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Sample records for cotton stalk combustion

  1. Shea meal and cotton stalk as potential fuels for co-combustion with coal.

    PubMed

    Munir, S; Nimmo, W; Gibbs, B M

    2010-10-01

    The efficient management of waste biomass is an important environmental problem in agricultural countries. Often land-fill is the main disposal route with ramifications including CH(4) release having 21 times greater global warming potential per molecule than CO(2). Biomasses are considered to be CO(2)-neutral fuels when combusted. Moreover, they are renewable and covered by the renewable obligation scheme and eligible for certificates in the UK. The overall objective of the investigation is to assess the performance of selected biomass and coal co-firing under two different modes of operation, air-staging and fuel-staging with the benefit of reduced-NO(x) and SO(2) emissions in power plant. The biomasses chosen for the study, shea meal (SM) and cotton stalk (CS) have very different cellulose/lignin compositions and different reported thermal behaviour. A series of experiments have been carried out in a 20 kW, down fired combustor using coal, shea meal-coal and cotton stalk-coal blends under un-staged, air-staged and fuel-staged co-combustion configurations. For air-staging, an optimum value of primary zone stoichiometry SR(1)=0.9 was found. Keeping it fixed, the shea meal and cotton stalk content in the coal-biomass blends was set to 5%, 10% and 15% on thermal basis. NO reductions of 51% and 60% were achieved using SM and CS, respectively, with an optimum thermal biomass blending ratio (BBR) of 10%. The results obtained were compared with un-staged and air-staged results for coal without the addition of biomass. Similarly for fuel-staging, keeping the length of the reburn and burnout zone fixed, SM and CS were evaluated as reductive fuel using different reburn fuel fractions (R(ff)) of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. NO reductions of 83% and 84% were obtained with an optimum R(ff) of 15% with an optimum reburn zone stoichiometry of SR(2)=0.8 for both SM and CS, respectively. SO(2) reduction and char burnout efficiency were also evaluated. It was found that addition of

  2. Investigation on cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust carbonization for barbecue charcoal preparation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shaowu; Zhang, Shouyu; Wu, Qiaomei; Guo, Xi; Dong, Aixia; Chen, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, biochar preparation from cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust by carbonization process was addressed. The physical and chemical properties and combustion characteristics of the biochar prepared using a tubular fixed bed were investigated. The combustion character index (S), the ignition temperature (Ti) and burnout temperature (Tf) were used to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the biochars. The results indicate that the yield and the volatile yield of the biochar decrease and the fixed carbon yield increases with the increase of the carbonization temperature. The ignition temperature and burnout temperature of the biochar increase and the value of S decreases when the carbonization temperature increases. The biochar produced from cotton stalk shows better combustion characteristics than the bamboo sawdust biochar does. Compared with commercial barbecue charcoal, the cotton stalk biochar produced under 600 °C can be utilized as barbecue charcoal.

  3. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  4. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus. PMID:14626420

  5. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus.

  6. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    PubMed

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-01

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol. PMID:26444685

  7. Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

    1996-04-01

    Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

  8. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem. PMID:27228607

  9. Chemical isolation and characterization of different cellulose nanofibers from cotton stalks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have received wide attention in green nanomaterial technologies. Production of CNFs from agricultural residues has many economic and environmental advantages. In this study, four different CNFs were prepared from cotton stalks by different chemical treatments fo...

  10. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of composites made from blends of cotton burs, cotton stalks, kenaf, flax, and southern pine: Heat treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties and rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted on composite board blends of cotton burs (B), cotton stalks (S), kenaf (K), flax, (F), and southern yellow pine (P). The composite boards were subjected to heat treatments and rot resistance testing. Heat treatments consisted of heating fibers either pre- or post-board fab...

  12. Evaluation of various heat treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties of composites made from cotton burs, cotton stalks, kenaf, flax, and southern pine blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies evaluating physical and mechanical properties of composites produced from blends of cotton carpel (burs), cotton stalks, kenaf, and southern yellow pine indicated water absorption and thickness swell properties higher than composites made from 100% southern yellow pine. In the previ...

  13. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, July--September, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1995-10-23

    The paper describes plans to field test several prototypes of plows that cut cotton stalks after harvesting and plows then back into the soil to prepare the field for the next planting. Modifications to the design have been made to allow the soil to more easily slide off the plow to reduce fuel consumption. A prototype has been shipped to Australia for testing in their fields and further product development. A farm machinery manufacturer has been selected to build two full-scale preproduction prototypes. Field testing will be done at sites in California and Arizona, since both have regulations specifying that cotton stalks must be shredded.

