Science.gov

Sample records for cotton southern metadata

  1. Localization of selected pathogens of cotton within the southern green stink bug

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are pests of cotton recently shown to ingest and retain disease pathogens of cotton, and selectively inoculate these pathogens into bolls. The objective of this study was to determine where pathogen colonization occurs in N....

  2. Evaluation of commercial cotton harvesting systems in the southern high plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton production practices have changed in the Southern High Plains of the US over the last decade resulting in increased yeilds and improved fiber quality. Moreover, the majority of US cotton now competes in a global fiber market that demands higher quality fiber for ring spun yarn than the former...

  3. Evaluation of various heat treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties of composites made from cotton burs, cotton stalks, kenaf, flax, and southern pine blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies evaluating physical and mechanical properties of composites produced from blends of cotton carpel (burs), cotton stalks, kenaf, and southern yellow pine indicated water absorption and thickness swell properties higher than composites made from 100% southern yellow pine. In the previ...

  4. Modeling cotton lint yield response to irrigation management as influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The declining Ogallala Aquifer in the U.S. Southern High Plains motivates producers to optimize water use and yield of crops that can tolerate short-term water stress like cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)]. Measurable and systematic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) drive the El Niño-Southern ...

  5. Evaluation of composites made from blends of cotton burs, cotton stalks, kenaf, flax, and southern pine: Heat treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties and rot resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted on composite board blends of cotton burs (B), cotton stalks (S), kenaf (K), flax, (F), and southern yellow pine (P). The composite boards were subjected to heat treatments and rot resistance testing. Heat treatments consisted of heating fibers either pre- or post-board fab...

  6. Bollgard cotton and resistance of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to conventional insecticides in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Terán-Vargas, A P; Rodríguez, J C; Blanco, C A; Martínez-Carrillo, J L; Cibrián-Tovar, J; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L A; Stanley, D

    2005-12-01

    Insecticide susceptibility in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined for 8 yr (1991-2001) with larvae sampled from cotton in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Before 1996, when Bollgard cotton expressing the Cry1A(c) delta-endotoxin was introduced into the region, two important patterns were documented. The first was economically significant increases in resistance to certain insecticide groups. The second was occurrence of virtually complete control failures in the field during 1994 and 1995. The largest resistance changes were recorded for the type II pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. These products are the most widely used products in the region. Resistance ratios for these products increased up to > 100-fold from 1991 to 1995. After 1996, the resistance levels declined. These findings did not occur with other products of scant use (e.g., permethrin, profenofos, and endosulfan) or low tobacco budworm efficacy coupled to a high use pattern (e.g., methyl parathion). This clear trend toward reversal of resistance to type II pyrethroids can be understood, in part, with respect to two factors: 1) the high adoption rate of transgenic cotton in the region, from 31.2% in the beginning (1996) to approximately 90% in 1998; this has considerably curbed the use of synthetic insecticides, with the attending loss of selection pressure on this pest; and 2) the potential immigration to the region of susceptible tobacco budworms from cultivated and wild suitable hosts as well as from transgenic cotton might have influenced the pest population as a whole. The influence of transgenic cotton on southern Tamaulipas can be more clearly seen by the drastic reduction of insecticide use to control this important pest. Now tobacco budworms in this region are susceptible to type II pyrethroids. Two effective and fundamentally different pest management tools are now available to cotton growers in southern Tamaulipas: transgenic cotton

  7. Cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is a significant agricultural commodity throughout the world that is used primarily for its fibers to manufacture textiles, but with notable secondary value for its seeds. As cotton oil mills began to operate and products other than whole cottonseed became available, the value of cottonseed ...

  8. Rye residue levels affect suppression of the southern root-knot nematode in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the southeastern United States, rye (Secale cereale) is frequently planted as a winter cover crop in conservation tillage cotton. Although rye produces toxic benzoxazinoid compounds which may play a role in nematode suppression, it is also a host for the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne i...

  9. Influence of harvesting and gin cleaning practices on Southern High Plains cotton quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and HVI (High Volume Instrument) fiber length and strength. In light of increased adoption of picker harvesting to preserve fiber quality and improve harvest productivity, ginning practices are needed which preserv...

  10. Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater Abstract: Sulfate (SO4) is one of the most important anions in soils and groundwater in semiarid regions, including West Texas. Crops’ sulfur (S) requirement is about 10 to 20 % of the nitrogen (N) require...

  11. Survey of thrips species infesting cotton across the southern U.S. cotton belt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey investigating the composition of adult thrips species and the effect of preventive, at-plant insecticides on this composition was conducted at multiple locations across the upland U.S. Cotton Belt in 2009 and 2010. Small-plot experiments included insecticide seed treatments containing imid...

  12. Carbon Dynamics of Bioenergy Cropping Systems Compared to Conventional Cotton Cropping Systems in the Southern Cotton Belt Region of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.; Casey, K.; Maas, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). We have established eddy covariance flux towers in producer fields in the Southern High Plains region. Among the four land uses compared, the net carbon uptake was the highest for the biomass sorghum field. During the year 2014, the biomass sorghum field gained approximately 672 gC m-2y-1. The next highest carbon uptake was recorded for the Old World Bluestem grass field, which was approximately 301 gC m-2y-1. The dominant land use in the region is cotton. While the forage sorghum and grass fields acted as net carbon sinks, the irrigated cotton field acted as a net carbon source to the atmosphere during the same period. The irrigated cotton field exhibited a net carbon loss of approximately 246 gC m-2y-1. In contrast, the dryland cotton field acted as a net carbon sink, with a total uptake of approximately 58 g C m-2y-1. The net primary production of the irrigated cotton field was higher than that of the dryland cotton field, yet the irrigated field was a significant carbon source to the atmosphere. This was due to conventional tillage practices combined with irrigation which enhanced the ecosystem respiration significantly compared to the dryland field. In 2014, an early spring cold front caused poor germination of seeds in the majority of the cotton fields in the region, including the eddy covariance site. This site was re-planted on 9 June, which shortened the growing season for cotton. This was also a contributing factor to this field being a net

  13. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Southern California deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (i.e., crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to data has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of Novaluron for toxicity to nymphal instars of field collected southern green stink bug on cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of novaluron (Diamond [TM] 0.83 EC) on cotton against nymphs of different instars of field collected southern green stink bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (L.), was investigated in a spray table using two nozzles, 650033 and 8002E. The nozzles delivered spray rates of 18.7 and 46.7 L/ha, re...

  15. A web application for cotton irrigation management on the U.S. southern high plains. Part II: Application design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A web-based application to help Southern High Plains cotton producers estimate profitability under center pivot irrigated production is described. The application’s crop modeling and general profit calculation approach are outlined in a preceding companion paper, while additional details of the prof...

  16. A Web Application for Cotton Irrigation Management on The US Southern High Plains. Part II: Application Design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A web-based application intended to help Southern High Plains cotton producers estimate profitability under center pivot irrigated production is described. The application’s crop modeling and general profit calculation approach are outlined in a preceding companion paper, while additional details of...

  17. Metadata (MD)

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Metadata (MD) table in the FIREMON database is used to record any information about the sampling strategy or data collected using the FIREMON sampling procedures. The MD method records metadata pertaining to a group of FIREMON plots, such as all plots in a specific FIREMON project. FIREMON plots are linked to metadata using a unique metadata identifier that is...

  18. Temporal analysis of cotton boll symptoms resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) feeding and transmission of a bacterial pathogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern green stink bug (SGSB)(Nezara viridula L.) is a significant pest of cotton and is becoming an increasing challenge due to the decrease in use of broad spectrum insecticides on the crop. The SGSB can vector an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain (designated Sc 1-R) into cotton bolls...

  19. BASINS Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Metadata or data about data describes the content, quality, condition, and other characteristics of data. Geospatial metadata are critical to data discovery and serves as the fuel for the Geospatial One-Stop data portal.

  20. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  1. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  2. Fluometuron and pendimethalin runoff from strip and conventionally tilled cotton in the southern atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig

    2004-01-01

    In the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of southern Georgia (USA), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) acreage increased threefold in the past decade. To more effectively protect water quality in the region, best management practices are needed that reduce pesticide runoff from fields in cotton production. This study compared runoff of two herbicides, fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-urea] and pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine], from plots in strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT) management near Tifton, GA. Rainfall simulations were conducted one day after preemergence herbicide applications to 0.0006-ha plots and runoff from 0.15-ha plots due to natural rainfall following preemergence pendimethalin and fluometuron and postemergence fluometuron use was monitored. Pendimethalin runoff was greater under CT than ST due to strong pendimethalin soil sorption and higher erosion and runoff under CT. The highest losses, 1.3% of applied in CT and 0.22% of applied in ST, were observed during rainfall simulations conducted 1 DAT. Fluometuron runoff from natural rainfall was substantially lower from ST than from CT plots but the trend was reversed in rainfall simulations. In all studies, fluometuron runoff was also relatively low (<1% of applied), and on plots under natural rainfall, desmethylfluometuron (DMF) represented about 50% of total fluometuron runoff. Fluometuron's relatively low runoff rate appeared linked to its rapid leaching, and high DMF detection rates in runoff support DMF inclusion in fluometuron risk assessments. Results showed that ST has the potential to reduce runoff of both herbicides, but fluometuron leaching may be a ground water quality concern.

  3. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  4. Changing Land Use from Cotton to Bioenergy Crops in the Southern Great Plains: Implications on Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.

    2016-12-01

    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Although first-generation biofuels like corn ethanol are available, second-generation biofuels are gaining importance because they don't directly compete with food production. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). While we believe there would be environmental benefits associated with this change in land use, their exact nature and magnitude have not been investigated for this region. The overall goal of the proposed study was to investigate the water and carbon (C) fluxes associated with the change in agricultural land use to biofuels-dominated cropping systems in the semi-arid Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt region. Eddy covariance flux towers were established at selected producer fields (cotton, perennial grasses and biomass sorghum) in the Southern Great Plains region. The fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat between the surface and the atmosphere will be measured throughout the year. The results have demonstrated that the dynamics of C and water vapor fluxes for these agroecosystems were strongly affected by environmental variables, management factors, and crop phenology. Detailed results will be presented at the meeting.

  5. Spray table evaluation of insecticidal mortality for southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L. (Pentatomidae: Heteroptera) on greenhouse-grown cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insecticidal mortality of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula on greenhouse-grown cotton was investigated on a spray table. Treatments of synthetic pyrethroids and neoniconitoids were compared with those of dicrotophos at 8 oz formulated product per acre as the producer’s standard, and an unt...

  6. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass, Cotton, and Bahiagrass for Management of Meloidogyne arenaria and Southern Blight in Peanut.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Kokalis-Burelle, N; Robertson, D G; King, P S; Wells, L W

    1994-12-01

    The efficacy of coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for controt of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in 'Florunner' peanut (Arachis hypogoea) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Coastal bermudagrass-peanut rotation (CBP) was compared with peanut monoculture without nematicide (P - ) and peanut monoculture with aldicarb (P + ). The performance of CBP was also compared with 'Pensacola' bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)-peanut (BP), and 'Deltapine 90' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-peanut (CP) rotations. Each rotation crop was grown for 2 years (1991, 1992) and peanut was planted without nematicide the third year (1993). In contrast with peanut, the alternate crops of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and cotton did not support M. arenaria populations. In 1993, the lowest numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) in soil were in plots with CP and BP; these rotations resulted in the highest peanut yields. CBP failed to increase peanut yield and resulted in the highest population densities of M. arenaria J2. In 1993, aldicarb reduced J2 densities in the soil but did not increase peanut yields. Rotations of BP and CP reduced incidence of southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) in peanut, but neither CBP nor aldicarb affected the disease.

  7. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass, Cotton, and Bahiagrass for Management of Meloidogyne arenaria and Southern Blight in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Robertson, D. G.; King, P. S.; Wells, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for controt of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in 'Florunner' peanut (Arachis hypogoea) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Coastal bermudagrass-peanut rotation (CBP) was compared with peanut monoculture without nematicide (P - ) and peanut monoculture with aldicarb (P + ). The performance of CBP was also compared with 'Pensacola' bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)-peanut (BP), and 'Deltapine 90' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-peanut (CP) rotations. Each rotation crop was grown for 2 years (1991, 1992) and peanut was planted without nematicide the third year (1993). In contrast with peanut, the alternate crops of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and cotton did not support M. arenaria populations. In 1993, the lowest numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) in soil were in plots with CP and BP; these rotations resulted in the highest peanut yields. CBP failed to increase peanut yield and resulted in the highest population densities of M. arenaria J2. In 1993, aldicarb reduced J2 densities in the soil but did not increase peanut yields. Rotations of BP and CP reduced incidence of southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) in peanut, but neither CBP nor aldicarb affected the disease. PMID:19279945

  8. Risk profile and health vulnerability of female workers who pick cotton by organanochlorine pesticides from southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Humaira; Qadir, Abdul; Mumtaz, Mehvish; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Syed, Jabbir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Jamil, Nadia; Nazar, Farva; Ali, Habib; Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq; Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of organochlorine-pesticides (OCPs) from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of female workers who pick cotton in Khanewal District, southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener-specific analysis, and risk surveillance of OCPs are reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 ppb to 538.3 ppb and from 16.4 ppb to 747.1 ppb, respectively, and were lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe. Congener-specific analysis revealed that DDTs were predominant, followed by hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated results for source apportionment analysis suggested that contamination load was a new input of DDTs as well as the historic use of lindane in the study area. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with age, time period of picking cotton, and number of children. Health risk revealed that female workers had risk of cancer among 1 per million; however, noncarcinogenic risks were not considerable. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1193-1201. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Metadata Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Libraries must increasingly accommodate bibliographic records encoded with a variety of standards and emerging standards, including Dublin Core, MODS, and VRA Core. The problem is that many libraries still rely solely on MARC and AACR2. The best-trained professionals to lead librarians through the metadata maze are catalogers. Catalogers…

  10. CMR Metadata Curation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, Dana; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2017-01-01

    This talk explains the ongoing metadata curation activities in the Common Metadata Repository. It explores tools that exist today which are useful for building quality metadata and also opens up the floor for discussions on other potentially useful tools.

  11. Relating El Nino-Southern oscillation climate conditions to irrigation strategies for increased cotton yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The global-scale El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of sea surface temperature that causes monsoonal rain in India also affects precipitation in North America.The ENSO phases and related rain expectations have been used to limit climate uncertainties when producing wheat for grazing and grain. Insi...

  12. Forecast EL NIÑO–Southern oscillation phases and best irrigation strategies to increase cotton yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures cause a systematic El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) coupling with the atmosphere to produce predictable weather patterns in much of North America. Forecast ENSO phases and associated rainfall frequency and amount were related to modeled dual purpose whe...

  13. Centralized FITS Metadata Handling Framework at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Dobrzycki, A.; Vuong, M.-H.; Brion, A.

    2011-07-01

    The European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) headquartered in Garching, Germany, operates three state-of-the-art observatories in Chile: at La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. The observatories produce huge amounts of data, which are transferred to the ESO headquarters and stored in the ESO Archive. The archive also stores the products generated by pipeline processing of raw data by the ESO Quality Control (QC) group. In addition, the Archive also stores science products delivered by the principal investigators. Historically, these three processes were independent from one another which resulted in different metadata handling frameworks for each kind of product. This architecture led to duplicate efforts for building metadata-based services as well as creating challenging scenarios for integrating metadata from different processes. We present the metadata handling framework recently implemented at the European Southern Observatory, in which all metadata from FITS compliant sources are stored in a centralized repository database. The framework allows building metadata-based services in a descriptive way, transparently propagating any modifications/updates performed in the central repository. In addition, through a set of common functions, the framework allows for enrichment of FITS-based metadata with derived values and/or with metadata from other ESO operational databases.

  14. Mining the Metadata Quarries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A., Ed.; Guenther, Rebecca; McCallum, Sally; Greenberg, Jane; Tennis, Joseph T.; Jun, Wang

    2003-01-01

    This special section of the "Bulletin" includes an introduction and the following articles: "New Metadata Standards for Digital Resources: MODS (Metadata Object and Description Schema) and METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard)"; "Metadata Generation: Processes, People and Tools"; "Data Collection for…

  15. Mining the Metadata Quarries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A., Ed.; Guenther, Rebecca; McCallum, Sally; Greenberg, Jane; Tennis, Joseph T.; Jun, Wang

    2003-01-01

    This special section of the "Bulletin" includes an introduction and the following articles: "New Metadata Standards for Digital Resources: MODS (Metadata Object and Description Schema) and METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard)"; "Metadata Generation: Processes, People and Tools"; "Data Collection for…

  16. Evolutions in Metadata Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, J.

    2016-12-01

    Metadata Quality is one of the chief drivers of discovery and use of NASA EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) data. Issues with metadata such as lack of completeness, inconsistency, and use of legacy terms directly hinder data use. As the central metadata repository for NASA Earth Science data, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) has a responsibility to its users to ensure the quality of CMR search results. This talk will cover how we encourage metadata authors to improve the metadata through the use of integrated rubrics of metadata quality and outreach efforts. In addition we'll demonstrate Humanizers, a technique for dealing with the symptoms of metadata issues. Humanizers allow CMR administrators to identify specific metadata issues that are fixed at runtime when the data is indexed. An example Humanizer is the aliasing of processing level "Level 1" to "1" to improve consistency across collections. The CMR currently indexes 35K collections and 300M granules.

  17. The view from the cotton: reconsidering the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

    PubMed

    Manthorne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. This article digs beneath this carefully constructed image of the union to scrutinize the internal dynamics of the movement. It revises a number of interpretations surrounding the STFU. Although the greatest obstacles to the union's success were external, it also faced internal divisions that diminished its efficacy. The STFU's decentralized structure did not foster strong connections between leadership and membership, resulting in misunderstandings. But most importantly, the union struggled to live up to its creed of biracialism and equal treatment of African Americans. Ultimately, the STFU was less an aberration that tirelessly confronted the social and racial ills of the South and more an organization that reflected some of those ills even as it grappled with them.

  18. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy. PMID:27618081

  19. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-09-08

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy.

  20. Predicting structured metadata from unstructured metadata

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Lisa; Panahiazar, Maryam; Dumontier, Michel; Gevaert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Enormous amounts of biomedical data have been and are being produced by investigators all over the world. However, one crucial and limiting factor in data reuse is accurate, structured and complete description of the data or data about the data—defined as metadata. We propose a framework to predict structured metadata terms from unstructured metadata for improving quality and quantity of metadata, using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray database. Our framework consists of classifiers trained using term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) features and a second approach based on topics modeled using a Latent Dirichlet Allocation model (LDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the unstructured data. Our results on the GEO database show that structured metadata terms can be the most accurately predicted using the TF-IDF approach followed by LDA both outperforming the majority vote baseline. While some accuracy is lost by the dimensionality reduction of LDA, the difference is small for elements with few possible values, and there is a large improvement over the majority classifier baseline. Overall this is a promising approach for metadata prediction that is likely to be applicable to other datasets and has implications for researchers interested in biomedical metadata curation and metadata prediction. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:28637268

  1. Predicting structured metadata from unstructured metadata.

    PubMed

    Posch, Lisa; Panahiazar, Maryam; Dumontier, Michel; Gevaert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Enormous amounts of biomedical data have been and are being produced by investigators all over the world. However, one crucial and limiting factor in data reuse is accurate, structured and complete description of the data or data about the data-defined as metadata. We propose a framework to predict structured metadata terms from unstructured metadata for improving quality and quantity of metadata, using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray database. Our framework consists of classifiers trained using term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) features and a second approach based on topics modeled using a Latent Dirichlet Allocation model (LDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the unstructured data. Our results on the GEO database show that structured metadata terms can be the most accurately predicted using the TF-IDF approach followed by LDA both outperforming the majority vote baseline. While some accuracy is lost by the dimensionality reduction of LDA, the difference is small for elements with few possible values, and there is a large improvement over the majority classifier baseline. Overall this is a promising approach for metadata prediction that is likely to be applicable to other datasets and has implications for researchers interested in biomedical metadata curation and metadata prediction. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Visualization of Metadata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the potential for visualization of metadata and metadata-based surrogates, including a command interface for metadata viewing, site mapping and data aggregation tools, dynamic derivation of surrogates, and a reintroduction of transient hypergraphs from the tradition of cocitation networking. Addresses digital library research into…

  3. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  4. Glufosinate-toleranct cotton: What have we learned in three years of commerical use on the Texas Southern High Plans?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of herbicide-tolerant crops increase weed management options in these systems. Herbicide-tolerant crops have been developed by selection and bioengineering. Tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium has been bioengineered into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens thr...

  5. Metadata for Web Resources: How Metadata Works on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Martin

    This paper discusses bibliographic control of knowledge resources on the World Wide Web. The first section sets the context of the inquiry. The second section covers the following topics related to metadata: (1) definitions of metadata, including metadata as tags and as descriptors; (2) metadata on the Web, including general metadata systems,…

  6. Metadata Activities in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Inigo, Gil San; HUTCHISON, VIVIAN; Frame, Mike; Palanisamy, Giri

    2010-01-01

    The National Biological Information Infrastructure program has advanced the biological sciences ability to standardize, share, integrate and synthesize data by making the metadata program a core of its activities. Through strategic partnerships, a series of crosswalks for the main biological metadata specifications have enabled data providers and international clearinghouses to aggregate and disseminate tens of thousands of metadata sets describing petabytes of data records. New efforts at the National Biological Information Infrastructure are focusing on better metadata creation and curation tools, semantic mediation for data discovery and other curious initiatives.

  7. Presence of organoarsenicals used in cotton production in agricultural water and soil of the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Garbarino, J R; Ranville, J F; Wildeman, T R

    2002-12-04

    Arsenicals have been used extensively in agriculture in the United States as insecticides and herbicides. Mono- and disodium methylarsonate and dimethylarsinic acid are organoarsenicals used to control weeds in cotton fields and as defoliation agents applied prior to cotton harvesting. Because the toxicity of most organoarsenicals is less than that of inorganic arsenic species, the introduction of these compounds into the environment might seem benign. However, biotic and abiotic degradation reactions can produce more problematic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. This study investigates the occurrences of these compounds in samples of soil and associated surface and groundwaters. Preliminary results show that surface water samples from cotton-producing areas have elevated concentrations of methylarsenic species (>10 microg of As/L) compared to background areas (<1 microg of As/L). Species transformations also occur between surface waters and adjacent soils and groundwaters, which also contain elevated arsenic. The data indicate that point sources of arsenic related to agriculture might be responsible for increased arsenic concentrations in local irrigation wells, although the elevated concentrations did not exceed the new (2002) arsenic maximum contaminant level of 10 microg/L in any of the wells sampled thus far.

  8. Presence of organoarsenicals used in cotton production in agricultural water and soil of the Southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenicals have been used extensively in agriculture in the United States as insecticides and herbicides. Mono- and disodium methylarsonate and dimethylarsinic acid are organoarsenicals used to control weeds in cotton fields and as defoliation agents applied prior to cotton harvesting. Because the toxicity of most organoarsenicals is less than that of inorganic arsenic species, the introduction of these compounds into the environment might seem benign. However, biotic and abiotic degradation reactions can produce more problematic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. This study investigates the occurrences of these compounds in samples of soil and associated surface and groundwaters. Preliminary results show that surface water samples from cotton-producing areas have elevated concentrations of methylarsenic species (>10 ??g of As/L) compared to background areas (<1 ??g of As/L). Species transformations also occur between surface waters and adjacent soils and groundwaters, which also contain elevated arsenic. The data indicate that point sources of arsenic related to agriculture might be responsible for increased arsenic concentrations in local irrigation wells, although the elevated concentrations did not exceed the new (2002) arsenic maximum contaminant level of 10 ??g/L in any of the wells sampled thus far.

  9. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.

