeks of counseling. Using a behavioral shaping approach within an individualized cognitive–behavioral therapy framework, counseling reinforced efforts to adopt increasingly challenging secondhand smoke exposure–protective behaviors with the eventual goal of establishing a smokefree home. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were end-of-treatment child cotinine and reported secondhand smoke exposure (maternal cigarettes/day exposed). Secondary outcomes were end-of-treatment 7-day point-prevalence self-reported cigarettes smoked/day and bioverified quit status. Results Participation in FRESH behavioral counseling was associated with lower child cotinine (β= −0.18, p=0.03) and secondhand smoke exposure (β= −0.57, p=0.03) at end of treatment. Mothers in behavioral counseling smoked fewer cigarettes/day (β= –1.84, p=0.03) and had higher bioverified quit rates compared with controls (13.8% vs 1.9%, χ2=10.56, p<0.01). There was no moderating effect of other smokers living at home. Conclusions FRESH behavioral counseling reduces child secondhand smoke exposure and promotes smoking quit

  18. Impact of the Spanish Smoking Law on Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke and Respiratory Health in Hospitality Workers: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A.; López, María J.; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Background A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. Methods and Finding We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01). Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068) among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475) among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml) and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml). In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05) among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Conclusions Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its

  19. Measures for Assessing Subjective Effects of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen; O’Connor, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) may reduce toxicant exposure and thereby may possibly reduce health risks associated with conventional tobacco use. However, lessened health risk to the individual or harm to the population through use of PREPs is unknown. Research is being conducted to evaluate the possible health effects associated with PREP use. As part of this evaluation, it is critical to provide sound measures of subjective responses to PREPs to determine the use and the abuse potential of a product, that is the likelihood that this product will lead to addiction. The goal of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of scales that have been used to measure the subjective responses to PREPs and examine their characteristics. In this paper, scales are identified and the items on the scales are described. Scales are also examined to determine whether they are sensitive in testing PREPs. Furthermore, scales to assess PREPs are recommended to investigators. Where no scales exist, items that may be critical for the development and validation of new scales are identified. PMID:19959674

  20. {sup 125}I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L.; Pinhao, N. R.

    2008-08-14

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of {sup 125}I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one {mu}Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  1. Electromagnetic exposure compliance estimation using narrowband directional measurements.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, D; Miaoudakis, A; Xenos, T; Zacharopoulos, V

    2008-01-01

    The increased number of everyday applications that rely on wireless communication has drawn an attention to several concerns on the adverse health effects that prolonged or even short time exposure might have on humans. International organisations and countries have adopted guides and legislation for the public safety. They include reference levels (RLs) regarding field strength electromagnetic quantities. To check for RLs compliance in an environment with multiple transmitters of various types, analytical simulation models may be implemented provided that all the necessary information are available. Since this is not generally the case in the most practical situations, on-site measurements have to be performed. The necessary equipment for measurements of this type usually includes broadband field metres suitable to measure the field strength over the whole bandwidth of the field sensor used. These types of measurements have several drawbacks; to begin with, given that RLs are frequency depended, compliance evaluation can be misleading since no information is available regarding the measured spectrum distribution. Furthermore, in a multi-transmitter environment there is no way of distinguishing the contribution of a specific source to the overall field measured. Of course, this problem can be resolved using narrowband directional receiver antennas, yet there is always the need for a priori knowledge of the polarisation of the incident electromagnetic wave. In this work, the use of measurement schemes of this type is addressed. A method independent to the polarisation of the incident wave is proposed and a way to evaluate a single source contribution to the total field in a multi-transmitter environment and the polarisation of the measured incident wave is presented.

  2. The novel assay method for nicotine metabolism to cotinine using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kawauchi, Yumi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Oda, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco. It is taken into the body by tobacco smoking, and mainly metabolized to cotinine in the hepatic cytochrme P450 (CYP) 2A6. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive method for the determination of nicotine metabolism to cotinine using HPLC. The internal standard, trans-4'-carboxycotinine methyl ester was synthesized with a simple method. The nicotine and cotinine were separated completely and detected by C(18) 5-µm analytical column (L-column Octa decyl silyl (ODS), 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) equipped with a C(18) 5-µm guard column (L-column ODS, 10 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) and ultraviolet detection at 260 nm. The detection limit of the assay was 0.05 µM for cotinine (n=5, R.S.D) and 0.1 µM for nicotine. Thus the present results provided a sensitive and useful method for the determination of nicotine metabolism catalyzed by CYP2A6.

  3. A sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method for the determination of cotinine in urine.

    PubMed

    Apinan, Roongnapa; Choemung, Anuruk; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-07-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in human urine. The internal standard (acetaminophen) was separated from cotinine on a Hypersil Gold C(18) column with retention times of 9.3 and 13.0 min, respectively. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 10 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.4) and methanol (45:55, v/v), running through the column at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The chromatographic analysis was operated at 25 degrees C. Sample preparation was prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of methyl-t-butyl ether in dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The precision of the method based on within-day repeatability and reproducibility (day-to-day variation) was below 15% (% coefficient of variation). Good accuracy was observed for both the intra-day or inter-day assays. Limit of quantification was accepted as 0.02 ng using 100 mL samples. The mean recoveries for cotinine and the internal standard were greater than 90%. The method has been applied to the investigation of a 2-h urinary excretion of cotinine in 154 healthy non-smoking Thai volunteers (aged 18-45 years) following the administration of a half-piece (2 mg) of nicotine gum.

  4. [Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human biological materials and their significance in toxicological studies].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Nowak-Banasik, Livia; Morkowska, Anna; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Korolkiewicz, Roman; Anand, Jacek Sein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation of reliable procedure of the determination of nicotine and cotinine both in classic (serum, urine) and alternative biological materials (hair, saliva) and evaluation of their significance for clinical and forensic toxicology. Biological material samples (blood, urine, saliva) were taken from patients after Percutaneous Trans-luminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). The determination of cotinine and nicotine concentration in the biological material should be optimized depending on the aim of analysis. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC/UV-DAD are reliable, specific and relatively cheap. Serum and saliva are valuable biological materials which allow to determine temporary nicotine and cotinine content on the similar level of concentrations. In the near future it will be able to replace blood with saliva sample because of an easy and non-invasive way of sampling. Evaluation of cotinine concentration in urine allows to distinguish the passive from the active tobacco smokers. Hair analysis allows to control a nicotine abstinence as well as a long-term evaluation of the history of smoking. However usage of hair is limited because of difficulty with sampling. Interpretation of results in analysis of alternative materials (hair, saliva) pose a problem because of lack of sampling standardization and lack of standardization of final analysis method.

  5. Nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibit aromatase in human trophoblast in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, R L; Gochberg, J; Ryan, K J

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who smoke have lower endogenous estrogen than nonsmokers. To explore the possible link between cigarette smoking and decreased endogenous estrogens, we have examined the effects of constituents of tobacco on estrogen production in human choriocarcinoma cells and term placental microsomes. In choriocarcinoma cell cultures, nicotine, cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine), and anabasine (a minor component of cigarette tobacco) all inhibited androstenedione conversion to estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. Removal of nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine from the culture medium resulted in the complete reversal of the inhibition of aromatase. In the choriocarcinoma cell cultures, a supraphysiologic concentration of androstenedione (73 microM) in the culture medium blocked the inhibition of aromatase caused by nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine. In preparations of term placental microsomes, nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibited the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Kinetic analysis demonstrated the inhibition to be competitive with respect to the substrate. These findings suggest that some nicotinic alkaloids directly inhibit aromatase. This mechanism may explain, in part, the decreased estrogen observed in women who smoke. PMID:3711333

  6. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L.; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing. PMID:26960787

  7. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Jameson, H; Woerman, A L; Perry, D C; Mendelowitz, D

    2013-08-15

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex.

  8. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, C.; Jameson, H.; Woerman, A. L.; Perry, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg−1·day−1 of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:23766497

  9. Using nicotine in scalp hair to assess maternal passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Lu, Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying population exposure level to tobacco smoke is important for investigating its adverse effects on human health. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and application of using population hair concentrations of nicotine and cotinine to indicate their exposure level to tobacco smoke among pregnant women. Our study recruited 256 mothers who delivered healthy babies and collected their hair samples from scalp, of which 172 mothers were self-reported non-passive smokers and the other 84 mothers were self-reported passive smokers. We analyzed nicotine and cotinine concentrations of the hair section grown during the early pregnancy. The linear relationship between cotinine and nicotine was developed and validated by internal cross-validation method. Our results revealed that self-reported passive smokers had higher concentrations of nicotine [2.08 (1.00-4.46) ng/mg hair, i.e. median value (inter-quartile range)] and cotinine [0.063 (0.041-0.148) ng/mg hair] than non-passive smokers [1.35 (0.58-2.59) ng/mg hair of nicotine and 0.049 (0.022-0.087) ng/mg hair of cotinine, respectively]. There existed a linear regression model between hair cotinine and nicotine concentrations, i.e. [cotinine] = 0.024 × [nicotine]+0.0184 (R(2) = 0.756) for this population. The internal cross-validation squared correlation coefficient slightly increased from 0.689 to 0.734 with the training subjects varying from 20% to 90%, suggesting that this regression model had high robustness and predictive accuracy. It was concluded that nicotine in maternal hair can evaluate the hair cotinine level and reflect maternal passive exposure level to ambient tobacco smoke with high sensitivity.

  10. Benzene exposure in childhood: Role of living environments and assessment of available tools.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Guidotti, Maurizio; Manini, Paola; Petyx, Marta; La Torre, Giuseppe; Vitali, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Benzene is a widespread air pollutant and a well-known human carcinogen. Evidence is needed regarding benzene intake in the pediatric age group. We investigated the use of urinary (u) trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), and unmodified benzene (UB) for assessing exposure to low concentrations of environmental benzene and the role of living environment on benzene exposure in childhood. u-t,t-MA, u-SPMA, u-UB and u-cotinine were measured in urine samples of 243 Italian children (5-11 years) recruited in a cross-sectional study. Analytical results were compared with data obtained from questionnaires about participants' main potential exposure factors. u-UB, u-t,t-MA and u-SPMA concentrations were about 1.5-fold higher in children living in urban areas than in those in the rural group. Univariate analyses showed that u-UB was the only biomarker able to discriminate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in urban and rural children (medians=411.50 and 210.50 ng/L, respectively); these results were confirmed by the strong correlation between u-UB and u-cotinine in the SHS-exposed group and by multivariate analyses. A regression model on u-SPMA showed that the metabolite is related to residence area (p<0.001), SHS exposure (p=0.048) and gender (p=0.027). u-UB is the best marker of benzene exposure in children in the present study, and it can be used as a good carcinogen-derived biomarker of exposure to passive smoking, especially related to benzene, when urine sample is collected at the end of the day. In addition, it is important to highlight that SHS resulted the most important contributor to benzene exposure, underlining the need for an information campaign against passive smoking exposure.

  11. Nanomolar concentrations of nicotine and cotinine alter the development of cultured hippocampal neurons via non-acetylcholine receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, T; Cabell, L

    1999-08-01

    We investigated the effects of nicotine and its metabolic byproduct cotinine on survival, differentiation and intracellular Ca2+ levels of cultured E18 rat hippocampal neurons. We used a range of concentrations from 1 nM to 10 microM, most of which are within the likely range of human fetal exposure from maternal smoking. Nicotine did not influence neuron survival or neurite production. However, at all concentrations tested, nicotine significantly increased branching of both axons and dendrites, an effect which was not reversed by co-culturing with alpha-bungarotoxin, which blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that predominate in hippocampal cultures (Alkondon and Albuquerque, 1993; Barrantes et al., 1995b). Cotinine at 100 nM and 1 microM significantly reduced neuron survival and neurite production of surviving neurons, but did not significantly alter axon or dendrite branching. These membrane-permeable compounds may work synergistically in the developing embryo to impair the survival and differentiation of hippocampal neurons via intracellular mechanisms.

  12. Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nezu, Yoko; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine modified measles (VMM) affects individuals with attenuated vaccine induced immunity. An outbreak of measles occurred in a junior high school, starting from an unvaccinated eighth-grade student who developed natural measles and affected a majority of students who were immunized with a low potent strain of measles vaccine (TD97). To determine whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with the development of VMM in this population, a questionnaire was used asking whether students had VMM symptoms during the outbreak and the smoking status of family members. VMM was defined in the study population as occurrence of fever and/or erythema, along with documented history of measles vaccination. A total of 513 students (85.9%) responded. Overall, the presence of in-house smokers did not differ between VMM students (49.3%) and non-VMM students (50.2%). However, in the ninth grade, presence of an in-house smoker was significantly higher in the family of VMM students (54.0%) than in non-VMM students (36.6%) (P = 0.044). Urinary cotinine levels were also measured in selected students (n = 37). Among families with at least one smoker, urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in VMM students than in non-VMM students (P = 0.032). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a high urinary cotinine level (>10 ng/mg creatinine; 13.5 percentile) was associated with the development of VMM. Our findings suggest that a high level of ETS exposure may be associated with an increased risk of VMM in a population with attenuated vaccine induced immunity against measles.

  13. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  14. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  15. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  16. POPULATION EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER: A COMPARISON OF EXPOSURE MODEL PREDICTIONS AND MEASUREMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is currently developing an integrated human exposure source-to-dose modeling system (HES2D). This modeling system will incorporate models that use a probabilistic approach to predict population exposures to environmental ...

  17. Simultaneous quantitation of urinary cotinine and acrylonitrile-derived mercapturic acids with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Fang; Uang, Shi-Nian; Chiang, Su-Yin; Shih, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2012-02-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN), a widely used industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AN can be detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form glutathione (GSH) conjugates in vivo. It can be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 2E1 to form 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which can also be detoxified by GST to generate GSH conjugates. The GSH conjugates can be further metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs), namely, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (CEMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (HEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (CHEMA). This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantitatively profile the major AN urinary metabolites (CEMA, HEMA, and CHEMA) to assess AN exposure, as well as analyze urinary cotinine (COT) as an indicator for tobacco smoke exposure. The limits of quantitation were 0.1, 0.1, 1.0, and 0.05 μg/L for HEMA, CEMA, CHEMA, and COT, respectively. This method was applied to analyze the three AN-derived MAs in 36 volunteers with no prior occupational AN exposure. Data analysis showed significant correlations between the level of COT and the levels of these MAs, suggesting them as biomarkers for exposure to low levels of AN. The results demonstrate that a highly specific and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully developed to quantitatively profile the major urinary metabolites of AN in humans to assess low AN exposure.

  18. Evaluating oral noncombustible potential-reduced exposure products for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Potential-reduced exposure products (PREPs) are marketed as a way for smokers to continue using tobacco while possibly lessening their tobacco toxicant intake. Some tobacco-based PREPs are combustible and intended to be smoked, while others are noncombustible and intended to be administered orally (e.g., Camel Snus [CS] tobacco sachets and Ariva tobacco tablets). The ability of these noncombustible PREPs to reduce smokers’ exposure to cigarette-delivered toxicants and suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms effectively is unclear. Clinical laboratory methods have been used to measure combustible PREP-associated toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression and could be applied to evaluating the effects of orally administered noncombustible PREPs. Methods: In this study, 21 smokers (6 women) participated in four 5-day conditions that differed by product used: CS, Ariva, own brand cigarettes, or no tobacco. Measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO), the urinary metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), the urinary metabolite of the carcinogen NNK (NNAL-T), and subjective effect ratings. Results: Relative to own brand, all other conditions were associated with CO and cotinine levels that were lower and abstinence symptom ratings that were greater. Only no-tobacco use was associated with significantly lower NNAL levels. Acceptability ratings were also lower in all conditions relative to own brand. Discussion: Although these oral products reduce exposure to CO, their ineffective abstinence symptom suppression and low acceptability may limit their viability as PREPs. As with combustible PREPs, clinical laboratory study of orally administered noncombustible PREPs will be a valuable part of any comprehensive PREP evaluation strategy. PMID:20159791

  19. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC assay of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and brain.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ralph; Messina, S M; Stokes, C; Salyani, S; Alcalay, N; De Fiebre, N C; De Fiebre, C M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable assay for nicotine (NIC) and its major metabolite, cotinine (COT), in plasma and brain. A method was developed that uses an extraction method compatible with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. Sequential solid-phase extraction on silica columns followed by extraction using octadecyl (C18) columns resulted in mean percent recovery (n = 5) of 51 +/- 5, 64 +/- 10, and 52 +/- 10% for NIC, COT, and phenylimidazole (PI), respectively, in spiked 1-mL serum samples. Recovery (mean +/- SEM) of the internal standard (PI) from spiked samples of nicotine-injected rats averaged 64.1 +/- 1.5% (n = 138) from plasma, and 20.7+/-0.8% (n = 128) from brain. The limits of detection of NIC in plasma samples were approximately 8 ng per mL, and of COT, 13.6 ng per mL. Further optimization of our extraction method, using slower flow rates and solid-phase extraction on silica columns, followed by C18 column extraction, yielded somewhat better recoveries (38 +/-3%) for 1-mL brain homogenates. Interassay precision (coefficient of variation) was determined on the basis of daily calibrations for 2 months and was found to be 7%, 9%, and 9% for NIC, COT, and PI, respectively, whereas intra-assay variability was 3.9% for both NIC and COT. Limited studies were performed on analytical columns for comparison of retention, resolution, asymmetry, and column capacity. We concluded that a simple two-step solid-phase extraction method, coupled with HPLC separation and UV detection, can be used routinely to measure NIC and COT in biological fluids and tissues.

  20. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

  1. Measuring Drosophila (fruit fly) activity during microgravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, M S; Keller, T S

    1999-07-01

    Important advances in the understanding of the aging process could be obtained through comprehension of the changes experienced by Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) during microgravity. Previous experiments flown on Cosmos satellites and various Space Shuttle missions have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. Additionally, postflight analysis indicated an accelerated aging of the microgravity exposed male flies since they exhibited a significant decrease in mating ability and a consistently lower negative geotaxis response than the 1 g ground controls. The negative geotaxis response is the Drosophila's reaction to move opposite to the Earth's gravitational vector when disturbed in certain manners. Researchers have hypothesized that the accelerated aging, is due to an increased locomotor activity which causes a subsequent increase in mitochondrial activity. The increased mitochondrial activity, in turn, causes increased aging through accelerated damage to the mitochondrial system. An increase in locomotor activity was indicated by analyzing only a fraction (1/6th of a second) of the 15 minute video recordings of groups of Drosophila taken approximately every two days during a 14-day Space Shuttle flight. The increased locomotor activity may be related to the Drosophila's negative geotaxis response in that the flies may be reacting to the absence of normal gravity by continuously searching for the gravity vector. The aims of this study are to develop methods to accurately measure individual Drosophila activity, use these derived methods in 1 g to create a Drosophila activity baseline, and use the methods during short and long duration microgravity exposure (sounding rockets, parabolic flights, Space Shuttle, International Space Station, etc.) to examine Drosophila activity. The role of the negative geotaxis response on locomotor activity will be examined by using two strains of behaviorally selected

  2. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  3. Rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nicotine and cotinine in nonsmoker human and rat urines.

    PubMed

    Oddoze, C; Pauli, A M; Pastor, J

    1998-04-24

    A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with paired-ion and UV detection has been developed for the rapid quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine. A one-step solid-liquid extraction on Extrelut was used. Separation from endogenous substances was achieved with a decreasing flow-rate. With 20 ml of urine for extraction, the limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine; linearity was obtained from 50 to 5000 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 9% for cotinine and 30% for nicotine. Average recoveries for cotinine were 92-100% and 47-86% for nicotine. The present method was applied to the urine analysis of smokers, nonsmoker children, and experimental animals.

  4. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the

  5. Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor downregulation after forced swim stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Grizzell, J Alex; Mullins, Michelle; Iarkov, Alexandre; Rohani, Adeeb; Charry, Laura C; Echeverria, Valentina

    2014-12-01

    Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, appears to act as an antidepressant. We have previously shown that cotinine reduced immobile postures in Porsolt's forced swim (FS) and tail suspension tests while preserving the synaptic density in the hippocampus as well as prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of daily oral cotinine (5 mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated, FS stress for 6 consecutive days in adult, male C57BL/6J mice. The results support our previous report that cotinine administration reduces depressive-like behavior in mice subjected or not to high salience stress. In addition, cotinine enhanced the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the hippocampus of mice subjected to repetitive FS stress. Altogether, the results suggest that cotinine may be an effective antidepressant positively influencing mood through a mechanism involving the preservation of brain homeostasis and the expression of critical growth factors such as VEGF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Improved highly sensitive method for determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Yamamoto, T; Kuroiwa, Y; Yokoi, T

    2000-05-26

    A highly sensitive and reliable method for the determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. Nicotine and cotinine were extracted from alkalinized plasma with dichloromethane and the volatility of nicotine was prevented by the addition of conc. HCl to the organic solvent during evaporation. The sensitivity of quantification at 260 nm absorption was improved by using a noise-base clean Uni-3 to 0.2 ng/ml nicotine and 1.0 ng/ml cotinine. The method was validated over linear ranges of 0.2-25.0 ng/ml for nicotine and 1.0-80.0 ng/ml for cotinine. The intra-day precision and accuracy were < or = 15.9% relative standard variation (RSD) and 89.9-103.5% for nicotine and < or = 8.0% RSD and 98.7-103.0% for cotinine. The inter-day precision and accuracy were < or = 17.0% RSD and 94.2-100.9% for nicotine and < or = 8.2% RSD and 98.0-105.1% for cotinine.

  7. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  8. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  9. Exposure and preventive measure to reduce high and daily exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis in potted plant production.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Zervas, Athanasios; Tendal, Kira; Matthiesen, Christoffer B; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the active organism in a variety of commercially available products used worldwide as biopesticides. Bt products are applied in large outdoor areas as well as in indoor environments. Even though it has been sold for decades, not much is known about the occupational exposure to Bt. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge about the exposure to Bt subspecies israelensis (Bti) in a propagation section in a greenhouse, where Bti is applied hourly by a spray boom, and to test a preventive measure to reduce the exposure to airborne Bti. Furthermore, we wanted to study the exposure during work with potted plants treated earlier with Bti. Exposure to aerosols with Bti was measured repeatedly by personal and stationary samplers before and after the intervention. Bti was identified by polymerase chain reaction in air and soil samples. Personal exposure to inhalable Bti in the propagation section was 3×10(5) cfu m(-3) (median level, n = 22); the personal exposure of people working with plants treated earlier with Bti was 3200 cfu m(-3) (median level, n = 17). The highest single measure was found for the person working with the spray boom (7×10(5) cfu m(-3)) but airborne Bti was present at all sampling stations in the propagation section. Bti constituted a high share of the airborne cultivable bacteria and a smaller share of the soilborne bacteria in the propagation section. In a human cell assay, spiking an aerosol sample with a product with Bti increased the inflammatory potential of an aerosol sample from the greenhouse significantly. Based on the inflammatory potential and the high personal exposure, a cover around the spray boom was built as an attempt to reduce the daily exposure to Bti. The cover reduced the personal exposure to Bti from 3.0×10(5) cfu m(-3) to 1.8×10(4) cfu m(-3). The exposure was thus reduced by a factor 17, which is a considerable reduction. Bti was present in different particle size fractions with

  10. [Nicotine and cotinine levels in body fluids of habitual smokers who committed suicide].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Furumiya, Junichi; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-12-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem because over 30,000 people commit suicide every year since 1998 in Japan. Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk for suicide and attempted suicide. We determined nicotine and cotinine levels in blood and urine of 104 deceased individuals (21 suicides and 83 non-suicides). Of the 21 suicides, 16 (76.2%) were smokers; the smoking rate in non-suicides was 41.0% (34 persons). Average levels of nicotine and cotinine in blood were significantly higher in the suicide smokers than in the non-suicide smokers (nicotine: 95.6 +/- 43.9 ng/ml vs. 28.0 +/- 15.2 ng/ml, p < 0.0001; and cotinine: 385 +/- 220 ng/ml vs. 229 +/- 181 ng/ml, p < 0.02). Average levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine also significantly higher in the suicide smokers than in the non-suicide smokers. There were eight patients with psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. Of the eight patients, four were suicide smokers; only a person used antipsychotics. Thirty-one alcohol-intoxicated decedents consisted of 8 suicides (8 smokers) and 23 non-suicides (17 smokers). Our data demonstrate that there is a marked increase in cigarette smoking in habitual smokers with psychiatric disorders before committing suicide. Quantitatively monitoring the severity of stress using blood nicotine level may enable physicians more objectively to find out nicotine dependents who are in the state of an imminent suicide attempt and timely to administer medical treatment for preventing suicide.