  14. Isolation and Structural Characterization of Lignin from Cotton Stalk Treated in an Ammonia Hydrothermal System

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sumin; Xiao, Lingping; Meng, Lingyan; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Runcang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the utilization of cotton stalk, ammonia hydrothermal treatment was applied to fractionate the samples into aqueous ammonia-soluble and ammonia-insoluble portions. The ammonia-soluble portion was purified to yield lignin fractions. The lignin fractions obtained were characterized by wet chemistry (carbohydrate analysis) and spectroscopy methods (FT-IR, 13C and 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy) as well as gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results showed that the cotton stalk lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (0.43%–1.29%) and had relatively low average molecular weights (1255–1746 g/mol). The lignin fractions belonged to typical G-S lignin, which was composed predominately of G-type units (59%) and noticeable amounts of S-type units (40%) together with a small amount of H-type units (~1%). Furthermore, the ammonia-extractable lignin fractions were mainly composed of β-O-4′ inter-unit linkages (75.6%), and small quantities of β-β′ (12.2%), together with lower amounts of β-5′ carbon-carbon linkages (7.4%) and p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol end groups. PMID:23203120

  15. Chemical cotton stalk destruction for maintenance of host-free periods for the control of overwintering boll weevil in tropical and subtropical climates.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Shoil M; Sparks, Alton N; Norman, John W; Coleman, Randy; Bradford, Joe M; Yang, Chenghai; Sappington, Thomas W; Showler, Allan

    2007-04-01

    In the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, cotton regrows and produces fruit from undestroyed stalks throughout the winter, and in spring weevils from such locations become a serious threat. The success of the boll weevil eradication program, which was reintroduced in the LRGV in 2005, will be dependent on thorough stalk destruction following harvest. However, adverse weather conditions and conservation tillage often impede immediate and complete stalk destruction using typical tool implements, and alternative stalk control methods are needed. This study provides an examination of the efficacy for cotton stalk destruction of different herbicides (thifensulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl, dicamba-diolamine, 2,4-D-dimethylammonium, flumioxazin, 2,4-DB-dimethylammonium and carfentrazone-ethyl) and their rates, spray volumes and application timings on shredded or standing cotton stalks after stripper or picker harvest. None of the tested herbicides, except 2,4-D-dimethylammonium, stopped post-harvest cotton regrowth and fruiting. 2,4-D-dimethylammonium sprayed once (0 or 7 days) after cotton was harvested at 1 lb AE acre(-1) (1.12 kg ha(-1)), in a spray volume of 10 gal water acre(-1) (93.5 L ha(-1)) with 5 mL L(-1) surfactant, was highly effective in stalk destruction (72-90%). The best results were achieved when the herbicide was applied immediately after the cotton was shredded, followed by standing stripper-harvested and standing picker-harvested cotton. 2,4-D-dimethylammonium applied twice, 0 and 14 (or 21) days after cotton harvest, was 100% effective in killing stalks, regardless of whether they were shredded or standing, or whether harvest was by stripper or picker. These findings showed that 2,4-D-dimethylammonium cotton stalk destruction eliminated food and reproductive opportunities for managing overwintering boll weevils [Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

  16. Steam explosion distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification of cotton stalks by largely reducing cellulose polymerization degree in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shiguang; Liu, Mingyong; Tu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ao; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Xuewen; Tai, Hongzhong; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In this study, steam explosion pretreatment was performed in cotton stalks, leading to 5-6 folds enhancements on biomass enzymatic saccharification distinctive in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum species. Sequential 1% H2SO4 pretreatment could further increase biomass digestibility of the steam-exploded stalks, and also cause the highest sugar-ethanol conversion rates probably by releasing less inhibitor to yeast fermentation. By comparison, extremely high concentration alkali (16% NaOH) pretreatment with raw stalks resulted in the highest hexoses yields, but it had the lowest sugar-ethanol conversion rates. Characterization of wall polymer features indicated that biomass saccharification was enhanced with steam explosion by largely reducing cellulose DP and extracting hemicelluloses. It also showed that cellulose crystallinity and arabinose substitution degree of xylans were the major factors on biomass digestibility in cotton stalks. Hence, this study has provided the insights into cell wall modification and biomass process technology in cotton stalks and beyond.

  17. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. PMID:27155264

  18. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield.

  19. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  20. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1996-01-27

    This quarterly report describes work on Task 1: Field test and sell prototype to Ellis Equipment, Ltd; Task 2: Design, build, and field test two prototypes; and Task 3: Produce and sell Pegasus to farmers. The equipment has been built to shred stalks, deeply till the soil, and prepare seedbeds for cotton plants. The equipment has been field tested in Australia and is currently being field tested in California and Arizona. Unexpected problems appeared with hard dry soils and this report describes improvements made.