  10. USGIN ISO metadata profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The USGIN project has drafted and is using a specification for use of ISO 19115/19/39 metadata, recommendations for simple metadata content, and a proposal for a URI scheme to identify resources using resolvable http URI's(see http://lab.usgin.org/usgin-profiles). The principal target use case is a catalog in which resources can be registered and described by data providers for discovery by users. We are currently using the ESRI Geoportal (Open Source), with configuration files for the USGIN profile. The metadata offered by the catalog must provide sufficient content to guide search engines to locate requested resources, to describe the resource content, provenance, and quality so users can determine if the resource will serve for intended usage, and finally to enable human users and sofware clients to obtain or access the resource. In order to achieve an operational federated catalog system, provisions in the ISO specification must be restricted and usage clarified to reduce the heterogeneity of 'standard' metadata and service implementations such that a single client can search against different catalogs, and the metadata returned by catalogs can be parsed reliably to locate required information. Usage of the complex ISO 19139 XML schema allows for a great deal of structured metadata content, but the heterogenity in approaches to content encoding has hampered development of sophisticated client software that can take advantage of the rich metadata; the lack of such clients in turn reduces motivation for metadata producers to produce content-rich metadata. If the only significant use of the detailed, structured metadata is to format into text for people to read, then the detailed information could be put in free text elements and be just as useful. In order for complex metadata encoding and content to be useful, there must be clear and unambiguous conventions on the encoding that are utilized by the community that wishes to take advantage of advanced metadata

  11. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  12. Metadata requirements for portals.

    PubMed

    Benson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Consensus around the requirements for metadata in patient and clinical portals would provide a sound basis for the adoption of standards. We propose a set of requirements for metadata in a way that is generic and platform independent. These requirements cover both Clinical Documents and Clinical Statements, addressing the what, who, when and where of each item.

  13. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  14. Metadata management staging system

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Django application providing a user-interface for building a file and metadata management system. An evolution of our Node.js and CouchDb metadata management system. This one focuses on server functionality and uses a well-documented, rational and REST-ful API for data access.

  15. Visualization of JPEG Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik Mohamad, Kamaruddin; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    There are a lot of information embedded in JPEG image than just graphics. Visualization of its metadata would benefit digital forensic investigator to view embedded data including corrupted image where no graphics can be displayed in order to assist in evidence collection for cases such as child pornography or steganography. There are already available tools such as metadata readers, editors and extraction tools but mostly focusing on visualizing attribute information of JPEG Exif. However, none have been done to visualize metadata by consolidating markers summary, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in a single program. In this paper, metadata visualization is done by developing a program that able to summarize all existing markers, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in JPEG. The result shows that visualization of metadata helps viewing the hidden information within JPEG more easily.

  16. No More Metadata!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    For well-known technologically motivated reasons, communities have developed the distinction between data and metadata. Mainly this was because data were too big to analyze, and often too complex as well. Therefore, metadata were established as a kind of summaries which allow browsing and search, albeit only on the criteria preselected by the metadata provider. The result is that metadata are considered smart, queryable, and agile whereas the underlying data typically are seen as big, difficult to understand and interpret, unavailable for analysis. Common sense has it that in general data should be touched upon only once a meaningful focusing and downsizing of the topical dataset has been achieved through elaborate metadata retrieval. With the advent of Big Data technology we are in a position ot overcome this age-old digital divide. Utilizing NewSQL concepts, query techniques go beyond the classical set paradigm and can also handle large graphs and arrays. Access and retrieval can be accomplished on a high semantic level. In our presentation we show, on the example of array data, how the data/metadata divide can be effectively eliminated today. We will do so by showing queries combining metadata and ground-truth data retrieval will be shown for SQL and XQuery.

  17. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  18. Metadata, PICS and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection), the Centre for Information Quality Management (CIQM), and metadata. Highlights include filtering networked information; the quality of information; and standardizing search engines. (LRW)

  19. The RBV metadata catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, François; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Fleury, Laurence; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Nord, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    RBV (Réseau des Bassins Versants) is an initiative to consolidate the national efforts made by more than 15 elementary observatories belonging to various French research institutions (CNRS, Universities, INRA, IRSTEA, IRD) that study river and drainage basins. RBV is a part of a global initiative to create a network of observatories for investigating Earth's surface processes. The RBV Metadata Catalogue aims to give an unified vision of the work produced by every observatory to both the members of the RBV network and any external person involved in this domain of research. Another goal is to share this information with other catalogues through the compliance with the ISO19115 standard and the INSPIRE directive and the ability of being harvested (globally or partially). Metadata management is heterogeneous among observatories. The catalogue is designed to face this situation with the following main features: -Multiple input methods: Metadata records in the catalog can either be entered with the graphical user interface, harvested from an existing catalogue or imported from information system through simplified web services. -Three hierachical levels: Metadata records may describe either an observatory in general, one of its experimental site or a dataset produced by instruments. -Multilingualism: Metadata can be entered in several configurable languages. The catalogue provides many other feature such as search and browse mechanisms to find or discover records. The RBV metadata catalogue associates a CSW metadata server (Geosource) and a JEE application. The CSW server is in charge of the persistence of the metadata while the JEE application both wraps CSW calls and define the user interface. The latter is built with the GWT Framework to offer a rich client application with a fully ajaxified navigation. The catalogue is accessible at the following address: http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/ Next steps will target the following points: -Description of sensors in accordance

  20. The RBV metadata catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Francois; Fleury, Laurence; Gaillardet, Jerome; Nord, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    RBV (Réseau des Bassins Versants) is a French initiative to consolidate the national efforts made by more than 15 elementary observatories funded by various research institutions (CNRS, INRA, IRD, IRSTEA, Universities) that study river and drainage basins. The RBV Metadata Catalogue aims at giving an unified vision of the work produced by every observatory to both the members of the RBV network and any external person interested by this domain of research. Another goal is to share this information with other existing metadata portals. Metadata management is heterogeneous among observatories ranging from absence to mature harvestable catalogues. Here, we would like to explain the strategy used to design a state of the art catalogue facing this situation. Main features are as follows : - Multiple input methods: Metadata records in the catalog can either be entered with the graphical user interface, harvested from an existing catalogue or imported from information system through simplified web services. - Hierarchical levels: Metadata records may describe either an observatory, one of its experimental site or a single dataset produced by one instrument. - Multilingualism: Metadata can be easily entered in several configurable languages. - Compliance to standards : the backoffice part of the catalogue is based on a CSW metadata server (Geosource) which ensures ISO19115 compatibility and the ability of being harvested (globally or partially). On going tasks focus on the use of SKOS thesaurus and SensorML description of the sensors. - Ergonomy : The user interface is built with the GWT Framework to offer a rich client application with a fully ajaxified navigation. - Source code sharing : The work has led to the development of reusable components which can be used to quickly create new metadata forms in other GWT applications You can visit the catalogue (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/) or contact us by email rbv@sedoo.fr.

  1. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  2. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  3. Chemical characterization of cotton plant parts for multiple uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is an important crop in the southern and southeastern parts of USA, but cotton plant residues are under utilized. In this study, whole cotton plants were collected at mid season and just before harvest and chemically characterized to explore multiple uses. These plant samples were separated i...

  4. Italian Polar Metadata System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Nativi, S.; Leone, C.; Migliorini, S.; Mazari Villanova, L.

    2012-04-01

    Italian Polar Metadata System C.Leone, S.Longo, S.Migliorini, L.Mazari Villanova, S. Nativi The Italian Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA) is a government initiative funding and coordinating scientific research activities in polar regions. PNRA manages two scientific Stations in Antarctica - Concordia (Dome C), jointly operated with the French Polar Institute "Paul Emile Victor", and Mario Zucchelli (Terra Nova Bay, Southern Victoria Land). In addition National Research Council of Italy (CNR) manages one scientific Station in the Arctic Circle (Ny-Alesund-Svalbard Islands), named Dirigibile Italia. PNRA started in 1985 with the first Italian Expedition in Antarctica. Since then each research group has collected data regarding biology and medicine, geodetic observatory, geophysics, geology, glaciology, physics and atmospheric chemistry, earth-sun relationships and astrophysics, oceanography and marine environment, chemistry contamination, law and geographic science, technology, multi and inter disciplinary researches, autonomously with different formats. In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Research assigned the scientific coordination of the Programme to CNR, which is in charge of the management and sharing of the scientific results carried out in the framework of the PNRA. Therefore, CNR is establishing a new distributed cyber(e)-infrastructure to collect, manage, publish and share polar research results. This is a service-based infrastructure building on Web technologies to implement resources (i.e. data, services and documents) discovery, access and visualization; in addition, semantic-enabled functionalities will be provided. The architecture applies the "System of Systems" principles to build incrementally on the existing systems by supplementing but not supplanting their mandates and governance arrangements. This allows to keep the existing capacities as autonomous as possible. This cyber(e)-infrastructure implements multi-disciplinary interoperability following

  5. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  6. Simplified Metadata Curation via the Metadata Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, D.; Pilone, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Metadata Management Tool (MMT) is the newest capability developed as part of NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System's (EOSDIS) efforts to simplify metadata creation and improve metadata quality. The MMT was developed via an agile methodology, taking into account inputs from GCMD's science coordinators and other end-users. In its initial release, the MMT uses the Unified Metadata Model for Collections (UMM-C) to allow metadata providers to easily create and update collection records in the ISO-19115 format. Through a simplified UI experience, metadata curators can create and edit collections without full knowledge of the NASA Best Practices implementation of ISO-19115 format, while still generating compliant metadata. More experienced users are also able to access raw metadata to build more complex records as needed. In future releases, the MMT will build upon recent work done in the community to assess metadata quality and compliance with a variety of standards through application of metadata rubrics. The tool will provide users with clear guidance as to how to easily change their metadata in order to improve their quality and compliance. Through these features, the MMT allows data providers to create and maintain compliant and high quality metadata in a short amount of time.

  7. A Web Application for Cotton Irrigation Management on The US Southern High Plains. Part I: Crop Yield Modeling and Profit Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigated cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) production is a central part of west Texas agriculture that depends on the essentially non-renewable water resource of the Ogallala aquifer. Web-based decision support tools that estimate the profit effects of irrigation for cotton under varying lint price, p...

  8. A web application for cotton irrigation management on the U.S. southern high plains. Part I: Crop yield modeling and profit analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigated cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) production is a central part of west Texas agriculture that depends on the essentially non-renewable water resource of the Ogallala aquifer. Web-based decision support tools that estimate the profit effects of irrigation for cotton under varying lint price, p...

  9. A Generic Metadata Query Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, B.; Duval, E.; Olivie, H.

    This paper discusses a generic query tool that enables an end user to query a metadata store through filters that impose search criteria on attributes. The Metadata Query Tool (MQT) is generic in the sense that it dynamically creates its user interface, based on configuration files that define the metadata scheme and the query functionalities.…

  10. Metadata Means Communication: The Challenges of Producing Useful Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. N.; Batcheller, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Metadata are increasingly perceived as an important component of data sharing systems. For instance, metadata accompanying atmospheric model output may indicate the grid size, grid type, and parameter settings used in the model configuration. We conducted a case study of a data portal in the atmospheric sciences using in-depth interviews, document review, and observation. OUr analysis revealed a number of challenges in producing useful metadata. First, creating and managing metadata required considerable effort and expertise, yet responsibility for these tasks was ill-defined and diffused among many individuals, leading to errors, failure to capture metadata, and uncertainty about the quality of the primary data. Second, metadata ended up stored in many different forms and software tools, making it hard to manage versions and transfer between formats. Third, the exact meanings of metadata categories remained unsettled and misunderstood even among a small community of domain experts -- an effect we expect to be exacerbated when scientists from other disciplines wish to use these data. In practice, we found that metadata problems due to these obstacles are often overcome through informal, personal communication, such as conversations or email. We conclude that metadata serve to communicate the context of data production from the people who produce data to those who wish to use it. Thus while formal metadata systems are often public, critical elements of metadata (those embodied in informal communication) may never be recorded. Therefore, efforts to increase data sharing should include ways to facilitate inter-investigator communication. Instead of tackling metadata challenges only on the formal level, we can improve data usability for broader communities by better supporting metadata communication.

  11. Metadata and the Future of Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    2001-01-01

    Surveys ongoing metadata projects to identify the types of metadata that exist and how they are used; compares and analyzes selected metadata elements to illustrate how they are related to MARC 21 metadata format elements; and discusses metadata standards, Dublin Core, diversity in classification, and the role of the Library of Congress.…

  12. Partnerships To Mine Unexploited Sources of Metadata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Regina Romano

    This paper discusses the metadata created for other purposes as a potential source of bibliographic data. The first section addresses collecting metadata by means of templates, including the Nordic Metadata Project's Dublin Core Metadata Template. The second section considers potential partnerships for re-purposing metadata for bibliographic use,…

  13. Metazen - metadata capture for metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Paczian, Tobias; Glass, Elizabeth; Wilke, Andreas; Meyer, Folker

    2014-01-01

    As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. Unfortunately, these tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility.

  14. Metadata Realities for Cyberinfrastructure: Data Authors as Metadata Creators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayernik, Matthew Stephen

    2011-01-01

    As digital data creation technologies become more prevalent, data and metadata management are necessary to make data available, usable, sharable, and storable. Researchers in many scientific settings, however, have little experience or expertise in data and metadata management. In this dissertation, I explore the everyday data and metadata…

  15. Metadata Realities for Cyberinfrastructure: Data Authors as Metadata Creators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayernik, Matthew Stephen

    2011-01-01

    As digital data creation technologies become more prevalent, data and metadata management are necessary to make data available, usable, sharable, and storable. Researchers in many scientific settings, however, have little experience or expertise in data and metadata management. In this dissertation, I explore the everyday data and metadata…

  16. Cytometry metadata in XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) has created a standard for the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt 1.0). CytometryML will serve as a common metadata standard for flow and image cytometry (digital microscopy). Methods: The MIFlowCyt data-types were created, as is the rest of CytometryML, in the XML Schema Definition Language (XSD1.1). The datatypes are primarily based on the Flow Cytometry and the Digital Imaging and Communication (DICOM) standards. A small section of the code was formatted with standard HTML formatting elements (p, h1, h2, etc.). Results:1) The part of MIFlowCyt that describes the Experimental Overview including the specimen and substantial parts of several other major elements has been implemented as CytometryML XML schemas (www.cytometryml.org). 2) The feasibility of using MIFlowCyt to provide the combination of an overview, table of contents, and/or an index of a scientific paper or a report has been demonstrated. Previously, a sample electronic publication, EPUB, was created that could contain both MIFlowCyt metadata as well as the binary data. Conclusions: The use of CytometryML technology together with XHTML5 and CSS permits the metadata to be directly formatted and together with the binary data to be stored in an EPUB container. This will facilitate: formatting, data- mining, presentation, data verification, and inclusion in structured research, clinical, and regulatory documents, as well as demonstrate a publication's adherence to the MIFlowCyt standard, promote interoperability and should also result in the textual and numeric data being published using web technology without any change in composition.

  17. Federating Metadata Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Lin, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Geosciences Network project (www.geongrid.org) has been developing cyberinfrastructure for data sharing in the Earth Science community based on a service-oriented architecture. The project defines a standard "software stack", which includes a standardized set of software modules and corresponding service interfaces. The system employs Grid certificates for distributed user authentication. The GEON Portal provides online access to these services via a set of portlets. This service-oriented approach has enabled the GEON network to easily expand to new sites and deploy the same infrastructure in new projects. To facilitate interoperation with other distributed geoinformatics environments, service standards are being defined and implemented for catalog services and federated search across distributed catalogs. The need arises because there may be multiple metadata catalogs in a distributed system, for example, for each institution, agency, geographic region, and/or country. Ideally, a geoinformatics user should be able to search across all such catalogs by making a single search request. In this paper, we describe our implementation for such a search capability across federated metadata catalogs in the GEON service-oriented architecture. The GEON catalog can be searched using spatial, temporal, and other metadata-based search criteria. The search can be invoked as a Web service and, thus, can be imbedded in any software application. The need for federated catalogs in GEON arises because, (i) GEON collaborators at the University of Hyderabad, India have deployed their own catalog, as part of the iGEON-India effort, to register information about local resources for broader access across the network, (ii) GEON collaborators in the GEO Grid (Global Earth Observations Grid) project at AIST, Japan have implemented a catalog for their ASTER data products, and (iii) we have recently deployed a search service to access all data products from the EarthScope project in the US

  18. Cotton Harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  19. Java Metadata Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, D J

    2008-03-06

    The Java Metadata Facility is introduced by Java Specification Request (JSR) 175 [1], and incorporated into the Java language specification [2] in version 1.5 of the language. The specification allows annotations on Java program elements: classes, interfaces, methods, and fields. Annotations give programmers a uniform way to add metadata to program elements that can be used by code checkers, code generators, or other compile-time or runtime components. Annotations are defined by annotation types. These are defined the same way as interfaces, but with the symbol {at} preceding the interface keyword. There are additional restrictions on defining annotation types: (1) They cannot be generic; (2) They cannot extend other annotation types or interfaces; (3) Methods cannot have any parameters; (4) Methods cannot have type parameters; (5) Methods cannot throw exceptions; and (6) The return type of methods of an annotation type must be a primitive, a String, a Class, an annotation type, or an array, where the type of the array is restricted to one of the four allowed types. See [2] for additional restrictions and syntax. The methods of an annotation type define the elements that may be used to parameterize the annotation in code. Annotation types may have default values for any of its elements. For example, an annotation that specifies a defect report could initialize an element defining the defect outcome submitted. Annotations may also have zero elements. This could be used to indicate serializability for a class (as opposed to the current Serializability interface).

  20. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  1. The New Online Metadata Editor for Generating Structured Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Shrestha, B.; Palanisamy, G.; Hook, L.; Killeffer, T.; Boden, T.; Cook, R. B.; Zolly, L.; Hutchison, V.; Frame, M. T.; Cialella, A. T.; Lazer, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nobody is better suited to "describe" data than the scientist who created it. This "description" about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [1] [2]. Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. How is OME helping Big Data Centers like ORNL DAAC? The ORNL DAAC is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers managed by the ESDIS Project. The ORNL DAAC archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program. The DAAC provides data and information relevant to biogeochemical dynamics, ecological data, and environmental processes, critical for understanding the dynamics relating to the biological components of the Earth's environment. Typically data produced, archived and analyzed is at a scale of multiple petabytes, which makes the discoverability of the data very challenging. Without proper metadata associated with the data, it is difficult to find the data you are looking for and equally difficult to use and understand the data. OME will allow data centers like the ORNL DAAC to produce meaningful, high quality, standards-based, descriptive information about their data products in-turn helping with the data discoverability and

  2. Creating preservation metadata from XML-metadata profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Bertelmann, Roland; Gebauer, Petra; Hasler, Tim; Klump, Jens; Kirchner, Ingo; Peters-Kottig, Wolfgang; Mettig, Nora; Rusch, Beate

    2014-05-01

    Registration of dataset DOIs at DataCite makes research data citable and comes with the obligation to keep data accessible in the future. In addition, many universities and research institutions measure data that is unique and not repeatable like the data produced by an observational network and they want to keep these data for future generations. In consequence, such data should be ingested in preservation systems, that automatically care for file format changes. Open source preservation software that is developed along the definitions of the ISO OAIS reference model is available but during ingest of data and metadata there are still problems to be solved. File format validation is difficult, because format validators are not only remarkably slow - due to variety in file formats different validators return conflicting identification profiles for identical data. These conflicts are hard to resolve. Preservation systems have a deficit in the support of custom metadata. Furthermore, data producers are sometimes not aware that quality metadata is a key issue for the re-use of data. In the project EWIG an university institute and a research institute work together with Zuse-Institute Berlin, that is acting as an infrastructure facility, to generate exemplary workflows for research data into OAIS compliant archives with emphasis on the geosciences. The Institute for Meteorology provides timeseries data from an urban monitoring network whereas GFZ Potsdam delivers file based data from research projects. To identify problems in existing preservation workflows the technical work is complemented by interviews with data practitioners. Policies for handling data and metadata are developed. Furthermore, university teaching material is created to raise the future scientists awareness of research data management. As a testbed for ingest workflows the digital preservation system Archivematica [1] is used. During the ingest process metadata is generated that is compliant to the

  3. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  4. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  5. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Defines digital library collections and outlines two classes of collection metadata. Describes the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project approach to collection metadata, including the ADL system architecture and collection guidelines and the format and use of the ADL collection metadata. Appendices include ADL collection metadata and example.…

  6. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Defines digital library collections and outlines two classes of collection metadata. Describes the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project approach to collection metadata, including the ADL system architecture and collection guidelines and the format and use of the ADL collection metadata. Appendices include ADL collection metadata and example.…

  7. Making Metadata Better with CMR and MMT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, Jason Arthur; Shum, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring complete, consistent and high quality metadata is a challenge for metadata providers and curators. The CMR and MMT systems provide providers and curators options to build in metadata quality from the start and also assess and improve the quality of already existing metadata.

  8. Metadata Dictionary Database: A Proposed Tool for Academic Library Metadata Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Silvia B.; Lampert, Cory

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a metadata dictionary (MDD) be used as a tool for metadata management. The MDD is a repository of critical data necessary for managing metadata to create "shareable" digital collections. An operational definition of metadata management is provided. The authors explore activities involved in metadata management in…

  9. Metadata Dictionary Database: A Proposed Tool for Academic Library Metadata Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Silvia B.; Lampert, Cory

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a metadata dictionary (MDD) be used as a tool for metadata management. The MDD is a repository of critical data necessary for managing metadata to create "shareable" digital collections. An operational definition of metadata management is provided. The authors explore activities involved in metadata management in…

  10. Analysis of microbial diversity and niche in rhizosphere soil of healthy and diseased cotton at the flowering stage in southern Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Luan, F G; Zhang, L L; Lou, Y Y; Wang, L; Liu, Y N; Zhang, H Y

    2015-03-06

    Understanding how microbial community composition and diversity respond to continuous cropping obstacle is not well understood. However, determining the community composition vs assessing the diversity of molecular operational taxonomic units is often difficult. In this study, we focused on the microbial diversity and niche differentiation in rhizosphere soils between healthy and diseased cotton using a molecular approach based on a culture-independent method. A total of 124 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 1076 DNA fragments were detected, including 46, 57, and 21 OTUs from fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes, respectively. The identified OTUs were confirmed by sequencing after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The number of OTUs from Fusarium species in diseased rhizosphere soils was higher than that in healthy rhizosphere, which was consistent with field observations. Overall, the results showed that microbes in healthy rhizosphere soils were more diverse and occupied a wider niche in the healthy rhizosphere soil environment of the cotton field. Beneficial microbes should further be analyzed in studies examining the soil ecology of fields in which continuous cropping of cotton takes place.

  11. Mass rearing and augmentative biological control of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against multiple pests of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a generalist predator of cotton pests and is commonly found inhabiting cotton growing regions in southern India. With the goal to integrate this predator in standard management practices used against cotton pests on a commercial scale, 1) we deve...

  12. Weed Species Density and Diversity in Roundup Ready Cotton: Perceptions Versus Reality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of cotton samples was tested for moisture content in Cotton Incorporated and Southern Regional Research Center on two HVIs that were equipped with moisture sensors in the sample comb/clamps. The cottons were also tested by oven method. The moisture contents from CI and SRRC had a very high co...

  13. Responses of commercial cotton cultivars to differential irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gradual depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer in the Southern High Plains of Texas over the past fifty years has resulted in reduced well capacities for cotton irrigation. This study initially investigated cotton cultivar responses to reduced irrigation amounts from flowering to harvest; and then e...

  14. The oldest, continuous cotton experiments in the world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the late 1800s, the Southern U.S. was producing most of the world’s cotton on highly erodible soils with little or no lime or fertilizer inputs. Continuous cotton with no cover crops was taking a toll from the land and its farmers. Land Grant Universities and Experiment Stations were just getti...

  15. Development of food-related materials from cotton byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of food-related projects are ongoing at the Commodities Utilization Research Unit at the USDA ARS Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). Two research projects that utilize raw materials from the cotton plant are reviewed in this work. The first project entails the conversion of cotton ...

  16. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source of textile manufacturers. In the U.S., upland cotton is produced along the southern most portion of the country in sixteen states from California to Virginia. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cott...

  17. The oldest, continuous cotton experiments in the world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the late 1800s, the Southern U.S. was producing most of the world’s cotton on highly erodible soils with little or no lime or fertilizer inputs. Continuous cotton with no cover crops was taking a toll from the land and its farmers. Land Grant Universities and Experiment Stations were just getting...