  11. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  12. Quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and varenicline in human plasma by a sensitive and specific UPLC-tandem mass-spectrometry procedure for a clinical study on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Maria; Choong, Eva; Noetzli, Muriel; Cornuz, Jacques; Ansermot, Nicolas; Eap, Chin B

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, its metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and varenicline in human plasma was developed and validated. Sample preparation was realized by solid phase extraction of the target compounds and of the internal standards (nicotine-d4, cotinine-d3, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-d3 and CP-533,633, a structural analog of varenicline) from 0.5 mL of plasma, using a mixed-mode cation exchange support. Chromatographic separations were performed on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC BEH 2.1×100 mm, 1.7 μm). A gradient program was used, with a 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3/acetonitrile mobile phase at a flow of 0.4 mL/min. The compounds were detected on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with an electrospray interface in positive ionization mode and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring. Matrix effects were quantitatively evaluated with success, with coefficients of variation inferior to 8%. The procedure was fully validated according to Food and Drug Administration guidelines and to Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques. The concentration range was 2-500 ng/mL for nicotine, 1-1000 ng/mL for cotinine, 2-1000 ng/mL for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and 1-500 ng/mL for varenicline, according to levels usually measured in plasma. Trueness (86.2-113.6%), repeatability (1.9-12.3%) and intermediate precision (4.4-15.9%) were found to be satisfactory, as well as stability in plasma. The procedure was successfully used to quantify nicotine, its metabolites and varenicline in more than 400 plasma samples from participants in a clinical study on smoking cessation.

  13. TESTING DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS FOR MEASURING PERSONAL DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary ingestion may be a significant pathway of human exposure to many potentially toxic chemicals. The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency-National Human Exposure Laboratory has made the development of methods for measuring persoanl dietary exposures a high priority for its di...

  14. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LONG-TERM EXPOSURES BASED ON SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements is validated using data from a recent EPA study of exposure to fine particles. The method was developed a decade ago but long-term exposure data to validate it did not exist until recently. In this paper, ...

  15. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  16. Enhancing Air Pollution Exposure Assessment in the 21st Century by Measurement and Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessments may be conducted using measurement data, modeling results, or through a combination of measurements and models. Models are required to estimate exposure when measurement data is insufficient due to spatial or temporal gaps (e.g., for refined local scale asses...

  17. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    PubMed

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  18. Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in correlation to cotinine levels with respect to the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Seelinger, Jens Udo; Philipp-Gehlhaar, Monika; Döhrel, Juliane; Schneider, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of a broad spectrum of procarcinogens. An association of the Cyp1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism with cancer as well as an impact on the enzyme activity has been described. To study gene-environmental interactions we investigated the quantitative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in smokers (N = 102) and non-smokers (N = 192) with regards to the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by serum cotinine levels. Genotypes were analysed by melting curve analysis and quantification of Cyp1B1 mRNA by real-time PCR. In comparing Cyp1B1 expression, significant differences between the two homozygote genotypes *1/*1 and *3/*3 (0.105 ± 0.019; n = 26 vs. 0.051 ± 0.017; n = 14; P = 0.039) and between the heterozygote genotype *1/*3 and *3/*3 (0.121 ± 0.029; n = 55 vs. 0.051 ± 0.017; n = 14; P = 0.039) of smokers were revealed. According to the serum cotinine levels, three subgroups (low; medium; high) were build. The group "high" (0.248 ± 0.089; n = 32) showed proportionally high Cyp1B1 mRNA expression compared to "medium" (0.101 ± 0.024; n = 33), "low" (0.086 ± 0.015; n = 32) and non-smokers (0.084 ± 0.007; n = 176). This result was reflected in the homozygote *1/*1 and the heterozygote *1/*3 genotypes. In contrast the homozygote *3/*3 genotype was missing the high Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in the cotinine subgroup "high". Our results suggest that genotypes carrying the C-allele (*1/*1 and *1/*3) at Cyp1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke than homozygote *3/*3 genotypes.

  19. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  20. Using Salivary Cotinine to Validate Self-Reports of Tobacco Use by Indian Youth Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Dhavan, Poonam; Bassi, Shalini; Stigler, Melissa. H.; Arora, Monika; Gupta, Vinay K; Perry, Cheryl. L.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-reported tobacco use among young people can underestimate the actual prevalence of tobacco use. Biochemical validation of self-reports is particularly recommended for intervention studies where cessation outcomes are to be measured. Literature on biochemical validation of self-reports of multiple forms of tobacco use in India is sparse, particularly among young people. Methods The study was conducted during the baseline household survey of a community based tobacco prevention and cessation intervention trial for youth (10–19 years old) residing in slum communities in Delhi, India in 2009. Salivary cotinine measurement on 1224 samples showed that youth were under-reporting use of chewing and smoking tobacco. Results Self-reports had a low sensitivity (36.3%) and a positive predictive value of 72.6%. No statistically significant difference in under-reporting was found between youth in the control and intervention conditions of the trial, which will be taken into consideration in assessing intervention outcomes at a later time point. Conclusion Biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use should be considered during prevention and cessation studies among youth living in low-income settings in developing countries like India. Impact The future results of biochemical validation from Project ACTIVITY (Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth) will be useful to design validation studies in resource-poor settings. PMID:22320954

  1. Evaluation of tobacco specific nitrosamines exposure by quantification of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in human hair of non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve; Pascual, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to specific carcinogens present in secondhand smoke has been associated with different types of cancers. Hair is an ideal matrix to develop a proper biomarker as it absorbs substances in circulation and allows measuring their average concentration over long periods of time. A method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, cotinine, NNN, NNK and NNAL in 20 mg human hair samples. Concentrations were significantly different depending on the declared exposure. This study shows for the first time that NNK is present in hair samples from non-smokers in concentrations much higher than any other tobacco specific nitrosamine. NNN could also be detected in samples from the most exposed non-smokers while, as previously reported, NNAL was undetectable. NNK correlates well with nicotine and cotinine (rsp = 0.774 and rsp = 0.792 respectively, p < 0.001 in both cases). However, NNN concentrations did not correlate with any of the other analytes. Ratios between NNK and nicotine show variability with different concentrations of NNK present in samples with similar nicotine values. NNK has proven to be the best marker of tobacco specific nitrosamines in hair. Monitoring NNK may provide a good estimation of cancer risk associated with exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:27112239

  2. Exposure estimates based on broadband ELF magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Pachón, Fernando T; Carrero, Julián

    2015-02-01

    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55% contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78% contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts.

  3. Surface ozone exposures measured at clean locations around the world.

    PubMed

    Lefohn, A S; Krupa, S V; Winstanley, D

    1990-01-01

    For assessing the effects of air pollution on vegetation, some researchers have used control chambers as the basis of comparison between crops and trees grown in contemporary polluted rural locations and those grown in a clean environment. There has been some concern whether the arbitrary ozone level of 0.025 ppm and below, often used in charcoal-filtration chambers to simulate the natural background concentration of ozone, is appropriate. Because of the many complex and man-made factors that influence ozone levels, it is difficult to determine natural background. To identify a range of ozone exposures that occur at 'clean' sites, we have calculated ozone exposures observed at a number of 'clean' monitoring sites located in the United States and Canada. We do not claim that these sites are totally free from human influence, but rather than the ozone concentrations observed at these 'clean' sites may be appropriate for use by vegetation researchers in control chambers as pragmatic and defensible surrogates for natural background. For comparison, we have also calculated ozone exposures observed at four 'clean' remote sites in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and at two remote sites (Whiteface Mountain, NY and Hohenpeissenberg, FRG) that are considered to be more polluted. Exposure indices relevant for describing the relationship between ozone and vegetation effects were applied. For studying the effects of ozone on vegetation, the higher concentrations are of interest. The sigmoidally-weighted index appeared to best separate those sites that experienced frequent high concentration exposures from those that experienced few high concentrations. Although there was a consistent seasonal pattern for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) sites indicating a winter/spring maximum, this was not the case for the other remote sites. Some sites in the continental United States and southern Canada

  4. Evaluation of skin microtopography as a measure of ultraviolet exposure.

    PubMed

    Seddon, J M; Egan, K M; Zhang, Y; Gelles, E J; Glynn, R J; Tucker, C A; Gragoudas, E S

    1992-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to investigate the use of skin microtopography as a semiquantitative noninvasive method for estimating cumulative sun exposure in epidemiologic studies of eye disease. The subjects received a kit through the mail containing materials needed to make a replica of the skin texture of a sun-exposed area of the hand. Each subject previously had undergone a skin biopsy around the same site to evaluate elastotic degeneration, and all were interviewed about past sun exposures. A gradable skin impression was obtained from 96 of 115 (83%) participants after two mailings. The impressions were graded according to the degree of skin texture alteration using standard photographs; interobserver reliability was 0.73 using a weighted kappa statistic. The impression score was correlated most strongly with age (r = 0.53). Independent predictors of higher impression scores (more skin texture changes) were older age, cigar or pipe smoking, less education, lighter iris color, lighter skin color, male gender, and tendency to sunburn. After adjustment for age and the other predictor variables, the biopsy score was not correlated with the impression grade (r = 0.18, P = 0.13). Behaviors indexing sun exposure were not correlated with microtopography. These results suggest that skin microtopography as done in this study reflects aging from intrinsic parameters more than from actinic damage.

  5. High-throughput wide dynamic range procedure for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine and cotinine in multiple biological matrices using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Pascual, José A

    2015-11-01

    A straightforward, high-throughput method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of the specific tobacco biomarkers nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in a wide dynamic range and supporting the most common human biological matrices (urine, oral fluid and hair). Sample preparation was performed inside the very HPLC injection vials by pipetting 0.5 mL of the liquid samples, deuterated internal standards in alkaline solution and dichloromethane as extraction solvent. Solid samples (i.e. around 10 mg hair) were first submitted to alkaline digestion in the HPLC vials and processed accordingly. The organic phase (reached through the upper aqueous layer) was directly injected without further treatment. Instrumental analysis was performed using hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Total chromatographic time was 2 min. The method covers a wide dynamic range making it fit-for-purpose for the analysis of samples covering entire populations, irrespective of the level of exposure or tobacco use. Calibration curves (r (2) > 0.995) covered the range 1-2000 ng/mL (or 0.05-100 ng/mg hair) for nicotine and 0.1-2000 ng/mL (or 0.005-100 ng/mg hair) for cotinine. Within-run and between-run precision and accuracy were typically below 10 %, and always below 20 % at the lower limit of quantification. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of samples from different projects involving multiple matrices.

  6. FIELD COLLECTION METHODS USED IN THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: A TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tutorial on the field sampling equipment used to collect multimedia samples.

    We conduct observational human exposure measurement studies in order to understand what chemicals people come into contact with, at what levels, what the sources of those chemicals are, and wher...

  7. A multiple additive regression tree analysis of three exposure measures during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Li, Bin; Marx, Brian D; Mills, Jacqueline W; Pine, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and personal exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Structural exposure is measured by flood height and building damage; personal exposure is measured by the locations of 911 calls made during the response. Using these variables, this paper characterises the geography of exposure and also demonstrates the utility of a robust analytical approach in understanding health-related challenges to disadvantaged populations during recovery. Analysis is conducted using a contemporary statistical approach, a multiple additive regression tree (MART), which displays considerable improvement over traditional regression analysis. By using MART, the percentage of improvement in R-squares over standard multiple linear regression ranges from about 62 to more than 100 per cent. The most revealing finding is the modelled verification that African Americans experienced disproportionate exposure in both structural and personal contexts. Given the impact of exposure to health outcomes, this finding has implications for understanding the long-term health challenges facing this population.

  8. Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection and postcolumn UV-photoirradiation system.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Makoto; Ota, Tatsuhiro; Morikawa, Atsushi; Mawatari, Ken-ichi; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Noriko; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nakagomi, Kazuya

    2013-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of serum nicotine and cotinine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric detection with a postcolumn ultraviolet-photoirradiation system was developed. Analytes were extracted from alkalinized human serum via liquid-liquid extraction using chloroform. The organic phase was back-extracted with the acidified aqueous phase, and the analytes were directly injected into an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC system. 6-Aminoquinoline was used as an internal standard. Nicotine, cotinine, and 6-aminoquinoline were separated within 14min. The extraction efficiency of nicotine and cotinine was greater than 91%. The linear range was 0.30-1000ng for nicotine and 0.06-1000ng for cotinine. In serum samples from smokers, the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were 8-15ng/mL and 156-372ng/mL, respectively.

  9. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in tobacco harvesters' urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Doctor, P B; Gokani, V N; Kulkarni, P K; Parikh, J R; Saiyed, H N

    2004-04-05

    A solid-phase extraction method using Drug Test-1 column containing chemically modified silica as a solid support for sample clean up and reversed phase ion-paired high-pressure liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine from the urine samples. Mobile phase was consisted of acetate buffer (containing 0.03 M sodium acetate and 0.1 M acetic acid) pH 3.1 and acetonitrile (78:22% (v/v)) containing 0.02 M sodium octanosulfonate as an ion pair agent. pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.6 with triethylamine for better resolution and to prevent peak tailing. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-10 microg/ml concentrations of nicotine and cotinine standards. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 for cotinine and 0.999 for nicotine. The recoveries were obtained in the range of 79-97% with average value of 85% for nicotine and in the range of 82-98% with average value of 88% for cotinine. The limit of detection was 2 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine with 2 ml urine for extraction, calculated by taking signal to noise ratio 10:3. The intra-day co-efficient of variation (CV) were <4 and 7% and inter-day CV were <9 and 7% for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The method was applied to the urine samples of tobacco harvesters, who suffer from green tobacco sickness (GTS) to check the absorption of nicotine through dermal route during the various processes of tobacco cultivation due to its good reproducibility and sensitivity.

  10. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: implications for use as wastewater indicators.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Barber, Larry B; Kolpin, Dana W; McMahon, Peter B; Chapelle, Francis H

    2007-06-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems.

  11. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems.

  12. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response. PMID:17020623

  13. Exposure Assessment Tools by Approaches - Direct Measurement (Point-of-Contact Measurement)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  14. Measured skin damage thresholds for 1314-nm laser exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes de Oca, Cecilia I.; Cain, Clarence P.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Stockton, Kevin; Thomas, James J.; Eggleston, Thomas A.; Roach, William P.

    2003-06-01

    The use of lasers in the infrared region between 1200-1400 nm has steadily increased in various industrial and commercial applications. However, there are few studies documenting damage thresholds for the skin in this region, and current laser safety standards are based on limited data. This study has determined preliminary skin damage thresholds for the Effective Dose for 50% probability (ED50) of a Minimum Visible Lesion (MVL) with laser exposure at 1314nm and 0.35 ms pulse width. An in-vivo pigmented animal model, Yucatan mini-pig (Sus scrofa domestica), was used in this study. The type and extent of tissue damage in the porcine skin was determined through histopathologic examination, and the findings are discussed. Finally, the results of this study were compared to other literature as well as to the existing ANSI Z136.1 (2000) standard for safe use of lasers.

  15. Measuring Haitian children's exposure to chikungunya, dengue and malaria

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Delynn M; Feeser, Karla R; Streit, Thomas G; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Whitney, Matthew; Russell, Brandy J; Johnson, Barbara W; Basile, Alison J; Goodman, Christin H; Barry, Amanda K; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To differentiate exposure to the newly introduced chikungunya virus from exposure to endemic dengue virus and other pathogens in Haiti. Methods We used a multiplex bead assay to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to a recombinant chikungunya virus antigen, two dengue virus-like particles and three recombinant Plasmodium falciparum antigens. Most (217) of the blood samples investigated were collected longitudinally, from each of 61 children, between 2011 and 2014 but another 127 were collected from a cross-sectional sample of children in 2014. Findings Of the samples from the longitudinal cohort, none of the 153 collected between 2011 and 2013 but 78.7% (48/61) of those collected in 2014 were positive for IgG responses to the chikungunya virus antigen. In the cross-sectional sample, such responses were detected in 96 (75.6%) of the children and occurred at similar prevalence across all age groups. In the same sample, responses to malarial antigen were only detected in eight children (6.3%) but the prevalence of IgG responses to dengue virus antigens was 60.6% (77/127) overall and increased steadily with age. Spatial analysis indicated that the prevalence of IgG responses to the chikungunya virus and one of the dengue virus-like particles decreased as the sampling site moved away from the city of Léogâne and towards the ocean. Conclusion Serological evidence indicates that there had been a rapid and intense dissemination of chikungunya virus in Haiti. The multiplex bead assay appears to be an appropriate serological platform to monitor the seroprevalence of multiple pathogens simultaneously. PMID:27821884

  16. Exposure and measurement contributions to estimates of acute air pollution effects.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lianne; Slaughter, James C; Schildcrout, Jonathan; Liu, L-J Sally; Lumley, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Air pollution health effect studies are intended to estimate the effect of a pollutant on a health outcome. The definition of this effect depends upon the study design, disease model parameterization, and the type of analysis. Further limitations are imposed by the nature of exposure and our ability to measure it. We define a plausible exposure model for air pollutants that are relatively nonreactive and discuss how exposure varies. We discuss plausible disease models and show how their parameterizations are affected by different exposure partitions and by different study designs. We then discuss a measurement model conditional on ambient concentrations and incorporate this into the disease model. We use simulation studies to show the impact of a range of exposure model assumptions on estimation of the health effect in the ecologic time series design. This design only uses information from the time-varying ambient source exposure. When ambient and nonambient sources are independent, exposure variation due to nonambient source exposures behaves like Berkson measurement error and does not bias the effect estimates. Variation in the population attenuation of ambient concentrations over time does bias the estimates with the bias being either positive or negative depending upon the association of this parameter with ambient pollution. It is not realistic to substitute measured average personal exposures into time series studies because so much of the variation in personal exposures comes from nonambient sources that do not contribute information in the time series design. We conclude that general statements about the implications of measurement error need to be conditioned on the health effect study design and the health effect parameter to be estimated.

  17. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lyseen, Anders K.; Hansen, Henning S.; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S.; Mikkelsen, Bent E.

    2015-01-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  18. Field-based measurements of personal erythemal ultraviolet exposure through a common summer garment.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Kimlin, M G; Mulheran, L; Meldrum, L R; Randall, C

    2000-06-01

    The research in this paper quantifies the solar erythemal UV exposures to the skin through a common summer garment during outdoor activities. The erythemal exposures under the garment for the wet white garment exceeded a MED (minimum erythemal dose) at some anatomical sites in summer for a two-hour period. An erythemal exposure of 1.7 MED, in excess of the occupational limit for UV exposure, was measured under the white garment during swimming for a one-hour period. Clothing must form an important component of a UV protection strategy. However, it must be realised that total UV protection is not provided and significant UV exposures may be received beneath the garment, particularly for a white garment in the wet state. This re-enforces the necessity of a combination of several UV prevention strategies to minimise UV exposure.

  19. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  20. Developmental Pathways from Prenatal Tobacco and Stress Exposure to Behavioral Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C.A.C.; Espy, K.A.; Wakschlag, L.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal stress exposure (PSE) each have been linked to externalizing behavior, although their effects generally have been considered in isolation. Here, we aimed to characterize the joint or interactive roles of PTE and PSE in early developmental pathways to behavioral disinhibition, a profile of cognitive and behavioral under-control that presages severe externalizing behavior. As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, 296 children were assessed at a mean age of 5 years. Exposures were assessed via repeated interviews across the prenatal period and bioassays of cotinine were obtained. Behavioral disinhibition was assessed using temperament measures in infancy, performance-based executive control tasks and measures of disruptive and inattentive behavior. PSE was associated with a higher probability of difficult temperament in infancy. Each exposure independently predicted poorer executive control at age 5 years. Difficult temperament and executive control difficulties in turn predicted elevated levels of disruptive behavior, although links from PTE and PSE to parent-reported attention problems were less robust. Children who experienced these prenatal exposures in conjunction with higher postnatal stress exposure showed the lowest executive control and highest levels of disruptive behavior. Findings highlight the compounding adverse impact of PTE and PSE on children’s behavioral trajectories. Given their high concordance, prenatal health campaigns should target these exposures in tandem. PMID:26628107

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of cotinine in urine in isocratic mode.

    PubMed

    Ceppa, F; El Jahiri, Y; Mayaudon, H; Dupuy, O; Burnat, P

    2000-09-15

    A simple procedure for the determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involved a liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at ambient temperature under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was dissolved in 300 microl of mobile phase and 30 microl aliquot was injected via an automatic sampler into the liquid chromatograph and eluted with the mobile phase (10-9%, v/v methanol and acetonitrile, respectively in potassium dihydrogenphosphate buffer adjusted to pH 3.4) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on a C8 Symmetry cartridge column (5 microm, 150 mm x 3.9 mm, Waters) at 25 degrees C. The eluate was detected at 260 nm. Internal standard was 2-phenylimidazole. Sensitive and specific, this technique was performed to test urine of diabetic patients (smokers and non-smokers) admitted in an endocrinology service. Urinary cotinine seems to be a better marker of smoking status than thiocyanates.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of NicAlert cotinine test strips in saliva for verifying smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Fiona; Bullen, Chris; Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Chen, Mei-Hua; Walker, Natalie

    2008-04-01

    Semiquantitative immunoassay technology, in the form of rapid test strips, offers a less time-consuming and less costly alternative to other methods of verifying self-reported smoking status, such as gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC). Unfortunately, information on the validity and reliability of some test strips in urine and saliva samples is not always available. This paper describes the diagnostic accuracy of one type of test strip currently available (NicAlert cotinine test strips; NCTS). GC was used as the reference standard and saliva as the sample medium. The study involved 86 people (41 smokers and 45 nonsmokers) aged 18 years or over, who were able to understand written English and provide written consent. Pregnant women, women with infants less than 6 weeks old, and people who had eaten 30 min prior to sample collection were excluded. Two saliva samples were collected simultaneously from each participant, with one sample tested using NCTS and the other by GC analysis. People with at least 10 ng/ml cotinine (in both tests) in their saliva were considered smokers. NCTS were found to have a specificity of 95% (95% CI 89%-100%), a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI 85%-100%), a positive predictive value of 95% (95% CI 89%-100%), and a negative predictive value of 93% (95% CI 86%-100%). The use of NCTS is a valid and reliable method, compared with GC, to test saliva samples for verification of smoking status.

  3. Cotinine Levels Among Betel Quid Users and Cigarette Smokers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramil N.; Natto, Zuhair; Saxena, Rituraj; Bannerjee, Hiya; Yel, Daravuth; Khieng, Sothy; Job, Jayakaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use in the form of the betel quid is common in the Western Pacific Region, and yet few studies have determined the nicotine delivery of this habit. During a validation substudy, we randomly sampled 201 adults from a rural province of Cambodia and determined nonparametric (bootstrapped) confidence intervals (CIs) for salivary cotinine levels in tobacco users. We found that cotinine levels for daily betel quid use among women (95% CI = 218.6–350.0 ng/mL) were (1) similar to the levels for daily cigarette smoking in men (95% CI = 240.2–317.1 ng/mL) and (2) significantly higher than the levels for daily cigarette smoking in women (95% CI = 71.8–202.7 ng/mL). The 95% confidence range for these habits exceeded the threshold for addiction. Our findings from rural Cambodia indicate that the typical betel quid habit among women supports the same level of nicotine addiction as the typical cigarette habit in men. PMID:24092815

  4. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: MEASUREMENT OF ENDOGENOUS BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct assessment of cumulative risks is a difficult task due to combinations of multiple chemicals, exposure pathways, and concentration profiles using suites of environmental measurements. We are investigating the use of endogenous compounds commonly present in biological medi...

  5. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Only two of the fecal specimens collected inflight during the Apollo 15 mission were returned for analysis. Difficulty in obtaining reasonably accurate radiation dose estimates based on the cosmogenic radionuclide content of the specimens was encountered due to the limited sampling. The concentrations of Na-22, K-40, Cr-51, Fe-59, and Cs-137 are reported. The concentrations of 24 major, minor, and trace elements in these two specimens were determined. Most concentrations are typical of those observed previously. Major exceptions are extremely low values for selenium and extraordinarily high values for rare earth elements. The net Po-210 activities in the Apollo 11 and 12 Solar Wind Composition foils and in the Apollo 8 and 12 spacecraft reflective coatings due to lunar exposure have been determined. Equilibrium concentrations of 0.082 + or - 0.012 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Rn-222 in the lunar atmosphere and 0.0238 + or - 0.0035 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Po-210 on the lunar surface have been calculated for Oceanus Procellarum.

  6. Nuclear Emulsion Measurements of the Astronauts’ Radiation Exposures on Skylab Missions 2, 3 and 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-10

    AD-AO19 804 NUCLEAR EMULSION MEASUREMENTS OF THE ASTRONAUTS’ RADIATION EXPOSURES ON SKYLAB MISSIONS 2, 3 AND 4 Hermann J. Schaefer, et al Naval...N/A NUCLEAR EMULSION MEASUREMENTS OF THE ASTRONAUTS’ RADIATION EXPOSURES ON SKYLAB MISSIONS 2, 3, AND 4. N/ ___ _ _ ANZ Hermann J. Schaefer and...corresponding shield distribution of the entire vehicle tesi alirections ofetionable whether the very large effort involved in this eask isd• ~~really

  7. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letertre, Thierry; Monebhurrun, Vikass; Toffano, Zeno

    2013-04-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  8. Effect of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on birth outcomes: the Polish mother and child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Jurewicz, Joanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Magnus, Per; Seidel, Albrecht; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PAH exposure on various anthropometric measures of birth outcomes. The study population consisted of 210 nonsmoking pregnant women. Urine samples collected between 20th and 24th week of pregnancy were used for analysis of the following PAH metabolites: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-OH-PHE), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR), 1,6 + 1,8-dihydroxypyrene (DI-OH-PYR), phenanthrene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol (PHE-1,2-diol), and phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol (PHE-9,10-diol) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) was assessed by cotinine level in saliva using a stable isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The mean PAH metabolite concentrations were in the range of 0.15 µg/g creatinine for 9-OH-PHE to 5.9 µg/g creatinine for PHE-9,10-diol. It was shown that none of the individual PAH exposure markers demonstrate a statistically significant influence on birth outcomes. Interestingly a statistically significant association was found between the sum of OH-PHE along with cotinine level and the cephalization index after adjusting for potential confounders (P = 0.04). This study provides evidence that combined exposure of pregnant women to common environmental pollutants such as PAH and ETS might adversely affect fetal development. Thus, reduction of human exposure to these mixtures of hazardous compounds would in particular result in substantial health benefits for newborns.