  1. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  2. An integrated process for hydrogen-rich gas production from cotton stalks: The simultaneous gasification of pyrolysis gases and char in an entrained flow bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Suping; Chen, Zhenqi; Ding, Ding

    2015-12-01

    An integrated process (pyrolysis, gas-solid simultaneous gasification and catalytic steam reforming) was utilized to produce hydrogen-rich gas from cotton stalks. The simultaneous conversion of the pyrolysis products (char and pyrolysis gases) was emphatically investigated using an entrained flow bed reactor. More carbon of char is converted into hydrogen-rich gas in the simultaneous conversion process and the carbon conversion is increased from 78.84% to 92.06% compared with the two stages process (pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming). The distribution of tar components is also changed in this process. The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of tar are converted into low-ring compounds or even chain compounds due to the catalysis of char. In addition, the carbon deposition yield over NiO/MgO catalyst in the steam reforming process is approximately 4 times higher without the simultaneous process. The potential H2 yield increases from 47.71 to 78.19g/kg cotton stalks due to the simultaneous conversion process.

  3. An integrated process for hydrogen-rich gas production from cotton stalks: The simultaneous gasification of pyrolysis gases and char in an entrained flow bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Suping; Chen, Zhenqi; Ding, Ding

    2015-12-01

    An integrated process (pyrolysis, gas-solid simultaneous gasification and catalytic steam reforming) was utilized to produce hydrogen-rich gas from cotton stalks. The simultaneous conversion of the pyrolysis products (char and pyrolysis gases) was emphatically investigated using an entrained flow bed reactor. More carbon of char is converted into hydrogen-rich gas in the simultaneous conversion process and the carbon conversion is increased from 78.84% to 92.06% compared with the two stages process (pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming). The distribution of tar components is also changed in this process. The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of tar are converted into low-ring compounds or even chain compounds due to the catalysis of char. In addition, the carbon deposition yield over NiO/MgO catalyst in the steam reforming process is approximately 4 times higher without the simultaneous process. The potential H2 yield increases from 47.71 to 78.19g/kg cotton stalks due to the simultaneous conversion process. PMID:26433156

  4. Cellulose nanofibrils extracted from the byproduct of cotton plant.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaran; Lin, Jinyou; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiuhong; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-20

    Cotton stalk bark, as the byproduct of cotton plant, was usually discarded and/or combusted, leading to waste of resources and environment pollution. How to efficiently utilize this kind of cellulosic materials is of significative to energy saving and environment protection. Herein, we report on the extraction of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from the cotton stalk bark for the first time by a combination of TEMPO-oxidation and mechanical disintegration method. The obtained CNF showed a yield more than 20 wt%. The morphologies, crystalline structures and thermal properties of CNF were extensively investigated by the transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The results showed that the final extracted CNF have similar polymorphs with their starting materials and a significantly increased crystallinity. This work will provide a new way to utilize the cotton stalk barks.

  5. Valorization of cotton stalks by fast pyrolysis and fixed bed air gasification for syngas production as precursor of second generation biofuels and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kantarelis, E; Zabaniotou, A

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the potential of cotton stalks utilization for H(2) and syngas production with respect to CO(2) mitigation, by means of thermochemical conversion (pyrolysis and gasification) was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted at temperature range of 400-760 degrees C and the main parametric study concerned the effect of temperature on pyrolysis product distribution. Atmospheric pressure, air gasification at 750-950 degrees C for various lambda (0.02-0.07) was also studied. Experimental results showed that high temperature favors gas production in both processes; while low lambda gasification gave high gas yield. Syngas (CO and H(2)) was increased with temperature, while CO(2) followed an opposite trend. By pyrolysis, higher H(2) concentration in the produced gas (approximately 39% v/v) was achieved and at the same time lower amounts of CO(2) produced, compared to air gasification.

  6. Efficient decolorization and deproteinization using uniform polymer microspheres in the succinic acid biorefinery from bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Lei, Jiandu; Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Juan; Xing, Jianmin; Gao, Fei; Gong, Fangling; Yan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dan; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2013-05-01

    Bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks were converted into succinic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. After 54 h SSF at 40 °C and pH 7.0, the production of succinic acid was 63 g/L, with 1.17 g/L/h productivity and 64% conversion yield. After SSF, a simple method for the decolorization and deproteinization of crude SSF broth was developed through adsorption tests of polystyrene (PSt) microspheres. Under optimized conditions (5% PSt loading (w/v), pH 4.0, 60 °C and adsorption time of 40 min), the ratios of decolorization, deproteinization and succinic acid loss ratios were 96.6, 84.5 and 4.1%, respectively. The method developed will provide a potential approach for large-scale production of succinic acid from the biomass waste. PMID:22985822

  7. Combustibility determination for cotton gin dust and almond huller dust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been documented that some dusts generated while processing agricultural products, such as grain and sugar (OSHA, 2009), can constitute combustible dust hazards. After a catastrophic dust explosion in a sugar refinery in 2008, OSHA initiated action to develop a mandatory standard to comprehen...