  18. Evaluating and Evolving Metadata in Multiple Dialects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozimor, J.; Habermann, T.; Powers, L. A.; Gordon, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite many long-term homogenization efforts, communities continue to develop focused metadata standards along with related recommendations and (typically) XML representations (aka dialects) for sharing metadata content. Different representations easily become obstacles to sharing information because each representation generally requires a set of tools and skills that are designed, built, and maintained specifically for that representation. In contrast, community recommendations are generally described, at least initially, at a more conceptual level and are more easily shared. For example, most communities agree that dataset titles should be included in metadata records although they write the titles in different ways. This situation has led to the development of metadata repositories that can ingest and output metadata in multiple dialects. As an operational example, the NASA Common Metadata Repository (CMR) includes three different metadata dialects (DIF, ECHO, and ISO 19115-2). These systems raise a new question for metadata providers: if I have a choice of metadata dialects, which should I use and how do I make that decision? We have developed a collection of metadata evaluation tools that can be used to evaluate metadata records in many dialects for completeness with respect to recommendations from many organizations and communities. We have applied these tools to over 8000 collection and granule metadata records in four different dialects. This large collection of identical content in multiple dialects enables us to address questions about metadata and dialect evolution and to answer those questions quantitatively. We will describe those tools and results from evaluating the NASA CMR metadata collection.

  19. Master Metadata Repository and Metadata-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Reed, Nate; Zhang, Wen

    2007-01-01

    A master metadata repository (MMR) software system manages the storage and searching of metadata pertaining to data from national and international satellite sources of the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project [GHRSSTPP]. These sources produce a total of hundreds of data files daily, each file classified as one of more than ten data products representing global sea-surface temperatures. The MMR is a relational database wherein the metadata are divided into granulelevel records [denoted file records (FRs)] for individual satellite files and collection-level records [denoted data set descriptions (DSDs)] that describe metadata common to all the files from a specific data product. FRs and DSDs adhere to the NASA Directory Interchange Format (DIF). The FRs and DSDs are contained in separate subdatabases linked by a common field. The MMR is configured in MySQL database software with custom Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) programs to validate and ingest the metadata records. The database contents are converted into the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standard format by use of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A Web interface enables users to search for availability of data from all sources.

  20. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV.

  1. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  2. Metadata-Centric Discovery Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Chung, N. T.; Gangl, M. E.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    It is data about data. It is the information describing a picture without looking at the picture. Through the years, the Earth Science community seeks better methods to describe science artifacts to improve the quality and efficiency in information exchange. One the purposes are to provide information to the users to guide them into identifies the science artifacts of their interest. The NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) are the building blocks of a data centric federation, designed for processing and archiving from NASA's Earth Observation missions and their distribution as well as provision of specialized services to users. The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, archives and distributes science artifacts pertain to the physical state of the ocean. As part of its high-performance operational Data Management and Archive System (DMAS) is a fast data discovery RESTful web service called the Oceanographic Common Search Interface (OCSI). The web service searches and delivers metadata on all data holdings within PO.DAAC. Currently OCSI supports metadata standards such as ISO-19115, OpenSearch, GCMD, and FGDC, with new metadata standards still being added. While we continue to seek the silver bullet in metadata standard, the Earth Science community is in fact consists of various standards due to the specific needs of its users and systems. This presentation focuses on the architecture behind OCSI as a reference implementation on building a metadata-centric discovery service.

  3. THE NEW ONLINE METADATA EDITOR FOR GENERATING STRUCTURED METADATA

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Shrestha, Biva; Palanisamy, Giri; Hook, Leslie A; Killeffer, Terri S; Boden, Thomas A; Cook, Robert B; Zolly, Lisa; Hutchison, Viv; Frame, Mike; Cialella, Alice; Lazer, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Nobody is better suited to describe data than the scientist who created it. This description about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset [1]. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [2][4]. OME is part of ORNL s Mercury software fleet [2][3]. It was jointly developed to support projects funded by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). OME s architecture provides a customizable interface to support project-specific requirements. Using this new architecture, the ORNL team developed OME instances for USGS s Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries (CSAS&L), DOE s Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, and the international Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide ATlas (SOCAT). Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. From the information on the form, the Metadata Editor can create an XML file on the server that the editor is installed or to the user s personal computer. Researchers can also use the ORNL Metadata Editor to modify existing XML metadata files. As an example, an NGEE Arctic scientist use OME to register

  4. Boll wall thickness in four cotton species and susceptibility to stink bug feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), adults can introduce pathogens into cotton bolls while feeding. Stylet penetration estimates of southern green stink bugs are known, and knowledge of boll wall thickness in cotton species may aid in determining susceptibility...

  5. Metadata, Identifiers, and Physical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctur, D. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hills, D. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Stroker, K. J.; Todd, N. S.; Dassie, E. P.; Bowring, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Physical samples are integral to much of the research conducted by geoscientists. The samples used in this research are often obtained at significant cost and represent an important investment for future research. However, making information about samples - whether considered data or metadata - available for researchers to enable discovery is difficult: a number of key elements related to samples are difficult to characterize in common ways, such as classification, location, sample type, sampling method, repository information, subsample distribution, and instrumentation, because these differ from one domain to the next. Unifying these elements or developing metadata crosswalks is needed. The iSamples (Internet of Samples) NSF-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is investigating ways to develop these types of interoperability and crosswalks. Within the iSamples RCN, one of its working groups, WG1, has focused on the metadata related to physical samples. This includes identifying existing metadata standards and systems, and how they might interoperate with the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) schema (schema.igsn.org) in order to help inform leading practices for metadata. For example, we are examining lifecycle metadata beyond the IGSN `birth certificate.' As a first step, this working group is developing a list of relevant standards and comparing their various attributes. In addition, the working group is looking toward technical solutions to facilitate developing a linked set of registries to build the web of samples. Finally, the group is also developing a comparison of sample identifiers and locators. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the standards identified thus far, as well as an update on the technical solutions examined for integration. We will discuss how various sample identifiers might work in complementary fashion with the IGSN to more completely describe samples, facilitate retrieval of contextual information, and

  6. Development of Cotton-Based Nonwovens Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-based nonwoven products, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...

  7. The Common Metadata Repository: A High Performance, High Quality Metadata Engine for Next Generation EOSDIS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilone, D.; Baynes, K.; Farley, J. D.; Murphy, K. J.; Ritz, S.; Northcutt, R.; Cherry, T. A.; Gokey, C.; Wanchoo, L.

    2013-12-01

    As data archives grow and more data becomes accessible online, cataloging, searching, and extracting relevant data from these archives becomes a critical part of Earth Science research. Current metadata systems such as ECHO, EMS, and GCMD require metadata providers to maintain multiple, disparate systems utilizing different formats and different mechanisms for submitting and updating their entries. As an end user or application developer, this inconsistency reduces the value of the metadata and complicates finding and using earth science data. Building on the results of the ESDIS Metadata Harmony Study of 2012, we completed a Metadata Harmony Study 2 in 2013 to identify specific areas where metadata quality, consistency, and availability could be improved while reducing the burden on metadata providers. In this talk we discuss the results of the Metadata Harmony 2 study and the impacts on the EOSDIS community. Specifically, we'll discuss: - The Unified Metadata Model (UMM) that unifies the ECHO, GCMD, and EMS metadata models - The Common Metadata Repository (CMR) which will provide a high performance common repository for both EOSDIS and non-EOSDIS metadata unifying the ECHO, GCMD, and EMS metadata stores - The CMR's approach to automated metadata assessment and review combined with a dedicated a science support team to significantly improve quality and consistency across Earth Science metadata - Future expandability of the CMR beyond basic science metadata to incorporate multiple metadata concepts including visualization, data attributes, services, documentation, and tool metadata - The CMR's relationship with evolving metadata standards such as work from the MENDS group and ISO19115 NASA Best Practices This talk is targeted at metadata providers, consumers, and Earth Science Data end users to introduce components that will support next generation EOSDIS applications.

  8. Estimating potential stylet penetration of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - A mathematical modeling approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), and related species are significant pests of cotton in the U.S. Cotton Belt. Using their stylets, adults introduce disease pathogens of cotton into cotton bolls, and preliminary data indicates nymphs can also ingest these pathogens. Data is lacking ...

  9. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  10. Omics Metadata Management Software (OMMS)

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Arriaga, Martha O; Wilson, Susan; Williams, Kelly P; Schoeniger, Joseph; Waymire, Russel L; Powell, Amy Jo

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing projects have underappreciated information management tasks requiring detailed attention to specimen curation, nucleic acid sample preparation and sequence production methods required for downstream data processing, comparison, interpretation, sharing and reuse. The few existing metadata management tools for genome-based studies provide weak curatorial frameworks for experimentalists to store and manage idiosyncratic, project-specific information, typically offering no automation supporting unified naming and numbering conventions for sequencing production environments that routinely deal with hundreds, if not thousands of samples at a time. Moreover, existing tools are not readily interfaced with bioinformatics executables, (e.g., BLAST, Bowtie2, custom pipelines). Our application, the Omics Metadata Management Software (OMMS), answers both needs, empowering experimentalists to generate intuitive, consistent metadata, and perform analyses and information management tasks via an intuitive web-based interface. Several use cases with short-read sequence datasets are provided to validate installation and integrated function, and suggest possible methodological road maps for prospective users. Provided examples highlight possible OMMS workflows for metadata curation, multistep analyses, and results management and downloading. The OMMS can be implemented as a stand alone-package for individual laboratories, or can be configured for webbased deployment supporting geographically-dispersed projects. The OMMS was developed using an open-source software base, is flexible, extensible and easily installed and executed. The OMMS can be obtained at http://omms.sandia.gov. Availability The OMMS can be obtained at http://omms.sandia.gov PMID:26124554

  11. [Radiological dose and metadata management].

    PubMed

    Walz, M; Kolodziej, M; Madsack, B

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the features of management systems currently available in Germany for extraction, registration and evaluation of metadata from radiological examinations, particularly in the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) environment. In addition, the probable relevant developments in this area concerning radiation protection legislation, terminology, standardization and information technology are presented.

  12. Omics Metadata Management Software (OMMS).

    PubMed

    Perez-Arriaga, Martha O; Wilson, Susan; Williams, Kelly P; Schoeniger, Joseph; Waymire, Russel L; Powell, Amy Jo

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing projects have underappreciated information management tasks requiring detailed attention to specimen curation, nucleic acid sample preparation and sequence production methods required for downstream data processing, comparison, interpretation, sharing and reuse. The few existing metadata management tools for genome-based studies provide weak curatorial frameworks for experimentalists to store and manage idiosyncratic, project-specific information, typically offering no automation supporting unified naming and numbering conventions for sequencing production environments that routinely deal with hundreds, if not thousands of samples at a time. Moreover, existing tools are not readily interfaced with bioinformatics executables, (e.g., BLAST, Bowtie2, custom pipelines). Our application, the Omics Metadata Management Software (OMMS), answers both needs, empowering experimentalists to generate intuitive, consistent metadata, and perform analyses and information management tasks via an intuitive web-based interface. Several use cases with short-read sequence datasets are provided to validate installation and integrated function, and suggest possible methodological road maps for prospective users. Provided examples highlight possible OMMS workflows for metadata curation, multistep analyses, and results management and downloading. The OMMS can be implemented as a stand alone-package for individual laboratories, or can be configured for webbased deployment supporting geographically-dispersed projects. The OMMS was developed using an open-source software base, is flexible, extensible and easily installed and executed. The OMMS can be obtained at http://omms.sandia.gov. The OMMS can be obtained at http://omms.sandia.gov.

  13. Crop-specific mortality of southern green stink-bug eggs in Bt- and non-Bt cotton, soybean, and peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need to characterize the mechanisms underlying population dynamics of stink bugs relative to major crops in the southeastern US. To this end, we investigated predation and parasitism of Southern green stink bug eggs and the agents causing mortality by placing sentinel egg masses in plots ...

  14. Meloidogyne incognita emigration from cotton roots may be induced by the resistance QTL qMi-C11

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most widely grown crops in the southern US, and Meloidogyne incognita is the most significant pathogen of cotton in the US. Two QTLs, qMi-C11 and qMi-C14, conferring resistance to M. incognita have been identified in cotton. Previous research docume...

  15. Anatomical damage in cotton squares by nymphal Lygus lineolaris in relation to EPG-recorded feeding behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus lineolaris is a key pest affecting cotton, Gossypium spp. The pest is widely distributed in the U.S., especially in eastern and mid-southern states. Nearly 53% of U.S. cotton acreage was infested by Lygus spp. in 2002. An individual lygus bug is capable of destroying up to 23,400 cotton square...

  16. Dictionary of Cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  17. Seed cotton unloading systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this article was to review the literature and describe the current technology used by U.S. cotton gins for seed cotton unloading. Unloading systems supply the gin with raw material. Their essential functions are 1) to remove non-cotton materials such as protective covers used duri...

  18. GEOSS Clearinghouse Quality Metadata Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masó, J.; Díaz, P.; Ninyerola, M.; Sevillano, E.; Pons, X.

    2012-04-01

    The proliferation of similar Earth observation digital data products increases the relevance of data quality information of those datasets. GEOSS is investing important efforts in promoting the acknowledgment of the data quality in Earth observation. Activities, such as the regular meeting of QA4EO and projects as GeoViQua have the aim to make the data quality available and visible in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The clearinghouse is one of the main components of the GCI, which catalogues all the known Earth observation resources and provide it via the GEO Portal. Actually, after several initiatives to stimulate that (such as AIP4) most of the relevant international data providers referenced their data in the GEOSS Component and Service Registry, therefore, the GEOSS clearinghouse can be considered a global catalogue of the main Earth observation products. However, there are some important catalogues still in the process of being integrated. We developed an exhaustive study of the data quality elements available on the metadata catalogue in the GEOSS clearinghouse, to elaborate a state-of-the-art report on data quality. The clearinghouse is harvested using the OGC CSW port. Metadata following the standard ISO 19115 is saved in XML-ISO 19139 files. The semi-automatic methodology, previously applied in regional SDIs studies, generates a big metadata database that can be further analyzed. The number of metadata records harvested was 97203 (October 2011). The two main metadata nodes studied are directly related with data quality information package (DQ_DataQuality) in ISO. These are the quality indicators (DQ_Element) and the lineage information (LI_Lineage). Moreover, we also considered the usage information (MD_Usage). The results reveal 19107 (19.66%) metadata records containing quality indicators; which include a total of 52187 quality indicators. The results show also a main representation of the positional accuracy, with 37.19% of the total

  19. Log-less metadata management on metadata server for parallel file systems.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianwei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Peng, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel metadata management mechanism on the metadata server (MDS) for parallel and distributed file systems. In this technique, the client file system backs up the sent metadata requests, which have been handled by the metadata server, so that the MDS does not need to log metadata changes to nonvolatile storage for achieving highly available metadata service, as well as better performance improvement in metadata processing. As the client file system backs up certain sent metadata requests in its memory, the overhead for handling these backup requests is much smaller than that brought by the metadata server, while it adopts logging or journaling to yield highly available metadata service. The experimental results show that this newly proposed mechanism can significantly improve the speed of metadata processing and render a better I/O data throughput, in contrast to conventional metadata management schemes, that is, logging or journaling on MDS. Besides, a complete metadata recovery can be achieved by replaying the backup logs cached by all involved clients, when the metadata server has crashed or gone into nonoperational state exceptionally.

  20. Log-Less Metadata Management on Metadata Server for Parallel File Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guoqiang; Peng, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel metadata management mechanism on the metadata server (MDS) for parallel and distributed file systems. In this technique, the client file system backs up the sent metadata requests, which have been handled by the metadata server, so that the MDS does not need to log metadata changes to nonvolatile storage for achieving highly available metadata service, as well as better performance improvement in metadata processing. As the client file system backs up certain sent metadata requests in its memory, the overhead for handling these backup requests is much smaller than that brought by the metadata server, while it adopts logging or journaling to yield highly available metadata service. The experimental results show that this newly proposed mechanism can significantly improve the speed of metadata processing and render a better I/O data throughput, in contrast to conventional metadata management schemes, that is, logging or journaling on MDS. Besides, a complete metadata recovery can be achieved by replaying the backup logs cached by all involved clients, when the metadata server has crashed or gone into nonoperational state exceptionally. PMID:24892093

  1. Helicoverpa zea and Bt cotton in the United States.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, Randall G; Jackson, Ryan E

    2012-01-01

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the bollworm or corn earworm, is the most important lepidopteran pest of Bt cotton in the United States. Corn is the preferred host, but the insect feeds on most flowering crops and wild host plants. As a cotton pest, bollworm has been closely linked to the insecticide-resistance prone Heliothis virescens (F.), tobacco budworm. Immature stages of the two species are difficult to separate in field environments. Tobacco budworm is very susceptible to most Bt toxins, and Bt cotton is considered to be "high dose." Bollworm is less susceptible to Bt toxins, and Bt cotton is not "high dose" for this pest. Bt cotton is routinely sprayed with traditional insecticides for bollworm control. Assays of bollworm field populations for susceptibility to Bt toxins expressed in Bt cotton have produced variable results since pre-deployment of Bt cottons in 1988 and 1992. Analyses of assay response trends have been used by others to suggest that field resistance has evolved to Bt toxins in bollworm, but disagreement exists on definitions of field resistance and confidence of variable assay results to project changes in susceptibility of field populations. Given historical variability in bollworm response to Bt toxins, erratic field control requiring supplemental insecticides since early field testing of Bt cottons, and dramatic increases in corn acreage in cotton growing areas of the Southern US, continued vigilance and concern for resistance evolution are warranted.

  2. RNAi-mediated resistance against Cotton leaf curl disease in elite Indian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivar Narasimha.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Sameena; Kumar, Abhinav; Sarin, Neera B; Khan, Jawaid A

    2016-08-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by several distinct begomovirus species in association with disease-specific betasatellite essential for induction of disease symptoms. CLCuD is a serious threat for the cultivation of cotton (Gossypium sp.) and several species in the family Malvaceae. In this study, RNAi-based approach was applied to generate transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants resistant to Cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus (CLCuRV). An intron hairpin (ihp) RNAi construct capable of expressing dsRNA homologous to the intergenic region (IR) of CLCuRV was designed and developed. Following Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotton (G. hirsutum cv. Narasimha) plants with the designed ihpRNAi construct, a total of 9 independent lines of transformed cotton were obtained. The presence of the potential stretch of IR in the transformed cotton was confirmed by PCR coupled with Southern hybridization. Upon inoculation with viruliferous whiteflies, the transgenic plants showed high degree of resistance. None of them displayed any CLCuD symptoms even after 90 days post inoculation. The transformed cotton plants showed the presence of siRNAs. The present study demonstrated that ihp dsRNA-mediated resistance strategy of RNAi is an effective means to combat the CLCuD infection in cotton.

  3. Evolution in Metadata Quality: Common Metadata Repository's Role in NASA Curation Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, Jason; Shum, Dana; Baynes, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Metadata Quality is one of the chief drivers of discovery and use of NASA EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) data. Issues with metadata such as lack of completeness, inconsistency, and use of legacy terms directly hinder data use. As the central metadata repository for NASA Earth Science data, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) has a responsibility to its users to ensure the quality of CMR search results. This poster covers how we use humanizers, a technique for dealing with the symptoms of metadata issues, as well as our plans for future metadata validation enhancements. The CMR currently indexes 35K collections and 300M granules.

  4. EOS ODL Metadata On-line Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Rabi, M.; Bane, B.; Ullman, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently developed and deployed an EOS ODL metadata on-line viewer. The EOS ODL metadata viewer is a web server that takes: 1) an EOS metadata file in Object Description Language (ODL), 2) parameters, such as which metadata to view and what style of display to use, and returns an HTML or XML document displaying the requested metadata in the requested style. This tool is developed to address widespread complaints by science community that the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) metadata files in ODL are difficult to read by allowing users to upload and view an ODL metadata file in different styles using a web browser. Users have the selection to view all the metadata or part of the metadata, such as Collection metadata, Granule metadata, or Unsupported Metadata. Choices of display styles include 1) Web: a mouseable display with tabs and turn-down menus, 2) Outline: Formatted and colored text, suitable for printing, 3) Generic: Simple indented text, a direct representation of the underlying ODL metadata, and 4) None: No stylesheet is applied and the XML generated by the converter is returned directly. Not all display styles are implemented for all the metadata choices. For example, Web style is only implemented for Collection and Granule metadata groups with known attribute fields, but not for Unsupported, Other, and All metadata. The overall strategy of the ODL viewer is to transform an ODL metadata file to a viewable HTML in two steps. The first step is to convert the ODL metadata file to an XML using a Java-based parser/translator called ODL2XML. The second step is to transform the XML to an HTML using stylesheets. Both operations are done on the server side. This allows a lot of flexibility in the final result, and is very portable cross-platform. Perl CGI behind the Apache web server is used to run the Java ODL2XML, and then run the results through an XSLT processor. The EOS ODL viewer can be accessed from either a PC or a Mac using Internet

  5. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of forested and emergent marsh depressional wetlands in differing land uses in Florida, USA. Wetlands Ecology and Management. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., GERMANY, 24(1): 45-60, (2016).

  6. Finding Atmospheric Composition (AC) Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard F..; Falke, Stefan; Fiakowski, Ed; Kempler, Steve; Lynnes, Chris; Goussev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not all

  7. Enriched Video Semantic Metadata: Authorization, Integration, and Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Marchionini, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents an enriched video metadata framework including video authorization using the Video Annotation and Summarization Tool (VAST)-a video metadata authorization system that integrates both semantic and visual metadata-- metadata integration, and user level applications. Results demonstrated that the enriched metadata were seamlessly…

  8. Enriched Video Semantic Metadata: Authorization, Integration, and Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Marchionini, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents an enriched video metadata framework including video authorization using the Video Annotation and Summarization Tool (VAST)-a video metadata authorization system that integrates both semantic and visual metadata-- metadata integration, and user level applications. Results demonstrated that the enriched metadata were seamlessly…

  9. Managing Complex Change in Clinical Study Metadata

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Cynthia A.; Gadagkar, Rohit; Rodriguez, Cesar; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2004-01-01

    In highly functional metadata-driven software, the interrelationships within the metadata become complex, and maintenance becomes challenging. We describe an approach to metadata management that uses a knowledge-base subschema to store centralized information about metadata dependencies and use cases involving specific types of metadata modification. Our system borrows ideas from production-rule systems in that some of this information is a high-level specification that is interpreted and executed dynamically by a middleware engine. Our approach is implemented in TrialDB, a generic clinical study data management system. We review approaches that have been used for metadata management in other contexts and describe the features, capabilities, and limitations of our system. PMID:15187070

  10. International Metadata Standards and Enterprise Data Quality Metadata Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Well-documented data quality is critical in situations where scientists and decision-makers need to combine multiple datasets from different disciplines and collection systems to address scientific questions or difficult decisions. Standardized data quality metadata could be very helpful in these situations. Many efforts at developing data quality standards falter because of the diversity of approaches to measuring and reporting data quality. The "one size fits all" paradigm does not generally work well in this situation. The ISO data quality standard (ISO 19157) takes a different approach with the goal of systematically describing how data quality is measured rather than how it should be measured. It introduces the idea of standard data quality measures that can be well documented in a measure repository and used for consistently describing how data quality is measured across an enterprise. The standard includes recommendations for properties of these measures that include unique identifiers, references, illustrations and examples. Metadata records can reference these measures using the unique identifier and reuse them along with details (and references) that describe how the measure was applied to a particular dataset. A second important feature of ISO 19157 is the inclusion of citations to existing papers or reports that describe quality of a dataset. This capability allows users to find this information in a single location, i.e. the dataset metadata, rather than searching the web or other catalogs. I will describe these and other capabilities of ISO 19157 with examples of how they are being used to describe data quality across the NASA EOS Enterprise and also compare these approaches with other standards.

  11. International Metadata Standards and Enterprise Data Quality Metadata Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Well-documented data quality is critical in situations where scientists and decision-makers need to combine multiple datasets from different disciplines and collection systems to address scientific questions or difficult decisions. Standardized data quality metadata could be very helpful in these situations. Many efforts at developing data quality standards falter because of the diversity of approaches to measuring and reporting data quality. The one size fits all paradigm does not generally work well in this situation. I will describe these and other capabilities of ISO 19157 with examples of how they are being used to describe data quality across the NASA EOS Enterprise and also compare these approaches with other standards.