  9. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment, which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation, are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all NaI (TL), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions, was 330, 160, smaller than 315, 870 plus or minus 550, 31, 110, and smaller than 250, respectively.

  10. The role of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine on the electrochemical behavior and bacterial colonization to cp-Ti.

    PubMed

    Barão, Valentim A R; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio P; Faverani, Leonardo P; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Sukotjo, Cortino; Monteiro, Douglas R; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mathew, Mathew T; do Amaral, Regiane C; Mesquita, Marcelo F; da Silva, Wander J; Assunção, Wirley G

    2015-11-01

    Although smoking promotes deleterious effect to bone healing, there is a lack of study investigating its role on the implant structure and biofilm growth. We hypothesized that nicotine, cotinine and caffeine would impair the corrosion resistance of commercially-pure titanium (cp-Ti) and would enhance Streptococcus sanguinis biofilm growth. Neither the smoking products nor the caffeine affected the corrosion tendency (P>.05) and the oxide layer resistance (P=.762) of cp-Ti. Lower capacitance values were noted in the presence of nicotine (P=.001) and cotinine (P=.0006). SEM showed no pitting corrosion, and the EDS spectra did not differ among groups. Nicotine (300μg/mL) induced higher surface roughness (P=.03) and greater surface change of cp-Ti. Nicotine at 3μg/mL, and cotinine at 0.3 and 3μg/mL increased the number of viable cells (P<.05). Biofilm exposed to nicotine (0.3, 3 and 30μg/mL) (P=.025, .030, .040, respectively) and cotinine (3 and 30μg/mL) (P=.027, .049, respectively) enhanced carbohydrate content. Biofilm biomass and protein content were similar among groups (P>.05). These findings suggest a greater biofilm accumulation in smokers, a risk factor that may lead to peri-implantitis.

  11. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Cassano, Christopher L; Xu, Xin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2013-11-05

    Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay have been developed for the detection of cotinine, a secondhand smoke (SHS) biomarker. The devices were fabricated by a craft-cutter to define flow channels, followed by lamination. This approach of cutting/lamination to fabricate LPAD is very similar to making an identification card, offering advantages in simplicity and rugged backing when compared to the common method of patterning paper using SU-8 or wax. We also developed a protocol of localized incision and paper-folding to isolate the detection zone from flow channels; the simple origami step eliminated possible reagent diffusion and flow during antibody immobilization steps and numerous washings. By incorporating luminol-based chemiluminescence for detecting horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cotinine, we employed origami-enabled LPAD to detect cotinine in mouse serum using competitive immunoassay. The detection limit was determined to be 5 ng/mL, a clinically relevant concentration. We believe that LPAD with chemiluminescence detection provides a new platform of low cost and sensitive assays for cotinine detection.

  12. Estimating relative risk of a log-transformed exposure measured in pools.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emily M; Plowden, Torie C; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-12-20

    Pooling biospecimens prior to performing laboratory assays is a useful tool to reduce costs, achieve minimum volume requirements and mitigate assay measurement error. When estimating the risk of a continuous, pooled exposure on a binary outcome, specialized statistical techniques are required. Current methods include a regression calibration approach, where the expectation of the individual-level exposure is calculated by adjusting the observed pooled measurement with additional covariate data. While this method employs a linear regression calibration model, we propose an alternative model that can accommodate log-linear relationships between the exposure and predictive covariates. The proposed model permits direct estimation of the relative risk associated with a log-transformation of an exposure measured in pools. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. The nicotine metabolite, cotinine, attenuates glutamate (NMDA) antagonist-related effects on the performance of the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) in rats.

    PubMed

    Terry, Alvin V; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Schade, R Foster; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Callahan, Patrick M; Beck, Wayne D; Hutchings, Elizabeth J; Chapman, James M; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Cotinine, the most predominant metabolite of nicotine in mammalian species, has a pharmacological half-life that greatly exceeds its precursor. However, until recently, relatively few studies had been conducted to systematically characterize the behavioral pharmacology of cotinine. Our previous work indicated that cotinine improves prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle response in rats in pharmacological impairment models and that it improves working memory in non-human primates. Here we tested the hypothesis that cotinine improves sustained attention in rats and attenuates behavioral alterations induced by the glutamate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. The effects of acute subcutaneous (dose range 0.03-10.0 mg/kg) and chronic oral administration (2.0 mg/kg/day in drinking water) of cotinine were evaluated in fixed and variable stimulus duration (VSD) as well as variable intertrial interval (VITI) versions of a five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT). The results indicated only subtle effects of acute cotinine (administered alone) on performance of the 5C-SRTT (e.g., decreases in timeout responses). However, depending on dose, acute treatment with cotinine attenuated MK-801-related impairments in accuracy and elevations in timeout responses, and it increased the number of completed trials. Moreover, chronic cotinine attenuated MK-801-related impairments in accuracy and it reduced premature and timeout responses when the demands of the task were increased (i.e., by presenting VSDs or VITIs in addition to administering MK-801). These data suggest that cotinine may represent a prototype for compounds that have therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders (i.e., by improving sustained attention and decreasing impulsive and compulsive behaviors), especially those characterized by glutamate receptor alterations.

  14. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 17 crew of 1.3 R was calculated from the specific activities of Na-24 in their postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of K-42, Cr-51, Co60, and Sb-124, introduced by injection into the astronauts, are extremely high in these specimens. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 levels are also reported and appear to be normal. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Fe, Co, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, As, Sb, Se, Br, Sc, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, and Th were measured in urine specimens from the Apollo 17 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. Strontium, barium, gold, cadmium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, terbium, thorium, and tin are reported for the first time. The concentrations or excretion rates of bromine and the alkali metals exhibit singificantly reduced postflight levels and are generally lower than values observed for previous missions. Chromium concentrations reflect radiochromium injections.

  15. Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

    1998-08-01

    Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

  16. Design of measurement methodology for the evaluation of human exposure to vibration in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Sica, G; Peris, E; Woodcock, J S; Moorhouse, A T; Waddington, D C

    2014-06-01

    Exposure-response relationships are important tools for policy makers to assess the impact of an environmental stressor on the populace. Their validity lies partly in their statistical strength which is greatly influenced by the size of the sample from which the relationship is derived. As such, the derivation of meaningful exposure-response relationships requires estimates of vibration exposure at a large number of receiver locations. In the United Kingdom a socio-vibrational survey has been conducted with the aim of deriving exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to vibration from (a) railway traffic and (b) the construction of a new light rail system. Response to vibration was measured via a questionnaire conducted face-to-face with residents in their own homes and vibration exposure was estimated using data from a novel measurement methodology. In total, 1281 questionnaires were conducted: 931 for vibration from railway traffic and 350 for vibration from construction sources. Considering the interdisciplinary nature of this work along with the volume of experimental data required, a number of significant technical and logistical challenges needed to be overcome through the planning and implementation of the fieldwork. Four of these challenges are considered in this paper: the site identification for providing a robust sample of the residents affected, the strategies used for measuring both exposure and response and the coordination between the teams carrying out the social survey and the vibration measurements.

  17. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Swan, Shanna H.; Main, Katharina M.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Husby, Steffen; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS exposure. Objectives: We prospectively examined associations between prenatal TCS exposure and anthropometric measures at birth and anogenital distance (AGD) at 3 months of age. Methods: Pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort (n = 514) provided urine samples at approximately gestational week 28 (median 28.7 weeks, range 26.4–34.0), and urinary TCS concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between prenatal TCS exposure and measures of size at birth (birth weight, length, head and abdominal circumference) and AGD at 3 months of age (median 3.3 months, range 2.3–6.7 months), controlling for potential confounders. Results: Newborn boys in the highest quartile of prenatal TCS exposure had a 0.7-cm [95% confidence interval (CI): –1.2, –0.1, p = 0.01] smaller head circumference than boys in the lowest quartile. Additionally in boys, inverse associations of borderline statistical significance were observed between prenatal TCS exposure and abdominal circumference at birth and AGD at 3 months of age (p-values < 0.10). Prenatal TCS exposure was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes in girls. However, AGD was measured in fewer girls, and we observed no significant interactions between a child’s sex and prenatal TCS exposure in anthropometric measures at birth. Conclusion: Prenatal TCS exposure was associated with reduced head and abdominal circumference at birth and with reduced AGD at 3 months of age in boys, although the last two findings were statistically nonsignificant. These findings require replication but are

  18. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses to the crews of the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions of 142 + or - 80, 340 + or - 80, and 210 + or - 130 mR respectively were calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in the postflight urine specimens of the astronauts. The specific activity of Fe-59 was higher in the urine than in the feces of the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts, and a possible explanation is given. The concentrations of K-40, K-42, Cr-51, Co-60, and Cs-137 in the urine are also reported for these astronauts. The radiation doses received by pilots and navigators flying high altitude missions during the solar flare of March 27 to 30, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated from the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum and demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fe, Co, Ag, Zn, Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Br were measured in the urine specimens from the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. The mercury and arsenic levels were much higher than expected.

  19. Uses and limits of empirical data in measuring and modeling human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, P

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the uses and limits of empirical data in evaluating measurement and modeling approaches to human lead exposure. Empirical data from experiment or observation or both have been used in studies of lead exposure. For example, experimental studies have elucidated and quantified physiologic or biokinetic parameters of lead exposure under controlled conditions. Observation, i.e., epidemiology, has been widely applied to study population exposures to lead. There is growing interest in the use of lead exposure prediction models and their evaluation before use in risk assessment. Empirical studies of lead exposure must be fully understood, especially their limits, before they are applied as "standards" or reference information for evaluation of exposure models, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead biokinetic model that is a focus of this article. Empirical and modeled datasets for lead exposure may not agree due to a) problems with the observational data or b) problems with the model; caution should be exercised before either a model or observational data are rejected. There are at least three sources of discordance in cases where there is lack of agreement: a) empirical data are accurate but the model is flawed; b) the model is valid but reference empirical data are inaccurate; or c) neither empirical data nor model is accurate, and each is inaccurate in different ways. This paper evaluates some of the critical empirical input to biokinetic models, especially lead bioavailability. Images Figure 3 PMID:9860906

  20. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  1. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2015-05-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  2. Measuring Personal Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Using Silicone Wristbands and Hand Wipes.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Stephanie C; Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F; Anderson, Kim A; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-04-19

    Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are widely used as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers in consumer products. With high detection in indoor environments and increasing toxicological evidence suggesting a potential for adverse health effects, there is a growing need for reliable exposure metrics to examine individual exposures to PFRs. Silicone wristbands have been used as passive air samplers for quantifying exposure in the general population and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we investigated the utility of silicone wristbands in measuring exposure and internal dose of PFRs through measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations. Wristbands were also compared to hand wipes as metrics of exposure. Participants wore wristbands for 5 consecutive days and collected first morning void urine samples on 3 alternating days. Urine samples were pooled across 3 days and analyzed for metabolites of the following PFRs: tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(1-chloro-2-isopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and monosubstituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mono-ITP). All four PFRs and their urinary metabolites were ubiquitously detected. Correlations between TDCIPP and TCIPP and their corresponding urinary metabolites were highly significant on the wristbands (rs = 0.5-0.65, p < 0.001), which suggest that wristbands can serve as strong predictors of cumulative, 5-day exposure and may be an improved metric compared to hand wipes.

  3. Sequential Measurement of Intermodal Variability in Public Transportation PM2.5 and CO Exposure Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-08-16

    A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level. The route included stops next to three roadside monitors to enable comparison of fixed site and exposure concentrations. PM2.5 exposure concentrations were correlated with the roadside monitors, despite differences in averaging time, detection method, and sampling location. Although highly correlated in temporal trend, PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly among microenvironments, with mean concentration ratios versus roadside monitor ranging from 0.5 for MTR train to 1.3 for bus terminal. Measured inter-run variability provides insight regarding the sample size needed to discriminate between microenvironments with increased statistical significance. The study results illustrate the utility of sequential measurement of microenvironments and policy-relevant insights for exposure mitigation and management.

  4. Smoking behavior among casino employees: self-report validation using plasma cotinine.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H J; Eber, G B; Hall, M N; Vander Bilt, J

    2000-01-01

    The veracity of behavioral self-reports is often challenged, particularly when the motivation to avoid stigma and win social approval holds potential to introduce bias into the data collected. This study employed plasma cotinine tests to validate the self-reports of tobacco use collected from 3,841 casino employees as part of a comprehensive health survey. Rates of discordance were calculated by comparing employee self-reports with results from plasma colinine tests. This study provides evidence that casino employees can provide valid self-report data. Further, discordance rates of self-reported tobacco use vary according to operational definitions of tobacco use. These findings highlight the methodological importance of recognizing the inherent heterogeneity of smoking behavior.

  5. Is VEGF a key target of cotinine and other potential therapies against Alzheimer disease?

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Valentin; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Tarasov, Vadim V; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-03-29

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a neuroprotective cytokine that promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the brain. In animal models, it has been shown that environmental enrichment and exercise, two non-pharmacological interventions that are beneficial decreasing the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) and depressive-like behavior, enhance hippocampal VEGF expression and neurogenesis. Furthermore, the stimulation of VEGF expression promotes neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity processes such as neurogenesis. It is thought that these VEGF actions in the brain, may underly its beneficial therapeutic effects against psychiatric and other neurological conditions. In this review, evidence linking VEGF deficit with the development of AD as well as the potential role of VEGF signaling as a therapeutic target for cotinine and other interventions in neurodegenerative conditions are discussed. .

  6. On the use of mobile phones and wearable microphones for noise exposure measurements: Calibration and measurement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Romain

    Despite the fact that noise-induced hearing loss remains the number one occupational disease in developed countries, individual noise exposure levels are still rarely known and infrequently tracked. Indeed, efforts to standardize noise exposure levels present disadvantages such as costly instrumentation and difficulties associated with on site implementation. Given their advanced technical capabilities and widespread daily usage, mobile phones could be used to measure noise levels and make noise monitoring more accessible. However, the use of mobile phones for measuring noise exposure is currently limited due to the lack of formal procedures for their calibration and challenges regarding the measurement procedure. Our research investigated the calibration of mobile phone-based solutions for measuring noise exposure using a mobile phone's built-in microphones and wearable external microphones. The proposed calibration approach integrated corrections that took into account microphone placement error. The corrections were of two types: frequency-dependent, using a digital filter and noise level-dependent, based on the difference between the C-weighted noise level minus A-weighted noise level of the noise measured by the phone. The electro-acoustical limitations and measurement calibration procedure of the mobile phone were investigated. The study also sought to quantify the effect of noise exposure characteristics on the accuracy of calibrated mobile phone measurements. Measurements were carried out in reverberant and semi-anechoic chambers with several mobiles phone units of the same model, two types of external devices (an earpiece and a headset with an in-line microphone) and an acoustical test fixture (ATF). The proposed calibration approach significantly improved the accuracy of the noise level measurements in diffuse and free fields, with better results in the diffuse field and with ATF positions causing little or no acoustic shadowing. Several sources of errors

  7. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  8. Association of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in childhood with early emphysema in adulthood among nonsmokers: the MESA-lung study.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Diez Roux, Ana V; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Jacobs, David R; Barr, R Graham

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical stress to alveolar walls may cause progressive damage after an early-life insult such as exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This hypothesis was examined by using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based cohort aged 45-84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease, recruited from 6 US sites in 2000-2002. The MESA-Lung Study assessed a fractal, structural measure of early emphysema ("alpha," lower values indicate more emphysema) and a standard quantitative measure ("percent emphysema") from cardiac computed tomography scans. Childhood ETS exposure was assessed retrospectively as a report of living with one or more regular indoor smokers. Analyses included 1,781 nonsmokers (<100 cigarettes, 20 cigars, or 20 pipefulls in their lifetime and urinary cotinine levels <100 ng/mL); mean age was 61 years (standard deviation, 10), and 65% were women. Childhood ETS exposure from 2 or more smokers (17%) compared with none (52%) was associated with 0.05 lower alpha and 2.8 higher percent emphysema (P for trend = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) after adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, parental, and participant characteristics, as well as adult exposures (e.g., cumulative residential air pollution exposure, exposure to ETS as an adult). Childhood ETS exposure was associated with detectable differences on computed tomography scans of adult lungs of nonsmokers.

  9. Reducing uncertainty in ecological risk assessment: The pros of measuring contaminant exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, J.A.; Pease, A.

    1995-12-31

    Wildlife species (mammals, birds and reptiles) are primarily exposed to contamination in soils via ingestion of food. Uncertainties in risk analyses for this pathway are largely associated with the estimation of the amount of contamination in food items. The benefits of measuring contaminant concentrations in food items are examined based on comparison of risk results with and without measurements of exposure. At two hazardous waste sites, plants and earthworms were analyzed for metals and organics. Site-specific bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated and compared to literature reported values. In general, the metals concentrations in plant samples were higher than those predicted by literature values with the exception of cadmium and copper. Metal concentrations measured in invertebrates (worms) were lower than those predicted by literature values with the exception of arsenic. Literature BAFs did not adequately predict concentrations of barium, mercury or copper in invertebrate tissue. In the ecological risk assessments for both of the sites, if site-specific measurements were used, risks for wildlife species were not predicted. However if literature BAF values were used, unacceptable risks were predicted. The higher estimates of risks were associated with overestimates of dietary exposures of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc. Measurement of contaminant exposures provided for a more realistic and cost-effective estimate of ecological risks. The effect of using the empirical data on the magnitude of risks were evaluated including decisions concerning remediation. A cost-benefit analysis will be provided comparing the costs of measurement of exposures versus remediation.

  10. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  11. Estimating Personal Exposures from Ambient Air Pollution Measures - Using Meta-Analysis to Assess Measurement Error

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 10μm (PM10) are often used as proxies for total personal exposure, correlation (r) between ambient and personal PM10 concentrations varies. Factors underlying this variation and its effect on he...

  12. Inhalation and Dietary Exposure to PCBs in Urban and Rural Cohorts via Congener-Specific Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 persistent organic pollutants, whose documented carcinogenic, neurological, and respiratory toxicities are expansive and growing. However, PCB inhalation exposure assessments have been lacking for North American ambient conditions and lower-chlorinated congeners. We assessed congener-specific inhalation and dietary exposure for 78 adolescent children and their mothers (n = 68) in the Airborne Exposure to Semi-volatile Organic Pollutants (AESOP) Study. Congener-specific PCB inhalation exposure was modeled using 293 measurements of indoor and outdoor airborne PCB concentrations at homes and schools, analyzed via tandem quadrupole GS-MS/MS, combined with questionnaire data from the AESOP Study. Dietary exposure was modeled using Canadian Total Diet Survey PCB concentrations and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food ingestion rates. For ∑PCB, dietary exposure dominates. For individual lower-chlorinated congeners (e.g., PCBs 40+41+71, 52), inhalation exposure was as high as one-third of the total (dietary+inhalation) exposure. ∑PCB inhalation (geometric mean (SE)) was greater for urban mothers (7.1 (1.2) μg yr–1) and children (12.0 (1.2) μg yr–1) than for rural mothers (2.4 (0.4) μg yr–1) and children (8.9 (0.3) μg yr–1). Schools attended by AESOP Study children had higher indoor PCB concentrations than did homes, and account for the majority of children’s inhalation exposure. PMID:25510359

  13. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  14. Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers: Radiation Exposure Risks of Matrix-Specific Measurement Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Marek; Kristensen, Louise J; Gore, Damian B

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates X-ray intensity and dispersion around handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments during the measurement of a range of sample matrices to establish radiation exposure risk during operation. Four handheld XRF instruments representing three manufacturers were used on four smooth, flat-lying materials of contrasting matrix composition. Dose rates were measured at 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm intervals every 30° around the instrument at 0 and 45° from the horizontal, as well as vertically from the instrument screen. The analysis of polyethylene recorded dose rates 156 times higher (on average) than steel measurements and 34 times higher than both quartz sand and quartz sandstone. A worst-case exposure scenario was assumed where a user analyses a polyethylene material at arms reach for 1 h each working day for one year. This scenario resulted in an effective body dose of 73.5 μSv, equivalent to three to four chest X-rays (20 μSv) a year, 20 times lower than the average annual background radiation exposure in Australia and well below the annual exposure limit of 1 mSv for non-radiation workers. This study finds the advantages of using handheld XRF spectrometers far outweighs the risk of low radiation exposure linked to X-ray scattering from samples.

  15. Measurement of DNA damage after exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Malyapa, R S; Ahern, E W; Straube, W L; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Roti Roti, J L

    1997-12-01

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation causes DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells of rat brain irradiated in vivo (Lai and Singh, Bioelectromagnetics 16, 207-210, 1995; Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 69, 513-521, 1996). Therefore, we endeavored to determine if exposure of cultured mammalian cells in vitro to 2450 MHz radiation causes DNA damage. The alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis), which is reportedly the most sensitive method to assay DNA damage in individual cells, was used to measure DNA damage after in vitro 2450 MHz irradiation. Exponentially growing U87MG and C3H 10T1/2 cells were exposed to 2450 MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation in specially designed radial transmission lines (RTLs) that provided relatively uniform microwave exposure. Specific absorption rates (SARs) were calculated to be 0.7 and 1.9 W/kg. Temperatures in the RTLs were measured in real time and were maintained at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Every experiment included sham exposure(s) in an RTL. Cells were irradiated for 2 h, 2 h followed by a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C in an incubator, 4 h and 24 h. After these treatments samples were subjected to the alkaline comet assay as described by Olive et al. (Exp. Cell Res. 198, 259-267, 1992). Images of comets were digitized and analyzed using a PC-based image analysis system, and the "normalized comet moment" and "comet length" were determined. No significant differences were observed between the test group and the controls after exposure to 2450 MHz CW irradiation. Thus 2450 MHz irradiation does not appear to cause DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells under these exposure conditions as measured by this assay.

  16. Occupational exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment: measurements and simulation.

    PubMed

    Paljanos, Annamaria; Miclaus, Simona; Munteanu, Calin

    2015-09-01

    Technical literature provides numerous studies concerning radiofrequency exposure measurements for various radio communication devices, but there are few studies related to exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment. In order to evaluate exposure and identify cases when safety requirements are not entirely met, both measurements and simulations are needed for accurate results. Moreover, given the technical characteristics of the radio devices used in the military, personnel mainly operate in the near-field region so both measurements and simulation becomes more complex. Measurements were made in situ using a broadband personal exposimeter equipped with two isotropic probes for both electric and magnetic components of the field. The experiment was designed for three different operating frequencies of the same radio equipment, while simulations were made in FEKO software using hybrid numerical methods to solve complex electromagnetic field problems. The paper aims to discuss the comparative results of the measurements and simulation, as well as comparing them to reference levels specified in military or civilian radiofrequency exposure standards.

  17. Exposure Assessment for Carbon Dioxide Gas: Full Shift Average and Short-Term Measurement Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hill, R Jedd; Smith, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up a relatively small percentage of atmospheric gases, yet when used or produced in large quantities as a gas, a liquid, or a solid (dry ice), substantial airborne exposures may occur. Exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations may elicit toxicity, even with oxygen concentrations that are not considered dangerous per se. Full-shift sampling approaches to measure 8-hr time weighted average (TWA) CO2 exposures are used in many facilities where CO2 gas may be present. The need to assess rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels that may approach immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) conditions should also be a concern, and several methods for doing so using fast responding measurement tools are discussed in this paper. Colorimetric detector tubes, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector, and a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy instrument were evaluated in a laboratory environment using a flow-through standard generation system and were found to provide suitable accuracy and precision for assessing rapid fluctuations in CO2 concentration, with a possible effect related to humidity noted only for the detector tubes. These tools were used in the field to select locations and times for grab sampling and personal full-shift sampling, which provided laboratory analysis data to confirm IDLH conditions and 8-hr TWA exposure information. Fluctuating CO2 exposures are exemplified through field work results from several workplaces. In a brewery, brief CO2 exposures above the IDLH value occurred when large volumes of CO2-containing liquid were released for disposal, but 8-hr TWA exposures were not found to exceed the permissible level. In a frozen food production facility nearly constant exposure to CO2 concentrations above the permissible 8-hr TWA value were seen, as well as brief exposures above the IDLH concentration which were associated with specific tasks where liquid CO2 was used. In a poultry processing facility the use of dry

  18. Multi-metric measurement of personal exposure to ultrafine particles in selected urban microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinazzè, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Scocca, Damiano R.; Bonzini, Matteo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2015-06-01

    At the beginning of the study, our hypothesis was that visiting certain microenvironments (MEs) is one of the most important determinants of personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and that moving between microenvironments significantly differentiates exposure. The overall aim of this study is to perform relevant exposure measurements to extend our knowledge on environmental exposure to UFP in urban environments. The UFP concentrations in different urban MEs were measured by personal monitoring in repeated sampling campaigns along a fixed route. The measurement runs were performed on one-week periods and at different times of day (AM: 08.00-10.30; PM: 16.00-18.30) and repeated in different periods of the year (winter, spring, summer, and autumn) for a total of 56 runs (>110 h). Measurements included on-line monitoring of the UFP particle number concentration (PNC), mean diameter (mean-d) and lung-deposited surface-area (LDSA). Additionally, the PNC, particle mass concentration (PMC) profiles for quasi-ultrafine particles (QUFP; PM0.25) were estimated. A significant seasonal difference in the PNC and PMC, mean diameter and surface area was observed as well as between different times of the day and days of the week. In addition, differences in the UFP concentrations were also found in each ME, and there were specific mean-diameter and surface area concentrations. In general, the mean particle diameters showed an inverse relationship with the PNC, while the LDSA had the opposite behaviour. Appreciable differences among all MEs and monitoring periods were observed; the concentration patterns and variations seemed related to the typical sources of urban pollutants (traffic), proximity to sources and time of day. The highest exposures were observed for walking or biking along high-trafficked routes and while using public buses. The UFP exposure levels in modern cars, equipped with high-efficiency filters and in air recirculation mode, were significantly lower.