  8. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  9. Characterization of Combustion and Emission of Several Kinds of Herbaceous Biomass Pellets in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. Y.; Teng, H. P.; Jiao, W. H.; Shang, L. L.; Lu, Q. G.

    Characterizations of combustion and emission of four kinds of herbaceous biomass pellets were investigated in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed. Corn stalk, wheat stalk, cotton stalk and king grass, which are typical herbaceous biomass in China, were chosen for this study. Temperature profile, emission in flue gas and agglomeration were studied by changing the combustion temperature between 750°C and 880°C. The combustion efficiencies are in the range from 97.4% to 99.4%, which are relatively high due to the homogeneous temperature profiles and good circulating fluidization of bed material. Suitable combustion temperatures for the different herbaceous biomass are mainly depended on the emission and bed agglomeration. SO2 and HCl concentrations in flue gas are in direct proportion to the sulfur and chlorine contents of the herbaceous biomass. Agglomeration at the cyclone leg and the loop seal is the main reason for defluidization in the CFB combustor.

  10. STALK programmers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.; Facello, M.

    1996-07-01

    STALK is a system that models molecular docking between two proteins. A problem is posed as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the intermolecular interaction energy between the two molecules. The possible number of conformations between the two molecules can be very large. A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is used to explore the conformation space and identify the low-energy molecular configurations. The CAVE, a virtual reality environment, can be used to visualize and interact with the system while it is executing. STALK consists of two programs: stalk.ga, the docking program that runs the GA, and stalk. cave, the visualization program. The visualization component is optional.

  11. Stalking and Cyberstalking. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Stalking Resource Center (SRC), "While legal definitions of stalking vary from one jurisdiction to another, a good working definition of stalking is a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear. Stalking is serious, often violent, and can escalate over time." "Model Campus…

  12. Stalking and serious violence.

    PubMed

    James, David V; Farnham, Frank R

    2003-01-01

    Studies of violence in stalking have treated interpersonal violence as a homogeneous phenomenon. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the associations of serious violence in stalking are the same as those of general violence in stalking. Of 85 stalkers referred to a forensic service, those who had committed acts of serious violence (homicide and serious assaults) were compared with those who had not on preselected clinical, demographic, and criminological variables. Associations of serious violence were found to differ from those reported for general violence. In particular, serious violence was significantly associated with an absence of criminal convictions and the presence of employment. There was no association with substance abuse, previous convictions for violence, or personality disorder. Different degrees of violence have different associations. This has implications for the development of violence prediction instruments and for violence prevention in stalking.

  13. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  14. STALK users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Facello, M.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.

    1996-07-01

    STALK is a system that models molecular docking between two proteins. A problem is posed as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the free energy of the molecular system by maximizing the intermolecular interaction energy between the molecules. The possible number of conformations between the two molecules can be very large. A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is used to explore the conformation space and identify the low-energy molecular configurations. The CAVE, a virtual reality environment, can be used to visualize and interact with the systems while it is executing.

  15. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of tobacco stalk for fuel application.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiaxiao; Li, Bin; Chen, Chaoying; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco stalks are an abundant biomass resource which are otherwise treated as waste. In this work, the effect of hydrothermal carbonization temperature and time on the structures, chemical compositions and combustion characteristics of hydrochars obtained from tobacco stalks were evaluated. The carbon content, higher heating value, and energy yield increased with accompanying decrease in hydrogen and oxygen contents with the increase of treatment temperature and time. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios indicated dehydration and devolatilization processes occurred during hydrothermal carbonization. The weight loss, combustion range and characteristic temperatures of tobacco stalks were significantly modified after hydrothermal carbonization, resulting in higher ignition temperatures and higher energy density. The kinetics model, Coats-Redfern method revealed the activation energy of hydrochars in zone 2 and 3 were among 43.7-74.8kJ/mol and 46.7-85.8kJ/mol, respectively. Our results show that hydrothermal carbonization reaction can facilitate transforming tobacco stalks into energy-rich solid fuel. PMID:27589825

  17. Stalking behavior in delusional jealousy.

    PubMed

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Ferrari, M M

    2000-01-01

    Stalking behavior has been associated with several mental disorders, both psychotic and non-psychotic. The most frequently associated condition appears to be an individual with primitive personality psychopathology regardless of co-occurring psychotic symptomatology. Among the psychotic symptoms, erotomanic, and jealousy delusions may be the most clinically and torensically relevant. However, delusional jealousy has not been well appreciated in the psychiatric literature as an important contributor to stalking behavior. In this article, we explore the psychiatric, psychosocial, and forensic aspects of stalking in the context of delusional jealousy. We use a case example to highlight important issues in this area.