  12. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  13. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    DOE PAGES

    Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Paczian, Tobias; ...

    2014-12-08

    Background: As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. These tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack themore » appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results: Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusion: Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility.« less

  14. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Paczian, Tobias; Glass, Elizabeth; Wilke, Andreas; Meyer, Folker

    2014-12-08

    Background: As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. These tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results: Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusion: Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility.

  15. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C

    2016-05-17

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences.

  16. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. Unfortunately, these tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusions Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility. PMID:25780508

  17. Mitogenome metadata: current trends and proposed standards.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Jeff H T; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A; Hanner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mitogenome metadata are descriptive terms about the sequence, and its specimen description that allow both to be digitally discoverable and interoperable. Here, we review a sampling of mitogenome metadata published in the journal Mitochondrial DNA between 2005 and 2014. Specifically, we have focused on a subset of metadata fields that are available for GenBank records, and specified by the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) and other biodiversity metadata standards; and we assessed their presence across three main categories: collection, biological and taxonomic information. To do this we reviewed 146 mitogenome manuscripts, and their associated GenBank records, and scored them for 13 metadata fields. We also explored the potential for mitogenome misidentification using their sequence diversity, and taxonomic metadata on the Barcode of Life Datasystems (BOLD). For this, we focused on all Lepidoptera and Perciformes mitogenomes included in the review, along with additional mitogenome sequence data mined from Genbank. Overall, we found that none of 146 mitogenome projects provided all the metadata we looked for; and only 17 projects provided at least one category of metadata across the three main categories. Comparisons using mtDNA sequences from BOLD, suggest that some mitogenomes may be misidentified. Lastly, we appreciate the research potential of mitogenomes announced through this journal; and we conclude with a suggestion of 13 metadata fields, available on GenBank, that if provided in a mitogenomes's GenBank record, would increase their research value.

  18. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... for Market § 780.807 Cotton must be ginned “for market.” As noted in § 780.804, it is ginning of seed... only where the cotton is actually ginned “for market.” (Wirtz v. Southern Pickery, Inc. (W.D. Tenn...

  19. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... for Market § 780.807 Cotton must be ginned “for market.” As noted in § 780.804, it is ginning of seed... only where the cotton is actually ginned “for market.” (Wirtz v. Southern Pickery, Inc. (W.D. Tenn...

  20. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  1. The complete genome sequence of a virus associated with cotton blue disease, cotton leafroll dwarf virus, confirms that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ana J; Bonacic Kresic, Ivan; Hopp, H Esteban

    2010-11-01

    Cotton blue disease is the most important virus disease of cotton in the southern part of America. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of the cotton blue disease-associated virus was determined for the first time. It comprised 5,866 nucleotides, and the deduced genomic organization resembled that of members of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirm that this virus (previous proposed name cotton leafroll dwarf virus) is a member of a new species within the genus Polerovirus.

  2. Digital Initiatives and Metadata Use in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SuKantarat, Wichada

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide information about various digital initiatives in libraries in Thailand and especially use of Dublin Core metadata in cataloguing digitized objects in academic and government digital databases. Design/methodology/approach: The author began researching metadata use in Thailand in 2003 and 2004 while on sabbatical…

  3. A Metadata-Rich File System

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2009-01-07

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  4. Leveraging Metadata to Create Better Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Libraries have been increasingly concerned with data creation, management, and publication. This increase is partly driven by shifting metadata standards in libraries and partly by the growth of data and metadata repositories being managed by libraries. In order to manage these data sets, libraries are looking for new preservation and discovery…

  5. Leveraging Metadata to Create Better Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Libraries have been increasingly concerned with data creation, management, and publication. This increase is partly driven by shifting metadata standards in libraries and partly by the growth of data and metadata repositories being managed by libraries. In order to manage these data sets, libraries are looking for new preservation and discovery…

  6. Some Observations on Metadata and Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, Caroline R.

    This paper describes experiences in gathering together metadata from heterogeneous sources for the American Memory project of the Library of Congress, particularly for the collections digitized and cataloged at other institutions. It also reflects on several initiatives to develop rich structured metadata schemes for specific domains and to find…

  7. International Metadata Initiatives: Lessons in Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla

    This paper looks at a subset of metadata schemes, including the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) header, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD), the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), and the Visual Resources Association (VRA) Core Categories for visual resources. It examines why they developed as they did, major point of difference from…

  8. CanCore: Metadata for Learning Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roberts, Anthony; Fisher, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses reusable digital learning resources or objects in distance education and training. Focuses on the pivotal role of metadata and issues relating to classification, description, and meaning, specifically issues of semantics; and describes the CanCore Learning Object Metadata Application Profile. (Author/LRW)

  9. A Metadata Element Set for Project Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Gail; Templeton, Clay; Allen, Robert B.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a large engineering enterprise with many projects. We describe our efforts to develop standard metadata sets across project documentation which we term the "Goddard Core". We also address broader issues for project management metadata.

  10. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  11. Mini Ontologies and Metadata Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Ritschel, B.

    2013-12-01

    Ontologies come in many forms and with a wide range of detail and specificity. Of particular interest in the realm of science are classification schemes or taxonomies. Within general science domains there may be multiple taxonomies. Each taxonomy can be represented as a very narrowly defined domain ontology. We call such ontologies "mini ontologies". Since mini ontologies are very modular and portable they can be used in a variety of context. To illustrate the generation and use of mini ontologies we show how enumerations which may part of an existing data model, like SPASE *Region enumerations, can be modeled as a mini ontology. We show how such ontologies can be transformed to generate metadata expressions which can be readily used in different operational context, for example in the tag of a web page. We define a set of context specific transforms for commonly used metadata expressions which can preserve the semantic information in a mini ontology and describe how such expressions are reversible. The sharing and adoption of mini ontologies can significantly enhance the discovery and use of related data resources within a community. We look at several cases where this is true with a special focus on the international ESPAS project.

  12. Metadata

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-11-29

    Descriptive information pertaining to data sets. This includes data set descriptions in directories, guides, and inventories, plus any additional information that defines the relationships among them.

  13. Development of eco-safe and sustainable cotton-based nonwoven fabrics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The research conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, New Orleans, Louisiana, has identified a viable source of greige (raw) cotton that is mechanically pre-cleaned at a gin and involves no chemical, wet, or thermal treatment. The applicable cotton qualit...

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in peanut-cotton farmscapes. ...

  15. Changes in the Use of Precision Farming Information Sources among Cotton Farmers and Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Brittani; Velandia, Margarita; Lambert, Dayton M.; Roberts, Roland K.; Larson, James A.; English, Burton C.; Boyer, Christopher; Rejesus, Roderick; Mishra, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Using information from precision farmer surveys conducted in the southern United States in 2005 and 2013, we evaluated changes in the use of precision farming information sources among cotton producers. Although Extension remains an important source for producers interested in precision farming information, the percentage of cotton producers using…

  16. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Within a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose to established library collections intended to persist through time. The objects in these collections vary widely, from library and data center holdings to pointers to real-world objects, such as geographic places, and the various metadata schemas that describe them. The key to integrated use of such a variety of collections in a digital library is collection metadata that represents the inherent and contextual characteristics of a collection. The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project has designed and implemented collection metadata for several purposes: in XML form, the collection metadata "registers" the collection with the user interface client; in HTML form, it is used for user documentation; eventually, it will be used to describe the collection to network search agents; and it is used for internal collection management, including mapping the object metadata attributes to the common search parameters of the system.

  17. METADATA REGISTRY, ISO/IEC 11179

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Buttler, D J

    2008-01-03

    ISO/IEC-11179 is an international standard that documents the standardization and registration of metadata to make data understandable and shareable. This standardization and registration allows for easier locating, retrieving, and transmitting data from disparate databases. The standard defines the how metadata are conceptually modeled and how they are shared among parties, but does not define how data is physically represented as bits and bytes. The standard consists of six parts. Part 1 provides a high-level overview of the standard and defines the basic element of a metadata registry - a data element. Part 2 defines the procedures for registering classification schemes and classifying administered items in a metadata registry (MDR). Part 3 specifies the structure of an MDR. Part 4 specifies requirements and recommendations for constructing definitions for data and metadata. Part 5 defines how administered items are named and identified. Part 6 defines how administered items are registered and assigned an identifier.

  18. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Within a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose to established library collections intended to persist through time. The objects in these collections vary widely, from library and data center holdings to pointers to real-world objects, such as geographic places, and the various metadata schemas that describe them. The key to integrated use of such a variety of collections in a digital library is collection metadata that represents the inherent and contextual characteristics of a collection. The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project has designed and implemented collection metadata for several purposes: in XML form, the collection metadata "registers" the collection with the user interface client; in HTML form, it is used for user documentation; eventually, it will be used to describe the collection to network search agents; and it is used for internal collection management, including mapping the object metadata attributes to the common search parameters of the system.

  19. Incorporating ISO Metadata Using HDF Product Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelenak, Aleksandar; Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The need to store in HDF5 files increasing amounts of metadata of various complexity is greatly overcoming the capabilities of the Earth science metadata conventions currently in use. Data producers until now did not have much choice but to come up with ad hoc solutions to this challenge. Such solutions, in turn, pose a wide range of issues for data managers, distributors, and, ultimately, data users. The HDF Group is experimenting on a novel approach of using ISO 19115 metadata objects as a catch-all container for all the metadata that cannot be fitted into the current Earth science data conventions. This presentation will showcase how the HDF Product Designer software can be utilized to help data producers include various ISO metadata objects in their products.

  20. $1+ Cotton? New Thresholds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

  1. Keeping Cotton Green

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

  2. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  3. Internet experiments: methods, guidelines, metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2009-02-01

    The Internet experiment is now a well-established and widely used method. The present paper describes guidelines for the proper conduct of Internet experiments, e.g. handling of dropout, unobtrusive naming of materials, and pre-testing. Several methods are presented that further increase the quality of Internet experiments and help to avoid frequent errors. These methods include the "seriousness check", "warm-up," "high hurdle," and "multiple site entry" techniques, control of multiple submissions, and control of motivational confounding. Finally, metadata from sites like WEXTOR (http://wextor.org) and the web experiment list (http://genpsylab-wexlist.uzh.ch/) are reported that show the current state of Internet-based research in terms of the distribution of fields, topics, and research designs used.

  4. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework.

  5. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G.; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework. PMID:27486397

  6. Evaluating and Evolving Metadata in Multiple Dialects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozimore, John; Habermann, Ted; Gordon, Sean; Powers, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Despite many long-term homogenization efforts, communities continue to develop focused metadata standards along with related recommendations and (typically) XML representations (aka dialects) for sharing metadata content. Different representations easily become obstacles to sharing information because each representation generally requires a set of tools and skills that are designed, built, and maintained specifically for that representation. In contrast, community recommendations are generally described, at least initially, at a more conceptual level and are more easily shared. For example, most communities agree that dataset titles should be included in metadata records although they write the titles in different ways.

  7. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  8. Assessing Metadata Quality of a Federally Sponsored Health Data Repository.

    PubMed

    Marc, David T; Beattie, James; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gatewood, Laël; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Government developed HealthData.gov to disseminate healthcare datasets to the public. Metadata is provided for each datasets and is the sole source of information to find and retrieve data. This study employed automated quality assessments of the HealthData.gov metadata published from 2012 to 2014 to measure completeness, accuracy, and consistency of applying standards. The results demonstrated that metadata published in earlier years had lower completeness, accuracy, and consistency. Also, metadata that underwent modifications following their original creation were of higher quality. HealthData.gov did not uniformly apply Dublin Core Metadata Initiative to the metadata, which is a widely accepted metadata standard. These findings suggested that the HealthData.gov metadata suffered from quality issues, particularly related to information that wasn't frequently updated. The results supported the need for policies to standardize metadata and contributed to the development of automated measures of metadata quality.

  9. Assessing Metadata Quality of a Federally Sponsored Health Data Repository

    PubMed Central

    Marc, David T.; Beattie, James; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gatewood, Laël; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Government developed HealthData.gov to disseminate healthcare datasets to the public. Metadata is provided for each datasets and is the sole source of information to find and retrieve data. This study employed automated quality assessments of the HealthData.gov metadata published from 2012 to 2014 to measure completeness, accuracy, and consistency of applying standards. The results demonstrated that metadata published in earlier years had lower completeness, accuracy, and consistency. Also, metadata that underwent modifications following their original creation were of higher quality. HealthData.gov did not uniformly apply Dublin Core Metadata Initiative to the metadata, which is a widely accepted metadata standard. These findings suggested that the HealthData.gov metadata suffered from quality issues, particularly related to information that wasn’t frequently updated. The results supported the need for policies to standardize metadata and contributed to the development of automated measures of metadata quality. PMID:28269883

  10. Metadata extraction routines for improving infobutton performance.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Haug, Peter J

    2010-11-13

    Infobuttons have been proven as an effective means for providing quick, context-specific links to pertinent information resources at the point of care. Current infobutton manager implementations, however, lack the ability to exchange metadata, are limited to a relatively small set of information providers, and are targeted primarily for a clinician audience. As part of a local effort to implement infobuttons for patient use via a tethered personal health record, we present a series of metadata extraction routines. These routines were constructed to extract key pieces of information from health information providers on the Internet, including content coverage, language availability, and readability scores. The extraction routines were tested using thirty different disease conditions against eight different providers. The routines yielded 183 potential infobutton targets and associated metadata for each. The capabilities of the extraction routines will be expanded to cover new types of metadata in the future.

  11. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  12. eXtended MetaData Registry

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-25

    The purpose of the eXtended MetaData Registry (XMDR) prototype is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of constructing an extended metadata registry, i.e., one which encompasses richer classification support, facilities for including terminologies, and better support for formal specification of semantics. The prototype registry will also serve as a reference implementation for the revised versions of ISO 11179, Parts 2 and 3 to help guide production implementations.

  13. The HST Cache: Metadata and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoehr, F.; Haase, J.; Lombardi, M.; Durand, D.; Micol, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present new developments of the HST Cache that are related to the greatly improved metadata now available within the system. This work includes the interface to CAOM, new SSAP and SIAP VO services, the integration of HLA images produced at CADC and STScI into the HST Cache metadata tables as well as work on improved user interfaces. Somewhat more operational details are given by Haase J. et al. 2010 in this volume.

  14. eXtended MetaData Registry

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-25

    The purpose of the eXtended MetaData Registry (XMDR) prototype is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of constructing an extended metadata registry, i.e., one which encompasses richer classification support, facilities for including terminologies, and better support for formal specification of semantics. The prototype registry will also serve as a reference implementation for the revised versions of ISO 11179, Parts 2 and 3 to help guide production implementations.

  15. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  16. Science friction: data, metadata, and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Paul N; Mayernik, Matthew S; Batcheller, Archer L; Bowker, Geoffrey C; Borgman, Christine L

    2011-10-01

    When scientists from two or more disciplines work together on related problems, they often face what we call 'science friction'. As science becomes more data-driven, collaborative, and interdisciplinary, demand increases for interoperability among data, tools, and services. Metadata--usually viewed simply as 'data about data', describing objects such as books, journal articles, or datasets--serve key roles in interoperability. Yet we find that metadata may be a source of friction between scientific collaborators, impeding data sharing. We propose an alternative view of metadata, focusing on its role in an ephemeral process of scientific communication, rather than as an enduring outcome or product. We report examples of highly useful, yet ad hoc, incomplete, loosely structured, and mutable, descriptions of data found in our ethnographic studies of several large projects in the environmental sciences. Based on this evidence, we argue that while metadata products can be powerful resources, usually they must be supplemented with metadata processes. Metadata-as-process suggests the very large role of the ad hoc, the incomplete, and the unfinished in everyday scientific work.

  17. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  18. Transgenic cotton expressing synthesized scorpion insect toxin AaHIT gene confers enhanced resistance to cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiahe; Luo, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhian; Tian, Yingchuan; Liang, Aihua; Sun, Yi

    2008-03-01

    A synthetic scorpion Hector Insect Toxin (AaHIT) gene, under the control of a CaMV35S promoter, was cloned into cotton via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Southern blot analyses indicated that integration of the transgene varied from one to more than three estimated copies per genome; seven homozygous transgenic lines with one copy of the T-DNA insert were then selected by PCR and Southern blot analysis. AaHIT expression was from 0.02 to 0.43% of total soluble protein determined by western blot. These homozygous transgenic lines killed larvae of cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigera) by 44-98%. The AaHIT gene could used therefore an alternative to Bt toxin and proteinase inhibitor genes for producing transgenic cotton crops with effective control of bollworm.

  19. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  4. Mechanization, sensing, and control in cotton production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is one of the most important crops in the world. Mechanization, sensing, and control systems play an important role in cotton production and processing. Mechanical development and application of the cotton gin, the cotton harvester, and the cotton module builder dramatically increased cotton ...

  5. Evaluation of a Landscape-Scale Approach to Cotton Modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern Texas High Plains (SHP) is an important semiarid region for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production that depends on irrigation from the Ogallala Aquifer. The aquifer is recharged at rates less than depletion, leading to regulations and novel management strategies for irrigation that m...

  6. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Sunghyun Nam; Dharnidhar V. Parikh

    2012-01-01

    Unbleached (gray) cotton needle-punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate–nitrogen-based flame retardant (FR) formulations, Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC)-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the FR chemical along with urea and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Because a trace...

  7. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  9. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  10. Streamlining geospatial metadata in the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Oggioni, Alessandro; Tagliolato, Paolo; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In the geospatial realm, data annotation and discovery rely on a number of ad-hoc formats and protocols. These have been created to enable domain-specific use cases generalized search is not feasible for. Metadata are at the heart of the discovery process and nevertheless they are often neglected or encoded in formats that either are not aimed at efficient retrieval of resources or are plainly outdated. Particularly, the quantum leap represented by the Linked Open Data (LOD) movement did not induce so far a consistent, interlinked baseline in the geospatial domain. In a nutshell, datasets, scientific literature related to them, and ultimately the researchers behind these products are only loosely connected; the corresponding metadata intelligible only to humans, duplicated on different systems, seldom consistently. Instead, our workflow for metadata management envisages i) editing via customizable web- based forms, ii) encoding of records in any XML application profile, iii) translation into RDF (involving the semantic lift of metadata records), and finally iv) storage of the metadata as RDF and back-translation into the original XML format with added semantics-aware features. Phase iii) hinges on relating resource metadata to RDF data structures that represent keywords from code lists and controlled vocabularies, toponyms, researchers, institutes, and virtually any description one can retrieve (or directly publish) in the LOD Cloud. In the context of a distributed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) built on free and open-source software, we detail phases iii) and iv) of our workflow for the semantics-aware management of geospatial metadata.

  11. Metadata Management on the SCEC PetaSHA Project: Helping Users Describe, Discover, Understand, and Use Simulation Data in a Large-Scale Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D.; Deelman, E.; Maechling, P.; Wong-Barnum, M.; Jordan, T. H.; Meyers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Large scientific collaborations, such as the SCEC Petascale Cyberfacility for Physics-based Seismic Hazard Analysis (PetaSHA) Project, involve interactions between many scientists who exchange ideas and research results. These groups must organize, manage, and make accessible their community materials of observational data, derivative (research) results, computational products, and community software. The integration of scientific workflows as a paradigm to solve complex computations provides advantages of efficiency, reliability, repeatability, choices, and ease of use. The underlying resource needed for a scientific workflow to function and create discoverable and exchangeable products is the construction, tracking, and preservation of metadata. In the scientific workflow environment there is a two-tier structure of metadata. Workflow-level metadata and provenance describe operational steps, identity of resources, execution status, and product locations and names. Domain-level metadata essentially define the scientific meaning of data, codes and products. To a large degree the metadata at these two levels are separate. However, between these two levels is a subset of metadata produced at one level but is needed by the other. This crossover metadata suggests that some commonality in metadata handling is needed. SCEC researchers are collaborating with computer scientists at SDSC, the USC Information Sciences Institute, and Carnegie Mellon Univ. in order to perform earthquake science using high-performance computational resources. A primary objective of the "PetaSHA" collaboration is to perform physics-based estimations of strong ground motion associated with real and hypothetical earthquakes located within Southern California. Construction of 3D earth models, earthquake representations, and numerical simulation of seismic waves are key components of these estimations. Scientific workflows are used to orchestrate the sequences of scientific tasks and to access

  12. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  13. More on Cotton flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Ercan; Dengiz, Suat; Tekin, Bayram

    2015-06-01

    Cotton flow tends to evolve a given initial metric on a three manifold to a conformally flat one. Here we expound upon the earlier work on Cotton flow and study the linearized version of it around a generic initial metric by employing a modified form of the DeTurck trick. We show that the flow around the flat space, as a critical point, reduces to an anisotropic generalization of linearized KdV equation with complex dispersion relations one of which is an unstable mode, rendering the flat space unstable under small perturbations. We also show that Einstein spaces and some conformally flat non-Einstein spaces are linearly unstable. We refine the gradient flow formalism and compute the second variation of the entropy and show that generic critical points are extended Cotton solitons. We study some properties of these solutions and find a Topologically Massive soliton that is built from Cotton and Ricci solitons. In the Lorentzian signature, we also show that the pp-wave metrics are both Cotton and Ricci solitons.

  14. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development survivorship and damage on cotton plants expressing insecticidal plant-incorporated protectants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the Southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in ...

  15. Black Competition and White Vengeance: Legal Execution of Blacks as Social Control in the Cotton South, 1890 to 1929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports on study of economic and social data from 400 counties in cotton-growing areas of southern United States between 1890 and 1929. Finds economic and political competition between white and African-American cotton growers led to racial discrimination and legal executions of African Americans. Asserts legal executions declined when political…

  16. Black Competition and White Vengeance: Legal Execution of Blacks as Social Control in the Cotton South, 1890 to 1929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports on study of economic and social data from 400 counties in cotton-growing areas of southern United States between 1890 and 1929. Finds economic and political competition between white and African-American cotton growers led to racial discrimination and legal executions of African Americans. Asserts legal executions declined when political…

  17. 1-MCP EFFECTS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND GENE EXPRESSION OF ACC-SYNTHASE AND ACC-OXIDASE IN COTTON FLOWERS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton remains an important cash crop for farmers in the southern United States. When temperatures rise above 32oC the in vivo fertilization efficiency of cotton is reduced resulting in decreased seed production and potentially decreased yields. Under stress, the plant hormone ethylene is manufact...

  18. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus feeding on cotton squares

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus, are among the most important pests affecting production of cotton in the mid-southern and western United States, respectively. Previous studies have focused on feeding damage to cotton reproductive structures from destructive enzymatic saliva. ...

  19. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  20. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, R. M.; Gallas, E. J.; C-L Tseng, J.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called "runBrowser" makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  1. Mercury-metadata data management system

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-03

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  2. Cotton, fleece, and beads

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-05-22

    Texas researchers are exploring two types of environmentally friendly spilled oil-cleanup products. These new nontoxic products not only sop up oil but also facilitate the breakdown of that oil. One group is looking at microscopic glass bubbles coated with titanium dioxide, which functions as a photocatalyst for the breakdown of chemical including hydrocarbons. The surface reactions yield far fewer toxic material and a more complete breakdown than sunlight-only decomposition. Another group is looking at cotton fiber. In its raw form poor quality cotton, rejected by fabric manufactures and weavers, makes a superior mop for spilled oil and, unlike synthetic materials, is biodegradable. The oil absorbed on cotton fibers could also be recovered for further fermentation or reuse. Relatively little oil-cleanup research is being done worldwide. The USA, a world leader in this area, recent federal spending on R D has averaged only about $30 million.

  3. Omics Metadata Management Software v. 1 (OMMS)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-09

    Our application, the Omics Metadata Management Software (OMMS), answers both needs, empowering experimentalists to generate intuitive, consistent metadata, and to perform bioinformatics analyses and information management tasks via a simple and intuitive web-based interface. Several use cases with short-read sequence datasets are provided to showcase the full functionality of the OMMS, from metadata curation tasks, to bioinformatics analyses and results management and downloading. The OMMS can be implemented as a stand alone-package for individual laboratories, or can be configured for web-based deployment supporting geographically dispersed research teams. Our software was developed with open-source bundles, is flexible, extensible and easily installed and run by operators with general system administration and scripting language literacy.