  19. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-12-14

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (rS>0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.66.

  20. Acute risperidone treatment did not increase daily cigarette consumption or plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakihara, Shingo; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Excessive cigarette smoking and caffeine intake are often seen in schizophrenic patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs, particularly typical antipsychotic drugs. Using nicotine and caffeine sometimes influences psychotic symptoms in these patients. Clozapine is the only antipsychotic drug reported to reduce the amount of cigarette smoking, however, still remains controversial of its efficacy. In the present study, we examined the effect of acute risperidone treatment on the amount of cigarette smoking and plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine in schizophrenic patients. Treatment with risperidone for 4 weeks did not increase daily cigarette consumption or plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine. The results suggest that acute risperidone treatment does not promote the intake of nicotine and caffeine at least by 4 weeks in schizophrenic patients.

  1. Nicotine and Toxicant Exposure Among US Smokeless Tobacco Users: Results from 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Rostron, Brian L.; Chang, Cindy M.; van Bemmel, Dana M.; Xia, Yang; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco users have high levels of exposure to nicotine and some toxic substances as measured by biomarker concentrations, but studies with nationally representative data have been limited. Methods We analyzed biomarkers of tobacco exposure for 23,684 adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2012. The biomarkers analyzed were serum cotinine, urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), blood lead, blood cadmium, blood mercury, urinary arsenic, and urinary N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (CYMA). We calculated geometric mean concentrations for each biomarker by tobacco use category (exclusive smokeless tobacco use, exclusive cigarette smoking, dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco use, and non-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use) and geometric mean ratios adjusting for demographic factors. Results Exclusive smokeless tobacco users had higher geometric mean concentrations of cotinine (178.9 ng/mL, 95% CI = 145.5, 220.0) and NNAL (583.0 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 445.2, 763.5) than exclusive cigarette smokers, (130.6 ng/mL, 95% CI = 122.3, 139.6 and 217.6 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 193.0, 245.2, respectively). Smokeless tobacco users also had higher concentrations of blood lead compared with non-tobacco users (adjusted geometric mean ratio = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.38). Differences in concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and CYMA between smokeless tobacco users and non-tobacco users were not observed. Based on limited sample sizes, NNAL concentrations for smokeless tobacco users appear to have declined from 2007-2008 (geometric mean = 1013.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 738.9, 1390.8) to 2011-2012 (geometric mean = 325.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 159.6, 664.9). Conclusions Smokeless tobacco users have higher observed levels of exposure to nicotine and carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as measured by cotinine and NNAL biomarker

  2. Methods for Measuring Occurrence and Exposure From Viruses in Drinking and Recreational Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has an active research program to develop and improve methods for detecting human enteric viruses in recreational, source, and drinking waters. EPA is also developing methods to measure exposure to waterborne viruses and ap...

  3. ELISA MEASUREMENT OF STACHYLYSIN IN SERUM TO QUANTIFY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO THE INDOOR MOLD STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem- To develop a measurable indicator of human exposure to Stachybotys chartarum.

    Methods- Antibodies were produced against the hemolytic agent stachylysin obtained from the mold S. chartarum. These antibodies were used to develop two enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass...

  4. Comparison of modeled traffic exposure zones using on-road air pollution measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled traffic data were used to develop traffic exposure zones (TEZs) such as traffic delay, high volume, and transit routes in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA). On-road air pollution measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxid...

  5. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using passive air samplers were collected weekly in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA) during Fall 2014. Land use regression (LUR) analysis and pairwise comparisons of T...

  6. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  7. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  8. Relationships between Sixth-Graders' Reading Comprehension and Two Different Measures of Print Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Brucker, Pamela O.; Alfano, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sixth-graders' reading comprehension and component reading abilities in relation to two measures of print exposure: an author recognition test (ART) involving fiction authors and a reading habits questionnaire (RHQ) about children's voluntary reading for enjoyment across various genres. The ART correlated only with children's…

  9. Assessing exposure to tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK using its urinary metabolite NNAL measured in US population: 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binnian; Blount, Benjamin C; Xia, Baoyun; Wang, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are found only in tobacco and derived products. Food and Drug Administration of the United States (US FDA) lists NNK as one of the 93 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) found in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to use the urinary concentration of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a major metabolite of NNK, to quantitatively estimate exposure to NNK in the US general population. In 2011-2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected urine and serum samples from a representative sample of US residents. We used a serum cotinine cutoff of 10 ng/ml with combination of questionnaire data to select non-users from cigarette users and used self-reported data to determine different tobacco product user groups. We estimated the absorbed total daily dose of NNK using a probabilistic method based on a two-compartment model. The geometric mean (GM) for the daily dose of NNK among smokers aged 12-16 years was significantly higher than that for non-users at the same age stage exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) (P<0.001). Among those exposed to SHS, the GM for daily dose of NNK in young children (6-11 years) was nearly three times of those for adults in the age range 21-59 years. Among cigarette users, non-Hispanic Whites had the highest NNK daily dose and Mexican Americans had the lowest levels. Exclusive snuff or chewing product users had significantly higher daily dose of NNK than did cigarette smokers. Our study found that the maximum daily dose of NNK for children aged from 6 to 11 years and that for a significant percentage of cigarette users, chewing product and snuff users were higher than an estimated provisional "reference" risk level.

  10. Measured versus modeled dietary arsenic and relation to urinary arsenic excretion and total exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Hartz, Vern; Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect, and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two, cross-sectional, population exposure studies—the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Arizona and the Arizona Border Survey (ABS)— had a total of 252 subjects with diet, water, and urinary As data. Total As was measured in 24-hour duplicate diet samples and modeled using 24-hour diet diaries in conjunction with several published food surveys of As. Two-stage regression was used to assess the effects of dietary As on urinary total As (uAs): 1) generalized linear mixed models of uAs above versus below the limit of detection (LOD); and 2) restricted models limited to those subjects with uAs > LOD, using bootstrap sampling and mixed models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, current smoking, and As intake from drinking and cooking water. In restricted models, measured and modeled estimates were significant predictors of uAs. Modeled dietary As based on Total Diet Study mean residues greatly underestimated dietary intake. In households with tap water As ≤ 10 ppb, over 93% of total As exposure was attributable to diet. PMID:23321855

  11. Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Oliver B; Andrews, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    Variations in skin perfusion are easily detected by laser speckle contrast maps, but a robust interpretation of the information has been lacking. We show that multiple-exposure laser speckle methods produce the same spectral information as laser Doppler methods when applied to targets with embedded moving scatterers. This enables laser speckle measurements to be interpreted more quantitatively. We do this by using computer simulation of speckle data, and by experimental measurements on Brownian motion and skin perfusion using a laser Doppler system and a multiple-exposure laser speckle system. The power spectral density measurements of the light fluctuations derived using both techniques are exactly equivalent. Dermal perfusion can therefore be measured by laser Doppler or laser speckle contrast methods. In particular, multiexposure laser speckle can be rapidly processed to generate a full-field map of the perfusion index proportional to the concentration and mean velocity of red blood cells.

  12. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  13. Assessing variability and comparing short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure using a repeated measurements approach.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Manini, P; Campo, L; De Palma, G; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bertazzi, P A; Rappaport, S M

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is to compare several short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure, namely urinary styrene (StyU), mercapturic acids (M1+M2), mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), phenylglycine (PHG), and 4-vinylphenol conjugates (VP), for use as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic studies. A repeated measurements protocol (typically 4 measurements per worker over 6 weeks) was applied to measure airborne styrene (StyA) and urinary biomarkers in 10 varnish and 8 fiberglass reinforced plastic workers. Estimated geometric mean personal exposures to StyA were 2.96mg/m(3) in varnish workers and 15.7mg/m(3) in plastic workers. The corresponding levels of StyU, M1+M2, MA, PGA, MA+PGA, PHG and VP were 5.13microg/L, 0.111, 38.2, 22.7, 62.6, 0.978, and 3.97mg/g creatinine in varnish workers and 8.38microg/L, 0.303, 146, 83.4, 232, 2.85 and 3.97mg/g creatinine in plastic workers. Within-worker (sigma(wY)(2)) and between-worker (sigma(bY)(2)) variance components were estimated from the log-transformed data as were the corresponding fold ranges containing 95% of the respective lognormal distributions of daily levels ((w)R(0.95)) and subject-specific mean levels ((b)R(0.95)). Estimates of (w)R(0.95) (range: 4-26) were generally smaller than those of (b)R(0.95) (range: 5-790) for both environmental and biological markers; this indicates that exposures varied much more between workers than within workers in these groups. Since attenuation bias in an estimated exposure-response relationship increases with the variance ratio lambda=sigma(wY)(2)/sigma(bY)(2), we estimated values of lambda for all exposure measures in our study. Values of lambda were typically much less than one (median=0.220) and ranged from 0.089 for M1+M2 in plastic workers to 1.38 for PHG in varnish workers. Since values of lambda were 0.147 and 0.271 for StyA in varnish workers and plastic workers, respectively, compared to 0.178 and 0.210 for MA in the same groups, our results suggest that either

  14. Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  15. Prenatal Exposure to NO2 and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in the Spanish INMA Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Carmen; Esplugues, Ana; Sunyer, Jordi; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Costa, Olga; Estarlich, Marisa; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Guxens, Mònica; Murcia, Mario; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with impaired fetal growth. However, few studies have measured fetal biometry longitudinally, remaining unclear as to whether there are windows of special vulnerability. Objective The aim was to investigate the impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on fetal and neonatal biometry in the Spanish INMA study. Methods Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were evaluated for up to 2,478 fetuses in each trimester of pregnancy. Size at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation and growth between these points, as well as anthropometry at birth, were assessed by SD scores derived using cohort-specific growth curves. Temporally adjusted land-use regression was used to estimate exposure to NO2 at home addresses for up to 2,415 fetuses. Associations were investigated by linear regression in each cohort and subsequent meta-analysis. Results A 10-μg/m3 increase in average exposure to NO2 during weeks 0–12 was associated with reduced growth at weeks 0–12 in AC (–2.1%; 95% CI: –3.7, –0.6) and EFW (–1.6%; 95% CI: –3.0, –0.3). The same exposure was inversely associated with reduced growth at weeks 20–34 in BPD (–2.6%; 95% CI: –3.9, –1.2), AC (–1.8%; 95% CI: –3.3, –0.2), and EFW (–2.1%; 95% CI: –3.7, –0.2). A less consistent pattern of association was observed for FL. The negative association of this exposure with BPD and EFW was significantly stronger in smoking versus nonsmoking mothers. Conclusions Maternal exposure to NO2 in early pregnancy was associated with reduced fetal growth based on ultrasound measures of growth during pregnancy and measures of size at birth. Citation Iñiguez C, Esplugues A, Sunyer J, Basterrechea M, Fernández-Somoano A, Costa O, Estarlich M, Aguilera I, Lertxundi A, Tardón A, Guxens M, Murcia M, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Ballester F, on behalf of the INMA Project. 2016. Prenatal exposure

  16. [Examination of Measures for Preventing Exposure in Nurses Who Handle Cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kaoru; Ono, Yuki; Suzuki, Yumi; Omori, Keiko; Matsuda, Mikiko; Sato, Hiroko; Omoto, Eijiro

    2015-12-01

    Health hazards due to long-term exposure to anticancer drugs have been reported among health care professionals. In Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, constant use of personal protective equipment(gloves and mask with face shield)is mandatory, but there is no clear description of the protective gown. To verify the exposure status of nurses while handling cyclophosphamide and the usefulness of a protective gown as a protective measure, urinary concentration of cyclophosphamide was measured for nurses who handled cyclophosphamide. No cyclophosphamide was detected in the urine samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide while wearing protective gowns or in the samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide without protective gowns. This finding suggests that gloves and a mask with a face shield are sufficient for preventing exposure to cyclophosphamide. However, considering that only experienced nurses were included as subjects in this study, we cannot conclude that a protective gown is unnecessary, because inexperienced nurses may be exposed to cyclophosphamide. Our study's findings may be one reference to examine measures for preventing exposure in nurses.

  17. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  18. Reduced exposure to air pollution on the boardwalk in Dublin, Ireland. Measurement and prediction.

    PubMed

    McNabola, A; Broderick, B M; Gill, L W

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines an air pollution study carried out on Dublin city's recently completed boardwalk along the side of and overhanging the River Liffey. Air quality samples were taken along the length of the boardwalk to investigate whether pedestrians using the boardwalk would have a lower air pollution exposure than those using the adjoining footpath along the road. The results of the study show significant reductions in pedestrian exposure to both traffic derived particulates and hydrocarbons along the boardwalk as opposed to the footpath. Computational fluid dynamics was also used to model the outcome of these field measurements and shows the importance of the boundary wall between the footpath and boardwalk in reducing air pollution exposure for the pedestrian, the results of which are also presented herein.

  19. Comparative analysis of UVB exposure between Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite estimates and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the patterns of variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure across time and space using two continental scale data sets on UV radiation and conducts a comparative analysis of two sources of noontime UV-B exposure data across the continental US. One dataset was collected from 37 ground-based stations equipped with broadband UV-B-1 Pyranometers across North America whereas the other dataset was of synchronous satellite data collected from the Nimbus-7/TOMS sensor. Comparisons of these datasets confirmed agreement between the ground-based measurements and the TOMS satellite estimates with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.95 for daily and monthly UV Index time series (i.e., a common metric of UV radiation exposure), respectively.

  20. Comparison of direct measurement methods for headset noise exposure in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    Nassrallah, Flora G.; Giguère, Christian; Dajani, Hilmi R.; Ellaham, Nicolas N.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets poses a methodological challenge. Although several standards describe methods for general noise measurements in occupational settings, these are not directly applicable to noise assessments under communication headsets. For measurements under occluded ears, specialized methods have been specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 11904) such as the microphone in a real ear and manikin techniques. Simpler methods have also been proposed in some national standards such as the use of general purpose artificial ears and simulators in conjunction with single number corrections to convert measurements to the equivalent diffuse field. However, little is known about the measurement agreement between these various methods and the acoustic manikin technique. Twelve experts positioned circum-aural, supra-aural and insert communication headsets on four different measurement setups (Type 1, Type 2, Type 3.3 artificial ears, and acoustic manikin). Fit-refit measurements of four audio communication signals were taken under quiet laboratory conditions. Data were transformed into equivalent diffuse-field sound levels using third-octave procedures. Results indicate that the Type 1 artificial ear is not suited for the measurement of sound exposure under communication headsets, while Type 2 and Type 3.3 artificial ears are in good agreement with the acoustic manikin technique. Single number corrections were found to introduce a large measurement uncertainty, making the use of the third-octave transformation preferable. PMID:26960783

  1. Comparison of direct measurement methods for headset noise exposure in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Nassrallah, Flora G; Giguere, Christian; Dajani, Hilmi R; Ellaham, Nicolas N

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets poses a methodological challenge. Although several standards describe methods for general noise measurements in occupational settings, these are not directly applicable to noise assessments under communication headsets. For measurements under occluded ears, specialized methods have been specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 11904) such as the microphone in a real ear and manikin techniques. Simpler methods have also been proposed in some national standards such as the use of general purpose artificial ears and simulators in conjunction with single number corrections to convert measurements to the equivalent diffuse field. However, little is known about the measurement agreement between these various methods and the acoustic manikin technique. Twelve experts positioned circum-aural, supra-aural and insert communication headsets on four different measurement setups (Type 1, Type 2, Type 3.3 artificial ears, and acoustic manikin). Fit-refit measurements of four audio communication signals were taken under quiet laboratory conditions. Data were transformed into equivalent diffuse-field sound levels using third-octave procedures. Results indicate that the Type 1 artificial ear is not suited for the measurement of sound exposure under communication headsets, while Type 2 and Type 3.3 artificial ears are in good agreement with the acoustic manikin technique. Single number corrections were found to introduce a large measurement uncertainty, making the use of the third-octave transformation preferable.

  2. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  3. Gender differences in road traffic injury rate using time travelled as a measure of exposure.

    PubMed

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Olabarria, Marta; Novoa, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    There is no consensus on whether the risk of road traffic injury is higher among men or among women. Comparison between studies is difficult mainly due to the different exposure measures used to estimate the risk. The measures of exposure to the risk of road traffic injury should be people's mobility measures, but frequently authors use other measures such population or vehicles mobility. We compare road traffic injury risk in men and women, by age, mode of transport and severity, using the time people spend travelling as the exposure measure, in Catalonia for the period 2004-2008. This is a cross-sectional study including all residents aged over 3 years. The road traffic injury rate was calculated using the number of people injured, from the Register of Accidents and Victims of the National Traffic Authority as numerator, and the person-hours travelled, from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey carried out by the Catalan regional government, as denominator. Sex and age specific rates by mode of transport and severity were calculated, and Poisson regression models were fitted. Among child pedestrians and young drivers, males present higher risk of slight and severe injury, and in the oldest groups women present higher risk. The death rate is always higher in men. There exists interaction between sex and age in road traffic injury risk. Therefore, injury risk is higher among men in some age groups, and among women in other groups, but these age groups vary depending on mode of transport and severity.

  4. Measurement of personal and integrated exposure to particulate matter and co-pollutant gases: a panel study.

    PubMed

    Devi, J Jai; Gupta, Tarun; Jat, Rajmal; Tripathi, S N

    2013-03-01

    Personal exposure measurement can serve as an effective tool to understand the effect of exposure to air pollutants. Alternatively, exposure assessment using pollutant concentrations in different microenvironments and accurate time-activity information for the subjects can provide good information regarding human integrated exposure. A panel of 18 healthy students of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur in the age group of 18 to 30 years participated in the personal exposure measurements for particulate matter, CO, NO(2) and VOC during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. Overall, 432 h person exposure data was collected in this study. The major sources of particulate and gaseous co-pollutants were identified. These directly obtained personal exposure values were then compared to the indirectly estimated integrated exposure values. Personal and integrated exposures gave statistically similar results. Through this study, we have shown that integrated exposure values could closely estimate the personal exposure values for particulate matter that can significantly reduce time and cost involved in personal exposure studies. The lung parameters for all the subjects measured during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons showed statistically significant reduction during pre-monsoon. This was attributed to the high levels of coarse particles during pre-monsoon.

  5. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Made Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements are made aboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2000). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Discussions related to hearing protection will also be included. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers aboard the ISS.

  6. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  7. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles.

  8. Lactational Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Its Relation to Early Childhood Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Mendez, Michelle; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Sjödin, Andreas; Daniels, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that may influence growth and development. Objective: We investigated the association between exposure to PBDEs via breast milk and anthropometric measurements in early childhood. Methods: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition (PIN) Babies studies followed a cohort of North Carolina pregnant women and their children through 36 months of age. Breast milk samples obtained at 3 months postpartum were analyzed for PBDEs. We collected height and weight records from well-baby doctor visits and also measured children during study visits (n = 246 children with > 1,400 anthropometric measurements). We assessed the relationship between breast milk concentrations of five PBDE congeners—BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153—and child’s weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ, respectively), adjusting for age; maternal age, race, prepregnancy BMI; parity; smoking during pregnancy; and breastfeeding, and stratifying by sex. Results: Overall, PBDE exposures via breast milk were not associated with early-life anthropometric measures in the PIN Babies cohort. When stratified by sex, PBDEs in milk were inversely associated with WHZ for boys; however, associations did not follow a consistent pattern across the concentration gradient and were imprecisely estimated. Among girls, PBDEs tended to be associated with increased WHZ except for BDE-153, which was inversely associated with WHZ, though all estimates were imprecisely estimated. Conclusions: We observed little evidence of associations between early-life PBDE exposures via breast milk and anthropometric measurements overall; however, our results prompt the need for sex-specific investigations in larger cohorts. Citation: Hoffman K, Mendez M, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH, Sjödin A, Daniels JL. 2016. Lactational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its relation to early childhood anthropometric

  9. Effects of Switching to Electronic Cigarettes with and without Concurrent Smoking on Exposure to Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide, and Acrolein.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, Hayden; Phillips, Anna; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Smith, Katie Myers; Knight-West, Oliver; Przulj, Dunja; Hajek, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been raised about the presence of toxicants in electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol, particularly carbonyl compounds (e.g., acrolein) that can be produced by heating glycerol and glycols used in e-liquids. We investigated exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine (by measuring cotinine in urine), and to acrolein (by measuring its primary metabolite, S-(3-hydroxypropyl)mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) in urine) before and after 4 weeks of EC (green smoke, a "cig-a-like" EC, labeled 2.4% nicotine by volume) use, in 40 smokers. Thirty-three participants were using EC at 4 weeks after quitting, 16 (48%) were abstinent (CO-validated) from smoking during the previous week (EC only users), and 17 (52%) were "dual users." A significant reduction in CO was observed in EC-only users [-12 ppm, 95% confidence interval (CI), -16 to -7, 80% decrease) and dual users (-12 ppm, 95%CI, -19 to -6, 52% decrease). Cotinine levels also declined, but to a lesser extent (EC-only users: -184 ng/mg creatinine; 95% CI, -733 to -365, 17% decrease; and dual users: -976 ng/mg creatinine; 95%CI, -1,682 to -270, 44% decrease). Mean 3-HPMA levels had decreased at 4 weeks by 1,280 ng/mg creatinine (95%CI, -1,699 to -861, 79% decrease) in EC-only users and by 1,474 ng/mg creatinine (95%CI, -2,101 to -847, 60% decrease) in dual users. In dual users, EC use significantly reduced exposure to CO and acrolein because of a reduction in smoke intake. EC may reduce harm even in smokers who continue to smoke, but long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm this.

  10. Associations between Maternal Biomarkers of Phthalate Exposure and Inflammation Using Repeated Measurements across Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is prevalent in populations worldwide, including pregnant women. Maternal urinary metabolite concentrations have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate inflammation as a possible pathway by examining phthalates in association with inflammation biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) in a repeated measures analysis of pregnant women (N = 480). Urinary phthalate metabolites and plasma inflammation biomarkers were measured from samples collected at up to four visits per subject during gestation (median 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks). Associations were examined using mixed models to account for within-individual correlation of measures. Few statistically significant associations or clear trends were observed, although in full models mono-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) was significantly (percent change with interquartile range increase in exposure [%Δ] = 8.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.28, 14.8), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) was suggestively (%Δ = 6.79, 95%CI = -1.21, 15.4) associated with IL-6. Overall these findings show little evidence of an association between phthalate exposure and peripheral inflammation in pregnant women. To investigate inflammation as a mechanism of phthalate effects in humans, biomarkers from target tissues or fluids, though difficult to measure in large-scale studies, may be necessary to detect effects. PMID:26317519

  11. Multipollutant measurement error in air pollution epidemiology studies arising from predicting exposures with penalized regression splines.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Silas; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D; Szpiro, Adam A

    2016-11-01

    Air pollution epidemiology studies are trending towards a multi-pollutant approach. In these studies, exposures at subject locations are unobserved and must be predicted using observed exposures at misaligned monitoring locations. This induces measurement error, which can bias the estimated health effects and affect standard error estimates. We characterize this measurement error and develop an analytic bias correction when using penalized regression splines to predict exposure. Our simulations show bias from multi-pollutant measurement error can be severe, and in opposite directions or simultaneously positive or negative. Our analytic bias correction combined with a non-parametric bootstrap yields accurate coverage of 95% confidence intervals. We apply our methodology to analyze the association of systolic blood pressure with PM2.5 and NO2 in the NIEHS Sister Study. We find that NO2 confounds the association of systolic blood pressure with PM2.5 and vice versa. Elevated systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with increased PM2.5 and decreased NO2. Correcting for measurement error bias strengthened these associations and widened 95% confidence intervals.