  18. Thermochemical characterization of pigeon pea stalk for its efficient utilization as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.

    2000-05-01

    Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.

  19. The genetic architecture of maize stalk strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,892 rec...

  20. Adolescent stalking and risk of violence.

    PubMed

    Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Reidy, Dennis E; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-10-01

    Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation.

  1. Adolescent stalking and risk of violence.

    PubMed

    Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Reidy, Dennis E; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-10-01

    Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation. PMID:27641644

  2. The Fear Factor: Exploring Predictors of Fear among Stalking Victims throughout the Stalking Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyns, Bradford W.; Englebrecht, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The crime of stalking has received much research attention, yet there are still important questions to be explored surrounding this behavior. One such question relates to definitions of stalking, including the requirement that victims must express fear to qualify as victims of stalking. The current study addresses this issue by exploring the…

  3. Police Officers' Attitudes and Challenges With Charging Stalking.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kellie R; Logan, T K

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 2 groups of police officers on perceived barriers and attitudes related to charging stalking. Police officers who categorized into groups based on if they had (n=73) or had not (n=90) previously charged stalking. Results indicated that officers who had never charged stalking viewed stalking as less dangerous, believed that officers do not file reports when called for stalking, and perceived all barriers related to charging stalking as more challenging than officers who had previously charged stalking. Officers who charged stalking had greater comprehension of the stalking statute and identified specific problems within the statute. The results have implications related to improving specialized police training in an effort to better protect victims of stalking and increase stalking charges. PMID:26440289

  4. Stalking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ...

  5. [Stalking--a modern manifestation of erotomania?].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Stalking is the technical term for the systematic, excessive and sometimes offensive molestation in order to seek personal contact with a target person, mostly of the contrary sex. This phenomenon seems to have increased recently and concerns above all celebrities of several kinds. In some cases, stalking behavior can culminate in acts of violence. However, the pathological fixation onto an often unattainable person is not a modern phenomenon, since it was studied and described under the term erotomania in former centuries. The author presents and discusses the case of a young man, who displayed his stalking behavior exclusively by telephone calls.

  6. Stalking as a variant of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Kurt, J L

    1995-01-01

    Much of what is presently known about stalking in a domestic context has been depicted by the popular press, typically following a tragic outcome, and suggests that it is a problem of increasing dimensions. However, scientific literature on this subject is quite limited. This article provides an overview of scientific data related to stalking and associated psychiatric syndromes, including erotomania. It reviews the current antistalking legislation and the National Institute of Justice Model Anti-Stalking Code. Four case studies of stalkers with psychotic disorders versus personality disorders are presented, and the differential diagnoses are discussed. The implications of diagnostic classification, with respect to criminal responsibility, are also discussed.

  7. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  8. Depression Can Stalk Families Through Generations

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160354.html Depression Can Stalk Families Through Generations People whose parents, ... News) -- People whose parents and grandparents suffered from depression are at much higher risk of developing the ...

  9. [Nurses' experiences of stalking: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Lupo, Roberto; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aimed to synthetize the results of the main studies analysing nurses' experience of stalking in different clinical settings. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (through PubMed), CINAHL (through EBSCOhost) and the search engine "Google Scholar". Searches were limited to articles published in English and Italian, and published between 1999 and 2013. Stalking refers to a behavioural pattern characterized by persistent unwanted communications and contacts imposed to another person, which, consequently suffer from distress, fear, and anxiety. Several studies explored the risk of stalking in healthcare system, especially in doctors and psychiatrists. Some authors analysed nurses' experience of stalking with particular attention to mental health professionals as a group category with an increased risk of stalking by patients. Results of some studies carried out in different clinical settings (medical and surgical areas, and other healthcare settings) also revealed, even if in a minority, the presence of this phenomenon, showing the presence of staking's behaviours by patients and healthcare colleagues too. However, more researches with large sample size are needed to better understand the phenomenon of stalking in nurses working in different clinical areas. PMID:26402238

  10. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    PubMed

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P cotton root destruction. Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P cotton yield was not increased by root destruction in either year. Removing debris following root destruction did not lower H. columbus levels compared to leaving debris on the soil surface. This study suggests that a rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  11. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  12. Stalking. An old behavior, a new crime.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J R

    1999-03-01

    Stalking is an old behavior, but a new crime. The author has reviewed what is currently known about the epidemiology, demography, psychiatry, psychology, pursuits and outcomes, threatening communications, violence, and clinical risk management of stalking cases. But this "dark heart of romantic pursuit" (p 7) extends beyond the paradigm of science and is often an aggressive and aberrant expression of unrequited love. In 1579, John Lyly wrote "As the best wine doth make the sharpest vinegar, so the deepest love turneth to the deadliest hate" (Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit).