  4. Mining scientific data archives through metadata generation

    SciTech Connect

    Springmeyer, R.; Werner, N.; Long, J.

    1997-04-01

    Data analysis and management tools typically have not supported the documenting of data, so scientists must manually maintain all information pertaining to the context and history of their work. This metadata is critical to effective retrieval and use of the masses of archived data, yet little of it exists on-line or in an accessible format. Exploration of archived legacy data typically proceeds as a laborious process, using commands to navigate through file structures on several machines. This file-at-a-time approach needs to be replaced with a model that represents data as collections of interrelated objects. The tools that support this model must focus attention on data while hiding the complexity of the computational environment. This problem was addressed by developing a tool for exploring large amounts of data in UNIX directories via automatic generation of metadata summaries. This paper describes the model for metadata summaries of collections and the Data Miner tool for interactively traversing directories and automatically generating metadata that serves as a quick overview and index to the archived data. The summaries include thumbnail images as well as links to the data, related directories, and other metadata. Users may personalize the metadata by adding a title and abstract to the summary, which is presented as an HTML page viewed with a World Wide Web browser. We have designed summaries for 3 types of collections of data: contents of a single directory; virtual directories that represent relations between scattered files; and groups of related calculation files. By focusing on the scientists` view of the data mining task, we have developed techniques that assist in the ``detective work `` of mining without requiring knowledge of mundane details about formats and commands. Experiences in working with scientists to design these tools are recounted.

  5. EPA Metadata Style Guide Keywords and EPA Organization Names

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following keywords and EPA organization names listed below, along with EPA’s Metadata Style Guide, are intended to provide suggestions and guidance to assist with the standardization of metadata records.

  6. Metadata Evaluation: The Road toward Meeting Our Objectives (SIG LAN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    Lists the three presentation titles that were part of this technical session on metadata evaluation, including "An Update on the Dublin Core" (Stuart Weibel; "Metadata Development Update" (Kathleen Burnett and Jeong-Mee Lee); and "Metadata Standards for Discovery and Retrieval of Learning Objects" (Stuart Sutton).…

  7. Metadata Evaluation: The Road toward Meeting Our Objectives (SIG LAN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    Lists the three presentation titles that were part of this technical session on metadata evaluation, including "An Update on the Dublin Core" (Stuart Weibel; "Metadata Development Update" (Kathleen Burnett and Jeong-Mee Lee); and "Metadata Standards for Discovery and Retrieval of Learning Objects" (Stuart Sutton).…

  8. Enhancing SCORM Metadata for Assessment Authoring in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wen-Chih; Hsu, Hui-Huang; Smith, Timothy K.; Wang, Chun-Chia

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of distance learning and the XML technology, metadata play an important role in e-Learning. Nowadays, many distance learning standards, such as SCORM, AICC CMI, IEEE LTSC LOM and IMS, use metadata to tag learning materials. However, most metadata models are used to define learning materials and test problems. Few…

  9. Enhancing SCORM Metadata for Assessment Authoring in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wen-Chih; Hsu, Hui-Huang; Smith, Timothy K.; Wang, Chun-Chia

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of distance learning and the XML technology, metadata play an important role in e-Learning. Nowadays, many distance learning standards, such as SCORM, AICC CMI, IEEE LTSC LOM and IMS, use metadata to tag learning materials. However, most metadata models are used to define learning materials and test problems. Few…

  10. Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

    One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning…

  11. Progress in defining a standard for file-level metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben

    1996-01-01

    In the following narrative, metadata required to locate a file on tape or collection of tapes will be referred to as file-level metadata. This paper discribes the rationale for and the history of the effort to define a standard for this metadata.

  12. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following a... Bill) that amended the Cotton Research and Promotion Act (Cotton Act). The 2008 Farm Bill provided...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  3. New technologies for managing cotton modules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New cotton harvesters with the ability to form seed cotton modules have changed the way that cotton is stored and handled before ginning. Cylindrical or “round” modules formed by John Deere cotton pickers and strippers are wrapped in three layers of plastic material to protect the cotton and mainta...

  4. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  5. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  6. Metal analysis of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  7. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  8. Cotton insect pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton production is challenged worldwide by a diversity of arthropod pests that require management to prevent or reduce crop damage. Advances in arthropod control technologies and improved insect and crop management systems have dramatically reduced levels of arthropod damage and the need for inse...

  9. Fabricating Cotton Analytical Devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-30

    A robust, low-cost analytical device should be user-friendly, rapid, and affordable. Such devices should also be able to operate with scarce samples and provide information for follow-up treatment. Here, we demonstrate the development of a cotton-based urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, total protein, and urobilinogen assays) analytical device that employs a lateral flow-based format, and is inexpensive, easily fabricated, rapid, and can be used to conduct multiple tests without cross-contamination worries. Cotton is composed of cellulose fibers with natural absorptive properties that can be leveraged for flow-based analysis. The simple but elegant fabrication process of our cotton-based analytical device is described in this study. The arrangement of the cotton structure and test pad takes advantage of the hydrophobicity and absorptive strength of each material. Because of these physical characteristics, colorimetric results can persistently adhere to the test pad. This device enables physicians to receive clinical information in a timely manner and shows great potential as a tool for early intervention.

  10. Metadata: Pure and Simple, or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning metadata in Web pages based on experiences in a vocational education center library in Queensland (Australia). Highlights include Dublin Core elements; search engines; controlled vocabulary; performance measurement to assess usage patterns and provide quality control over the vocabulary; and considerations given the…

  11. MODS: The Metadata Object Description Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Rebecca S.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) developed by the Library of Congress' Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Discuses reasons for MODS development; advantages of MODS; features of MODS; prospective uses for MODS; relationship with MARC and MARCXML; comparison with Dublin Core element set; and experimentation with…

  12. Tracking Actual Usage: The Attention Metadata Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpers, Martin; Najjar, Jehad; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The information overload in learning and teaching scenarios is a main hindering factor for efficient and effective learning. New methods are needed to help teachers and students in dealing with the vast amount of available information and learning material. Our approach aims to utilize contextualized attention metadata to capture behavioural…

  13. DIRAC File Replica and Metadata Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Poss, S.

    2012-12-01

    File replica and metadata catalogs are essential parts of any distributed data management system, which are largely determining its functionality and performance. A new File Catalog (DFC) was developed in the framework of the DIRAC Project that combines both replica and metadata catalog functionality. The DFC design is based on the practical experience with the data management system of the LHCb Collaboration. It is optimized for the most common patterns of the catalog usage in order to achieve maximum performance from the user perspective. The DFC supports bulk operations for replica queries and allows quick analysis of the storage usage globally and for each Storage Element separately. It supports flexible ACL rules with plug-ins for various policies that can be adopted by a particular community. The DFC catalog allows to store various types of metadata associated with files and directories and to perform efficient queries for the data based on complex metadata combinations. Definition of file ancestor-descendent relation chains is also possible. The DFC catalog is implemented in the general DIRAC distributed computing framework following the standard grid security architecture. In this paper we describe the design of the DFC and its implementation details. The performance measurements are compared with other grid file catalog implementations. The experience of the DFC Catalog usage in the CLIC detector project are discussed.

  14. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  15. A Rich Metadata Filesystem for Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Hoang

    2012-01-01

    As scientific research becomes more data intensive, there is an increasing need for scalable, reliable, and high performance storage systems. Such data repositories must provide both data archival services and rich metadata, and cleanly integrate with large scale computing resources. ROARS is a hybrid approach to distributed storage that provides…

  16. Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

  17. Metadata: Pure and Simple, or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning metadata in Web pages based on experiences in a vocational education center library in Queensland (Australia). Highlights include Dublin Core elements; search engines; controlled vocabulary; performance measurement to assess usage patterns and provide quality control over the vocabulary; and considerations given the…

  18. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  19. Metadata Search and Data Discovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Bruce; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Green, Jim

    2008-05-01

    Mercury is a metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool that provides a single portal to information contained in disparate data management systems. Mercury was originally developed for NASA, with continuing development funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE for a consortium of projects (ORNL DAAC, NBII, DADDI, LBA, LTER, NARSTO, CDIAC, OCEAN, I3N, IAI, ESIP and ARM ).

  20. Tracking Actual Usage: The Attention Metadata Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpers, Martin; Najjar, Jehad; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The information overload in learning and teaching scenarios is a main hindering factor for efficient and effective learning. New methods are needed to help teachers and students in dealing with the vast amount of available information and learning material. Our approach aims to utilize contextualized attention metadata to capture behavioural…

  1. Real-time Metadata Capture Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.; Arko, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The current rate of data acquisition in the ocean sciences precludes the manual generation of appropriate metadata after the fact. Recognizing this fact, we have begun to implement methods for creating metadata and inserting them into relational databases in real-time. We have also created web-based tools for watchstanders and maintenance personnel to enter logbook data in real-time. Several examples will be addressed in this poster. Enhancements to the Hudson Interactive River Observatory (HIRO) real-time data logging system have been made that create metadata records and insert them (as SQL transactions over a secure wireless TCP/IP connection) into a relational database in real-time. These records document the start and stop time of individual data files, of sensor-specific data streams and of the logging system as a whole. An interactive watchstanders logbook has been developed and used on the R/V Maurice Ewing to create and log metadata records associated with upgrades to the Hydrosweep DS2 multibeam system. A similar version of this tool is being used to capture the maintenance and update records associated with the HRIO system.

  2. Educational Metadata and Brokerage for Learning Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anido, Luis E.; Fernandez, Manuel J.; Caeiro, Manuel; Santos, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Judith S.; Llamas, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for standardization for learning technologies in computer-based training systems. Highlights include institutions and organizations involved in standardization; a survey of educational metadata; how these data models are applied by actual software systems to facilitate the location of learning resources; and educational…

  3. MODS: The Metadata Object Description Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Rebecca S.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) developed by the Library of Congress' Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Discuses reasons for MODS development; advantages of MODS; features of MODS; prospective uses for MODS; relationship with MARC and MARCXML; comparison with Dublin Core element set; and experimentation with…

  4. Metadata Exporter for Scientific Photography Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, D.; English, B.; Delaney, R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S.

    2005-12-01

    Photographs have become an increasingly important medium, especially with the advent of digital cameras. It has become inexpensive to take photographs and quickly post them on a website. However informative photos may be, they still need to be displayed in a convenient way, and be cataloged in such a manner that makes them easily locatable. Managing the great number of photographs that digital cameras allow and creating a format for efficient dissemination of the information related to the photos is a tedious task. Products such as Apple's iPhoto have greatly eased the task of managing photographs, However, they often have limitations. Un-customizable metadata fields and poor metadata extraction tools limit their scientific usefulness. A solution to this persistent problem is a customizable metadata exporter. On the ALIA expedition, we successfully managed the thousands of digital photos we took. We did this with iPhoto and a version of the exporter that is now available to the public under the name "CustomHTMLExport" (http://www.versiontracker.com/dyn/moreinfo/macosx/27777), currently undergoing formal beta testing This software allows the use of customized metadata fields (including description, time, date, GPS data, etc.), which is exported along with the photo. It can also produce webpages with this data straight from iPhoto, in a much more flexible way than is already allowed. With this tool it becomes very easy to manage and distribute scientific photos.

  5. The International Learning Object Metadata Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of projects and organizations is currently making digital learning resources (learning objects) available to instructors, students, and designers via systematic, standards-based infrastructures. One standard that is central to many of these efforts and infrastructures is known as Learning Object Metadata (IEEE 1484.12.1-2002, or LOM).…

  6. The Metadata Approach to Accessing Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the articles in this issue, includes a history of the development of GILS (Government Information Locator Service), and offers perspectives on the importance of metadata for resource description and resource discovery. Presents interoperability as a challenge in integrating access to government information locator services.…

  7. Metadata management and semantics in microarray repositories.

    PubMed

    Kocabaş, F; Can, T; Baykal, N

    2011-12-01

    The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework.

  8. Metadata Management and Semantics in Microarray Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Kocabaş, F; Can, T; Baykal, N

    2011-01-01

    The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework. PMID:24052712

  9. A Rich Metadata Filesystem for Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Hoang

    2012-01-01

    As scientific research becomes more data intensive, there is an increasing need for scalable, reliable, and high performance storage systems. Such data repositories must provide both data archival services and rich metadata, and cleanly integrate with large scale computing resources. ROARS is a hybrid approach to distributed storage that provides…

  10. Viewing and Editing Earth Science Metadata MOBE: Metadata Object Browser and Editor in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, A.; Helly, J.

    2002-12-01

    Metadata is an important, yet often neglected aspect of successful archival efforts. However, to generate robust, useful metadata is often a time consuming and tedious task. We have been approaching this problem from two directions: first by automating metadata creation, pulling from known sources of data, and in addition, what this (paper/poster?) details, developing friendly software for human interaction with the metadata. MOBE and COBE(Metadata Object Browser and Editor, and Canonical Object Browser and Editor respectively), are Java applications for editing and viewing metadata and digital objects. MOBE has already been designed and deployed, currently being integrated into other areas of the SIOExplorer project. COBE is in the design and development stage, being created with the same considerations in mind as those for MOBE. Metadata creation, viewing, data object creation, and data object viewing, when taken on a small scale are all relatively simple tasks. Computer science however, has an infamous reputation for transforming the simple into complex. As a system scales upwards to become more robust, new features arise and additional functionality is added to the software being written to manage the system. The software that emerges from such an evolution, though powerful, is often complex and difficult to use. With MOBE the focus is on a tool that does a small number of tasks very well. The result has been an application that enables users to manipulate metadata in an intuitive and effective way. This allows for a tool that serves its purpose without introducing additional cognitive load onto the user, an end goal we continue to pursue.

  11. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  12. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  13. Metadata Authoring with Versatility and Extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Janine; Olsen, Lola

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth science data sets and related services. The GCMD holds over 13,800 data set descriptions in Directory Interchange Format (DIF) and 700 data service descriptions in Service Entry Resource Format (SERF), encompassing the disciplines of geology, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology. Data descriptions also contain geographic coverage information and direct links to the data, thus allowing researchers to discover data pertaining to a geographic location of interest, then quickly acquire those data. The GCMD strives to be the preferred data locator for world-wide directory-level metadata. In this vein, scientists and data providers must have access to intuitive and efficient metadata authoring tools. Existing GCMD tools are attracting widespread usage; however, a need for tools that are portable, customizable and versatile still exists. With tool usage directly influencing metadata population, it has become apparent that new tools are needed to fill these voids. As a result, the GCMD has released a new authoring tool allowing for both web-based and stand-alone authoring of descriptions. Furthermore, this tool incorporates the ability to plug-and-play the metadata format of choice, offering users options of DIF, SERF, FGDC, ISO or any other defined standard. Allowing data holders to work with their preferred format, as well as an option of a stand-alone application or web-based environment, docBUlLDER will assist the scientific community in efficiently creating quality data and services metadata.

  14. Making Interoperability Easier with NASA's Metadata Management Tool (MMT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, Dana; Reese, Mark; Pilone, Dan; Baynes, Katie

    2016-01-01

    While the ISO-19115 collection level metadata format meets many users' needs for interoperable metadata, it can be cumbersome to create it correctly. Through the MMT's simple UI experience, metadata curators can create and edit collections which are compliant with ISO-19115 without full knowledge of the NASA Best Practices implementation of ISO-19115 format. Users are guided through the metadata creation process through a forms-based editor, complete with field information, validation hints and picklists. Once a record is completed, users can download the metadata in any of the supported formats with just 2 clicks.

  15. Making metadata usable in a multi-national research setting.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Claire; Foord, Joanna; Mooney, John

    2013-11-01

    SECOA (Solutions for Environmental Contrasts in Coastal Areas) is a multi-national research project examining the effects of human mobility on urban settlements in fragile coastal environments. This paper describes the setting up of a SECOA metadata repository for non-specialist researchers such as environmental scientists and tourism experts. Conflicting usability requirements of two groups - metadata creators and metadata users - are identified along with associated limitations of current metadata standards. A description is given of a configurable metadata system designed to grow as the project evolves. This work is of relevance for similar projects such as INSPIRE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-facetted Metadata - Describing datasets with different metadata schemas at the same time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Klump, Jens; Bertelmann, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Inspired by the wish to re-use research data a lot of work is done to bring data systems of the earth sciences together. Discovery metadata is disseminated to data portals to allow building of customized indexes of catalogued dataset items. Data that were once acquired in the context of a scientific project are open for reappraisal and can now be used by scientists that were not part of the original research team. To make data re-use easier, measurement methods and measurement parameters must be documented in an application metadata schema and described in a written publication. Linking datasets to publications - as DataCite [1] does - requires again a specific metadata schema and every new use context of the measured data may require yet another metadata schema sharing only a subset of information with the meta information already present. To cope with the problem of metadata schema diversity in our common data repository at GFZ Potsdam we established a solution to store file-based research data and describe these with an arbitrary number of metadata schemas. Core component of the data repository is an eSciDoc infrastructure that provides versioned container objects, called eSciDoc [2] "items". The eSciDoc content model allows assigning files to "items" and adding any number of metadata records to these "items". The eSciDoc items can be submitted, revised, and finally published, which makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. GFZ Potsdam uses eSciDoc to support its scientific publishing workflow, including mechanisms for data review in peer review processes by providing temporary web links for external reviewers that do not have credentials to access the data. Based on the eSciDoc API, panMetaDocs [3] provides a web portal for data management in research projects. PanMetaDocs, which is based on panMetaWorks [4], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based schema. It uses the eSciDoc infrastructures

  17. Making Interoperability Easier with the NASA Metadata Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, D.; Reese, M.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    ISO 19115 has enabled interoperability amongst tools, yet many users find it hard to build ISO metadata for their collections because it can be large and overly flexible for their needs. The Metadata Management Tool (MMT), part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), offers users a modern, easy to use browser based tool to develop ISO compliant metadata. Through a simplified UI experience, metadata curators can create and edit collections without any understanding of the complex ISO-19115 format, while still generating compliant metadata. The MMT is also able to assess the completeness of collection level metadata by evaluating it against a variety of metadata standards. The tool provides users with clear guidance as to how to change their metadata in order to improve their quality and compliance. It is based on NASA's Unified Metadata Model for Collections (UMM-C) which is a simpler metadata model which can be cleanly mapped to ISO 19115. This allows metadata authors and curators to meet ISO compliance requirements faster and more accurately. The MMT and UMM-C have been developed in an agile fashion, with recurring end user tests and reviews to continually refine the tool, the model and the ISO mappings. This process is allowing for continual improvement and evolution to meet the community's needs.

  18. Towards Data Value-Level Metadata for Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Zozus, Meredith Nahm; Bonner, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    While several standards for metadata describing clinical studies exist, comprehensive metadata to support traceability of data from clinical studies has not been articulated. We examine uses of metadata in clinical studies. We examine and enumerate seven sources of data value-level metadata in clinical studies inclusive of research designs across the spectrum of the National Institutes of Health definition of clinical research. The sources of metadata inform categorization in terms of metadata describing the origin of a data value, the definition of a data value, and operations to which the data value was subjected. The latter is further categorized into information about changes to a data value, movement of a data value, retrieval of a data value, and data quality checks, constraints or assessments to which the data value was subjected. The implications of tracking and managing data value-level metadata are explored.

  19. Efficient processing of MPEG-21 metadata in the binary domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerer, Christian; Frank, Thomas; Hellwagner, Hermann; Heuer, Jörg; Hutter, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    XML-based metadata is widely adopted across the different communities and plenty of commercial and open source tools for processing and transforming are available on the market. However, all of these tools have one thing in common: they operate on plain text encoded metadata which may become a burden in constrained and streaming environments, i.e., when metadata needs to be processed together with multimedia content on the fly. In this paper we present an efficient approach for transforming such kind of metadata which are encoded using MPEG's Binary Format for Metadata (BiM) without additional en-/decoding overheads, i.e., within the binary domain. Therefore, we have developed an event-based push parser for BiM encoded metadata which transforms the metadata by a limited set of processing instructions - based on traditional XML transformation techniques - operating on bit patterns instead of cost-intensive string comparisons.

  20. The Merging of Two Dynasties—Identification of an African Cotton Leaf Curl Disease-Associated Begomovirus with Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world. PMID:21637815

  1. The merging of two dynasties--identification of an African cotton leaf curl disease-associated begomovirus with cotton in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W; Mansoor, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

  2. Creating context for the experiment record. User-defined metadata: investigations into metadata usage in the LabTrove ELN.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Cerys; Bird, Colin L; Coles, Simon J; Frey, Jeremy G

    2014-12-22

    The drive toward more transparency in research, the growing willingness to make data openly available, and the reuse of data to maximize the return on research investment all increase the importance of being able to find information and make links to the underlying data. The use of metadata in Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELNs) to curate experiment data is an essential ingredient for facilitating discovery. The University of Southampton has developed a Web browser-based ELN that enables users to add their own metadata to notebook entries. A survey of these notebooks was completed to assess user behavior and patterns of metadata usage within ELNs, while user perceptions and expectations were gathered through interviews and user-testing activities within the community. The findings indicate that while some groups are comfortable with metadata and are able to design a metadata structure that works effectively, many users are making little attempts to use it, thereby endangering their ability to recover data in the future. A survey of patterns of metadata use in these notebooks, together with feedback from the user community, indicated that while a few groups are comfortable with metadata and are able to design a metadata structure that works effectively, many users adopt a "minimum required" approach to metadata. To investigate whether the patterns of metadata use in LabTrove were unusual, a series of surveys were undertaken to investigate metadata usage in a variety of platforms supporting user-defined metadata. These surveys also provided the opportunity to investigate whether interface designs in these other environments might inform strategies for encouraging metadata creation and more effective use of metadata in LabTrove.

  3. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  4. Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

  5. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  6. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  7. PIMMS tools for capturing metadata about simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, Charlotte; Devine, Gerard; Tourte, Gregory; Pascoe, Stephen; Lawrence, Bryan; Barjat, Hannah

    2013-04-01

    PIMMS (Portable Infrastructure for the Metafor Metadata System) provides a method for consistent and comprehensive documentation of modelling activities that enables the sharing of simulation data and model configuration information. The aim of PIMMS is to package the metadata infrastructure developed by Metafor for CMIP5 so that it can be used by climate modelling groups in UK Universities. PIMMS tools capture information about simulations from the design of experiments to the implementation of experiments via simulations that run models. PIMMS uses the Metafor methodology which consists of a Common Information Model (CIM), Controlled Vocabularies (CV) and software tools. PIMMS software tools provide for the creation and consumption of CIM content via a web services infrastructure and portal developed by the ES-DOC community. PIMMS metadata integrates with the ESGF data infrastructure via the mapping of vocabularies onto ESGF facets. There are three paradigms of PIMMS metadata collection: Model Intercomparision Projects (MIPs) where a standard set of questions is asked of all models which perform standard sets of experiments. Disciplinary level metadata collection where a standard set of questions is asked of all models but experiments are specified by users. Bespoke metadata creation where the users define questions about both models and experiments. Examples will be shown of how PIMMS has been configured to suit each of these three paradigms. In each case PIMMS allows users to provide additional metadata beyond that which is asked for in an initial deployment. The primary target for PIMMS is the UK climate modelling community where it is common practice to reuse model configurations from other researchers. This culture of collaboration exists in part because climate models are very complex with many variables that can be modified. Therefore it has become common practice to begin a series of experiments by using another climate model configuration as a starting

  8. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Murat; Acemioğlu, Bilal; Alma, M Hakkı; Usta, Mustafa

    2010-11-15

    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50°C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50°C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy (ΔG°) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  9. GraphMeta: Managing HPC Rich Metadata in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Dong; Chen, Yong; Carns, Philip; Jenkins, John; Zhang, Wei; Ross, Robert

    2016-01-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems face increasingly critical metadata management challenges, especially in the approaching exascale era. These challenges arise not only from exploding metadata volumes, but also from increasingly diverse metadata, which contains data provenance and arbitrary user-defined attributes in addition to traditional POSIX metadata. This ‘rich’ metadata is becoming critical to supporting advanced data management functionality such as data auditing and validation. In our prior work, we identified a graph-based model as a promising solution to uniformly manage HPC rich metadata due to its flexibility and generality. However, at the same time, graph-based HPC rich metadata anagement also introduces significant challenges to the underlying infrastructure. In this study, we first identify the challenges on the underlying infrastructure to support scalable, high-performance rich metadata management. Based on that, we introduce GraphMeta, a graphbased engine designed for this use case. It achieves performance scalability by introducing a new graph partitioning algorithm and a write-optimal storage engine. We evaluate GraphMeta under both synthetic and real HPC metadata workloads, compare it with other approaches, and demonstrate its advantages in terms of efficiency and usability for rich metadata management in HPC systems.