  12. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose™

    PubMed Central

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose™, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose™ on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures performed between December 2013 and July 2014. Patient demographics and stone characteristics were noted. Factors affecting radiation dose were determined. Fluoroscopic screening time was compared with the amount of radiation in order to validate the measurements of Instadose™. Results Overall, 51 patients with a mean age of 43.41 ±18.58 (range 1–75) years were enrolled. Male to female ratio was 35/16. The amount of radiation was greater than 0.01mSv in only 19 (37.25%) cases. Stone location complexity (p = 0.380), dilation type (p = 0.584), stone size (p = 0.565), dilation size (p = 0.891) and access number (p = 0.268) were not associated with increased radiation exposure. Instadose™ measurements were correlated with fluoroscopic screening time (r = 0.519, p = 0.001). Conclusions Instadose™ is a useful tool for the measurement of radiation exposure during PNL. The advantage of measuring the amount of radiation exposure after each PNL operation is that it may aid urologists in taking appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of radiation related complications. PMID:27551558

  13. Correlation of objectively measured light exposure and serum vitamin D in men aged over 60 years.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alison J; Linnville, Steven E; Hoyt, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Diminished vitamin D is common among older individuals. Sunlight contributes more to vitamin D synthesis than diet or supplementation. This study examined associations between objectively measured light exposure, vitamin D serum levels, and bone biomarkers in 100 men aged over 60 years. Light exposure was measured in lux via Actigraph monitors for 1 week. Significantly, greater levels of vitamin D were observed in participants with higher light exposure. Seasonal differences in lux were also noted. Significant differences in bone markers were not found. Objective measurement of light exposure is an inexpensive, simple, and effective way to address vitamin D deficiency.

  14. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, George E.; Iarkov, Alexander; Moran, Valentina Echeverria

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine, such as cotinine, also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD. PMID:25620929

  15. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in engine rooms by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Moen, B E; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Ovrebø, S; Bleie, K; Skorve, A H; Hollund, B E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Machinists have an increased risk of lung cancer and bladder cancer, and this may be caused by exposure to carcinogenic compounds such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the engine room. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure of engine room personnel to PAHs, with 1-hydroxypyrene in urine as a biomarker. METHODS: Urine samples from engine room personnel (n = 51) on 10 ships arriving in different harbours were collected, as well as urine samples from a similar number of unexposed controls (n = 47) on the same ships. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was quantitatively measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The exposure to PAHs was estimated by a questionnaire answered by the engine room personnel. On two ships, air monitoring of PAHs in the engine room was performed at sea. Both personal monitoring and area monitoring were performed. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography of two types (with a flame ionisation detector and with a mass spectrometer). RESULTS: Significantly more 1-hydroxypyrene was found in urine of personnel who had been working in the engine room for the past 24 hours, than in that of the unexposed seamen. The highest concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were found among engine room personnel who had experienced oil contamination of the skin during their work in the engine room. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed a significant relation between the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene, smoking, and estimated exposure to PAHs. No PAHs were detected in the air samples. CONCLUSION: Engine room personnel who experience skin exposure to oil and oil products are exposed to PAHs during their work. This indicates that dermal uptake of PAHs is the major route of exposure. PMID:8943834

  16. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  17. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Beate; Qiu, Jiaheng; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Weiss, Robert Erin; McConnell, Rob; Arora, Chander; Hobel, Calvin; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Few previous studies examined the impact of prenatal air pollution exposures on fetal development based on ultrasound measures during pregnancy. Methods In a prospective birth cohort of more than 500 women followed during 1993-1996 in Los Angeles, California, we examined how air pollution impacts fetal growth during pregnancy. Exposure to traffic related air pollution was estimated using CALINE4 air dispersion modeling for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and a land use regression (LUR) model for nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NOx. Exposures to carbon monoxide (CO), NO2, ozone (O3) and particles <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were estimated using government monitoring data. We employed a linear mixed effects model to estimate changes in fetal size at approximately 19, 29 and 37 weeks gestation based on ultrasound. Results Exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during 29 to 37 weeks was negatively associated with biparietal diameter at 37 weeks gestation. For each interquartile range (IQR) increase in LUR-based estimates of NO, NO2 and NOx, or freeway CALINE4 NOx we estimated a reduction in biparietal diameter of 0.2-0.3 mm. For women residing within 5 km of a monitoring station, we estimated biparietal diameter reductions of 0.9-1.0 mm per IQR increase in CO and NO2. Effect estimates were robust to adjustment for a number of potential confounders. We did not observe consistent patterns for other growth endpoints we examined. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to traffic-derived pollution was negatively associated with fetal head size measured as biparietal diameter in late pregnancy. PMID:24517884

  18. Effects of exposure, diet, and thermoregulation on fecal glucocorticoid measures in wild bears.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Jeff; Hunt, Kathleen; Kendall, Katherine C; Wasser, Samuel K

    2013-01-01

    We examined fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) measures of nutrition and thermoregulatory demands on wild bears in Glacier National Park, Montana, and assessed how these measures changed in samples left in the field. Both ambient temperature and exposure can impact thermoregulation and sample degradation. Bear diets vary markedly with season, affecting body condition and thus fGC. We collected fecal samples during September and October, 2001, when ambient temperatures ranged from 30°C to -5°C. We collected half of each sample immediately and left the other half in its original location for 1-28 days. We used generalized linear models (GLM) to first predict fGC concentrations in fresh samples based on proxies of nutrition, ambient temperature, thermal exposure, and precipitation. These same covariates were then used to predict degradation-based differences in fGC concentrations between the paired sample halves. Variation in fGC was predicted by diet, Julian date, aspect, and the interaction between Julian date and aspect in both fresh and exposed samples. Cumulative precipitation was also a significant predictor of fGC concentrations in the exposed samples, independent of time, indicating that precipitation contributes to sample degradation but not enough to mask effects of other environmental factors on fGC concentrations. Differences between sample halves were only predicted by cumulative precipitation and exposure time; cumulative precipitation decreased, whereas exposure time increased, fGC concentrations in the exposed sample halves. Results indicate that fGC can provide reliable indices of nutrition and thermoregulatory demands in bears and that sample degradation impacts on these relations are minimal and can be virtually eliminated by controlling for cumulative precipitation over the estimated exposure times.

  19. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  20. Measuring exposure in Hurricane Katrina: a meta-analysis and an integrative data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general psychological distress (GPD). The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed.

  1. Measuring Exposure in Hurricane Katrina: A Meta-Analysis and an Integrative Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general psychological distress (GPD). The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed. PMID:24713851

  2. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    PubMed

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Children's Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy.

    PubMed

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-05-31

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children's health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children's ELF-MF exposure correlated to children's daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2) geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3) seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  4. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2) geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3) seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean. PMID:27258295

  5. A simple high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of total cotinine, total 3'-hydroxycotinine and caffeine in the plasma of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ghosheh, O A; Browne, D; Rogers, T; de Leon, J; Dwoskin, L P; Crooks, P A

    2000-08-15

    A simple isocratic HPLC procedure has been developed for the quantification of caffeine and the nicotine metabolites cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, cotinine glucuronide and 3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronide in the plasma of smokers. The glucuronide conjugates were determined indirectly via initial basic hydrolysis of the analyte sample followed by quantification of the resulting deconjugation product. Plasma was basified, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated, the residue dissolved water and an aliquot part was analyzed by HPLC. The method utilized a Partisil-10 SCX cation-exchange column and an isocratic mobile phase of sodium phosphate buffer: methanol (92:8 v/v, 0.1 M, adjusted to pH 4.8 with triethylamine) at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. UV detection was at 254 nm. All solutes were separated with good resolution, and quantification was determined using an internal standard of N,N-diethylnicotinamide. The retention times were: caffeine 5.1 min, 3'-hydroxycotinine 7.2 min, N,N-diethylnicotinamide 9.5 min, and cotinine 15.5 min. Detection limits for caffeine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, cotinine, and total cotinine were 10 ng/ml; the detection limit for total 3'-hydroxycotinine was 20 ng/ml. The inter-day and intra-day variations for all analytes were between 1 and 8%. This analytical method is suitable for the determination of caffeine and nicotine metabolite levels in large numbers of clinical samples.

  6. Analysis of [3',3'-d(2)]-nicotine and [3',3'-d(2)]-cotinine by capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sharon E; Villalta, Peter; Ho, Sing-Wei; von Weymarn, Linda B

    2007-09-15

    A selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay was developed for the quantification of d(2)-nicotine and d(2)-cotinine in plasma of current and past smokers administered d(2)-nicotine. After solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, HPLC separation was achieved on a capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography phase column. The analytes were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves were generated for d(2)-nicotine (0.03-6.0 ng/ml plasma) and d(2)-cotinine (0.15-25 ng/ml plasma). The lower limits of quantitation were 0.15 ng/ml and 0.25 ng/ml for d(2)-nicotine and d(2)-cotinine, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 3.7% for d(2)-nicotine and 2.5% for d(2)-cotinine. The method was applied to two ongoing studies of d(2)-nicotine metabolism in prior and current smokers. Preliminary analysis of a subset of subjects from these studies detected a significantly lower rate of nicotine conversion to cotinine by past smokers compared to current smokers.

  7. Measurement of air exchange rate of stationary vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Spengler, J D; Yoon, D W; Dumyahn, T; Lee, K; Ozkaynak, H

    1998-01-01

    The air exchange rates or air changes per hour (ACH) were measured under 4 conditions in 3 stationary automobiles. The ACH ranged between 1.0 and 3.0 h-1 with windows closed and no mechanical ventilation, between 1.8 and 3.7 h-1 for windows closed with fan set on recirculation, between 13.3 and 26.1 h-1 for window open with no mechanical ventilation, and between 36.2 and 47.5 h-1 for window closed with the fan set on fresh air. ACHs for windows closed with no ventilation were higher for the older automobile than for the newer automobiles. With the windows closed and fan turned off, ACH was not influenced by wind speed (p > 0.05). When the window was open, ACH appeared to be greatly affected by wind speed (R2 = 0.86). These measurements are relevant to understanding exposures inside automobiles to sources such as dry-cleaned clothes, cigarettes and airbags. Therefore, to understand the in-vehicle exposure to these internal sources, perchloroethylene (PCE) emitted from dry-cleaned clothes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside a vehicle were modeled for simulated driving cycles. Airbag deployment was also modeled for estimating exposure level to alkaline particulate and carbon monoxide (CO). Average exposure to PCE inside a vehicle for 30 minutes period was high (approximately 780 micrograms/m3); however, this is only 6% of the two-week exposure that is influenced by the storage of dry cleaned clothing at home. On the other hand, the exposure levels of respirable suspended particulate (RSP) and formaldehyde due to ETS could reach 2.1 mg/m3 and 0.11 ppm, respectively, when a person smokes inside a driving car even with the window open. In modeling the in-vehicle concentrations following airbag deployment, the average CO level over 20 minutes would not appear to present problem (less than 28 ppm). The peak concentration of respirable particulate would have exceeded 140 mg/m3. Since most of the particle mass is composed of alkaline material, these high levels

  8. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

    2009-04-07

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s(-1) for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s(-1) for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s(-1)) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  9. Measurement of hand tremor induced by industrial exposure to metallic mercury.

    PubMed Central

    Fawer, R F; de Ribaupierre, Y; Guillemin, M P; Berode, M; Lob, M

    1983-01-01

    Hand tremor due to industrial exposure to metallic mercury vapour was recorded in 26 exposed and 25 non-exposed male workers by an accelerometer attached to the dorsum of the hand. The subjects were instructed to hold the hand and the forearm in the same position first without and then with a load of 1250 g supported by the hand. Analysis of the records showed that the highest peak frequencies (HPF) (the frequency corresponding to the highest acceleration) were higher in the exposed men than in the controls and were related to the duration of exposure to mercury and to age. The changes in HPF between rest and load were again higher in the exposed men than in the controls and again related to the duration of exposure and to age. The second moment (M2) (an index taking into account the whole recorded spectrum) was similar in the exposed men and controls at rest. The changes in M2 between rest and load were higher in the exposed men than in the controls but were related to duration of exposure and to the biological measurements (loge of mercury in urine or blood) and not to age. These neurophysiological impairments might result from the tendency of metallic mercury to accumulate in the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that metallic mercury, even at concentrations probably below the current TLV-TWA of 0.05 mg/m3, can lead to neurological disorders. PMID:6830719

  10. Instrumentation for measuring dynamic spinal load moment exposures in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Marras, William S; Lavender, Steven A; Ferguson, Sue A; Splittstoesser, Riley E; Yang, Gang; Schabo, Pete

    2010-02-01

    Prior research has shown the load moment exposure to be one of the strongest predictors of low back disorder risk in manufacturing jobs. However, to extend these finding to the manual lifting and handling of materials in distribution centers, where the layout of the lifting task changes from one lift to the next and the lifts are highly dynamic, would be very challenging without an automated means of quantifying reach distances and item weights. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of automated instrumentation, the Moment Exposure Tracking System (METS), designed to capture the dynamic load moment exposures and spine postures used in distribution center jobs. This multiphase process started by obtaining baseline data describing the accuracy of existing manual methods for obtaining moment arms during the observation of dynamic lifting for the purposes of benchmarking the automated system. The process continued with the development and calibration of an ultrasonic system to track hand location and the development of load sensing handles that could be used to assess item weights. The final version of the system yielded an average absolute error in the load's moment arm of 4.1cm under the conditions of trunk flexion and load asymmetry. This compares well with the average absolute error of 10.9cm obtained using manual methods of measuring moment arms. With the item mass estimates being within half a kilogram, the instrumentation provides a reliable and valid means for assessing dynamic load moment exposures in dynamic distribution center lifting tasks.

  11. A high-throughput diagnostic method for measuring human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Jacob, Justin T; Prezioso, Samantha M; Hardy, Katelyn; Lemire, Sharon W; Thomas, Jerry; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2012-11-06

    An automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for diagnosing exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) sarin (GB), cyclohexylsarin (GF), VX, and Russian VX (RVX) was developed to increase sample processing capacity for emergency response applications. Diagnosis of exposure to OPNAs was based on the formation of OPNA adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Data reported with this method represent a ratio of the agent-specific BuChE adduct concentration, relative to the total BuChE peptide concentration that provides a nonactivity measurement expressed as percent adducted. All magnetic bead transfer steps and washes were performed using instrumentation in a 96-well format allowing for simultaneous extraction of 86 clinical samples plus reference materials. Automating extractions increased sample throughput 50-fold, as compared to a previously reported manual method. The limits of detection, determined using synthetic peptides, were 1 ng/mL for unadducted BuChE and GB-, GF-, VX-, and RVX-adducted BuChE. The automated method was characterized using unexposed serum and serum pools exposed to GB, GF, VX, or RVX. Variation for the measurement of percent adducted was <12% for all characterized quality control serum pools. Twenty-six (26) serum samples from individuals asymptomatic for cholinesterase inhibitor exposure were analyzed using this method, and no background levels of OPNA exposure were observed. Unexposed BuChE serum concentrations measured using this method ranged from 2.8 μg/mL to 10.6 μg/mL, with an average concentration of 6.4 μg/mL.

  12. Measuring the consequences of wildfires in a Bayesian network with vulnerability and exposure indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Botzler, Sebastian; Krug, Kai; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate type areas have always been experiencing fire events. However, population growth and expansion of urban centers into wildland areas during the 20th century (expansion of wildland-urban interface) has increased the threat to humans and their activities. Life and property losses, damage on infrastructure and crops, and forest degradation are some of the damages caused by wildfires. Although fires repeatedly occur along the Mediterranean basin, not all areas have experienced severe consequences. The extent of damage by wildfires is influenced by several factors, such as population density, vegetation type, topography, weather conditions and social preparedness [1]. Wildfire consequence estimation by means of vulnerability and exposure indicators is an essential part of wildfire risk analysis. Vulnerability indicators express the conditions that increase the susceptibility of a site to the impact of wildfires and exposure indicators describe the elements at risk [2],[3]. Appropriate indicators to measure wildfire vulnerability and exposure can vary with scale and site. The consequences can be classified into economic, social, environmental and safety, and they can be tangible (human life losses, buildings damaged) or intangible (damage of cultural heritage site). As a consequence, a variety of approaches exist and there is a lack of generalized unified easy-to-implement methodologies. In this study we present a methodology for measuring consequences of wildfires in a Mediterranean area in the mesoscale (1 km² spatial resolution). Vulnerability and exposure indicators covering all consequence levels are identified and their interrelations are stressed. Variables such as building materials, roofing type, and average building values are included in the economic vulnerability level. Safety exposure is expressed by population density, demographic structure, street density and distance to closest fire station. Environmental vulnerability of protected

  13. Laboratory measurements on radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: Implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Solecki, Andrzej Tomasz; Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Piekarz, Magdalena; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification, evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on the earth's surface could be measured by satellite techniques capable of measuring thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies have found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes, hence satellite techniques are widely used in research into the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations in SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes, such as the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or because of radon. In particular, ionization processes due to radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of radon in the thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory-controlled atmospheric volume.

  14. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines.

  15. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm(-2) , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm(-2) . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m(-2) ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Urinary biomarkers of exposure and of oxidative damage in children exposed to low airborne concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, R; Spatari, G; Pigini, D; Poli, D; Banda, I; Goldoni, M; Riccelli, M G; Petyx, M; Protano, C; Vitali, M; Barbaro, M; Mutti, A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the oxidative damage to nucleic acids in children (5-11 years) associated with exposure to environmental pollutants and tobacco smoke (ETS). For each subject, urinary sampling was done twice (evening and next morning) to measure by tandem LC-MS-MS such oxidated products of nucleic acids as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua). Methyl tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), benzene (U-Benz), and its metabolites (t,t-muconic and S-phenylmercapturic acids, t,t-MA and S-PMA, respectively) were determined as biomarkers of exposure to air pollution, and cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to ETS. Biomarkers of exposure (S-PMA and U-MTBE) and of DNA oxidation (8-oxodGuo) were dependent on the urbanization and industrialization levels and increased in the evening sample as compared to next morning (p<0.05). In both evening and next morning samples, 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo correlated with each other (r=0.596 and r=0.537, respectively, p<0.01) and with biomarkers of benzene exposure, particularly S-PMA (r=0.59 and r=0.45 for 8-oxodGuo and r=0.411 and r=0.383 for 8-oxoGuo, p<0.01). No such correlations were observed for U-MTBE and cotinine. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that 8-oxodGuo was positively associated with S-PMA at both sampling times (β=0.18 and β=0.14 for evening and next morning sampling, respectively; p<0.02) and weakly with U-MTBE (β=0.07, p=0.020) only in the evening urines. These results suggest that the selected biomarkers of exposure to benzene, particularly S-PMA, are good tracers of exposure to complex mixtures of oxidative pollutants and that the associated oxidative damage to nucleic acids is detectable even at very low levels of exposure.

  17. Calibration and uncertainties in personal exposure measurements of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Bolte, John F B; van der Zande, Gerard; Kamer, Jos

    2011-12-01

    In the past 5 years radiofrequency personal exposure meters have been used to characterize the exposure during daily activities. We found from calibration tests for the 12 frequency bands of the EME Spy 121 exposimeter in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic cell and an Open Area Test Site, that these measurements tend to underestimate the actual exposure. Therefore, a maximum frequency-dependent correction factor of 1.1-1.6 should be applied to the electric field. This correction factor consists of three multipliers correcting for calibration, elevation arrival angle, and influence of the body. The calibration correction factor should be determined per exposimeter, as the maximum range of response between exposimeters in a frequency band is 2.4 dB. Since the range of response for different elevation angles could reach 10.2 dB, a strict protocol for wearing the exposimeter during fieldwork should be followed to be able to compare and combine measurements made by different persons in the same microenvironments. Because the influence of the body depends on the azimuth angle of arrival, it may lead to an over- or underestimation. Thus, the body correction factor is an average over the angles and should only be applied in activities involving movement through the full 360° range of random angles of arrival.

  18. Assessing a New Method for Measuring Fetal Exposure to Mercury: Newborn Bloodspots

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jessica W.; Edhlund, Betsy L.; Johnson, Jean; Rosebush, Christina E.; Holmquist, Zachary S.; Swan, Shanna H.; Nguyen, Ruby H. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring mercury in newborn bloodspots to determine fetal exposures is a novel methodology with many advantages. Questions remain, however, about its reliability as an estimate of newborn exposure to mercury. Methods: We studied mercury concentrations in paired bloodspots and cord blood from a convenience sample of 48 Minnesota women and infants. Results: The limit of detection for bloodspots was higher than for cord blood (0.7 and 0.3 μg/L in bloodspots and cord blood, respectively) with the result that mercury was detected in only 38% of newborn bloodspots compared to 62% of cord blood samples. The geometric mean mercury concentration in cord blood was 0.6 μg/L. Mercury concentrations were almost uniformly lower in bloodspots than in cord blood (mean ratio (±SD) = 0.85 ± 0.4), their mean value was significantly less than that for the cord blood (p = 0.02), and the two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.82). Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that newborn bloodspot mercury measurements have utility; however, until bloodspot analyses are more sensitive, they are likely to underestimate in utero exposure. PMID:27409626

  19. Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument was conceptualized. This paper is a progress report of the instrument development process. Version 1 of the instrument was administered to 335 first-year students majoring in food and agriculture fields in a pre-post fashion relative to a brief exposure to nanotechnology in the classroom. Following item analysis of Version 1 responses, a revision of the instrument was completed. Version 2 was administered to 1,426 first-year engineering students for the purpose of conducting item and factor analyses. Results indicate that the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument shows potential to provide valid information about student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. The instrument is not a valid measure of nano-knowledge and this subscale was dropped from the final version of the instrument. Implications include the use of the instrument to evaluate programs, interventions, or courses that attempt to increase student awareness of nanotechnology. Further study is necessary to determine how the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument functions as a pre-post measure.

  20. Direct Measurement of Perchlorate Exposure Biomarkers in a Highly Exposed Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Copan, Lori; Olmedo, Luis; Patton, Sharyle; Haas, Robert; Atencio, Ryan; Xu, Juhua; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to perchlorate is ubiquitous in the United States and has been found to be widespread in food and drinking water. People living in the lower Colorado River region may have perchlorate exposure because of perchlorate in ground water and locally-grown produce. Relatively high doses of perchlorate can inhibit iodine uptake and impair thyroid function, and thus could impair neurological development in utero. We examined human exposures to perchlorate in the Imperial Valley among individuals consuming locally grown produce and compared perchlorate exposure doses to state and federal reference doses. We collected 24-hour urine specimen from a convenience sample of 31 individuals and measured urinary excretion rates of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide. In addition, drinking water and local produce were also sampled for perchlorate. All but two of the water samples tested negative for perchlorate. Perchlorate levels in 79 produce samples ranged from non-detect to 1816 ppb. Estimated perchlorate doses ranged from 0.02 to 0.51 µg/kg of body weight/day. Perchlorate dose increased with the number of servings of dairy products consumed and with estimated perchlorate levels in produce consumed. The geometric mean perchlorate dose was 70% higher than for the NHANES reference population. Our sample of 31 Imperial Valley residents had higher perchlorate dose levels compared with national reference ranges. Although none of our exposure estimates exceeded the U. S. EPA reference dose, three participants exceeded the acceptable daily dose as defined by bench mark dose methods used by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. PMID:21394205

  1. Measuring the effect of mercury exposure on common loon productivity in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.W.; Hartigan, J.; Woodford, J.; Evers, D.; Daulton, T.

    1994-12-31

    In 1991, the Wisconsin DNR conducted a pilot study to determine the extent of mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer) breeding in Wisconsin. Loons are at risk to elevated mercury exposure in Wisconsin because they often nest on acidified, low alkalinity lakes. Fish from these lakes bioaccumulate methyl-Hg to a greater extent than biota from neutral pH lakes. Using nightlighting techniques, 35 adult loons were captured on 22 northern Wisconsin lakes (pH = 5.0--8.7) in 1991. Blood and feather samples were collected for Hg analysis. There was a highly significant negative linear relationship between adult loon blood clot Hg and lake pH (r{sup 2} = 0.38, F = 15.27, P < 0.001); indicating loons nesting on low pH lakes receive greater mercury exposure than loons nesting on neutral pH lakes. The relationship was greater amongst adult males (r{sup 2} = 0.56) than among adult females (r{sup 2} = 0.36). The research effort was expanded in 1992 and 1993; 253 loons have been captured to date on 62 lakes in northern Wisconsin. The mercury content of feather and blood samples is being measured. Individual loons were also fitted with unique colored leg bands. Reproductive performance, annual return rates, and nesting behavior of adult loons with the greatest Hg exposure is being compared to that of adult loons with the least Hg exposure. The preliminary results from 1991--93 field seasons will be presented.

  2. Filter goggles imitating dark adaptation for measurement of visual readaptation after flash exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Zand, M R; Söderberg, P G

    1994-08-01

    The effect of red pass goggles (cut off wavelength = 650 nm) imitating dark adaptation on measurement of visual readaptation after flash exposure was investigated in humans. The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference between visual readaptation time measured with ordinary dark adaptation and that with goggles for adaptation. No statistically significant difference was found between females and males. It is suggested that red pass goggles can be practicably used to simulate dark adaptation in measuring visual readaptation time. Visual readaptation time was measured as the interval between the triggering of a green flash and the reappearance of optokinetic nystagmus. Optokinetic nystagmus was induced by a moving vertical grating and recorded by DC EOG.