  13. Occurrence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…

  14. 75 FR 81085 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8620 of December 21, 2010 National Stalking Awareness Month, 2011 By the... Stalking Awareness Month, we acknowledge the seriousness of stalking, we recognize its impact on...

  15. STALK : an interactive virtual molecular docking system.

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Facello, M.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.; Univ. of Illinois

    1997-04-01

    Several recent technologies-genetic algorithms, parallel and distributed computing, virtual reality, and high-speed networking-underlie a new approach to the computational study of how biomolecules interact or 'dock' together. With the Stalk system, a user in a virtual reality environment can interact with a genetic algorithm running on a parallel computer to help in the search for likely geometric configurations.

  16. Using Dandelion Flower Stalks for Gravitropic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Paul E.; Oxlade, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Activities that use dandelions to show the phenomena of geotropism and autotropism are described. Directions for collecting the stalks and observing the gravitropic response are included. The topics of lag time and bending rates, autotropism, growth rate changes, presentation time, and gravity detection are discussed. (KR)

  17. Universal signals control slime mold stalk formation.

    PubMed

    van Es, S; Nieuwenhuijsen, B W; Lenouvel, F; van Deursen, E M; Schaap, P

    1994-08-16

    The primitive slime mold Dictyostelium minutum does not display oscillations during aggregation, cannot form migrating slugs, and does not form a prestalk/prespore pattern, all of which are characteristic for development of its advanced relative Dictyostelium discoideum. We used D. minutum to investigate whether slime molds share common mechanisms controlling development. In D. discoideum, the morphogen differentiation inducing factor (DIF) can induce stalk-cell differentiation in vitro. However, stalk formation in vivo is supposedly triggered by local depletion of DIF antagonists such as ammonia or cAMP. A homologue of the D. discoideum stalk gene ecmB was cloned in D. minutum that encodes a 3.4-kb mRNA, and its deduced amino acid sequence shows repeats of 24 amino acids that are characteristic for the D. discoideum ecmB gene. Remarkably, DIF effectively induces expression of the D. minutum ecmB gene and ammonia inhibits its expression. D. discoideum cells were transformed with a construct of the D. minutum ecmB promoter fused to the lacZ reporter gene and showed expression in the stalk, but not in the upper and lower cup of the fruiting body, which also express the D. discoideum ecmB gene. In D. discoideum, the D. minutum ecmB and the ecmB promoter are similarly activated by DIF and repressed by both cAMP and ammonia, suggesting that additional signaling is required for ecmB expression in upper and lower cup cells. Our data indicate that the extracellular signals controlling stalk formation and their intracellular signaling cascades including gene regulatory proteins remained highly conserved during slime mold evolution. PMID:8058783

  18. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  19. Corn cobs versus corn stalks: a comparison of energy values for drying corn

    SciTech Connect

    Riggins, J.K.; Vaughan, D.H.; Lambert, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Corn residue samples were tested as potential fuel sources for drying corn. Samples were taken during August and September, 1979 at Suffolk, Virginia. Each sample included the entire corn plant cut five inches above ground level. For each sample, bomb calorimeter tests were performed both on representative cob sections and representative plant sections (excluding kernels). All tests were made on non-dried samples and thus reflected variations in energy as a function of moisture content. The combustion results of cob versus the entire plant were compared at different harvested kernel moisture contents to determine the practical use of each fuel, from a combustion standpoint, in drying corn. Combustion results indicated: (1) cobs and stalks contained near identical energy values at the same moisture content and for the same weight of dry matter; (2) cobs averaged 5 percent higher in energy due to a lower moisture content when cobs and stalks were harvested simultaneously; and (3) cob energy can be predicted as a function of kernel moisture content.

  20. Study of a novel phosphorus-containing flame retardant for cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W. W.; Lu, Y. H.; Xu, F.; Zhang, G. X.; Zhang, F. X.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a high efficiency FR named HPA was applied to treat cotton fabric. The results of LOI values and vertical flammability test showed that HPA treated cotton fabric had the best flame retardancy (LOI value was 36.0%), when the FR concentration is 50 g/L, and cured at 180°C for 7 min. During the process of holding back the combustion, HPA behaves the excellent properties of FR for cotton fabric.