  10. Evaluating non-relational storage technology for HEP metadata and meta-data catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, M. A.; Golosova, M. V.; Gubin, M. Y.; Klimentov, A. A.; Osipova, V. V.; Ryabinkin, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale scientific experiments produce vast volumes of data. These data are stored, processed and analyzed in a distributed computing environment. The life cycle of experiment is managed by specialized software like Distributed Data Management and Workload Management Systems. In order to be interpreted and mined, experimental data must be accompanied by auxiliary metadata, which are recorded at each data processing step. Metadata describes scientific data and represent scientific objects or results of scientific experiments, allowing them to be shared by various applications, to be recorded in databases or published via Web. Processing and analysis of constantly growing volume of auxiliary metadata is a challenging task, not simpler than the management and processing of experimental data itself. Furthermore, metadata sources are often loosely coupled and potentially may lead to an end-user inconsistency in combined information queries. To aggregate and synthesize a range of primary metadata sources, and enhance them with flexible schema-less addition of aggregated data, we are developing the Data Knowledge Base architecture serving as the intelligence behind GUIs and APIs.

  11. HIS Central and the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project maintains a comprehensive workflow for publishing hydrologic observations data and registering them to the common Hydrologic Metadata Catalog. Once the data are loaded into a database instance conformant with the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), the user configures ODM web service template to point to the new database. After this, the hydrologic data become available via the standard CUAHSI HIS web service interface, that includes both data discovery (GetSites, GetVariables, GetSiteInfo, GetVariableInfo) and data retrieval (GetValues) methods. The observations data then can be further exposed via the global semantics-based search engine called Hydroseek. To register the published observations networks to the global search engine, users can now use the HIS Central application (new in HIS 1.1). With this online application, the WaterML-compliant web services can be submitted to the online catalog of data services, along with network metadata and a desired network symbology. Registering services to the HIS Central application triggers a harvester which uses the services to retrieve additional network metadata from the underlying ODM (information about stations, variables, and periods of record). The next step in HIS Central application is mapping variable names from the newly registered network, to the terms used in the global search ontology. Once these steps are completed, the new observations network is added to the map and becomes available for searching and querying. The number of observations network registered to the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog at SDSC is constantly growing. At the time of submission, the catalog contains 51 registered networks, with estimated 1.7 million stations.

  12. Content standards for medical image metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Ornellas, Marcos C.; da Rocha, Rafael P.

    2003-12-01

    Medical images are at the heart of the healthcare diagnostic procedures. They have provided not only a noninvasive mean to view anatomical cross-sections of internal organs but also a mean for physicians to evaluate the patient"s diagnosis and monitor the effects of the treatment. For a Medical Center, the emphasis may shift from the generation of image to post processing and data management since the medical staff may generate even more processed images and other data from the original image after various analyses and post processing. A medical image data repository for health care information system is becoming a critical need. This data repository would contain comprehensive patient records, including information such as clinical data and related diagnostic images, and post-processed images. Due to the large volume and complexity of the data as well as the diversified user access requirements, the implementation of the medical image archive system will be a complex and challenging task. This paper discusses content standards for medical image metadata. In addition it also focuses on the image metadata content evaluation and metadata quality management.

  13. Analyzing handwriting biometrics in metadata context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidat, Tobias; Wolf, Franziska; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In this article, methods for user recognition by online handwriting are experimentally analyzed using a combination of demographic data of users in relation to their handwriting habits. Online handwriting as a biometric method is characterized by having high variations of characteristics that influences the reliance and security of this method. These variations have not been researched in detail so far. Especially in cross-cultural application it is urgent to reveal the impact of personal background to security aspects in biometrics. Metadata represent the background of writers, by introducing cultural, biological and conditional (changing) aspects like fist language, country of origin, gender, handedness, experiences the influence handwriting and language skills. The goal is the revelation of intercultural impacts on handwriting in order to achieve higher security in biometrical systems. In our experiments, in order to achieve a relatively high coverage, 48 different handwriting tasks have been accomplished by 47 users from three countries (Germany, India and Italy) have been investigated with respect to the relations of metadata and biometric recognition performance. For this purpose, hypotheses have been formulated and have been evaluated using the measurement of well-known recognition error rates from biometrics. The evaluation addressed both: system reliance and security threads by skilled forgeries. For the later purpose, a novel forgery type is introduced, which applies the personal metadata to security aspects and includes new methods of security tests. Finally in our paper, we formulate recommendations for specific user groups and handwriting samples.

  14. Leveraging Metadata to Create Interactive Images... Today!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Squires, G. K.; Llamas, J.; Rosenthal, C.; Brinkworth, C.; Fay, J.

    2011-01-01

    The image gallery for NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has been newly rebuilt to fully support the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard to create a new user experience both on the website and in other applications. We encapsulate all the key descriptive information for a public image, including color representations and astronomical and sky coordinates and make it accessible in a user-friendly form on the website, but also embed the same metadata within the image files themselves. Thus, images downloaded from the site will carry with them all their descriptive information. Real-world benefits include display of general metadata when such images are imported into image editing software (e.g. Photoshop) or image catalog software (e.g. iPhoto). More advanced support in Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope can open a tagged image after it has been downloaded and display it in its correct sky position, allowing comparison with observations from other observatories. An increasing number of software developers are implementing AVM support in applications and an online image archive for tagged images is under development at the Spitzer Science Center. Tagging images following the AVM offers ever-increasing benefits to public-friendly imagery in all its standard forms (JPEG, TIFF, PNG). The AVM standard is one part of the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP); http://www.communicatingastronomy.org

  15. Ontology-Based Search of Genomic Metadata.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Javier D; Lenzerini, Maurizio; Masseroli, Marco; Venco, Francesco; Ceri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) is a huge and still expanding public repository of more than 4,000 experiments and 25,000 data files, assembled by a large international consortium since 2007; unknown biological knowledge can be extracted from these huge and largely unexplored data, leading to data-driven genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic discoveries. Yet, search of relevant datasets for knowledge discovery is limitedly supported: metadata describing ENCODE datasets are quite simple and incomplete, and not described by a coherent underlying ontology. Here, we show how to overcome this limitation, by adopting an ENCODE metadata searching approach which uses high-quality ontological knowledge and state-of-the-art indexing technologies. Specifically, we developed S.O.S. GeM (http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/SOSGeM/), a system supporting effective semantic search and retrieval of ENCODE datasets. First, we constructed a Semantic Knowledge Base by starting with concepts extracted from ENCODE metadata, matched to and expanded on biomedical ontologies integrated in the well-established Unified Medical Language System. We prove that this inference method is sound and complete. Then, we leveraged the Semantic Knowledge Base to semantically search ENCODE data from arbitrary biologists' queries. This allows correctly finding more datasets than those extracted by a purely syntactic search, as supported by the other available systems. We empirically show the relevance of found datasets to the biologists' queries.

  16. Optimizing the phosphorus use in cotton by using CSM-CROPGRO-cotton model for semi-arid climate of Vehari-Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Asad; Nasim, Wajid; Mubeen, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Sultana, Syeda Refat; Jabran, Khawar; Rehman, M Habib Ur; Ahmad, Shakeel; Awais, Muhammad; Rasool, Atta; Fahad, Shah; Saud, Shah; Shah, Adnan Noor; Ihsan, Zahid; Ali, Shahzad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Ameen, Asif; Amanullah; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Alghabar, Fahad; Jatoi, Ghulam Hussain; Akram, Muhammad; Khan, Aziz; Islam, Faisal; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Hussain, Sajid; Razaq, Muhammad; Fathi, Amin

    2017-02-01

    Crop nutrient management is an essential component of any cropping system. With increasing concerns over environmental protection, improvement in fertilizer use efficiencies has become a prime goal in global agriculture system. Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients, and strategies are required to optimize its use in important arable crops like cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that has great significance. Sustainable P use in crop production could significantly avoid environmental hazards resulting from over-P fertilization. Crop growth modeling has emerged as an effective tool to assess and predict the optimal nutrient requirements for different crops. In present study, Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) sub-model CSM-CROPGRO-Cotton-P was evaluated to estimate the observed and simulated P use in two cotton cultivars grown at three P application rates under the semi-arid climate of southern Punjab, Pakistan. The results revealed that both the cultivars performed best at medium rate of P application (57 kg ha(-1)) in terms of days to anthesis, days to maturity, seed cotton yield, total dry matter production, and harvest index during 2013 and 2014. Cultivar FH-142 performed better than MNH-886 in terms of different yield components. There was a good agreement between observed and simulated days to anthesis (0 to 1 day), days to maturity (0 to 2 days), seed cotton yield, total dry matter, and harvest index with an error of -4.4 to 15%, 12-7.5%, and 13-9.5% in MNH-886 and for FH-142, 4-16%, 19-11%, and 16-8.3% for growing years 2013 and 2014, respectively. CROPGRO-Cotton-P would be a useful tool to forecast cotton yield under different levels of P in cotton production system of the semi-arid climate of Southern Punjab.

  17. Efficacy of single and dual gene cotton Gossypium hirsutum (L.) events on yellowstriped armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Texas and the Mississippi Delta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yellowstriped armyworm (YSAW), Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée), has a broad host range and can be an economic threat to cotton in southern growing regions of the United States by consuming leaves and damaging fruiting forms. Field grown cotton varieties containing the endotoxins from Bacillus t...

  18. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  19. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  20. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  1. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  2. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  7. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  8. The role of metadata in managing large environmental science datasets. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; DeVaney, D.M.; French, J. C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to bring together computer science researchers and environmental sciences data management practitioners to consider the role of metadata in managing large environmental sciences datasets. The objectives included: establishing a common definition of metadata; identifying categories of metadata; defining problems in managing metadata; and defining problems related to linking metadata with primary data.

  9. An Approach to Metadata Generation for Learning Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez D., Victor; Zapata G., Alfredo; Vidal C., Christian; Segura N., Alejandra; Prieto M., Manuel

    Metadata describe instructional resources and define their nature and use. Metadata are required to guarantee reusability and interchange of instructional resources into e-Learning systems. However, fulfilment of large metadata attributes is a hard and complex task for almost all LO developers. As a consequence many mistakes are made. This can cause the impoverishment of data quality in indexing, searching and recovering process. We propose a methodology to build Learning Objects from digital resources. The first phase includes automatic preprocessing of resources using techniques from information retrieval. Initial metadata obtained in this first phase are then used to search similar LO to propose missed metadata. The second phase considers assisted activities that merge computer advice with human decisions. Suggestions are based on metadata of similar Learning Object using fuzzy logic theory.

  10. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  20. Evaluation of the natural refuge function for Helicoverpa arnigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) within Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic cotton growing areas in north China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kongming; Guo, Yuyuan; Gao, Shansong

    2002-08-01

    The density of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) populations on Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) transgenic cotton, corn, peanut, and soybean; differences in its development on Bt cotton and common (nontransgenic) cotton; and the potential for mating among populations from Bt cotton fields and other crop fields were investigated in the suburbs of Xinxiang City (Henan Province) and Langfang City (Hebei Province) in the southern and northern parts of north China, respectively. Although development of H. armigera on Bt cotton was much slower than on common cotton, there was a still high probability of mating between populations from Bt cotton and other sources due to the scattered emergence pattern of H. armigera adults, and overlap of the second and third generations. In a cotton and corn growing region, early and late planted corn provided suitable refugia for the third and fourth generations of H. armigera, but not for the second generation. In a cotton and soybean/ peanut mix system, noncotton crops provided a natural refugia from the second- to fourth-generation H. armigera, but function of the refuge would closely depend on the proportion of Bt cotton. Consequently, it may be necessary to compensate the original mixed cropping patterns in different areas for delaying resistance development of H. armigera to Bt cotton.

  1. Metadata in an Integrated Geo-Climate Data Integration Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Walker, J. I.; Suftin, I.; Booth, N. L.; Habermann, T.; Neufeld, D.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal (GDP) project established a Data Integration Framework (DIF) for service-oriented access to atmospheric and terrestrial data resources based on established data and web service standards. The GDP DIF is meant to allow generalized server-side processing services for support of interdisciplinary environmental modeling and data analysis. This presentation will focus on the metadata management and access components in use and in development as part of the GDP project. Where possible, the GDP DIF encourages that metadata be stored as attributes of data resources themselves. Tools to introspect and dynamically convert discipline specific metadata, like NetCDF-CF, to interdisciplinary standard metadata formats are used where available and are being developed in cooperation with partner data management groups. Formal data discovery metadata, once cross walked or manually generated, is stored and accessed using ISO content and encoding standards. Strategies for working with ISO metadata being developed by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center and partner groups with an interest in combining geospatial and data web-service content, are being used and furthered as part of the GDP project. In the GDP DIF, ISO metadata is used for human understanding of metadata and linking to data web-services. Metadata required to allow computer access and manipulation, like precise coordinate reference system information, is derived directly from data web-services. The Open Geospatial Consortium suite of data and web-service standard's metadata requirements provide adequate information for generalized machine access and processing of geographic data types. The NetCDF-CF metadata conventions are used in the case of atmospheric and other data served via OPeNDAP. Integration of these two metadata conventions and associated data models was a major area of development in the GDP project. Of particular interest for this presentation, is the issue of

  2. A metadata-driven approach to data repository design.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Matthew J; McLean, Andrew; Rzepa, Henry S

    2017-01-01

    The design and use of a metadata-driven data repository for research data management is described. Metadata is collected automatically during the submission process whenever possible and is registered with DataCite in accordance with their current metadata schema, in exchange for a persistent digital object identifier. Two examples of data preview are illustrated, including the demonstration of a method for integration with commercial software that confers rich domain-specific data analytics without introducing customisation into the repository itself.

  3. CMO: Cruise Metadata Organizer for JAMSTEC Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Vanroosebeke, A.; Kitayama, T.

    2011-12-01

    JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences manages and distributes a wide variety of observational data and samples obtained from JAMSTEC research vessels and deep sea submersibles. Generally, metadata are essential to identify data and samples were obtained. In JAMSTEC, cruise metadata include cruise information such as cruise ID, name of vessel, research theme, and diving information such as dive number, name of submersible and position of diving point. They are submitted by chief scientists of research cruises in the Microsoft Excel° spreadsheet format, and registered into a data management database to confirm receipt of observational data files, cruise summaries, and cruise reports. The cruise metadata are also published via "JAMSTEC Data Site for Research Cruises" within two months after end of cruise. Furthermore, these metadata are distributed with observational data, images and samples via several data and sample distribution websites after a publication moratorium period. However, there are two operational issues in the metadata publishing process. One is that duplication efforts and asynchronous metadata across multiple distribution websites due to manual metadata entry into individual websites by administrators. The other is that differential data types or representation of metadata in each website. To solve those problems, we have developed a cruise metadata organizer (CMO) which allows cruise metadata to be connected from the data management database to several distribution websites. CMO is comprised of three components: an Extensible Markup Language (XML) database, an Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software, and a web-based interface. The XML database is used because of its flexibility for any change of metadata. Daily differential uptake of metadata from the data management database to the XML database is automatically processed via the EAI software. Some metadata are entered into the XML database using the web

  4. Developing Metadata Requirements for NASA Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.; Kusterer, J.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Wang, D.; Typanski, N. D.; Rutherford, M.; Rieflin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The common definition of metadata is "data about data". NASA has developed metadata formats to meet the needs of its satellite missions and emerging users. Coverage of satellite missions is highly predictable based on orbit characteristics. Airborne missions feature complicated flight patterns to maximize science return and changes in the instrument suites. More relevant to the airborne science data holding, the metadata describes the airborne measurements, in terms of measurement location, time, platform, and instruments. The metadata organizes the data holdings and facilitates the data ordering process from the DAAC. Therefore, the metadata requirements will need to fit the type of airborne measurements and sampling strategies as well as leverage current Earth Science and Data Information System infrastructure (ECHO/Reverb, GCMD). Current airborne data is generated/produced in a variety of formats (ICARRT, ASCII, etc) with the metadata information embedded in the data file. Special readers are needed to parse data file to generate metadata needed for search and discovery. With loosely defined standards within the airborne community this process poses challenges to the data providers. It is necessary to assess the suitability of current metadata standards, which have been mostly developed for satellite observations. To be presented are the use case-based assessments of the current airborne metadata standards and suggestions for future changes.

  5. Content Metadata Standards for Marine Science: A Case Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riall, Rebecca L.; Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a content metadata standard to meet the demands of organizing electronic resources in the marine sciences for a broad, heterogeneous audience. These metadata standards are used by the Marine Realms Information Bank project, a Web-based public distributed library of marine science from academic institutions and government agencies. The development and deployment of this metadata standard serve as a model, complete with lessons about mistakes, for the creation of similarly specialized metadata standards for digital libraries.

  6. Syntactic and Semantic Validation without a Metadata Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Janine; Gokey, Christopher D.; Kendig, David; Olsen, Lola; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ability to maintain quality information is essential to securing the confidence in any system for which the information serves as a data source. NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), an online Earth science data locator, holds over 9000 data set descriptions and is in a constant state of flux as metadata are created and updated on a daily basis. In such a system, the importance of maintaining the consistency and integrity of these-metadata is crucial. The GCMD has developed a metadata management system utilizing XML, controlled vocabulary, and Java technologies to ensure the metadata not only adhere to valid syntax, but also exhibit proper semantics.

  7. Unified Science Information Model for SoilSCAPE using the Mercury Metadata Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Lu, Kefa; Palanisamy, Giri; Cook, Robert; Santhana Vannan, Suresh; Moghaddam, Mahta Clewley, Dan; Silva, Agnelo; Akbar, Ruzbeh

    2013-12-01

    SoilSCAPE (Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator) introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective is to enable a guided and adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of spaceborne soil moisture sensors such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. This work is being carried out at the University of Michigan, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Southern California, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory we are using Mercury metadata search system [1] for building a Unified Information System for the SoilSCAPE project. This unified portal primarily comprises three key pieces: Distributed Search/Discovery; Data Collections and Integration; and Data Dissemination. Mercury, a Federally funded software for metadata harvesting, indexing, and searching would be used for this module. Soil moisture data sources identified as part of this activity such as SoilSCAPE and FLUXNET (in-situ sensors), AirMOSS (airborne retrieval), SMAP (spaceborne retrieval), and are being indexed and maintained by Mercury. Mercury would be the central repository of data sources for cal/val for soil moisture studies and would provide a mechanism to identify additional data sources. Relevant metadata from existing inventories such as ORNL DAAC, USGS Clearinghouse, ARM, NASA ECHO, GCMD etc. would be brought in to this soil-moisture data search/discovery module. The SoilSCAPE [2] metadata records will also be published in broader metadata repositories such as GCMD, data.gov. Mercury can be configured to provide a single portal to soil moisture information contained in disparate data management systems located anywhere on the Internet. Mercury is able to extract, metadata systematically from HTML pages or XML files using a variety of

  8. Inheritance rules for Hierarchical Metadata Based on ISO 19115

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabala, A.; Masó, J.; Pons, X.

    2012-04-01

    Mainly, ISO19115 has been used to describe metadata for datasets and services. Furthermore, ISO19115 standard (as well as the new draft ISO19115-1) includes a conceptual model that allows to describe metadata at different levels of granularity structured in hierarchical levels, both in aggregated resources such as particularly series, datasets, and also in more disaggregated resources such as types of entities (feature type), types of attributes (attribute type), entities (feature instances) and attributes (attribute instances). In theory, to apply a complete metadata structure to all hierarchical levels of metadata, from the whole series to an individual feature attributes, is possible, but to store all metadata at all levels is completely impractical. An inheritance mechanism is needed to store each metadata and quality information at the optimum hierarchical level and to allow an ease and efficient documentation of metadata in both an Earth observation scenario such as a multi-satellite mission multiband imagery, as well as in a complex vector topographical map that includes several feature types separated in layers (e.g. administrative limits, contour lines, edification polygons, road lines, etc). Moreover, and due to the traditional split of maps in tiles due to map handling at detailed scales or due to the satellite characteristics, each of the previous thematic layers (e.g. 1:5000 roads for a country) or band (Landsat-5 TM cover of the Earth) are tiled on several parts (sheets or scenes respectively). According to hierarchy in ISO 19115, the definition of general metadata can be supplemented by spatially specific metadata that, when required, either inherits or overrides the general case (G.1.3). Annex H of this standard states that only metadata exceptions are defined at lower levels, so it is not necessary to generate the full registry of metadata for each level but to link particular values to the general value that they inherit. Conceptually the metadata

  9. Informing and Evaluating a Metadata Initiative: Usability and Metadata Studies in Minnesota's "Foundations" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quam, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    Explains Minnesota's Foundations Project, a multiagency collaboration to improve access to environmental and natural resources information. Discusses the use of the Dublin core metadata standard for Web resources and describes three studies that included needs assessment, Bridges Web site user interface, and usability of controlled vocabulary in…

  10. Informing and Evaluating a Metadata Initiative: Usability and Metadata Studies in Minnesota's "Foundations" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quam, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    Explains Minnesota's Foundations Project, a multiagency collaboration to improve access to environmental and natural resources information. Discusses the use of the Dublin core metadata standard for Web resources and describes three studies that included needs assessment, Bridges Web site user interface, and usability of controlled vocabulary in…

  11. A standard for measuring metadata quality in spectral libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasaiah, B.; Jones, S. D.; Bellman, C.

    2013-12-01

    A standard for measuring metadata quality in spectral libraries Barbara Rasaiah, Simon Jones, Chris Bellman RMIT University Melbourne, Australia barbara.rasaiah@rmit.edu.au, simon.jones@rmit.edu.au, chris.bellman@rmit.edu.au ABSTRACT There is an urgent need within the international remote sensing community to establish a metadata standard for field spectroscopy that ensures high quality, interoperable metadata sets that can be archived and shared efficiently within Earth observation data sharing systems. Metadata are an important component in the cataloguing and analysis of in situ spectroscopy datasets because of their central role in identifying and quantifying the quality and reliability of spectral data and the products derived from them. This paper presents approaches to measuring metadata completeness and quality in spectral libraries to determine reliability, interoperability, and re-useability of a dataset. Explored are quality parameters that meet the unique requirements of in situ spectroscopy datasets, across many campaigns. Examined are the challenges presented by ensuring that data creators, owners, and data users ensure a high level of data integrity throughout the lifecycle of a dataset. Issues such as field measurement methods, instrument calibration, and data representativeness are investigated. The proposed metadata standard incorporates expert recommendations that include metadata protocols critical to all campaigns, and those that are restricted to campaigns for specific target measurements. The implication of semantics and syntax for a robust and flexible metadata standard are also considered. Approaches towards an operational and logistically viable implementation of a quality standard are discussed. This paper also proposes a way forward for adapting and enhancing current geospatial metadata standards to the unique requirements of field spectroscopy metadata quality. [0430] BIOGEOSCIENCES / Computational methods and data processing [0480

  12. Stacking Faults in Cotton Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakara, S.; Niranjana, A. R.; Siddaraju, G. N.; Somashekar, R.

    2011-07-01

    The stacking faults in different variety of cotton fibers have been quantified using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data. Exponential functions for the column length distribution have been used for the determination of microstructural parameters. The crystal imperfection parameters like crystal size , lattice strain (g in %), stacking faults (αd) and twin faults (β) have been determined by profile analysis using Fourier method of Warren. We examined different variety of raw cotton fibers using WAXS techniques. In all these cases we note that, the stacking faults are quite significant in determining the property of cotton fibers.