  3. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  4. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  5. Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2007-09-01

    The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ϕ, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 σ. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, Δ G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ∠ α (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(←); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); < r(C sbnd C) pyrrol> = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(←); < r(C sbnd C) pyrid> = 1.396(2); < r(C sbnd N) pyrid> = 1.343(←); ∠(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ∠CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(←); ∠NCO = 124.1(13); ∠NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ∠C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(←); ∠(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); <∠(NCC) pyrid> = 124.4(←); ∠C methylNC( dbnd O) =

  6. A simple, sensitive, and rapid method for the determination of cotinine in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Rabbaa-Khabbaz, Lydia; Abi Daoud, Rita; Karam-Sarkis, Dolla

    2006-10-01

    Cotinine levels in biological fluids are a reliable indicator of the presence of nicotine. In this paper, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of cotinine in urine following liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane in an alkaline medium is described. Calibration curves show linearity over the 50 to 3000 ng/mL range with low intra- and interday variability as well as good selectivity and specificity. No solid-phase extraction is performed because the liquid dichloromethane extraction step yields excellent results. This method is a good alternative for routine analysis of urinary cotinine in laboratories where gas chromatography or HPLC-mass spectrometry is not available.

  7. Dermal exposure of pesticide applicators as a measure of coverall performance under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Machera, K; Tsakirakis, A; Charistou, A; Anastasiadou, P; Glass, C R

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the field performance of two coverall designs used by pesticide applicators was determined. Two coverall types were selected based on data from previously conducted comfort testing under field conditions in southern Europe. Dermal exposure was measured during 22 applications conducted with 11 operators using similar hand-held spray guns in greenhouse pepper crops in the Ierapetra region of Crete, Greece. One of the coverall designs studied was made from a cotton/polyester material treated with a water-repellent Resist Spills(R) finish, which was compared in the field study to a coverall of similar design, but using a woven, untreated cotton material. An in-house analytical method was developed and validated for determining residues of the active substance (a.s.) malathion on the dosimeters. The derived levels of dermal exposure were used as a measure of the protection provided by the two types of coveralls. In addition, by comparing the total amount of the a.s. recovered from outer and inner dosimeters (potential dermal exposure = 238.8 mg kg(-1) a.s. for the cotton coverall and 160.44 mg kg(-1) a.s. for the Resist Spills coverall), a value could be determined for the degree of coverall penetration. The mean penetration (milligrams per kilogram a.s.) of the outer coveralls, calculated as a percentage of the total contamination, was 0.4% for the water-repellent coverall and 2.3% for the cotton coverall. The mean recovery from the laboratory and field-fortified samples was >91 and 74%, respectively and used as the main criterion for quality control of the analytical data. Under the field trial conditions evaluated, both the coverall designs gave better protection than the default values used in the most relevant predictive exposure model. Therefore, they could be considered as appropriate tools of personal protection when both comfort and field performance is taken into account under the specific application scenario.

  8. Continuous recording instrument for RF-exposure measurements in FM/TV broadcasting towers.

    PubMed

    Jokela, K; Ylönen, M

    1984-09-01

    A continuously recording exposure meter has been developed for radio-frequency (RF) hazard measurements in FM/TV broadcasting towers for the frequency range 47-790 MHz. The instrument consists of an electrically-small dipole, loop probes and recording electronics. The dipole and loop are attached to the safety helmet; their distance from the head is approximately 7 cm. The dipole and loop respond to the tangential E field and radial H field, respectively. The error due to body proximity and one-dimensionality is 1 to 2 dB at 100 MHz and 2 to 3 dB at 200 MHz (for average power density measurements) if the probes move continuously and the measurement period is sufficiently long. Measurements in Finnish FM/TV towers showed that the average power density inside the tower increases with increasing power and decreasing antenna surface area. The highest levels have been found near UHF and FM antennas. For the FM band (100 MHz) the average H field exposures exceed the new ANSI standard value 10 W/m2, but remain in most cases below 100 W/m2. Local maxima may exceed 300 W/m2.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Miki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Tanaka, Eriko; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2002-03-01

    A method for the determination of N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine in human liver microsomes by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. Nicotine or cotinine was incubated with human liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid in a 200-microl incubation mixture. The nicotine N-glucuronide (Nic-glu) and cotinine N-glucuronide (Cot-glu) formed were analyzed by ion-pair chromatography with a C-18 column. The sensitivity of quantification at 260 nm absorption was improved by using a noise-base clean Uni-3, and the limit of quantification was 10 pmol/200 microl mixture for both Nic-glu and Cot-glu. Linear standard curves were obtained within the concentration ranges 25-1000 pmol/200 microl mixture for Nic-glu and 100-5000 pmol/200 microl mixture for Cot-glu. The intraassay precision and accuracy were < or =11.1% coefficient of variation (CV) and 97.5-106.6% for Nic-glu and < or =4.6% CV and 96.7-100.4% for Cot-glu. The interassay precision and accuracy were < or =7.2% CV and 98.2-106.1% for Nic-glu and < or =4.6% CV and 96.8-99.3% for Cot-glu. This is the first report of the in vitro determination of Nic-glu and Cot-glu in human liver microsomes. Furthermore, this highly sensitive HPLC method can be used for the determination of Nic-glu and Cot-glu in biological specimens in vivo.

  10. Assessment of human body influence on exposure measurements of electric field in indoor enclosures.

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; García, Jorge; Ramos, Victoria; Blas, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEMs) used for measuring exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) are typically used in epidemiological studies. As is well known, these measurement devices cause a perturbation of real EMF exposure levels due to the presence of the human body in the immediate proximity. This paper aims to model the alteration caused by the body shadow effect (BSE) in motion conditions and in indoor enclosures at the Wi-Fi frequency of 2.4 GHz. For this purpose, simulation techniques based on ray-tracing have been carried out, and their results have been verified experimentally. A good agreement exists between simulation and experimental results in terms of electric field (E-field) levels, and taking into account the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the spatial distribution of amplitude. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value greater than 0.05, in fact close to 1. It has been found that the influence of the presence of the human body can be characterized as an angle of shadow that depends on the dimensions of the indoor enclosure. The CDFs show that the E-field levels in indoor conditions follow a lognormal distribution in the absence of the human body and under the influence of BSE. In conclusion, the perturbation caused by BSE in PEMs readings cannot be compensated for by correction factors. Although the mean value is well adjusted, BSE causes changes in CDF that would require improvements in measurement protocols and in the design of measuring devices to subsequently avoid systematic errors.

  11. Measurement of tritiated species in urine for characterization of an exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.

    1996-06-01

    Since tritium exposures in some tritium handling facilities can involve intakes of both organic tritium and HTO, the ability to distinguish between HTO and non-HTO intakes may be important for radiation protection purposes. We have previously demonstrated that the measurement of HTO to organically bound tritium (OBT) ratios in urine can distinguish between HTO and non-HTO intakes, but current bioassay methods are of limited value in identifying the nature and characteristics of the original exposure. A high performance liquid chromatography-based (HPLC) method was developed to examine for the presence of characteristics urinary metabolites associated with different exposure situations. Non-volatile metabolites in urine were isolated by evaporating an aliquot of urine samples, at room temperature under the nitrogen, from animals percutaneously exposed to tritiated formaldehyde, tritium gas-contaminated metal surfaces and tritiated pump oil, and were dissolved in a mobile phase (11% acetonitrile with 2.5% tetrabutlyammonium dihydrogen phosphate in 20 mM glycine buffer, with the pH adjusted to 2.95 with 0.1 N HCl) to be chromatographed on a column C8 Delta-bond octyl. Forty fractions were collected at I min intervals with flow rate of 1.3 mL min{sup -1}, and their tritium activities were measured. The data showed that the ratios of non-volatile tritiated metabolites in fraction I (0-20 min) to fraction II (20-40 min) were noticeably different between the animals exposed to tritiated formaldehyde (40.9{+-}3.3), tritium gas-contaminated metal surfaces (16.5{+-}2.5), or tritiated pump oil (8.7{+-}0.4) up to 48 h post-exposure. Therefore, if the nature of tritium exposure is unknown, measuring the ratios of HTO to OBT in urine and/or characterizing the ratio of non-volatile tritiated metabolites in fraction I to fraction II may be useful in identifying the source and nature of tritium intakes.

  12. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Smoking and Validation with Urinary Cotinine Among Commercial Drivers in Major Parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dania, Michelle G.; Irusen, Elvis M.

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of non-smokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42%) compared to 41 (50.6%) when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001). The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality. PMID:28299115

  13. A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Omari, Khaled W

    2009-02-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The run times are 16 and 10 min for HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 1-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.9985. The criteria considered for validation are: limit of quantitation, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, specificity, and selectivity. This study is aimed to estimate the nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples; to study the relationship between the concentration of nicotine in urine and plasma samples; and to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction of nicotine and cotinine in urine samples. In the presented study, one hundred blood and urine samples are collected from eighty smokers and twenty nonsmokers. Samples are taken from the same volunteer at the same time after each volunteer fills in a questionnaire. Results of nicotine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 181-3702 ng/mL with an average of 1263.1 ng/mL, whereas nicotine in urine samples is in the range of 1364-1972 ng/mL, with an average of 1618 ng/mL. Cotinine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 21-4420 ng/mL with an average of 379.4 ng/mL, whereas cotinine in urine is in the range of 6-3946 ng/mL with an average of 865 ng/mL. Statistical analysis indicates highly significant differences in nicotine and cotinine concentrations in smoker samples compared with nonsmoker samples (p<0.05).

  14. Acrolein Exposure Is Associated With Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Myers, John A.; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J.; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N.; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods and Results Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite—3‐hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3‐HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3‐HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3‐HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133+) and late (AC133−) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3‐HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet–leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3‐HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C‐reactive protein were associated with 3‐HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Conclusions Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. PMID:25099132

  15. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  16. An optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter for measuring patient exposure from imaging guidance procedures.

    PubMed

    Ding, George X; Malcolm, Arnold W

    2013-09-07

    There is a growing interest in patient exposure resulting from an x-ray imaging procedure used in image-guided radiation therapy. This study explores a feasibility to use a commercially available optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, nanoDot, for estimating imaging radiation exposure to patients. The kilovoltage x-ray sources used for kV-cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging acquisition procedures were from a Varian on-board imager (OBI) image system. An ionization chamber was used to determine the energy response of nanoDot dosimeters. The chamber calibration factors for x-ray beam quality specified by half-value layer were obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory. The Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions were used to validate the dose distributions measured by using the nanoDot dosimeters in phantom and in vivo. The range of the energy correction factors for the nanoDot as a function of photon energy and bow-tie filters was found to be 0.88-1.13 for different kVp and bow-tie filters. Measurement uncertainties of nanoDot were approximately 2-4% after applying the energy correction factors. The tests of nanoDot placed on a RANDO phantom and on patient's skin showed consistent results. The nanoDot is suitable dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry due to its small size and manageable energy dependence. The dosimeter placed on a patient's skin has potential to serve as an experimental method to monitor and to estimate patient exposure resulting from a kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedure. Due to its large variation in energy response, nanoDot is not suitable to measure radiation doses resulting from mixed beams of megavoltage therapeutic and kilovoltage imaging radiations.

  17. Variability in airborne and biological measures of exposure to mercury in the chloralkali industry: implications for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Symanski, E; Sällsten, G; Barregård, L

    2000-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a critical component of epidemiologic studies, and more sophisticated approaches require that variation in exposure be considered. We examined the intra- and interindividual sources of variation in exposure to mercury vapor as measured in air, blood, and urine among four groups of workers during 1990-1997 at a Swedish chloralkali plant. Consistent with the underlying kinetics of mercury in the body, the variability of biological measures was dampened considerably relative to the variation in airborne levels. Owing to the effects of intraindividual variation, estimating workers' exposures from a few measurements can attenuate measures of effect. To examine such effects on studies relating long-term exposure to a continuous health outcome, we evaluated the utility of each exposure measure by comparing the necessary sample sizes required for accurate estimation of a slope coefficient obtained from a regression analysis. No single measure outperformed the others for all groups of workers. However, when workers were evaluated together, creatinine-corrected urinary mercury better discriminated workers' exposures than airborne or blood mercury levels. Thus, pilot studies should be conducted to examine variability in both air and biomonitoring data because quantitative information about the relative magnitude of the intra- and interindividual sources of variation feeds directly into our efforts to design an optimal sampling strategy when evaluating health risks associated with occupational or environmental contaminants. Images Figure 1 PMID:10856033

  18. Deformation Studies and Elasticity Measurements of Hydrophobic Silica Aerogels using Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikode, Prashant; Sabale, Sandip; Chavan, Sugam

    2017-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is mainly used for the non-destructive testing of various materials and metals in industry, engineering and technological fields. This technique may used to study the elastic properties of materials. We have used the double exposure holographic interferometry (DEHI) to study the surface deformation and elastic constant such as Young's modulus of mechanically stressed aerogel samples. Efforts have been made in the past to use non-destructive techniques like sound velocity measurements through aerogels. Hydrophobic Silica aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel process followed by supercritical methanol drying. The molar ratio of tetramethoxysilane: methyltrimethoxysilane: H2O constant at 1.2:0.8:6 while the methanol / tetramethoxysilane molar ratio (M) was varied systematically from 14 to 20 to obtain hydrophobic silica aerogels. After applying the weights on the sample in grams, double exposure holograms of aerogel samples have been successfully recorded. Double exposure causes localization of interference fringes on the aerogel surface and these fringes are used to determine the surface deformation and elastic modulus of the aerogels and they are in good agreement with the experiments performed by using four point bending. University Grants Commission for Minor Research Project and Department of Science and Technology for FIST Program.

  19. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region.

  20. Measuring Exposure to Health Messages in Community-Based Intervention Studies: A Systematic Review of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Daniel S.; Rooney, Megan P.; Wray, Ricardo J.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately measuring exposure is critical to all intervention studies. The present review examines the extent to which best practices in exposure assessment are adhered to in community-based prevention and education studies. A systematic literature review was conducted examining community-based studies testing communication interventions,…

  1. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART I: HANDLING OBSERVATIONS BELOW DETECTION LIMITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how censoring of non-detects affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Appropriate methods for handling censored below-detection-limit (BDL) values in this context were...

  2. Field evaluation of measuring indoor noise exposure in workplace with task-based active RFID technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Chuan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Wang, Te-Shun; Wang, Peng-Yau

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the research using RFEMS (Radio Frequency Identification Exposure Monitoring System), which is designed by applying the task-based active RFID (radio frequency identification) technology, to measure the indoor noise exposure dose in a workplace. The RFEMS and sound level meter are mounted on the vests of eight workers to carry out on-site field test by monitoring the time activity pattern (TAP), and the noise dose level exposed by the workers. The data are recorded and instantaneously transmitted to a computer to be saved in the server and later compared to those obtained using the standard method. The results that have a 0.909 correlation coefficient (R(2)), and 1.64% average measure error confirm the accuracy of using RFEMS for monitoring TAP. Additionally, the combined use of RFEMS and sound level meter leads to the development of a semi noise dosimetry (SND), a real-time electronic indirect noise dosimetry (REIND), and an equivalent electronic recording indirect noise dosimetry (EEIND). The results obtained using these three devices are well correlated with the results monitored by using a PND (personal noise dosimetry) with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.915, 0.779 and 0.873, respectively. The errors of noise dose expressed in TWA (time weight average) for these three methods are 0.81, 1.57 and 1.23 dBA, respectively; they are well within the general errors of the average dosimetries. These observations indicate that the RFEMS developed in this research is applicable for conducting task-based measurements of indoor noise. It uses a relatively inexpensive sound level meter to measure the noise exposure doses that are comparable to those obtained with a standard dosimetry in addition to monitoring the worker's time activity pattern. The findings will assist in studying the source of long-term noise exposed by workers, and hence this devise is a valuable tool for tracing and monitoring long-term noise exposure with reduced manpower

  3. Characterization, Exposure Measurement and Control for Nanoscale Particles in Workplaces and on the Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y. H.

    2011-07-01

    The amount of engineered nanoparticles is increasing at a rapid rate and more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace, and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. At the same time, diesel engine emissions are one of the serious air pollution sources in urban area. Ultrafine particles on the road can result in harmful effects on the health of drivers and passengers. Research on characterization, exposure measurement and control is needed to address the environmental, health and safety issues of nanoscale particles. We present results of our studies on airborne particles in workplaces and on the road.

  4. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Motley, William R., III; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sun sensors has allowed a confirmation of the attitude of LDEF during its first year in orbit. Eight observations of the yaw angle at specific times were made and are tabulated in this paper. These values range from 4.3 to 12.4 deg with maximum uncertainty of plus or minus 2.0 deg and an average of 7.9 deg. No specific measurements of pitch or roll were made but the data indicates that LDEF had an average pitch down attitude of less than 0.7 deg.

  5. An evaluation of surrogate chemical exposure measures and autism prevalence in Texas.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, T A; Bartell, S M; Yager, J W; Levin, L

    2009-01-01

    There is currently considerable discussion in the scientific community as well as within the general public concerning the role mercury (Hg) exposures may play in the apparent increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (particularly autism) in children. Although the primary focus of this debate has focused on ethylmercury from vaccinations, linkage to other sources of Hg has been proposed. An ecologic association between 2001 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI; www.epa.gov/tri) data for Hg and 2000-2001 school district autism prevalence was previously reported in Texas. Evaluations using industrial release data as surrogate exposure measures may be problematic, particularly for chemicals like Hg that have complex environmental fates. To explore the robustness of TRI-based analyses of the Hg-autism hypothesis in Texas, a detailed analysis was undertaken examining the extent of the ecological relationship during multiple years and examining whether surrogate exposure measures would yield similar conclusions. Using multilevel Poisson regression analysis and data obtained from a number of publicly available databases, it was found that air Hg release data were significantly associated with autism prevalence in Texas school districts when considering data for 2001 and 2002 (2001: RR = 4.45, 95% CI = 1.60-12.36, 2002: RR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.17-6.15). Significant associations were not found using data from 2003 to 2005. A significant association was not observed when considering air Hg data for 2000 or 2001 and school district autism prevalence data for 2005-2006 or 2006-2007, an analysis allowing for a 5-yr time period between presumed exposure and entry into the public school system (2000: RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.59-1.83, 2001: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.59-1.47). Significant associations were not observed for any year nor for the time lagged analyses when censored autism counts were replaced by threes instead of zeros. An evaluation of TRI air emissions data for several

  6. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  7. Solar Flare Track Exposure Ages in Regolith Particles: A Calibration for Transmission Electron Microscope Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from multiple processes including: exposure to the solar wind, which results in ion damage and implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm); cosmic ray and solar flare activity, which result in track formation; and impact processes that result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. Determining the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure is critical to studies of the surface evolution of airless bodies. Solar flare energetic particles (mainly Fe-group nuclei) have a penetration depth of a few millimeters and leave a trail of ionization damage in insulating materials that is readily observable by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. The density of solar flare particle tracks is used to infer the length of time an object was at or near the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). Track measurements by TEM methods are routine, yet track production rate calibrations have only been determined using chemical etching techniques [e.g., 1, and references therein]. We used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) sample preparation techniques combined with TEM imaging to determine the track density/exposure age relations for lunar rock 64455. The 64455 sample was used earlier by [2] to determine a track production rate by chemical etching of tracks in anorthite. Here, we show that combined FIB/TEM techniques provide a more accurate determination of a track production rate and also allow us to extend the calibration to solar flare tracks in olivine.

  8. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement.

    PubMed

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J; Smith, Jordan N

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject's true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or transcellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa, and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human populations.

  9. Establishing aerosol exposure predictive models based on noise measurements--using concrete drilling as an example.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Ching-Hwa; Hsu, Der-Jen; Dai, Yu-Tung; Chang, Cheng-Ping

    2009-08-01

    This study used a full scale mockup of a concrete drilling simulator to simulate drilling processes in an exposure chamber. Six drilling conditions were selected with rotating speeds and drill bit sizes varied from 265 to 587 rpm and 16 to 32 mm, respectively. For each drilling condition, the emitted noise power spectrums were measured and dust exposure concentrations of the fractions of the total (C(tot)), inhalable (C(inh)), thoracic (C(tho)), and respirable (C(res)) were estimated. We find that neither the resultant dust exposure levels nor the noise levels can be explained simply by the involved drilling mechanical energy. By dividing the emitted noise power spectrums into the high and low frequency noise (i.e., W(H) and W(L)), we find that 86.3%, 85.6%, 81.5%, and 77.6% variations of C(tot), C(inh), C(tho), and C(res) could be explained by the combination of W(H) and W(L), respectively. We also find that the emissions of coarse particles and W(L) were possibly contributed by two mechanisms of the impact wear and brittle fracture wear, whereas fine particles and W(H) could be contributed by the mechanism of abrasive wear. Although the predictive models obtained from this study could not be directly used in other dust emission sources, the developed methodology would be beneficial to industries in the future for aerosol exposure assessment, particularly when conducting conventional personal aerosol samplings is not possible in the field.

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    PubMed

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law.

  11. Validation of brief questionnaire measures of sun exposure and skin pigmentation against detailed and objective measures including vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Jessica; Lucas, Robyn M; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Allen, Martin W; Banks, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported sun exposure is commonly used in research, but how well this represents actual sun exposure is poorly understood. From February to July 2011, a volunteer sample (n = 47) of older adults (≥45 years) in Canberra, Australia, answered brief questions on time outdoors (weekdays and weekends) and natural skin color. They subsequently maintained a sun diary and wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) digital dosimeter for 7 days. Melanin density was estimated using reflectance spectrophotometry; lifetime sun damage was assessed using silicone casts of the back of the hand; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was assayed. Questionnaire-reported time outdoors correlated significantly with diary-recorded time outdoors (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.80; P < 0.001) and UVR dosimeter dose (r(s ) = 0.46; 95% CI 0.18, 0.68; P = 0.003), but not 25(OH)D concentration (r(s) = 0.24; 95% CI -0.05, 0.50; P = 0.10). Questionnaire-reported untanned skin color correlated significantly with measured melanin density at the inner upper arm (r(s) = 0.49; 95% CI 0.24, 0.68; P < 0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, statistically significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentration were self-reported frequency of physical activity, skin color and recent osteoporosis treatment (R(2) = 0.54). In this study, brief questionnaire items provided valid rankings of sun exposure and skin color, and enabled the development of a predictive model for 25(OH)D concentration.

  12. Measurement and modeling of exposure to selected air toxics for health effects studies and verification by biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roy M; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Baker, Stephen J; Aquilina, Noel; Meddings, Claire; Harrad, Stuart; Matthews, Ian; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Anderson, H Ross

    2009-06-01

    The overall aim of our investigation was to quantify the magnitude and range of individual personal exposures to a variety of air toxics and to develop models for exposure prediction on the basis of time-activity diaries. The specific research goals were (1) to use personal monitoring of non-smokers at a range of residential locations and exposures to non-traffic sources to assess daily exposures to a range of air toxics, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 1,3-butadiene and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) to determine microenvironmental concentrations of the same air toxics, taking account of spatial and temporal variations and hot spots; (3) to optimize a model of personal exposure using microenvironmental concentration data and time-activity diaries and to compare modeled exposures with exposures independently estimated from personal monitoring data; (4) to determine the relationships of urinary biomarkers with the environmental exposures to the corresponding air toxic. Personal exposure measurements were made using an actively pumped personal sampler enclosed in a briefcase. Five 24-hour integrated personal samples were collected from 100 volunteers with a range of exposure patterns for analysis of VOCs and 1,3-butadiene concentrations of ambient air. One 24-hour integrated PAH personal exposure sample was collected by each subject concurrently with 24 hours of the personal sampling for VOCs. During the period when personal exposures were being measured, workplace and home concentrations of the same air toxics were being measured simultaneously, as were seasonal levels in other microenvironments that the subjects visit during their daily activities, including street microenvironments, transport microenvironments, indoor environments, and other home environments. Information about subjects' lifestyles and daily activities were recorded by means of questionnaires and activity diaries. VOCs were collected in tubes packed

  13. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Background While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology. PMID:26589255

  14. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  15. Validation of exposure time for discharge measurements made with two bottom-tracking acoustic doppler current profilers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, J.A.; Oberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work by Oberg and Mueller of the U.S. Geological Survey in 2007 concluded that exposure time (total time spent sampling the flow) is a critical factor in reducing measurement uncertainty. In a subsequent paper, Oberg and Mueller validated these conclusions using one set of data to show that the effect of exposure time on the uncertainty of the measured discharge is independent of stream width, depth, and range of boat speeds. Analysis of eight StreamPro acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements indicate that they fall within and show a similar trend to the Rio Grande ADCP data previously reported. Four special validation measurements were made for the purpose of verifying the conclusions of Oberg and Mueller regarding exposure time for Rio Grande and StreamPro ADCPs. Analysis of these measurements confirms that exposure time is a critical factor in reducing measurement uncertainty and is independent of stream width, depth, and range of boat speeds. Furthermore, it appears that the relation between measured discharge uncertainty and exposure time is similar for both Rio Grande and StreamPro ADCPs. These results are applicable to ADCPs that make use of broadband technology using bottom-tracking to obtain the boat velocity. Based on this work, a minimum of two transects should be collected with an exposure time for all transects greater than or equal to 720 seconds in order to achieve an uncertainty of ??5 percent when using bottom-tracking ADCPs. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  16. Self-reported and measured stress related responses associated with exposure to wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; Villeneuve, Paul J; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    The current study was the first to assess stress reactions associated with wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure using self-reported and objective measures. Randomly selected participants, aged 18-79 yr (606 males; 632 females), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines, were exposed to outdoor calculated WTN levels up to 46 dBA (response rate 78.9%). Multiple regression modeling left the great majority (77%-89%) of the variance in perceived stress scale (PSS) scores, hair cortisol concentrations, resting blood pressure, and heart rate unaccounted for, and WTN exposure had no apparent influence on any of these endpoints. PSS scores were positively, but weakly, related to cortisol concentrations and resting heart rate (Pearson r = 0.13 and r = 0.08, respectively). Across WTN categories, modeled mean PSS scores ranged from 13.15 to 13.84 (p = 0.8614). Modeled geometric means for hair cortisol concentrations, resting mean systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were 150.54-191.12 ng/g (p = 0.5416), 113.38-116.82 mmHg (p = 0.4990), 67.98-70.34 mmHg (p = 0.5006), and 68.24-70.71 bpm (p = 0.5223), respectively. Irrespective of WTN levels, diastolic blood pressure appeared to be slightly (2.90 mmHg 95% CI: 0.75,5.05) higher among participants highly annoyed by blinking lights on turbines (p = 0.0081). Collectively, the findings do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and elevated self-reported and objectively defined measures of stress.