  1. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  2. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  3. Predicting overt and cyber stalking perpetration by male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Kim S; Pincus, Aaron L

    2012-07-01

    In this study, self-report student surveys on early childhood maltreatment, attachment styles, alcohol expectancies, and narcissistic personality traits are examined to determine their influence on stalking behavior. Two subtypes of stalking were measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion: cyber stalking (one scale) and overt stalking (comprised of all remaining scales). As t tests indicated that men and women differed significantly on several variables, OLS regression models were run separately for men (N = 807) and women (N = 934). Results indicated that childhood sexual maltreatment predicted both forms of stalking for men and women. For men, narcissistic vulnerability and its interaction with sexual abuse predicted stalking behavior (overt stalking R² = 16% and cyber stalking R² = 11%). For women, insecure attachment (for both types of stalking) and alcohol expectancies (for cyber stalking) predicted stalking behavior (overt stalking R² = 4% and cyber stalking R² = 9%). We discuss the methodological and policy implications of these findings.

  4. Bacteria make gasohol from corn stalk wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-03

    Scientists at MIT have developed two strains of bacteria that convert corn stalks into ethanol. The bacteria, isolated from the first compartment of the cows rumen, were chemically treated to cause genetic mutations that could tolerate higher concentrations of alcohol and produce little lactic acid. The bacterial methods end product is a fuel that consists of 4% ethanol and 96% water, and by the fermentation of cellulose, rather than starch, the hydrolyzation step is eliminated.

  5. Gravitropism in cut flower stalks of snapdragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.; Meir, S.; Berkovitz-SimanTov, R.; Rosenberger, I.; Halevy, A. H.; Kaufman, P. B.; Balk, P.; Woltering, E. J.

    The negative gravitropic response of cut flower stalks is a complex multistep process that requires the participation of various cellular components acting in succession or in parallel. The process was particularly characterized in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes with regard to (1) gravity stimulus perception associated with amyloplast reorientation; (2) stimulus transduction mediated through differential changes in the level, action and related genes of auxin and ethylene and their possible interaction; (3) stimulus response associated with differential growth leading to stalk curvature; (4) involvement of cytosolic calcium and actin cytoskeleton. Results show that the gravity-induced amyloplast reorientation, differential over-expression of two early auxin responsive genes and asymmetrical distribution of free IAA are early events in the bending process. These precede the asymmetrical ethylene production and differential stem growth, which was derived from initial shrinkage of the upper stem side and a subsequent elongation of the lower stem side. Results obtained with various calcium- and cytoskeleton-related agents indicate that cytosolic calcium and actin filaments may play essential roles in gravitropism-related processes of cut flower stalks. Therefore, modulators of these two physiological mediators may serve as means for controlling any undesired gravitropic bending.

  6. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.; Xu, X.

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  7. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases. PMID:23122484

  8. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases.

  9. Stalk Phase Formation: Effects of Dehydration and Saddle Splay Modulus

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Efrat, Avishay; Siegel, David A.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the earliest lipid intermediates forming in the course of membrane fusion is the lipid stalk. Although many aspects of the stalk hypothesis were elaborated theoretically and confirmed by experiments it remained unresolved whether stalk formation is always an energy consuming process or if there are conditions where the stalks are energetically favorable and form spontaneously resulting in an equilibrium stalk phase. Motivated by a recent breakthrough experiments we analyze the physical factors determining the spontaneous stalk formation. We show that this process can be driven by interplay between two factors: the elastic energy of lipid monolayers including a contribution of the saddle splay deformation and the energy of hydration repulsion acting between apposing membranes. We analyze the dependence of stalk formation on the saddle splay (Gaussian) modulus of the lipid monolayers and estimate the values of this modulus based on the experimentally established phase boundary between the lamellar and the stalk phases. We suggest that fusion proteins can induce stalk formation just by bringing the membranes into close contact, and accumulating, at least locally, a sufficiently large energy of the hydration repulsion. PMID:15454446

  10. Stalk model of membrane fusion: solution of energy crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fusion proceeds via formation of intermediate nonbilayer structures. The stalk model of fusion intermediate is commonly recognized to account for the major phenomenology of the fusion process. However, in its current form, the stalk model poses a challenge. On one hand, it is able to describe qualitatively the modulation of the fusion reaction by the lipid composition of the membranes. On the other, it predicts very large values of the stalk energy, so that the related energy barrier for fusion cannot be overcome by membranes within a biologically reasonable span of time. We suggest a new structure for the fusion stalk, which resolves the energy crisis of the model. Our approach is based on a combined deformation of the stalk membrane including bending of the membrane surface and tilt of the hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules. We demonstrate that the energy of the fusion stalk is a few times smaller than those predicted previously and the stalks are feasible in real systems. We account quantitatively for the experimental results on dependence of the fusion reaction on the lipid composition of different membrane monolayers. We analyze the dependence of the stalk energy on the distance between the fusing membranes and provide the experimentally testable predictions for the structural features of the stalk intermediates. PMID:11806930