  13. The Metadata Coverage Index (MCI): A standardized metric for quantifying database metadata richness.

    PubMed

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Schriml, Lynn; Hirschman, Lynette; Pagani, Ioanna; Nosrat, Bahador; Sterk, Peter; White, Owen; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Taylor, Chris; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Field, Dawn

    2012-07-30

    Variability in the extent of the descriptions of data ('metadata') held in public repositories forces users to assess the quality of records individually, which rapidly becomes impractical. The scoring of records on the richness of their description provides a simple, objective proxy measure for quality that enables filtering that supports downstream analysis. Pivotally, such descriptions should spur on improvements. Here, we introduce such a measure - the 'Metadata Coverage Index' (MCI): the percentage of available fields actually filled in a record or description. MCI scores can be calculated across a database, for individual records or for their component parts (e.g., fields of interest). There are many potential uses for this simple metric: for example; to filter, rank or search for records; to assess the metadata availability of an ad hoc collection; to determine the frequency with which fields in a particular record type are filled, especially with respect to standards compliance; to assess the utility of specific tools and resources, and of data capture practice more generally; to prioritize records for further curation; to serve as performance metrics of funded projects; or to quantify the value added by curation. Here we demonstrate the utility of MCI scores using metadata from the Genomes Online Database (GOLD), including records compliant with the 'Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence' (MIGS) standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium. We discuss challenges and address the further application of MCI scores; to show improvements in annotation quality over time, to inform the work of standards bodies and repository providers on the usability and popularity of their products, and to assess and credit the work of curators. Such an index provides a step towards putting metadata capture practices and in the future, standards compliance, into a quantitative and objective framework.

  14. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  15. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: a case analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChenXi; Li, YunHe; Gao, YuLin; Ning, ChangMing; Wu, KongMing

    2010-08-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  16. To Teach or Not to Teach: The Ethics of Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Cynthia; Cavaliere, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Metadata is information about computer-generated documents that is often inadvertently transmitted to others. The problems associated with metadata have become more acute over time as word processing and other popular programs have become more receptive to the concept of collaboration. As more people become involved in the preparation of…

  17. To Teach or Not to Teach: The Ethics of Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Cynthia; Cavaliere, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Metadata is information about computer-generated documents that is often inadvertently transmitted to others. The problems associated with metadata have become more acute over time as word processing and other popular programs have become more receptive to the concept of collaboration. As more people become involved in the preparation of…

  18. Shared Geospatial Metadata Repository for Ontario University Libraries: Collaborative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forward, Erin; Leahey, Amber; Trimble, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Successfully providing access to special collections of digital geospatial data in academic libraries relies upon complete and accurate metadata. Creating and maintaining metadata using specialized standards is a formidable challenge for libraries. The Ontario Council of University Libraries' Scholars GeoPortal project, which created a shared…

  19. PoroTomo Subtask 6.3 Nodal Seismometers Metadata

    SciTech Connect

    Lesley Parker

    2016-03-28

    Metadata for the nodal seismometer array deployed at the POROTOMO's Natural Laboratory in Brady Hot Spring, Nevada during the March 2016 testing. Metadata includes location and timing for each instrument as well as file lists of data to be uploaded in a separate submission.

  20. LACE: A Web-Based, Structured Editor for PDS Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M.; Keller, R.; Sarram, P.

    2015-06-01

    PDS has moved to XML-based metadata, but many scientists are not familiar with XML and find its structure complicated. For these reasons, we have created LACE, an editor for PDS metadata that hides the complexity of XML from the user.

  1. Twiddlenet: Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    METADATA TAGGING AND DATA DISSEMINATION IN MOBILE DEVICE NETWORKS by Christopher T. Clotfelter Jonathon E. Towle September 2007 Thesis...Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks 6. AUTHOR(S) Clotfelter, Christopher T. Towle , Jonathon E. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...DISSEMINATION IN MOBILE DEVICE NETWORKS Jonathan E. Towle Captain, United States Maine Corps B.S., California State University Humboldt

  2. A Distributed Architecture for Resource Discovery Using Metadata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Michael; Lukas, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes an approach for linking geographically distributed collections of metadata so that they are searchable as a single collection. Describes the infrastructure, discusses advantages of using linked collections of authoritative metadata as an alternative to using a keyword-indexing search engine for resource discovery, and examines other…

  3. Shared Geospatial Metadata Repository for Ontario University Libraries: Collaborative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forward, Erin; Leahey, Amber; Trimble, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Successfully providing access to special collections of digital geospatial data in academic libraries relies upon complete and accurate metadata. Creating and maintaining metadata using specialized standards is a formidable challenge for libraries. The Ontario Council of University Libraries' Scholars GeoPortal project, which created a shared…

  4. Metadata in the Collaboratory for Multi-Scale Chemical Science

    SciTech Connect

    Pancerella, Carmen M.; Hewson, John; Koegler, Wendy S.; Leahy, David; Lee, Michael; Rahn, Larry; Yang, Christine; Myers, James D.; Didier, Brett T.; McCoy, Renata; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Windus, Theresa L.; Amin, Kaizer; Bittner, Sandra; Lansing, Carina S.; Minkoff, Michael; Nijsure, Sandeep; von Laszewski, Gregor; Pinzon, Reinhardt; Ruscic, Branko; Wagner, Albert F.; Wang, Baoshan; Pitz, William; Ho, Yen-Ling; Montoya, David W.; Xu, Lili; Allison, Thomas C.; Green, William H.; Frenklach, Michael

    2003-10-02

    The goal of the Collaboratory for the Multi-scale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) [1] is to develop an informatics-based approach to synthesizing multi-scale chemistry information to create knowledge in the chemical sciences. CMCS is using a portal and metadata-aware content store as a base for building a system to support inter-domain knowledge exchange in chemical science. Key aspects of the system include configurable metadata extraction and translation, a core schema for scientific pedigree, and a suite of tools for managing data and metadata and visualizing pedigree relationships between data entries. CMCS metadata is represented using Dublin Core with metadata extensions that are useful to both the chemical science community and the science community in general. CMCS is working with several chemistry groups who are using the system to collaboratively assemble and analyze existing data to derive new chemical knowledge. In this paper we discuss the project’s metadata-related requirements, the relevant software infrastructure, core metadata schema, and tools that use the metadata to enhance science

  5. Creating FGDC and NBII metadata with Metavist 2005.

    Treesearch

    David J. Rugg

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a computer program for creating metadata compliant with the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) 1998 metadata standard or the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) 1999 Biological Data Profile for the FGDC standard. The software runs under the Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP operating systems, and requires the presence of...

  6. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5′-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5′-RACE). Here, we provide the first report

  7. Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) in Action!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Gauthier, A.; Christensen, L. L.; Wyatt, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard offers a flexible way of embedding extensive information about an astronomical image, illustration, or photograph within the image file itself. Such information includes a spread of basic info including title, caption, credit, and subject (based on a taxonomy optimized for outreach needs). Astronomical images may also be fully tagged with color assignments (associating wavelengths/observatories to colors in the image) and coordinate projection information. Here we present a status update on current ongoing projects utilizing AVM. Ongoing tagging efforts include a variety of missions and observers (including Spitzer, Chandra, Hubble, and amateurs), and the metadata is serving as a database schema for content-managed website development (Spitzer). Software packages are utilizing AVM coordinate headers to allow images to be tagged (FITS Liberator) and correctly registered against the sky backdrop on import (e.g. WorldWide Telescope, Google Sky). Museums and planetariums are exploring the use of AVM contextual information to enrich the presentation of images (partners include the American Museum of Natural History and the California Academy of Sciences). Astronomical institutions are adopting the AVM standard (e.g. IVOA) and planning services to embed and catalog AVM-tagged images (IRSA/VAMP, Aladin). More information is available at www.virtualastronomy.org

  8. Automated database mediation using ontological metadata mappings.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    To devise an automated approach for integrating federated database information using database ontologies constructed from their extended metadata. One challenge of database federation is that the granularity of representation of equivalent data varies across systems. Dealing effectively with this problem is analogous to dealing with precoordinated vs. postcoordinated concepts in biomedical ontologies. The authors describe an approach based on ontological metadata mapping rules defined with elements of a global vocabulary, which allows a query specified at one granularity level to fetch data, where possible, from databases within the federation that use different granularities. This is implemented in OntoMediator, a newly developed production component of our previously described Query Integrator System. OntoMediator's operation is illustrated with a query that accesses three geographically separate, interoperating databases. An example based on SNOMED also illustrates the applicability of high-level rules to support the enforcement of constraints that can prevent inappropriate curator or power-user actions. A rule-based framework simplifies the design and maintenance of systems where categories of data must be mapped to each other, for the purpose of either cross-database query or for curation of the contents of compositional controlled vocabularies.

  9. Embedding and retrieving private metadata in electrocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Kozat, Suleyman S; Vlachos, Michail; Lucchese, Claudio; Van Herle, Helga; Yu, Philip S

    2009-08-01

    Due to the recent explosion of 'identity theft' cases, the safeguarding of private data has been the focus of many scientific efforts. Medical data contain a number of sensitive attributes, whose access the rightful owner would ideally like to disclose only to authorized personnel. One way of providing limited access to sensitive data is through means of encryption. In this work we follow a different path, by proposing the fusion of the sensitive metadata within the medical data. Our work is focused on medical time-series signals and in particular on Electrocardiograms (ECG). We present techniques that allow the embedding and retrieval of sensitive numerical data, such as the patient's social security number or birth date, within the medical signal. The proposed technique not only allows the effective hiding of the sensitive metadata within the signal itself, but it additionally provides a way of authenticating the data ownership or providing assurances about the origin of the data. Our methodology builds upon watermarking notions, and presents the following desirable characteristics: (a) it does not distort important ECG characteristics, which are essential for proper medical diagnosis, (b) it allows not only the embedding but also the efficient retrieval of the embedded data, (c) it provides resilience and fault tolerance by employing multistage watermarks (both robust and fragile). Our experiments on real ECG data indicate the viability of the proposed scheme.

  10. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  11. Developing Cyberinfrastructure Tools and Services for Metadata Quality Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecum, B.; Gordon, S.; Habermann, T.; Jones, M. B.; Leinfelder, B.; Powers, L. A.; Slaughter, P.

    2016-12-01

    Metadata and data quality are at the core of reusable and reproducible science. While great progress has been made over the years, much of the metadata collected only addresses data discovery, covering concepts such as titles and keywords. Improving metadata beyond the discoverability plateau means documenting detailed concepts within the data such as sampling protocols, instrumentation used, and variables measured. Given that metadata commonly do not describe their data at this level, how might we improve the state of things? Giving scientists and data managers easy to use tools to evaluate metadata quality that utilize community-driven recommendations is the key to producing high-quality metadata. To achieve this goal, we created a set of cyberinfrastructure tools and services that integrate with existing metadata and data curation workflows which can be used to improve metadata and data quality across the sciences. These tools work across metadata dialects (e.g., ISO19115, FGDC, EML, etc.) and can be used to assess aspects of quality beyond what is internal to the metadata such as the congruence between the metadata and the data it describes. The system makes use of a user-friendly mechanism for expressing a suite of checks as code in popular data science programming languages such as Python and R. This reduces the burden on scientists and data managers to learn yet another language. We demonstrated these services and tools in three ways. First, we evaluated a large corpus of datasets in the DataONE federation of data repositories against a metadata recommendation modeled after existing recommendations such as the LTER best practices and the Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD). Second, we showed how this service can be used to display metadata and data quality information to data producers during the data submission and metadata creation process, and to data consumers through data catalog search and access tools. Third, we showed how the centrally

  12. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  13. Antiquity of American Polyploid Cotton.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Macneish, R S

    1964-02-14

    Fragments of a boll of Gossypium hirsutum L. from archeological excavations near Tehuacán, Mexico, prove that this species existed in 5800 B. C. No doubt remains that American tetraploid cotton species originated through natural hiybridization.

  14. An Enterprise Ontology Building the Bases for Automatic Metadata Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thönssen, Barbara

    'Information Overload' or 'Document Deluge' is a problem enterprises and Public Administrations alike are still dealing with. Although commercial products for Enterprise Content or Records Management are available since more than two decades, especially in Small and Medium Enterprises and Public Administrations they didn't get through. Because of the wide range of document types and formats full-text indexing is not sufficient, but assigning metadata manually is not possible. Thus, automatic, format-independent generation of metadata for (public) enterprise documents is needed. Using context to infer metadata automatically has been researched for example for web-documents or learning objects. If (public) enterprise objects were modelled 'machine understandable' they could be build the context for automatic metadata generation. The approach introduced in this paper is to model context (the (public) enterprise objects) in an ontology and using that ontology to infer content-related metadata.

  15. Interpreting the ASTM 'content standard for digital geospatial metadata'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nebert, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM and the Federal Geographic Data Committee have developed a content standard for spatial metadata to facilitate documentation, discovery, and retrieval of digital spatial data using vendor-independent terminology. Spatial metadata elements are identifiable quality and content characteristics of a data set that can be tied to a geographic location or area. Several Office of Management and Budget Circulars and initiatives have been issued that specify improved cataloguing of and accessibility to federal data holdings. An Executive Order further requires the use of the metadata content standard to document digital spatial data sets. Collection and reporting of spatial metadata for field investigations performed for the federal government is an anticipated requirement. This paper provides an overview of the draft spatial metadata content standard and a description of how the standard could be applied to investigations collecting spatially-referenced field data.

  16. EXIF Custom: Automatic image metadata extraction for Scratchpads and Drupal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Many institutions and individuals use embedded metadata to aid in the management of their image collections. Many deskop image management solutions such as Adobe Bridge and online tools such as Flickr also make use of embedded metadata to describe, categorise and license images. Until now Scratchpads (a data management system and virtual research environment for biodiversity) have not made use of these metadata, and users have had to manually re-enter this information if they have wanted to display it on their Scratchpad site. The Drupal described here allows users to map metadata embedded in their images to the associated field in the Scratchpads image form using one or more customised mappings. The module works seamlessly with the bulk image uploader used on Scratchpads and it is therefore possible to upload hundreds of images easily with automatic metadata (EXIF, XMP and IPTC) extraction and mapping.

  17. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications.

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  1. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  4. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  5. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  6. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  7. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  8. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  9. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  11. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  12. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  13. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  14. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  15. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  16. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  17. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  18. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  19. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  20. Remote sensing evaluation of twospotted spider mite damage on greenhouse cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a polyphagous pest which occurs on a variety of field and horticultural crops. It often becomes an early season pest of cotton in damaging proportions from being a late season innocuous pest in the mid-southern United States. Evaluation of acari...

  1. Variable Rate Application of Nematicides on Cotton Fields: A Promising Site-Specific Management Strategy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield losses associated with southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita] (RKN) parasitism have increased during the last 20 years. The hypothesis that variable rate application of nematicides can reduce yield losses and reduce the risk for under- and over-...

  2. Cotton Yield Response to Variable Rate Nematicides According to Risk Zones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield losses by southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita] (RKN) have increased during the last 20 years. Site-specific management (SSM) of nematicides is a promising method to reduce yield losses, increase profitability and reduce adverse environmental i...

  3. Evaluation of Variable Rate Application of Nematicides in Cotton According to Nematode Risk Zones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield losses by southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita] (RKN) have increased during the last 20 years. Site-specific management (SSM) of nematicides is a promising method to reduce yield losses, increase profitability and reduce adverse environmental i...

  4. Potential for Nezara virdula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Transmit Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens into Cotton Bolls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, we described the vectoring of an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain into green cotton bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) (SGSB) that resulted in disease. We hypothesized that our established experimental disease model could be used to determine whether SGSB s...

  5. Comparison of high-speed roller and saw ginning on Texas high plains cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New high-quality cotton cultivars have been adopted in the Southern High Plains recently and, as a result, interest has grown in finding harvest and ginning practices that better preserve fiber quality. Advancements in roller ginning technology have increased the ginning rate of some roller gins to ...

  6. Discernment of lint trash in raw cotton using multivariate analysis of excitation-emission luminescence spectra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excitation-Emission luminescence spectra of basic (pH 12.5) phosphate buffer solution extracts were used to distinguish among botanical components of trash within seed cotton. All components were separated from whole plants removed from a field in southern New Mexico. Unfolded Principal Component An...

  7. Colonization preference of Eushcistus servus and Nezara viridula in transgenic cotton varieties, peanut and soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because cotton, peanuts and soybean crops are often grown in close proximity and are hosts for the major pest stink bug species: -- the southern green stink bug, the brown stink bug, and the green stink bug – in the region, we determined colonization preference of these species among the crops to cl...

  8. Performance of transform against selected cotton insects in laboratory and field studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has become a major pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), within the Mid-Southern United States over the last several years. Tarnished plant bug has become the target of more insecticide applications than any other insect pest of c...

  9. Gossypolone and Gossypolhemiquinone: Biological activity of terpenoids found in cotton (Gossypium)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wild cotton plant, Gossypium thurberi grows in the Sonoran Desert in northern Mexico and southern Arizona, and is attacked by few herbivorous insects (Korban, 1999). In general, members of Gossypium produce a rich assortment of sesquiterpenoid and sesterterpenoids in the subepidermal pigment gl...

  10. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for Lygus spp. on cotton squares

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus and L. lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) are economically important pests affecting production of cotton in the western and mid-southern USA, respectively. Lygus feeding damage varies with instar; young nymphs are cell-rupture feeders performing laceration and maceration of plant tissue...

  11. Modeling Pivot Irrigated Cotton at Field-Scale: Development of the PALMSCot Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas, irrigated cotton occupies > 600,000 ha above the Ogallala Aquifer and receives > 2 billion m3 of irrigation pumped from the aquifer each growing season (TASS, 2010). The relationship between irrigation pumping and the sustainability of the aquifer has been...

  12. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  13. Situation in Southern US Row Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In research from southern University weed scientists pre applied herbicides appear to provide the best chance for successful Palmer amaranth control without relying on glyphosate. Fomesafen applied 14 days before cotton planting (DBP) or flumioxazin applied 21 DBP has provided good control if activ...

  14. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

  15. The XML Metadata Editor of GFZ Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Tesei, Telemaco; Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Following the FAIR data principles, research data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reuseable. Publishing data under these principles requires to assign persistent identifiers to the data and to generate rich machine-actionable metadata. To increase the interoperability, metadata should include shared vocabularies and crosslink the newly published (meta)data and related material. However, structured metadata formats tend to be complex and are not intended to be generated by individual scientists. Software solutions are needed that support scientists in providing metadata describing their data. To facilitate data publication activities of 'GFZ Data Services', we programmed an XML metadata editor that assists scientists to create metadata in different schemata popular in the earth sciences (ISO19115, DIF, DataCite), while being at the same time usable by and understandable for scientists. Emphasis is placed on removing barriers, in particular the editor is publicly available on the internet without registration [1] and the scientists are not requested to provide information that may be generated automatically (e.g. the URL of a specific licence or the contact information of the metadata distributor). Metadata are stored in browser cookies and a copy can be saved to the local hard disk. To improve usability, form fields are translated into the scientific language, e.g. 'creators' of the DataCite schema are called 'authors'. To assist filling in the form, we make use of drop down menus for small vocabulary lists and offer a search facility for large thesauri. Explanations to form fields and definitions of vocabulary terms are provided in pop-up windows and a full documentation is available for download via the help menu. In addition, multiple geospatial references can be entered via an interactive mapping tool, which helps to minimize problems with different conventions to provide latitudes and longitudes. Currently, we are extending the metadata editor

  16. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  17. Metadata specification in a dynamic geometry software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaković, Davorka; Herceg, Äńorde

    2017-07-01

    Attributes in C# are a mechanism that provides association of declarative information with C# code such as classes, types, methods, properties, namespaces etc. Once defined and associated with a program entity, an attribute can be queried at run time. However, the attributes have certain restrictions which limit their application to representing complex metadata necessary for development of dynamic geometry software (DGS). We have devised a solution, independent of attributes, which was developed to overcome the limitations, while maintaining the functionality of attributes. Our solution covers a wide range of uses, from providing extensibility to a functional programming language and declaring new data types and operations, to being a foundation for runtime optimizations of expression tree evaluation, and helpful user interface features, such as code completion.

  18. Meta-data based mediator generation

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlaw, T

    1998-06-28

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse; they transform data from source formats to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. Failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the most current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. Unfortunately, this maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. This paper describes a meta-data framework, and associated software, designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting to schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  19. Kaiser Permanente's "metadata-driven" national clinical intranet.

    PubMed

    Dolin, R H; Boles, M; Dolin, R; Green, S; Hanifin, S; Hochhalter, B; Inglesis, R; Ivory, M; Levy, D; Nadspal, K; Rae, M A; Rucks, C J; Snyder, A; Stibolt, T; Stiefel, M; Travis, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to build Kaiser Permanente's national clinical intranet. A primary objective for the site is to facilitate resource discovery, which is enabled by the use of "metadata", or data (fields and field values) that describe the various resources available. Users can perform full text queries and/or fielded searching against the metadata. Metadata serves as the organizing principle of the site--it is used to index documents, sort search results, and structure the site's table of contents. The site's use of metadata--what it is, how it is created, how it is applied to documents, how it is indexed, how it is presented to the user in the search and the search results interface, and how it is used to construct the table of contents for the web site--will be discussed in detail. The result is that KP's national clinical intranet has coupled the power of Internet-like full text search engines with the power of MedLine-like fielded searching in order to maximize search precision and recall. Organizing content on the site in accordance with the metadata promotes overall consistency. Issues currently under investigation include how to better exploit the power of the controlled terminology within the metadata; whether the value gained is worth the cost of collecting metadata; and how automatic classification algorithms might obviate the need for manual document indexing.

  20. Achieving interoperability for metadata registries using comparative object modeling.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Ju Han

    2010-01-01

    Achieving data interoperability between organizations relies upon agreed meaning and representation (metadata) of data. For managing and registering metadata, many organizations have built metadata registries (MDRs) in various domains based on international standard for MDR framework, ISO/IEC 11179. Following this trend, two pubic MDRs in biomedical domain have been created, United States Health Information Knowledgebase (USHIK) and cancer Data Standards Registry and Repository (caDSR), from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services and National Cancer Institute (NCI), respectively. Most MDRs are implemented with indiscriminate extending for satisfying organization-specific needs and solving semantic and structural limitation of ISO/IEC 11179. As a result it is difficult to address interoperability among multiple MDRs. In this paper, we propose an integrated metadata object model for achieving interoperability among multiple MDRs. To evaluate this model, we developed an XML Schema Definition (XSD)-based metadata exchange format. We created an XSD-based metadata exporter, supporting both the integrated metadata object model and organization-specific MDR formats.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Metadata-rich File System

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2010-01-19

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of user-defined file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and semantic metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, user-defined attributes, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS incorporates Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the de facto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  2. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  3. A Pan-European and Cross-Discipline Metadata Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, Heinrich; Thiemann, Hannes; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, significant investments have been made to create a pan-European e-infrastructure supporting multiple and diverse research communities. This led to the establishment of the community-driven European Data Infrastructure (EUDAT) project that implements services to tackle the specific challenges of international and interdisciplinary research data management. The EUDAT metadata service B2FIND plays a central role in this context as a repository and a search portal for the diverse metadata collected from heterogeneous sources. For this we built up a comprehensive joint metadata catalogue and an open data portal and offer support for new communities interested in publishing their data within EUDAT. The implemented metadata ingestion workflow consists in three steps. First the metadata records - provided either by various research communities or via other EUDAT services - are harvested. Afterwards the raw metadata records are converted and mapped to unified key-value dictionaries. The semantic mapping of the non-uniform community specific metadata to homogenous structured datasets is hereby the most subtle and challenging task. Finally the mapped records are uploaded as datasets to the catalogue and displayed in the portal. The homogenisation of the different community specific data models and vocabularies enables not only the unique presentation of these datasets as tables of field-value pairs but also the faceted, spatial and temporal search in the B2FIND metadata portal. Furthermore the service provides transparent access to the scientific data objects through the given references in the metadata. We present here the functionality and the features of the B2FIND service and give an outlook of further developments.