  17. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    PubMed

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered.

  18. The GeoProfile metadata, exposure of instruments, and measurement bias in climatic record revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rezaul; Foster, Stuart A.; Logan, David

    2006-06-01

    Station metadata plays a critical role in the accurate assessment of climate data and eventually of climatic change, climate variability, and climate prediction. However, current procedures of metadata collection are insufficient for these purposes. This paper introduces the GeoProfile as a model for documenting and visualizing enhanced spatial metadata. In addition to traditional metadata archiving, GeoProfiles integrate meso-scale topography, slope, aspect, and land-use data from the vicinity of climate observing stations (http://kyclim.wku.edu/tmp/geoprofiles/geoprofiles_main.html). We describe how GeoProfiles are created using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and demonstrate how they may be used to help identify measurement bias in climate observations due to undesired instrument exposures and the subsequent forcings of micro- and meso-environments. A study involving 12 COOP and US Historical Climate Network (USHCN) stations finds that undesirable instrument exposures associated with both anthropogenic and natural influences resulted in biased measurement of temperature. Differences in average monthly maximum and minimum temperatures between proximate stations are as large as 1.6 and 3.8 °C, respectively. In addition, it is found that the difference in average extreme monthly minimum temperatures can be as high as 3.6 °C between nearby stations, largely owing to the differences in instrument exposures. Likewise, the difference in monthly extreme maximum temperatures between neighboring stations are as large as 2.4 °C. This investigation finds similar differences in the diurnal temperature range (DTR). GeoProfiles helped us to identify meso-scale forcing, e.g. instruments on a south-facing slope and topography, in addition to forcing of micro-scale setting.

  19. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  20. A Simulation Study of Categorizing Continuous Exposure Variables Measured with Error in Autism Research: Small Changes with Large Effects.

    PubMed

    Heavner, Karyn; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-08-24

    Variation in the odds ratio (OR) resulting from selection of cutoffs for categorizing continuous variables is rarely discussed. We present results for the effect of varying cutoffs used to categorize a mismeasured exposure in a simulated population in the context of autism spectrum disorders research. Simulated cohorts were created with three distinct exposure-outcome curves and three measurement error variances for the exposure. ORs were calculated using logistic regression for 61 cutoffs (mean ± 3 standard deviations) used to dichotomize the observed exposure. ORs were calculated for five categories with a wide range for the cutoffs. For each scenario and cutoff, the OR, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. The three exposure-outcome relationships had distinctly shaped OR (versus cutoff) curves, but increasing measurement error obscured the shape. At extreme cutoffs, there was non-monotonic oscillation in the ORs that cannot be attributed to "small numbers." Exposure misclassification following categorization of the mismeasured exposure was differential, as predicted by theory. Sensitivity was higher among cases and specificity among controls. Cutoffs chosen for categorizing continuous variables can have profound effects on study results. When measurement error is not too great, the shape of the OR curve may provide insight into the true shape of the exposure-disease relationship.

  1. HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

  2. Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to validate these surrogates against measured pollutant co...

  3. Smokeless tobacco brand switching: A means to reduce toxicant exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, D.K.; Ebbert, J.O.; Anderson, A.; Lin, H.; Le, C.; Hecht, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or a waitlist control with subsequent randomization to one of these two conditions. The waitlist control group was included to assess whether changes were a consequence of time effect. During the intervention, Copenhagen or Kodiak ST users were asked to switch to products that were sequentially lower in nicotine content: Skoal Long Cut Original or Wintergreen for 4 weeks and then Skoal Bandits for the subsequent 4 weeks. Measures were obtained during the course of treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Significant reductions in total urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-l-(3 pyridyl) l-butanol (NNAL) plus its glucuronides (total NNAL) were observed with no significant differences between the controlled topography and ad libitum conditions. Significant reductions were also observed in the amount and duration of dips with a significant intervention effect for durational measures. At 12 weeks, the 7-day biochemically-verified tobacco abstinent rate was 26% in the ad libitum group. ST brand switching may be a feasible alternative intervention for ST users interested in quitting but unwilling to stop ST use completely. PMID:16996230

  4. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development.

  5. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  6. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  7. Compensating measured intra-wafer ring oscillator stage delay with intra-wafer exposure dose corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Staf; Nackaerts, Axel; Dusa, Mircea; Carpaij, Rene; Vandenberghe, Geert; Finders, Jo

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use measurements on real working devices to derive more information than typically measured by the classic line-width measurement techniques. The first part of the paper will discuss the principle of the measurements with a ring oscillator, a circuit used to measure the speed of elementary logic gates. These measurements contribute to the understanding of the exact timing dependencies in circuits, which is of utmost importance for the design and simulation of these circuits. When connecting an odd number of digital inverting stages in a ring, the circuit has no stable digital state but acts as an analog oscillator with the oscillation frequency dependent on the analog propagation delay of the signals through the stages. By varying some conditions during a litho step, the delay change caused by the process condition change can be measured very accurately. The response of the ring oscillator delay to exposure dose is measured and presented in this paper together with a comparison of measured line-width values of the poly gate lines. The second part of the paper will focus on improving the intra-wafer variation of the stage delay. A number of ring oscillators are put in a design at different slit and scan locations. 200mm wafers are processed with 48 full dies present. From the intra-wafer delay fingerprint and the dose sensitivity of the delay an intra-wafer dose correction, also called a dose recipe, is calculated. This dose recipe is used on the scanner to compensate for effects that are the root cause for the delay profile; including reticle and processing such as track, etch and annealing.

  8. Miniaturized implantable sensors for in vivo localized temperature measurements in mice during cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Padovani, R; Lehnert, T; Cettour-Rose, P; Doenlen, R; Auwerx, J; Gijs, M A M

    2016-02-01

    We report on in vivo temperature measurements performed in mice at two specific sites of interest in the animal body over a period of several hours. In particular, the aim of this work was to monitor mouse metabolism during cold exposure, and to record possible temperature differences between the body temperature measured in the abdomen and the temperature of the brown adipose tissue (BAT) situated in the interscapular area. This approach is of biological interest as it may help unravelling the question whether biochemical activation of BAT is associated with local increase in metabolic heat production. For that purpose, miniaturized thermistor sensors have been accurately calibrated and implanted in the BAT and in the abdominal tissue of mice. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, mice were exposed to cold (6 °C) for a maximum duration of 6 h and the temperature was acquired continuously from the two sensors. Control measurements with a conventional rectal probe confirmed good performance of both sensors. Moreover, two different mouse phenotypes could be identified, distinguishable in terms of their metabolic resistance to cold exposure. This difference was analyzed from the thermal point of view by computational simulations. Our simple physical model of the mouse body allowed to reproduce the global evolution of hypothermia and also to explain qualitatively the temperature difference between abdomen and BAT locations. While with our approach, we have demonstrated the importance and feasibility of localized temperature measurements on mice, further optimization of this technique may help better identify local metabolism variations.

  9. SU-E-I-19: CTDI Values for All Protocols: Using the Ratio of the DLP Measured in CTDI Phantoms to the Measured Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Raterman, G; Gauntt, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a method other than CTDI phantom measurements for routine CT dosimetry QA. This consists of taking a series of air exposure measurements and calculating a factor for converting from this exposure measurement to the protocol's associated head or body CTDI value using DLP. The data presented are the ratios of phantom DLP to air exposure ratios for different scanners, as well as error in the displayed CTDI. Methods: For each scanner, the CTDI is measured at all available tube voltages using both the head and body phantoms. Then, the exposure is measured using a pencil chamber in air at isocenter. A ratio of phantom DLP to exposure in air for a given protocol may be calculated and used for converting a simple air dose measurement to a head or body CTDI value. For our routine QA, the exposure in air for different collimations, mAs, and kVp is measured, and displayed CTDI is recorded. Therefore, the ratio calculated may convert these exposures to CTDI values that may then be compared to the displayed CTDI for a large range of acquisition parameter combinations. Results: It was found that all scanners tend to have a ratio factor that slightly increases with kVp. Also, Philips scanners appear to have less of a dependence on kVp; whereas, GE scanners have a lower ratio at lower kVp. The use of air exposure times the DLP conversion yielded CTDI values that were less than 10% different from the displayed CTDI on several scanners. Conclusion: This method may be used as a primary method for CT dosimetry QA. As a result of the ease of measurement, a dosimetry metric specific to that scanner may be calculated for a wide variety of CT protocols, which could also be used to monitor display CTDI value accuracy.

  10. SAR measurement due to mobile phone exposure in a simulated biological media.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Nirala, Jay Prakash

    2012-09-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements are carried out for compliance testing of personal 3G Mobile phone. The accuracy of this experimental setup has been checked by comparing the SAR in 10 gm of simulated tissue and an arbitrary shaped box. This has been carried out using a 3G mobile Phone at 1718.5 MHz, in a medium simulating brain and muscle phantom. The SAR measurement system consists of a stepper motor to move a monopole E-field probe in two dimensions inside an arbitrary shaped box. The phantom is filled with appropriate frequency-specific fluids with measured electrical properties (dielectric constant and conductivity). That is close to the average for gray and white matters of the brain at the frequencies of interest (1718.5 MHz). Induced fields are measured using a specially designed monopole probe in its close vicinity. The probe is immersed in the phantom material. The measured data for induced fields are used to compute SAR values at various locations with respect to the mobile phone location. It is concluded that these SAR values are position dependent and well below the safety criteria prescribed for human exposure.

  11. Measurement of visual readaptation time after flash exposure using optokinetic nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Söderberg, P G; Tengroth, B

    1993-12-01

    It is concluded that measurement of visual readaptation time (RAT) using optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a repeatable measure of visual recovery after flash exposure. The semi-automatic method for measurement of RAT used here requires further development, but it is anticipated that the improved method will provide an efficient tool for increased understanding of the physiology of flash blindness. In this study on humans, it was found that if RAT is recorded twice on the same occasion, the second RAT is shorter. However, there was no systematic difference between RAT recordings on consecutive occasions. The newly developed semi-automatic method was found to provide RATs comparable to those obtained by manual measurement on a paper print out of EOG recordings. In RAT estimation, the variability between subjects shadows other sources of random variability. The least number of subjects needed in each group to detect a 20% alteration of RAT due to an experimental factor (alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.05) was estimated to 13 with independent groups design. For paired design < 10 are needed. OKN was elicited with a horizontally moving vertical grating. The eye movement was recorded by DC EOG. A sudden flash of green light temporarily abolished the OKN. The internal between the flash and the reappearance of OKN was measured as the RAT.

  12. Validation of a radial diffusive sampler for measuring occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Paci, Enrico; Sacco, Paolo; Pigini, Daniela; Zaratin, Laura; Cottica, Danilo; Scapellato, Maria L; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2014-08-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a major industrial chemical used in the manufacture of rubbers and latexes; it is also a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose major source is traffic. Occupational exposure to (BD) can occur both during its production and during its use as a raw material. The objective of the study was the laboratory and field validation of a new diffusive sampler for BD. The nominal sampling rate of the Radiello diffusive sampler filled with Carbopack X is 30.5 cm(3)/min, at 0.177 mg/m(3), 20 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH), for an 8-h exposure time. A model can be used for calculating the sampling rate as a function of temperature, time and RH. The concentration does not affect the sampling rate above 30 μg/m(3). The measurement uncertainty (k=2), calculated both by laboratory data and by field comparison according to International Standard Organization (ISO) 13752, satisfies the EN 482:2006 requirement for measurements between 0.1 and 0.5 times the threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) (uncertainty<50%). For field validation study, 38 workers exposed to BD and 20 administrative employees, as the control group, underwent environmental and biological monitoring. Personal exposure to BD was measured by diffusive samplers (Radiello) in comparison with active samplers. The BD exposure levels detected for the exposed subjects were low (mean 0.059, range <0.010-1.340 mg/m(3)) but higher than the controls levels, all below 0.010 mg/m(3). The comparison between diffusive and active (pumped) air sampling showed a good correlation, with no systematic deviation from the ideal values of the intercept and slope of the optimized regression line. The concentrations of two biomarkers were also determined on urine samples, collected at the end of the work-shift: unchanged BD, by GC-MS, and the metabolite dihydroxybutylmercapturic acid (DHBMA), by HPLC-MS/MS. The urinary excretion of the biomarkers was on average higher in the exposed group (urinary BD

  13. Geltape method for measurement of work related surface contamination with cobalt containing dust: correlation between surface contamination and airborne exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed

  14. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine exposures and cancer risk in the Shanghai Cohort Study: remarkable coherence with rat tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Irina; Sebero, Erin; Wang, Renwei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hecht, Stephen S; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-05-15

    The tobacco-specific nitrosamines N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are potent carcinogens for the rat esophagus and lung, respectively. Consistent with the animal carcinogenicity data, we previously reported a remarkably strong association between prospectively measured urinary total NNN, a biomarker of human NNN intake, and the risk of developing esophageal cancer among smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study. We also demonstrated that urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a biomarker of exposure to the lung carcinogen NNK, is strongly associated with the risk of lung, but not esophageal cancer in smokers. In this study, we investigated the potential relationship between NNN intake and lung cancer risk in the same cohort. The prospectively collected urine samples from lung cancer cases and matching controls selected for this study, all current smokers, have been previously analyzed for total NNAL, cotinine (a biomarker of nicotine intake) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT) (a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Urinary levels of total NNN were not associated with the risk of lung cancer: odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with the second and third tertiles of total NNN, relative to the lowest tertile, were 0.82 (0.36-1.88) and 1.02 (0.39-2.89), respectively (p for trend = 0.959), after adjustment for self-reported smoking history, urinary cotinine and PheT. The results of this study reaffirm the previously reported specificity of urinary total NNN and total NNAL as predictors of esophageal and lung cancer risks, respectively, in smokers, and demonstrate remarkable coherence between rat target tissues of these carcinogens and susceptibility to cancer in smokers.

  15. Chinese population exposure to triclosan and triclocarban as measured via human urine and nails.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Wei, Ling; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Qingqing; Shao, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) exposures are highly concerned due to their suspected endocrine-disrupting effects. The present study investigated TCS and TCC exposure levels in the general Chinese population by biomonitoring human urine and nail samples. TCS (69-80 %) and TCC (99-100 %) were frequently detected, which demonstrates that the general Chinese population has extensive exposure to these chemicals. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were 0.40 μg/g creatinine (creat), 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.56, for TCS and 0.40 μg/g creat, 95 % CI 0.29-0.56, for TCC. On the other hand, the GM levels of TCS and TCC were 13.57 (5.67 μg/kg) and 84.66 μg/kg (41.50 μg/kg) in fingernail (toenail) samples, respectively, indicating that the levels in fingernails were approximately twice as high as those in toenails. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the urine and fingernail (toenail) samples were 0.715 (0.614) for TCS and 0.829 (0.812) for TCC. These data suggest that nail samples can be applied to the biomonitoring for TCS and TCC in the general population. We observed that the levels of both chemicals were higher in females than in males for urine and fingernail samples, but no significant differences were found between different genders for either compound in toenails. Nineteen- to 29-year-olds had the highest TCS levels in their nail samples, whereas TCC levels did not differ with regard to age. Region of residence significantly influenced TCS and TCC concentrations in the three biological matrices measured.

  16. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  17. Personal measurement of exposure to black carbon and ultrafine particles in schoolchildren from PARIS cohort (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    Paunescu, A-C; Attoui, M; Bouallala, S; Sunyer, J; Momas, I

    2016-11-22

    This study aimed to measure in French children personal exposure concentrations of black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP) and to quantify the contribution of different microenvironments (home, school, places of extracurricular activities, transport) to their total exposure. It was conducted on 96 9-year-old children from the PARIS birth cohort. BC and UFP were continuously measured by portable devices (microAeth(®) AE51 and DiSCmini(®) ) for a minimum of 24 hours, while participating families simultaneously filled in a space-time-activities-budget questionnaire. BC exposure concentration was higher during trips (principally metro/train and bus), while UFP exposure concentration was higher during indoor activities (mainly eating at restaurants) and in trips. The most important UFP peaks were measured at home, especially during cooking. Home and school together accounted for much of the total exposure, 83.8% for BC and 85.3% for UFP. The contribution of transport to total exposure was 12.4% for BC and 9.7% for UFP, while extracurricular activities were responsible for 3.8% and 5% of the total exposure to BC and UFP, respectively.

  18. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  19. Stable and Unstable Chromosome Aberrations Measured after Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fučić, Aleksandra; Želježić, Davor; Kašuba, Vilena; Kopjar, Nevenka; Rozgaj, Ružica; Lasan, Ružica; Mijić, August; Hitrec, Vlasta; Lucas, Joe Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate chromosome aberration and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays as a method to estimate of health risk, we monitored 9 male subjects occupationally exposed to low doses of both ionizing radiation and ultrasound during a period of over 3 years. Methods Sampling was performed at 6-month intervals during a three-year period. First we used conventional chromosomal aberrations analysis. When the aberration frequency for a particular subject reached the background, we measured translocations in the final sample, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were used simultaneously. Results Dicentric and ring chromosomes were eliminated within a year. Translocations persisted and deviated from control values in all examinees. Translocations were detected long after unstable aberrations decreased to the background level. Conclusion Fluorescence in situ hybridization-based translocation detection was a reliable method for monitoring chronic occupational clastogen exposure. Chromosome aberration assay correlated with translocation frequency. Stable chromosomal aberrations reflected cumulative genome damage during job exposure. PMID:17589981

  20. Measuring exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation using a dosimetric technique: understanding participant compliance issues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiandong; Lucas, Robyn M; Harrison, Simone L; van der Mei, Ingrid; Whiteman, David C; Mason, Rebecca; Nowak, Madeleine; Brodie, Alison M; Kimlin, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Personal ultraviolet dosimeters have been used in epidemiological studies to understand the risks and benefits of individuals' exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We investigated the types and determinants of noncompliance associated with a protocol for use of polysulphone UVR dosimeters. In the AusD Study, 1002 Australian adults (aged 18-75 years) were asked to wear a new dosimeter on their wrist each day for 10 consecutive days to quantify their daily exposure to solar UVR. Of the 10 020 dosimeters distributed, 296 (3%) were not returned or used (Type-I noncompliance) and other usage errors were reported for 763 (8%) returned dosimeters (Type-II noncompliance). Type-I errors were more common in participants with predominantly outdoor occupations. Type-II errors were reported more frequently on the first day of measurement; weekend days or rainy days; and among females; younger people; more educated participants or those with outdoor occupations. Half (50%) the participants reported a noncompliance error on at least 1 day during the 10-day period. However, 92% of participants had at least 7 days of usable data without any apparent noncompliance issues. The factors identified should be considered when designing future UVR dosimetry studies.

  1. Calculations of the Human Vitamin D Exposure from UV Spectral Measurements at Three European Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempila, M. M.; Kazantzidis, A.; Bais, A. F.; Kazadzis, S.; den Outer, P. N.; Koskela, T.; Slaper, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Since the realization that the ozone protective layer was at risk from the build-up of anthropogenic trace gases in the atmosphere, there has been an increased interest in understanding the trends and variability of the solar UV radiation received at the surface of the earth. But during the last few decades an unfolding controversy has risen. It was found out that the exposure to the solar UVB radiation is responsible for the cutaneous production of Vitamin D, a vitamin which is essential for the bone metabolism and for the calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. For this research study, we have processed quality-checked spectral UV irradiance measurements from three European stations (Jokioinen, Finland, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, and Thessaloniki, Greece) and the vitamin D effective doses (VDED) are calculated. As expected, the maximum VDED are observed during the second half of June, revealing the dominant effect of low solar zenith angles and cloudiness. Also the average VDED at local noon reveal that the cutaneous production of the Vitamin D can be feasible throughout the year in Bilthoven and Thessaloniki. Even for an exposure of one hour around local noon the proposed vitamin D standard dose (SDD) cannot be attained for all skin types under physiological atmospheric conditions at Jokioinen and Bilthoven.

  2. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. . Dept. of Environmental Medicine); Stark, A.; Ju, C. . Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology)

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210.

  3. [Nurses in leading positions and measures to prevent occupational exposure: facilities and barriers].

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Silmara Elaine; Hayashida, Miyeko; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Gir, Elucir

    2008-09-01

    This descriptive study aimed to assess the facilities and barriers that nurses in leading positions endure with respect to the nursing team's compliance to measures for preventing occupational exposure involving biological materials, based on Rosenstock's Health Belief Model. The study was carried out with 87 nurses of a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2006. Data were collected through a semistructured form with open and closed questions and analyzed through Content Analysis. Individual protection equipment was mentioned as the greatest form for preventing accidents, but lack of compliance to usage and incorrect use were indicated as barriers to accident prevention and as the main reasons for their occurrence. It is important for these nurses to be prepared to develop individualized and motivating strategies focused on compliance to the use of individual protection equipment in their work sectors.

  4. The measurement and facilitation of cooperative task performance. [reactions of humans to stress exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine under what conditions jaw clenching will occur in humans as a response to stress exposure. The method for measuring reactions to stress involves a series of electrical recordings of the masseter and temporalis muscles. A high fixed-ratio response requirement in the first series of experiments shows that jaw clenching in humans occurs in situations analogous to those which produce biting in infrahuman subjects. In the second series, reduction in the amounts of money recieved by subjects is shown to cause increases in the jaw clench response and other negative effect motor behaviors. The third series demonstrates that perception of more favorable conditions existing for another person can increase anger and hostility in the subject.

  5. Long Duration Exposure Facility post-flight data as it influences the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is an earth observing satellite that will be in a low earth orbit (350 kilometers) during the next period of maximum solar activity. The TRMM observatory is expected to experience an atomic oxygen fluence of 8.9 x 10(exp 22) atoms per square centimeter. This fluence is ten times higher than the atomic oxygen impingement incident to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Other environmental concerns on TRMM include: spacecraft glow, silicon oxide contaminant build-up, severe spacecraft material degradation, and contamination deposition resulting from molecular interactions with the dense ambient atmosphere. Because of TRMM's predicted harsh environment, TRMM faces many unique material concerns and subsystem design issues. The LDEF data has influenced the design of TRMM and the TRMM material selection process.

  6. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  7. Flying the smoky skies: secondhand smoke exposure of flight attendants

    PubMed Central

    Repace, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of secondhand smoke (SHS) to aircraft cabin air pollution and flight attendants' SHS exposure relative to the general population. Methods: Published air quality measurements, modelling studies, and dosimetry studies were reviewed, analysed, and generalised. Results: Flight attendants reported suffering greatly from SHS pollution on aircraft. Both government and airline sponsored studies concluded that SHS created an air pollution problem in aircraft cabins, while tobacco industry sponsored studies yielding similar data concluded that ventilation controlled SHS, and that SHS pollution levels were low. Between the time that non-smoking sections were established on US carriers in 1973, and the two hour US smoking ban in 1988, commercial aircraft ventilation rates had declined three times as fast as smoking prevalence. The aircraft cabin provided the least volume and lowest ventilation rate per smoker of any social venue, including stand up bars and smoking lounges, and afforded an abnormal respiratory environment. Personal monitors showed little difference in SHS exposures between flight attendants assigned to smoking sections and those assigned to non-smoking sections of aircraft cabins. Conclusions: In-flight air quality measurements in ~250 aircraft, generalised by models, indicate that when smoking was permitted aloft, 95% of the harmful respirable suspended particle (RSP) air pollution in the smoking sections and 85% of that in the non-smoking sections of aircraft cabins was caused by SHS. Typical levels of SHS-RSP on aircraft violated current (PM2.5) federal air quality standards ~threefold for flight attendants, and exceeded SHS irritation thresholds by 10 to 100 times. From cotinine dosimetry, SHS exposure of typical flight attendants in aircraft cabins is estimated to have been >6-fold that of the average US worker and ~14-fold that of the average person. Thus, ventilation systems massively failed to control SHS air

  8. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

  9. Identification of Surrogate Measures of Diesel Exhaust Exposure in a Controlled Chamber Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with acute cardiopulmonary and vascular responses, chronic noncancer health effects, and respiratory cancers in humans. To better understand DE exposures and eventually their related health effects, we established a controlled c...