  4. Metadata Creation, Management and Search System for your Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury Search Systems is a set of tools for creating, searching, and retrieving of biogeochemical metadata. Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for any metadata format, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, multi-facetted type search, search suggestions, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. Mercury's metadata editor provides a easy way for creating metadata and Mercury's search interface provides a single portal to search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use any metadata format including FGDC, ISO-19115, Dublin-Core, Darwin-Core, DIF, ECHO, and EML. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury is being used more than 14 different projects across 4 federal agencies. It was originally developed for NASA, with continuing development funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE for a consortium of projects. Mercury search won the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Software Reuse Award in 2008. References: R. Devarakonda, G. Palanisamy, B.E. Wilson, and J.M. Green, "Mercury: reusable metadata management data discovery and access system", Earth Science Informatics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 87-94, May 2010. R. Devarakonda, G. Palanisamy, J.M. Green, B.E. Wilson, "Data sharing and retrieval using OAI-PMH", Earth Science Informatics DOI: 10.1007/s12145-010-0073-0, (2010);

  5. The Design of Metadata for the Digital Museum Initiative in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-chen; Chen, Hsueh-hua; Chen, Kuang-hua; Hsiang, Jieh

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the development of metadata in Taiwan. Describes the development process of a Chinese metadata system, Metadata Interchange for Chinese Information (MICI), and an XML/metadata management system, Metalogy, both of which were developed under the Digital Museum Initiative sponsored by the National Science Council of…

  6. Forum Guide to Metadata: The Meaning behind Education Data. NFES 2009-805

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to empower people to more effectively use data as information. To accomplish this, the publication explains what metadata are; why metadata are critical to the development of sound education data systems; what components comprise a metadata system; what value metadata bring to data management and use; and how to…

  7. The Design of Metadata for the Digital Museum Initiative in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-chen; Chen, Hsueh-hua; Chen, Kuang-hua; Hsiang, Jieh

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the development of metadata in Taiwan. Describes the development process of a Chinese metadata system, Metadata Interchange for Chinese Information (MICI), and an XML/metadata management system, Metalogy, both of which were developed under the Digital Museum Initiative sponsored by the National Science Council of…

  8. Improving Metadata Compliance for Earth Science Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Chang, O.; Foster, D.

    2014-12-01

    One of the recurring challenges of creating earth science data records is to ensure a consistent level of metadata compliance at the granule level where important details of contents, provenance, producer, and data references are necessary to obtain a sufficient level of understanding. These details are important not just for individual data consumers but also for autonomous software systems. Two of the most popular metadata standards at the granule level are the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions and the Attribute Conventions for Dataset Discovery (ACDD). Many data producers have implemented one or both of these models including the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) for their global SST products and the Ocean Biology Processing Group for NASA ocean color and SST products. While both the CF and ACDD models contain various level of metadata richness, the actual "required" attributes are quite small in number. Metadata at the granule level becomes much more useful when recommended or optional attributes are implemented that document spatial and temporal ranges, lineage and provenance, sources, keywords, and references etc. In this presentation we report on a new open source tool to check the compliance of netCDF and HDF5 granules to the CF and ACCD metadata models. The tool, written in Python, was originally implemented to support metadata compliance for netCDF records as part of the NOAA's Integrated Ocean Observing System. It outputs standardized scoring for metadata compliance for both CF and ACDD, produces an objective summary weight, and can be implemented for remote records via OPeNDAP calls. Originally a command-line tool, we have extended it to provide a user-friendly web interface. Reports on metadata testing are grouped in hierarchies that make it easier to track flaws and inconsistencies in the record. We have also extended it to support explicit metadata structures and semantic syntax for the GHRSST project that can be

  9. Publishing NASA Metadata as Linked Open Data for Semantic Mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipon, G. M.; Wilson, B. D.; Hua, H.

    2013-12-01

    Data providers are now publishing more metadata in more interoperable forms, e.g. Atom/RSS ';casts', as Linked Open Data (LOD), or as ISO Metadata records. A major effort on the part of the NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project is the aggregation of metadata that enables greater data interoperability among scientific data sets regardless of source or application. Both the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse (ECHO) and the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) repositories contain metadata records for NASA (and other) datasets and provided services. These records contain typical fields for each dataset (or software service) such as the source, creation date, cognizant institution, related access URL's, and domain & variable keywords to enable discovery. Under a NASA ACCESS grant, we demonstrated how to publish the ECHO and GCMD dataset and services metadata as LOD in the RDF format. Both sets of metadata are now queryable at SPARQL endpoints and available for integration into 'semantic mashups' in the browser. It is straightforward to transform sets of XML metadata, including ISO 19139, into simple RDF and then later refine and improve the RDF predicates by reusing known namespaces such as Dublin Core, GeoRSS, etc. All scientific metadata should be part of the LOD world. In addition, we developed an 'instant' drill-down and browse interface that provides faceted navigation so that the user can discover and explore the 25,000 datasets and 3000 services. Figure 1 shows the first version of the interface for 'instant drill down' into the ECHO datasets. The available facets and the free-text search box appear in the left panel, and the instantly updated results for the dataset search appear in the right panel. The user can constrain the value of a metadata facet simply by clicking on a word (or phrase) in the 'word cloud' of values for each facet. The display section for each dataset includes the important metadata fields, a full

  10. Publishing NASA Metadata as Linked Open Data for Semantic Mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian; Manipon, Gerald; Hua, Hook

    2014-05-01

    Data providers are now publishing more metadata in more interoperable forms, e.g. Atom or RSS 'casts', as Linked Open Data (LOD), or as ISO Metadata records. A major effort on the part of the NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project is the aggregation of metadata that enables greater data interoperability among scientific data sets regardless of source or application. Both the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse (ECHO) and the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) repositories contain metadata records for NASA (and other) datasets and provided services. These records contain typical fields for each dataset (or software service) such as the source, creation date, cognizant institution, related access URL's, and domain and variable keywords to enable discovery. Under a NASA ACCESS grant, we demonstrated how to publish the ECHO and GCMD dataset and services metadata as LOD in the RDF format. Both sets of metadata are now queryable at SPARQL endpoints and available for integration into "semantic mashups" in the browser. It is straightforward to reformat sets of XML metadata, including ISO, into simple RDF and then later refine and improve the RDF predicates by reusing known namespaces such as Dublin core, georss, etc. All scientific metadata should be part of the LOD world. In addition, we developed an "instant" drill-down and browse interface that provides faceted navigation so that the user can discover and explore the 25,000 datasets and 3000 services. The available facets and the free-text search box appear in the left panel, and the instantly updated results for the dataset search appear in the right panel. The user can constrain the value of a metadata facet simply by clicking on a word (or phrase) in the "word cloud" of values for each facet. The display section for each dataset includes the important metadata fields, a full description of the dataset, potentially some related URL's, and a "search" button that points to an Open

  11. Metadata Evaluation and Improvement: Evolving Analysis and Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermann, Ted; Kozimor, John; Gordon, Sean

    2017-01-01

    ESIP Community members create and manage a large collection of environmental datasets that span multiple decades, the entire globe, and many parts of the solar system. Metadata are critical for discovering, accessing, using and understanding these data effectively and ESIP community members have successfully created large collections of metadata describing these data. As part of the White House Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI), ESDIS has developed a suite of tools for evaluating these metadata in native dialects with respect to recommendations from many organizations. We will describe those tools and demonstrate evolving techniques for sharing results with data providers.

  12. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liping; Liu, RuiE; Chu, Bijue; Yu, Xiushuang; Sun, Jie; Jones, Brian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Huizhong; Zhu, Shuijin; Sun, Yuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel). In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L) and bentazon (4.2 µmol). A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon) tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

  13. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the world-wide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byprod...

  14. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  15. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  16. Biobased polymeric materials prepared from cotton byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive natural renewable materials from cotton and cottonseed processing. Recently several new polymer applications have been reported involving these cotton byproducts. These new developments are briefly reviewed in this article. In the first a...

  17. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  18. Aerial Identification of Individual Cotton Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boll weevils can infest individual cotton plants as well as cotton fields. However, volunteer and regrowth plants may grow where seed has scattered along roadsides and waterways, and in fields following rotation from cotton production. Timely areawide detection of these potential host plants is cr...

  19. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  20. EBM metadata based on Dublin Core better presenting validity of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Okada, Mihoko

    2007-10-01

    To help clinicians find better evidence, a metadata schema for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is developed. Dublin Core metadata standard (DC) was adopted to help build a metadata schema. An experimental system was developed to test the validity of the metadata and full text papers of clinical therapy on stomach ulcer extracted using PubMed. An EBM metadata schema was developed. Citations were created from original papers using the metadata schema. Three clinicians evaluated papers by utilizing metadata and full texts respectively. Agreement of evaluation was analyzed, and the result on weighted kappa was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42-0.67). It reveals that there is moderate agreement between evaluation of metadata citations and full texts. It is possible to use the metadata to select papers before reading the full texts. A further study should be made to prove the applicability of the metadata in the real world setting.

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P G; Northfield, T D; Mizell, R F; Riddle, T C

    2009-08-01

    In the southeast United States, a field of peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. GS(+) Version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distance weighting. Interpolated stink bug population raster maps were constructed using ArcMap Version 9.2. This technique was used to show any change in distribution of stink bugs in the farmscape over time. SADIE (spatial analysis by distance indices) methodology was used to examine spatial aggregation of individual stink bug species and spatial association of the two stink bug species in the individual crops. Altogether, the spatiotemporal analyses for the farmscapes showed that some N. viridula and E. servus nymphs and adults that develop in peanuts disperse into cotton. When these stink bugs disperse from peanuts into cotton, they aggregate in cotton at the interface, or common boundary, of the two crops while feeding on cotton bolls. Therefore, there is a pronounced edge effect observed in the distribution of stink bugs as they colonize the new crop, cotton. The driving force for the spatiotemporal distribution and dispersal of both stink bug species in peanut-cotton farmscapes seems to be availability of food in time and space mitigated by landscape structure. Thus, an understanding of farmscape ecology of stink bugs and their natural enemies is necessary to strategically place, in time and space, biologically based management strategies that control stink bug populations while conserving natural enemies and the environment and reducing off-farm inputs.

  2. Web Standard: PDF - When to Use, Document Metadata, PDF Sections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PDF files provide some benefits when used appropriately. PDF files should not be used for short documents ( 5 pages) unless retaining the format for printing is important. PDFs should have internal file metadata and meet section 508 standards.

  3. Metadata and Service at the GFZ ISDC Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, B.

    2008-05-01

    The online service portal of the GFZ Potsdam Information System and Data Center (ISDC) is an access point for all manner of geoscientific geodata, its corresponding metadata, scientific documentation and software tools. At present almost 2000 national and international users and user groups have the opportunity to request Earth science data from a portfolio of 275 different products types and more than 20 Million single data files with an added volume of approximately 12 TByte. The majority of the data and information, the portal currently offers to the public, are global geomonitoring products such as satellite orbit and Earth gravity field data as well as geomagnetic and atmospheric data for the exploration. These products for Earths changing system are provided via state-of-the art retrieval techniques. The data product catalog system behind these techniques is based on the extensive usage of standardized metadata, which are describing the different geoscientific product types and data products in an uniform way. Where as all ISDC product types are specified by NASA's Directory Interchange Format (DIF), Version 9.0 Parent XML DIF metadata files, the individual data files are described by extended DIF metadata documents. Depending on the beginning of the scientific project, one part of data files are described by extended DIF, Version 6 metadata documents and the other part are specified by data Child XML DIF metadata documents. Both, the product type dependent parent DIF metadata documents and the data file dependent child DIF metadata documents are derived from a base-DIF.xsd xml schema file. The ISDC metadata philosophy defines a geoscientific product as a package consisting of mostly one or sometimes more than one data file plus one extended DIF metadata file. Because NASA's DIF metadata standard has been developed in order to specify a collection of data only, the extension of the DIF standard consists of new and specific attributes, which are necessary for

  4. Distributed metadata in a high performance computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Xuezhao; Tang, Haiying

    2017-07-11

    A computer-executable method, system, and computer program product for managing meta-data in a distributed storage system, wherein the distributed storage system includes one or more burst buffers enabled to operate with a distributed key-value store, the co computer-executable method, system, and computer program product comprising receiving a request for meta-data associated with a block of data stored in a first burst buffer of the one or more burst buffers in the distributed storage system, wherein the meta data is associated with a key-value, determining which of the one or more burst buffers stores the requested metadata, and upon determination that a first burst buffer of the one or more burst buffers stores the requested metadata, locating the key-value in a portion of the distributed key-value store accessible from the first burst buffer.

  5. Precision Pointing Reconstruction and Geometric Metadata Generation for Cassini Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. S.; Showalter, M. R.; Gordon, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    We are reconstructing accurate pointing for 400,000 images taken by Cassini at Saturn. The results will be provided to the public along with per-pixel metadata describing precise image contents such as geographical location and viewing geometry.

  6. Massive Meta-Data: A New Data Mining Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, W.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide standardisation, and interoperability initiatives such as GBIF, Open Access and GEOSS (to name but three of many) have led to the emergence of interlinked and overlapping meta-data repositories containing, potentially, tens of millions of entries collectively. This forms the backbone of an emerging global scientific data infrastructure that is both driven by changes in the way we work, and opens up new possibilities in management, research, and collaboration. Several initiatives are concentrated on building a generalised, shared, easily available, scalable, and indefinitely preserved scientific data infrastructure to aid future scientific work. This paper deals with the parallel aspect of the meta-data that will be used to support the global scientific data infrastructure. There are obvious practical issues (semantic interoperability and speed of discovery being the most important), but we are here more concerned with some of the less obvious conceptual questions and opportunities: 1. Can we use meta-data to assess, pinpoint, and reduce duplication of meta-data? 2. Can we use it to reduce overlaps of mandates in data portals, research collaborations, and research networks? 3. What possibilities exist for mining the relationships that exist implicitly in very large meta-data collections? 4. Is it possible to define an explicit 'scientific data infrastructure' as a complex, multi-relational network database, that can become self-maintaining and self-organising in true Web 2.0 and 'social networking' fashion? The paper provides a blueprint for a new approach to massive meta-data collections, and how this can be processed using established analysis techniques to answer the questions posed. It assesses the practical implications of working with standard meta-data definitions (such as ISO 19115, Dublin Core, and EML) in a meta-data mining context, and makes recommendations in respect of extension to support self-organising, semantically oriented 'networks of

  7. Metadata Requirements in a Multi-Layered Networked Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-16

    ment of the asset’s applicability of use. The DDMS has become very well aligned with the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative ( DCMI ) [12] specification...with extensions beyond the DCMI to address the particular business needs of the US DOD. As an example of the ex- tensions, the DCMI element...controlled via appropriate security meta- data. The DCMI and DDMS both represent controlled structures to be used for transfer of metadata. However, it is

  8. hFits: From Storing Metadata to Publishing ESO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Dobrzycki, A.; Vuong, M.; Da Rocha, C.

    2012-09-01

    The ESO Archive holds ca. 20 million FITS files: raw observations taken at the La Silla Paranal Observatory in Chile, data from APEX and UKIRT(WFCAM) telescopes, pipeline-processed data generated by the Quality Control and Data Processing Group in ESO Garching and, since recently, reduced data delivered by the PI's through the ESO Phase 3 infrastructure. A metadata repository has been developed at the ESO Archive (Dobrzycki et al. 2007), (Vera et al. 2011), to hold all the FITS file headers with up-to-date information using data warehouse technology. Presently, the repository contains more that 10 billion keywords from headers of all ESO FITS files. We have added to the repository a mechanism for keeping track of header ingestion and modification, allowing to build incremental applications on top of it. The aim is to provide a framework allowing for creation of fast and good quality metadata query services. We present hFits, a tool for data publishing allowing for metadata enhancement. The tool reads from the metadata repository and inserts the metadata into the conventional relational database systems using a simple configuration framework. It utilises the metadata repository tracking mechanism to incrementally refresh the services and transparently propagate any metadata updates. It supports the use of user defined functions where, for example, WCS coordinates can be calculated or related metadata can be extracted from other information systems, and for each new header file it provides to the archived file the access attributes following ESO data access policy, publishing the data to the community.

  9. The importance of metrological metadata in the environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Márcio A. A.; Guimarães, Patrícia L. O.; Almêida, Eugênio S.; Eklin, Tero

    2016-07-01

    The metrological metadata propagation contributes significantly to improve the data analysis of the meteorological observation systems. An overview of the scenarios data and metadata treatment in environmental monitoring is presented in this article. We also discussed the ways of use of the calibration results on the meteorological measurement systems as well as the convergence of the methods used in the corrections treatment and estimation of the measuring uncertainty in metrological and meteorological areas.

  10. Surviving the Transition from FGDC to ISO Metadata Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, C. G.; Milan, A.; Sylvester, D.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Froehlich, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA Metadata Manager and Repository (NMMR) has served a well established group of data managers at NOAA's National Data Centers for over a decade. It provides a web interface for managing FGDC compliant metadata and publishing that metadata to several large data discovery systems (GeoSpatial One-Stop, NASA's Global Change Master Directory, the Comprehensive Large-Array data Stewardship System, and FirstGov). The Data Center's are now faced with migration of these metadata to new International Metadata Standards (ISO 19115, 19115-2, "). We would like to accomplish this migration while minimizing disruption to the current users and supporting significant new capabilities of the ISO standards. Our current approach involves relational ISO views on top of the existing XML database to convert FGDC content into ISO without changing the data manager interface. These views are the foundation for ISO- compliant XML metadata access via REST-like web services. Additionally, new database tables provide information required by ISO that is not included in the FGDC standard. This approach allows us to support the new standard without disrupting the current system.

  11. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Survivorship, and Damage on Cotton Plants Expressing Insecticidal Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

    PubMed

    Hardke, Jarrod T; Jackson, Ryan E; Leonard, B Rogers; Temple, Joshua H

    2015-06-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in some years, but this species has not been a primary target of Bt cotton technologies. The objective of this study was to quantify fall armyworm larval survivorship and fruiting form injury on transgenic cotton lines expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard), Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bollgard II), and Cry1Ac+Cry1F (WideStrike) Bt proteins. Larval survivorship and fruiting form damage of fall armyworm on Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, and non-Bt (control) cotton lines were evaluated in no-choice field studies. Fall armyworm (third instars) were placed on flower buds (squares), white flowers, and bolls, enclosed within a nylon mesh exclusion cage, and evaluated at selected intervals after infestation. Exposure of fall armyworm larvae to Bollgard cotton lines generally resulted in no significant effects on survivorship compared with larvae exposed to the non-Bt cotton line. Survivorship and plant injury by fall armyworm on Bollgard II cotton lines was variable compared with that on non-Bt cotton lines, and significant differences between treatments were inconsistent. Fall armyworm had significantly lower survivorship and caused less plant injury on WideStrike cotton lines than on non-Bt cotton lines across all plant structures. Development and survivorship of fall armyworm larvae on these cotton lines also were evaluated in no-choice laboratory assays by offering the previously described fruiting forms to third instars. Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton lines significantly reduced fall armyworm development and survivorship compared with those larvae offered non-Bt tissue. These results suggest that differences exist among selected Bt cotton technologies in their performance against fall

  12. Graphene oxide nanostructures modified multifunctional cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Navaneethaiyer, Umasuthan; Mohan, Rajneesh; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2012-06-01

    Surface modification of cotton fabrics using graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures was reported. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations revealed that the GO nanostructure was coated onto the cotton fabric. The molecular level interaction between the graphene oxide and the cotton fabric is studied in detail using the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GO loaded cotton fabrics have enhanced thermal stability compared to the bare cotton fabrics. The photocatalytic activity of the GO-coated cotton fabrics was investigated by measuring the photoreduction of resazurin (RZ) into resorufin (RF) under UV light irradiation. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the results indicated that the GO-coated cotton fabrics are more toxic towards the Gram-positive ones. Our results provide a way to develop graphene oxide-based devices for the biomedical applications for improving health care.

  13. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    PubMed

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Evolving Metadata in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of

  15. Endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    Sword, Gregory A; Tessnow, Ashley; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa

    2017-03-22

    All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the US cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by one of two candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana. Both insect species exhibited strong negative responses to flower buds (L. hesperus) and fruits (N. viridula) from plants that had been colonized by candidate endophytic fungi relative to control plants under both no-choice and choice conditions. Behavioral responses of both species indicated that the insects were deterred prior to contact with plant tissues from endophyte-colonized plants, suggesting a putative role for volatile compounds in mediating the negative response. Our results highlight the role of fungal endophytes as plant mutualists that can have positive effects on plant resistance to pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated metadata--final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, David

    2016-04-01

    This report summarizes the work of the Automated Metadata, Provenance Cataloging, and Navigable Interfaces: Ensuring the Usefulness of Extreme-Scale Data Project (MPO Project) funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Offices of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences. Initially funded for three years starting in 2012, it was extended for 6 months with additional funding. The project was a collaboration between scientists at General Atomics, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible, and extended or created new capabilities where required. The MPO project was able to successfully create a suite of software tools that can be used by a scientific community to automatically document their scientific workflows. These tools were integrated into workflows for fusion energy and climate research illustrating the general applicability of the project’s toolkit. Feedback was very positive on the project’s toolkit and the value of such automatic workflow documentation to the scientific endeavor.

  17. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  18. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than one...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  2. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  4. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  5. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  7. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  10. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  13. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  17. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  18. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  20. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  2. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  4. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  5. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  7. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  8. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  9. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  10. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  12. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  15. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  18. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  19. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  20. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  1. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  2. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  5. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  6. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  7. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  9. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  10. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  12. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  15. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  16. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  17. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  20. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  1. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  4. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  5. ARS labs update to California Cotton Ginners and Growers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are four USDA-ARS labs involved in cotton harvesting, processing & fiber quality research; The Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory (Mesilla Park, NM); The Cotton Production and Processing Unit (Lubbock, TX); The Cotton Ginning Research Unit (Stoneville, MS); and The Cotton Structur...

  6. Cotton moisture – its importance, measurements and impacts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton moisture impacts cotton from field to fabric. The proper control, and measurement to allow for control, of cotton moisture is essential to maintaining and preserving fiber quality. Cotton color, length and strength; as well as other properties, are all impacted by cotton moisture content. ...

  7. Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern moisture restoration systems are increasingly capable of adding water to cotton bales. However, research has identified large variations in internal moisture within bales that are not readily monitored by current systems. While microwave moisture sensing systems can measure average bale moist...

  8. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  9. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  10. Towards Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite rapidly decreasing costs and innovative technologies, sequencing of angiosperm genomes is not yet undertaken lightly. Generating larger amounts of sequence data more quickly does not address the difficulties of sequencing and assembling complex genomes de novo. The cotton genomes represent a...

  11. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  12. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  13. Sources of heterosis in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, re-selection, pedigree, and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Due to the predominance of these breeding methods, we hypothesize that modern cultivars, as opposed to obsolete cultivars, have accu...

  14. Progress in the Cotton Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Officer, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The training needs of the cotton industry have fostered a movement within that industry to develop more trainers and improve management training. Since 1966, through seminars, training programs, grants programs and proper recruitment, 6,000 more qualified training instructors have been added to the industry. (DS)

  15. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  16. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  17. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  18. Genetic transformation of cotton with a harpin-encoding gene hpaXoo confers an enhanced defense response against Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    PubMed

    Miao, Weiguo; Wang, Jingsheng

    2013-01-01

    The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34) with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Here, we describe the related research approach, such as Western blot, Southern blot, immuno-gold labeling, evaluation of resistance to Verticillium dahliae, and how to detect the micro-hypersensitive response and oxidative burst elicited by harpin(Xoo) in plant tissue.

  19. Separation of metadata and bulkdata to speed DICOM tag morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Ning, Yu; Philbin, James

    2014-03-01

    Most medical images are archived and transmitted using the DICOM format. The DICOM information model combines image pixel data and associated metadata into a single object. It is not possible to access the metadata separately from the pixel data. However, there are important use cases that only need access to metadata, and the DICOM format increases the running time of those use cases. Tag morphing is an example of one such use case. Tag or attribute morphing includes insertion, deletion, or modification of one or more of the metadata attributes in a study. It is typically used for order reconciliation on study acquisition or to localize the Issuer of Patient ID and the Patient ID attributes when data from one Medical Record Number (MRN) domain is transferred to or displayed in a different domain. This work uses the Multi-Series DICOM (MSD) format to reduce the time required for tag morphing. The MSD format separates metadata from pixel data, and at the same time eliminates duplicate attributes. MSD stores studies using two files rather than in many single frame files typical of DICOM. The first file contains the de-duplicated study metadata, and the second contains pixel data and other bulkdata. A set of experiments were performed where metadata updates were applied to a set of DICOM studies stored in both the traditional Single Frame DICOM (SFD) format and the MSD format. The time required to perform the updates was recorded for each format. The results show that tag morphing is, on average, more than eight times faster in MSD format.

  20. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    PubMed Central

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921