  10. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement error and effect attenuation in bi-pollutant epidemiologic models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates f...

  11. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement errors and effect attenuation in bi-pollutant epidemiologic models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using multipollutant models to understand the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, the complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from ...

  12. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

  13. Short-term metal particulate exposures decrease cardiac acceleration and deceleration capacities in welders: a repeated-measures panel study

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Fang, Shona C; Lu, Chensheng; Lin, Xihong; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) capacities measure heart rate variability during speeding up and slowing down of the heart, respectively. We investigated associations between AC and DC with occupational short-term metal PM2.5 exposures. Methods A panel of 48 male welders had particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) exposure measurements over 4–6 h repeated over 5 sampling periods between January 2010 and June 2012. We simultaneously obtained continuous recordings of digital ECG using a Holter monitor. We analysed ECG data in the time domain to obtain hourly AC and DC. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations between hourly PM2.5 exposure and each of hourly AC and DC, controlling for age, smoking status, active smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, season/time of day when ECG reading was obtained and baseline AC or DC. We also ran lagged exposure response models for each successive hour up to 3 h after onset of exposure. Results Mean (SD) shift PM2.5 exposure during welding was 0.47 (0.43) mg/m3. Significant exposure–response associations were found for AC and DC with increased PM2.5 exposure. In our adjusted models without any lag between exposure and response, a 1 mg/m3 increase of PM2.5 was associated with a decrease of 1.46 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.92) ms in AC and a decrease of 1.00 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.46) ms in DC. The effect of PM2.5 on AC and DC was maximal immediately postexposure and lasted 1 h following exposure. Conclusions There are short-term effects of metal particulates on AC and DC. PMID:26644456

  14. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  15. THE EPA/ORD/NERL'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS PROGRAM - CHILDREN'S FOCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  16. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's exposures to pesticides and chemicals in consumer products may be different, and in some cases, higher than exposures for adults. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to gain a better understanding of children's exposures and the fac...

  17. Biomarker measurements in a coastal fish-eating population environmentally exposed to organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Lambert, George H; Perkins, Sherry L; Poon, Raymond; Feeley, Mark; Larochelle, Christian; Pereg, Daria

    2005-10-01

    The Lower North Shore region of the St. Lawrence River is home to a fish-eating population that displays an unusually high body burden of several organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). We measured biomarkers indicative of liver enzyme induction and investigated the relationship with organochlorine body burden in adult volunteers from this population. We determined plasma concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron capture detection. DLC concentrations were measured by the dioxin-receptor chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay and in a subset of participants, by HRGC/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We measured cotinine, d-glucaric acid, and porphyrins in morning urine samples and determined liver CYP1A2 activity in vivo using the caffeine breath test. Neither DLC concentrations as measured by the DR-CALUX nor PCB-153 concentrations, the latter representing total PCB exposure, were correlated with biomarkers of effects. Smoking (morning urinary cotinine concentration) was positively related to CYP1A2 activity as measured by the caffeine breath test (p < 0.01). Liver CYP1A2 activity was in turn negatively correlated with PCB-105:PCB-153 and PCB-118:PCB-153 congener ratios (p < 0.05). Hence, despite the relatively high body burden of PCBs and DLCs in this population, only smoking had a significant correlation with biomarkers of hepatic enzyme induction. Our data are consistent with smoking-induced liver CYP1A2 activity altering heme metabolism and increasing the biotransformation of mono-ortho PCB congeners.

  18. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p's<.33). All effect sizes were small (partial etas squared ⩽.015). Manipulation checks confirmed that the intended hunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures.

  19. Agreement of land use regression models with personal exposure measurements of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides air pollution.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Denise; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Lanki, Timo; Pennanen, Arto; Portella, Meritxell; Meliefste, Kees; Eeftens, Marloes; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cirach, Marta; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-08-06

    Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict long-term average concentrations of air pollutants. Little is known how well LUR models predict personal exposure. In this study, the agreement of LUR models with measured personal exposure was assessed. The measured components were particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), soot (reflectance of PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona, 15 volunteers (from semiurban, urban background, and traffic sites) followed prescribed time activity patterns. Per participant, six 96 h outdoor, indoor, and personal measurements spread over three seasons were conducted. Soot LUR models were significantly correlated with measured average outdoor and personal soot concentrations. Soot LUR models explained 39%, 44%, and 20% of personal exposure variability (R(2)) in Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona. NO2 LUR models significantly predicted outdoor concentrations and personal exposure in Utrecht and Helsinki, whereas NOx and PM2.5 LUR models did not predict personal exposure. PM2.5, NO2, and NOx models were correlated with personal soot, the component least affected by indoor sources. LUR modeled and measured outdoor, indoor, and personal concentrations were highly correlated for all pollutants when data from the three cities were combined. This study supports the use of intraurban LUR models for especially soot in air pollution epidemiology.

  20. Exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood rhinitis: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Chang, Su-Wei; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Tsai, Ming-Han; Liao, Sui-Ling; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Yu-Lun; Lin, Wan-Chen; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Huang, Jing-Long

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke has been associated with harmful effects on child health. The association between tobacco smoke exposure and childhood rhinitis has not been established in developed or developing countries. We investigated the association between serum cotinine levels and rhinitis in a population sample of 1,315 Asian children. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with rhinitis ever (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–7.60) and current rhinitis (AOR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.07–6.89), while the association for physician-diagnosed rhinitis approaching borderline significance (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI: 0.88–5.83). Stratified analyses demonstrated significant association of serum cotinine levels with current rhinitis among children without allergic sensitization (AOR = 6.76; 95% CI: 1.21–37.74), but not among those with allergic sensitization. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with rhinitis ever (AOR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.05–10.61) and current rhinitis (AOR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.28–13.97) among adolescents but not in children aged less than 10 years. This population-based study demonstrates supportive evidence for positive association of tobacco smoke exposure with rhinitis, while the effect is mainly confined to non-allergic rhinitis and more pronounced in adolescents than in young children, highlighting the need for raising public health awareness about the detrimental effects of tobacco smoke exposure on children’s respiratory health. PMID:28205626

  1. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  2. Simultaneous determination of chromium, cadmium, and lead and evaluation of the correlation between chromium and cotinine in Chinese smokers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongfeng; Hou, Hongwei; Zhu, Fengpeng; Wang, An; Liu, Yong; Hu, Qingyuan

    2014-04-01

    Heavy metals in tobacco caused wide public concern. To study the impact of heavy metals in smokers, 193 smokers and 58 nonsmokers were surveyed, and their urinary levels of chromium (UCr), lead (UPb), and cadmium (UCd) were assayed. In this study, UCr, UPb, and UCd in smokers (33.41 ± 14.99, 3.21 ± 1.34, 0.38 ± 0.64 μg/24 h, respectively) and nonsmokers (27.45 ± 10.49, 3.02 ± 0.88, 0.20 ± 0.16 μg/24 h, respectively) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that the content of UCr, UPb, and UCd in smokers were higher than in nonsmokers. Further analyses of correlations between the levels of urinary chromium and cotinine revealed positive relationship (correlation coefficient r = 0.51).

  3. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Artery Embolization: Effective Measures to Minimize Dose to the Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; Powerski, Maciej J.; Mueller, Johann-Christoph; Kroencke, Thomas J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeEvaluation of patient radiation exposure during uterine artery embolization (UAE) and literature review to identify techniques minimizing required dose.MethodsA total of 224 of all included 286 (78 %) women underwent UAE according to a standard UAE-protocol (bilateral UAE from unilateral approach using a Rösch inferior mesenteric and a microcatheter, no aortography, no ovarian artery catheterization or embolization) and were analyzed for radiation exposure. Treatment was performed on three different generations of angiography systems: (I) new generation flat-panel detector (N = 108/151); (II) classical image amplifier and pulsed fluoroscopy (N = 79/98); (III) classical image amplifier and continuous fluoroscopy (N = 37/37). Fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose-area product (DAP) were documented. Whenever possible, the following dose-saving measures were applied: optimized source-object, source-image, and object-image distances, pulsed fluoroscopy, angiographic runs in posterior-anterior direction with 0.5 frames per second, no magnification, tight collimation, no additional aortography.ResultsIn a standard bilateral UAE, the use of the new generation flat-panel detector in group I led to a significantly lower DAP of 3,156 cGy × cm{sup 2} (544–45,980) compared with 4,000 cGy × cm{sup 2} (1,400–13,000) in group II (P = 0.033). Both doses were significantly lower than those of group III with 8,547 cGy × cm{sup 2} (3,324–35,729; P < 0.001). Other reasons for dose escalation were longer FT due to difficult anatomy or a large leiomyoma load, additional angiographic runs, supplementary ovarian artery embolization, and obesity.ConclusionsThe use of modern angiographic units with flat panel detectors and strict application of methods of radiation reduction lead to a significantly lower radiation exposure. Target DAP for UAE should be kept below 5,000 cGy × cm{sup 2}.

  4. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ''biological Bragg curve'' is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta, et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called "overkill".

  5. Measuring attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to intimate partner violence: the ATT-RECOURSE scale.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Minh, Tran Hung; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2014-06-01

    Attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women are widely surveyed, but attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to IPV are understudied, despite their importance for intervention. Designed through qualitative research and administered in a probability sample of 1,054 married men and women 18 to 50 years in My Hao District, Vietnam, the ATT-RECOURSE scale measures men's and women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after exposure to physical IPV. Data were initially collected for nine items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with one random split-half sample (N 1 = 526) revealed a one-factor model with significant loadings (0.316-0.686) for six items capturing a wife's silence, informal recourse, and formal recourse. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the other random split-half sample (N 2 = 528) showed adequate fit for the six-item model and significant factor loadings of similar magnitude to the EFA results (0.412-0.669). For the six items retained, men consistently favored recourse more often than did women (52.4%-66.0% of men vs. 41.9%-55.2% of women). Tests for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender revealed one item with significant uniform DIF, and adjusting for this revealed an even larger gap in men's and women's attitudes, with men favoring recourse, on average, more than women. The six-item ATT-RECOURSE scale is reliable across independent samples and exhibits little uniform DIF by gender, supporting its use in surveys of men and women. Further methodological research is discussed. Research is needed in Vietnam about why women report less favorable attitudes than men regarding women's recourse after physical IPV.

  6. Membrane solubilization in erythrocytes as a measure of radiation exposure to fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltan Monem, A.; Ali, Fadel M.; Al-thani, Noura J. J.; Ali, Samira A.

    1999-02-01

    Membrane solubilization and osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes irradiated in vivo with fast neutron fluences ranging from to using a source were measured instantaneously using a light scattering technique. The solubilization of erythrocyte membrane by a non-ionic detergent, octylglucoside (OG), was found to exhibit a two stage transition from vesicular form to mixed micellar form in the range of detergent concentrations 1.5-7.8 mM. The coexistence phase, vesicular/mixed micellar, was shifted towards higher detergent concentrations with increase in the neutron fluence, indicating increasing membrane resistance to the detergent and hence change in the natural membrane permeation properties. The technique shows an adequate sensitivity in detecting membrane damage in erythrocytes and has potential as a biophysical marker of radiation exposure. The osmotic fragility of irradiated erythrocytes shows a decreasing trend with increasing irradiation fluence measured directly and two weeks post-irradiation. Blood films photographed two weeks post-irradiation show developed elliptocytosis and crenated cell anaemia.

  7. Studies of Itokawa's Surface Exposure by Measurements of Cosmic-ray Produced Nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    We plan to investigate the evolutionary history of surface materials from 25143 Itokawa, the Hayabusa samples. Our studies are based on the measurement of nuclides produced in asteroidal surface materials by cosmic rays. Cosmogenic radionuclides are used to determine the duration and nature of the exposure of materials to energetic particles. Our goals are to understand both the fundamental processes on the asteroidal surface and the evolutionary history of its surface materials. They are also key to understanding the history of Itokawa's surface and asteroid-meteoroid evolutionary dynamics. To achieve our key goals, in particular reconstructing the evolutionary histories of the asteroidal surface, we proposed: (1) characterizing Itokawa particles using SXCT, SXRD, and FE-SEM without modification of the sample; (2) embedding each particle in acrylic resin, then slicing a small corner with an ultra-microtome and examining it using super-STEM and SIMS for characterizing surface morphology, space weathering, and oxygen three-isotope analysis; and finally (3) measuring small amounts of cosmogenic radionuclides (104-105 atoms) in Hayabusa samples by AMS. However, we have to modify our plan due to unexpected situation.

  8. An Enhanced Butyrylcholinesterase Method to Measure Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Exposure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pantazides, Brooke G.; Watson, Caroline M.; Carter, Melissa D.; Crow, Brian S.; Perez, Jonas W.; Blake, Thomas A.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) can be used to confirm exposure in humans. A highly accurate method to detect G-series and V-series OPNA adducts to BChE in 75 μL of filtered blood, serum, or plasma has been developed using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reported IMS method captures > 88% of the BChE in a specimen and corrects for matrix effects on peptide calibrators. The optimized method has been used to quantify baseline BChE levels (unadducted and OPNA-adducted) in a matched set of serum, plasma and whole blood (later processed in-house for plasma content) from 192 unexposed individuals to determine the interchangeability of the tested matrices. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability to accurately measure BChE regardless of the format of the blood specimen received. Criteria for accepting or denying specimens were established through a series of sample stability and processing experiments. The results of these efforts are an optimized and rugged method that is transferrable to other laboratories and an increased understanding of the BChE biomarker in matrix. PMID:24604326

  9. Validity of Questionnaire and Representativeness of Objective Methods for Measurements of Mechanical Exposures in Construction and Health Care Work

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Gjulem, Tonje; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the criterion validity of a questionnaire on physical exposures compared to objective measurements at construction and health care sites and to examine exposure variation over several working days. Methods Five hundred ninety-four construction and health care workers answered a baseline questionnaire. The daily activities (standing, moving, sitting, number of steps), postures (inclination of the arm and the trunk), and relative heart rate of 125 participants were recorded continuously over 3–4 working days. At the end of the first measurement day, the participants answered a second questionnaire (workday questionnaire). Results All objective activity measurements had significant correlations to their respective questions. Among health care workers, there were no correlations between postures and relative heart rate and the baseline questionnaire. The questionnaires overestimated the exposure durations. The highest explained variance in the adjusted models with self-reported variables were found for objectively measured sitting (R2 = 0.559) and arm inclination > 60° (R2 = 0.420). Objective measurements over several days showed a higher reliability compared to single day measurements. Conclusions Questionnaires cannot provide an accurate description of mechanical exposures. Objective measurements over several days are recommended in occupations with varying tasks. PMID:27649499

  10. Character recognition as an alternate measure of television exposure among children: findings from the Alam Simsim program in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rimal, Rajiv N; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of effects of mass media-based health interventions requires accurate assessments of exposure, which can be difficult to obtain when young children are the primary audience. Alam Simsim, the Egyptian version of Sesame Street, aired nationally in Egypt to teach preschoolers about numeracy, literacy, and gender-equitable attitudes. The purpose of this article was to assess the effect of the program through a first-of-its-kind household-level survey that interviewed caretakers (n = 426) and preschoolers (n = 486). The authors introduced and tested the efficacy of a parsimonious measure of exposure: children's recognition of the primary characters of the program. Overall, the authors' models explained as much as 53% of the variance in children's learning; exposure to the program was significantly associated with learning. Furthermore, the parsimonious measure of exposure was as effective as a more elaborate child-reported measure. Relative to these two measures of exposure, caretakers' report of children's viewing was not as good a predictor of learning.

  11. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Background Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. While many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars. Methods Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14-91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOC. Conclusion Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure. Impact Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:24836469

  12. Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, S.; Krebs, T.; Weiss, C.; Paur, H.-R.

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL® system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

  13. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isoflurane by measurement of isoflurane exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Tortosa, J A; Ibarra, I; Luna, A; Periago, J F

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between isoflurane environmental concentrations in operating rooms and the corresponding isoflurane concentration in the exhaled air of the operating personnel at the end of the exposure has been investigated. Isoflurane was retained in an adsorbent cartridge and after thermal desorption the concentration was estimated by gas chromatography. Significant correlation between environmental and exhaled air isoflurane concentrations allowed the establishment of a biological exposure index and biological exposure limits corresponding to proposed atmospheric threshold values.

  14. MEASUREMENT ERROR ESTIMATION AND CORRECTION METHODS TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE MISCLASSIFICATION IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES: PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project summary highlights recent findings from research undertaken to develop improved methods to assess potential human health risks related to drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) exposures.

  15. How Questionnaires and Multimedia Measurements collected in the U.S. EPA’s Observational Human Exposure Measurement Studies Inform Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, the U.S. EPA has conducted and/or funded numerous observational humanexposure measurement studies where questionnaires were administered to the study participants in addition tothe collection of multimedia measurements. Questionnaire responses provide ancillar...

  16. The relationship between ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and objectively measured personal UVR exposure dose is modified by season and latitude.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Lucas, R M; Harrison, S; van der Mei, I; Armstrong, B K; Nowak, M; Brodie, A; Kimlin, M G

    2014-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as a proxy measure of personal exposure to UVR, the relationship between the two is not well-defined. This paper examines the effects of season and latitude on the relationship between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure. We used data from the AusD Study, a multi-centre cross-sectional study among Australian adults (18-75 years), where personal UVR exposure was objectively measured using polysulphone dosimeters. Data were analysed for 991 participants from 4 Australian cities of different latitude: Townsville (19.3°S), Brisbane (27.5°S), Canberra (35.3°S) and Hobart (42.8°S). Daily personal UVR exposure varied from 0.01 to 21 Standard Erythemal Doses (median = 1.1, IQR: 0.5-2.1), on average accounting for 5% of the total available ambient dose. There was an overall positive correlation between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). However, the correlations varied according to season and study location: from strong correlations in winter (r = 0.50) and at high latitudes (Hobart, r = 0.50; Canberra, r = 0.39), to null or even slightly negative correlations, in summer (r = 0.01) and at low latitudes (Townsville, r = -0.06; Brisbane, r = -0.16). Multiple regression models showed significant effect modification by season and location. Personal exposure fraction of total available ambient dose was highest in winter (7%) and amongst Hobart participants (7%) and lowest in summer (1%) and in Townsville (4%). These results suggest season and latitude modify the relationship between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure. Ambient UVR may not be a good indicator for personal exposure dose under some circumstances.

  17. Metabolomics evaluation of the impact of smokeless tobacco exposure on the oral bacterium Capnocytophaga sputigena.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinchun; Jin, Jinshan; Beger, Richard D; Cerniglia, Carl E; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2016-10-01

    The association between exposure to smokeless tobacco products (STP) and oral diseases is partially due to the physiological and pathological changes in the composition of the oral microbiome and its metabolic profile. However, it is not clear how STPs affect the physiology and ecology of oral microbiota. A UPLC/QTof-MS-based metabolomics study was employed to analyze metabolic alterations in oral bacterium, Capnocytophaga sputigena as a result of smokeless tobacco exposure and to assess the capability of the bacterium to metabolize nicotine. Pathway analysis of the metabolome profiles indicated that smokeless tobacco extracts caused oxidative stress in the bacterium. The metabolomics data also showed that the arginine-nitric oxide pathway was perturbed by the smokeless tobacco treatment. Results also showed that LC/MS was useful in identifying STP constituents and additives, including caffeine and many flavoring compounds. No significant changes in levels of nicotine and its major metabolites were found when C. sputigena was cultured in a nutrient rich medium, although hydroxylnicotine and cotinine N-oxide were detected in the bacterial metabolites suggesting that nicotine metabolism might be present as a minor degradation pathway in the bacterium. Study results provide new insights regarding the physiological and toxicological effects of smokeless tobacco on oral bacterium C. sputigena and associated oral health as well as measuring the ability of the oral bacterium to metabolize nicotine.

  18. Differences in Lipid Measurements by Antiretroviral Regimen Exposure in Cohorts from Asia and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Achhra, Amit C.; Amin, Janaki; Hoy, Jennifer; Tanuma, Junko; Sirisanthana, Thira; Nolan, David; Merati, Tuti; Giles, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    We explored the mean differences in routinely measured lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) according to exposure to different combination antiretroviral regimens in Asian (n = 2051) and Australian (predominantly Caucasian, n = 794) cohorts. The regimen was defined as at least 3 antiretroviral drugs with at least 2 nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NRTIs) and either of at least one protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NNRTIs). We categorised cART regimens as: NRTIs as tenofovir based or not; NNRTIs as nevirapine or efavirenz (but not both); and PI as atazanavir based or not. We found that the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on lipids in Asian and Australian cohorts was only different by cohort for total cholesterol (P for interaction between regimen and cohort: <0.001) but not in case of other lipids (P for interaction: >0.05). The differences in total cholesterol were however small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Overall, tenofovir with nevirapine or atazanavir was associated with the most favorable lipids, while the PI regimens without tenofovir and atazanavir were associated with least favorable lipids. We conclude that the impact of various ART regimens on lipids is largely similar in Asian and Australian cohorts and that the newer drugs such as tenofovir and atazanavir are likely to provide similar benefit in terms of lipid profiles in both populations. PMID:22675613

  19. Electrothermal piezoresistive cantilever resonators for personal measurements of nanoparticles in workplace exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Wu, Wenze; Uhde, Erik; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Low-cost and low-power piezoresistive cantilever resonators with integrated electrothermal heaters are developed to support the sensing module enhancement of the second generation of handheld cantilever-based airborne nanoparticle (NP) detector (CANTOR-2). These sensors are used for direct-reading of exposure to carbon engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) at indoor workplaces. The cantilever structures having various shapes of free ends are created using silicon bulk micromachining technologies (i.e, rectangular, hammer-head, triangular, and U-shaped cantilevers). For a complete wearable CANTOR-2, all components of the proposed detector can be grouped into two main units depending on their packaging placements (i.e., the NP sampler head and the electronics mounted in a handy-format housing). In the NP sampler head, a miniaturized electrophoretic aerosol sampler and a resonant silicon cantilever mass sensor are employed to collect the ENPs from the air stream to the cantilever surfaces and measuring their mass concentration, respectively. After calibration, the detected ENP mass concentrations of CANTOR-2 show a standard deviation from fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS, TSI 3091) of 8-14%.

  20. Development and Validation of a Brief Self-Report Measure of Trauma Exposure: The Trauma History Screen

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Eve B.; Smith, Steve R.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Dalenberg, Constance; Ruzek, Josef I.; Kimerling, Rachel; Burling, Thomas A.; Spain, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Although information about individuals’ exposure to highly stressful events such as traumatic stressors is often very useful for clinicians and researchers, available measures are too long and complex for use in many settings. The Trauma History Screen was developed to provide a very brief and easy-to-complete self-report measure of exposure to high magnitude stressor (HMS) events and of events associated with significant and persisting posttraumatic distress (PPD). The measure assesses the frequency of HMS and PPD events, and it provides detailed information about PPD events. Test-retest reliability was studied in four samples, and temporal stability was good to excellent for items and trauma types and excellent for overall HMS and PPD scores. Comprehensibility of items was supported by expert ratings of how well items appeared to be understood by participants with relatively low reading levels. In five samples, construct validity was supported by findings of strong convergent validity with a longer measure of trauma exposure and by correlations of HMS and PPD scores with PTSD symptoms. The psychometric properties of the THS appear to be comparable or better than longer and more complex measures of trauma exposure. PMID:21517189

  1. Methods for detecting and estimating population threshold concentrations for air pollution-related mortality with exposure measurement error

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak, S.; Burnett, R.T.; Krewski, D.

    1999-06-01

    The association between daily fluctuations in ambient particulate matter and daily variations in nonaccidental mortality have been extensively investigated. Although it is now widely recognized that such an association exists, the form of the concentration-response model is still in question. Linear, no threshold and linear threshold models have been most commonly examined. In this paper the authors considered methods to detect and estimate threshold concentrations using time series data of daily mortality rates and air pollution concentrations. Because exposure is measured with error, they also considered the influence of measurement error in distinguishing between these two completing model specifications. The methods were illustrated on a 15-year daily time series of nonaccidental mortality and particulate air pollution data in Toronto, Canada. Nonparametric smoothed representations of the association between mortality and air pollution were adequate to graphically distinguish between these two forms. Weighted nonlinear regression methods for relative risk models were adequate to give nearly unbiased estimates of threshold concentrations even under conditions of extreme exposure measurement error. The uncertainty in the threshold estimates increased with the degree of exposure error. Regression models incorporating threshold concentrations could be clearly distinguished from linear relative risk models in the presence of exposure measurement error. The assumption of a linear model given that a threshold model was the correct form usually resulted in overestimates in the number of averted premature deaths, except for low threshold concentrations and large measurement error.