  11. Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from corn stalk catalyzed by corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lulu; Liu, Nian; Wang, Yu; Machida, Hiroshi; Qi, Xinhua

    2014-12-01

    A carbonaceous solid acid was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of corn stalk followed by sulfonation and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis techniques. The as-prepared corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst contained SO3H, COOH, and phenolic OH groups, and was used for the one-step conversion of intact corn stalk to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), where a 5-HMF yield of 44.1% was achieved at 150 °C in 30 min reaction time. The catalytic system was applicable to initial corn stalk concentration of up to ca. 10 wt.% for the production of 5-HMF. The synthesized catalyst and the developed process of using corn stalk-derived carbon catalyst for corn stalk conversion provide a green and efficient strategy for crude biomass utilization. PMID:25444888

  12. 3 CFR 8620 - Proclamation 8620 of December 21, 2010. National Stalking Awareness Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vulnerable, and women are at greater risk for stalking victimization than men. Stalking can be a difficult crime to recognize. The majority of survivors do not report stalking victimization to the police,...

  13. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

  14. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk.

  15. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk. PMID:20391727

  16. Stalking Behaviors by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Employment Settings: Understanding Stalking Behavior and Developing Appropriate Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Michal; Storey, Keith; Haymes, Linda; Campbell, Camille; Loughrey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Stalking behavior in the workplace by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be problematic and complicated for employers to address. Often employers have limited knowledge of the disorder and the unique social characteristics associated with ASD that place these individuals at risk for stalking. It is important that employers,…

  17. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  18. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  19. Chopping energy requirement for fresh and dried sweet sorghum stalks

    SciTech Connect

    Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Whole sorghum stalks, stripped and with leaves attached, were chopped at 0.5 and 1.0 cm intervals using a 6 m/s knife speed. Pith was segregated from the rind-leaf fraction using a 1.2 cm square mesh screen and found to by 70% of green weight. The pith fraction contained 80 to 90% of the whole stalk TNC.

  20. Advances in cotton gin trash energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, R.D.; Parnell, C.B.; Finch, S.F.; Siebold, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of using agricultural residues, especially cotton gin trash (CGT), as a fuel for a small cogeneration power plant based on fluidized bed gasification (FBG) requires that three problems be solved: (1) ash must be removed from the low calorific value (LCV) gas prior to combustion; (2) the high NO/sub x/ emissions associated with many biomass fuels must be significantly reduced; (3) a systems analyses of engineering/economic feasibility for potential applications must be developed. This paper addresses current research at TAMU pertaining to these problems.

  1. Carchesium stalk fibrillar matrix as a highly filled polymer network.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, R

    1977-01-01

    Glycerolated stalks of the sessile peritrich ciliate Carchesium sp. were treated with 10(-6) g ion/1 Ca2+ to disrupt the contractile spasmoneme. The resulting preparation consisted primarily of the fibrillar matrix, a dense extra-cellular meshwork of microfibrils. Some mechanical properties of this preparation have been investigated. The matrix tensile force-extension ratio relation for an initial stretch was characteristic of a soft, swollen polymer network, elastic modulus in young stalks 1.7 X 10(5) Nm-2, in mature stalks 4.0 X 10(5) Nm-2. The higher elastic modulus in mature stalks implies an increase in the interchain cross-link frequency. In young stalks, elastic modulus was found to be independent of the ambient Ca2+ concentration in the threshold range for spasmonemal contraction. Stalk relaxation was pronouncedly irreversible, showing stress softening and permanent hysteresis on repeated loading. Hysteresis was time independent and stiffness was not recovered after four hours at zero strain. Hysteresis was enhanced by repeated loading to the same tensile force. Stress-strain hysteresis at a low extension is characteristic of highly filled polymer networks in which polymer chains are interconnected via rigid filler particles as well as directly cross-linked.

  2. Selected elements in Brown Birch Scaber Stalk Leccinum scabrum.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Kunito, Takashi; Kubota, Reiji; Bielawski, Leszek; Mazur, Aneta; Falandysz, Jaromir J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-12-01

    A survey of 26 metallic elements and metalloids such as Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, V and Zn was carried out using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS in the caps and stalks of edible mushroom Brown Birch Scaber Stalk collected from two lowland and one mountain sites in Poland. Ag, Al, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mo, Pb, Rb, Se, V and Zn occurred in greater concentration in the caps than stalks of Brown Birch Scaber Stalk, and opposite situation was for Tl and Na. Brown Birch Scaber Stalk collected from the site in Sudety Mountains did contain Al, Ba, Cs, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in significantly greater concentration when compared to specimens collected from the lowland sites, and what imply on significance of geological origin and/or soil substrate pollution impacting on mineral composition of this mushroom species. The results provide useful environmental and nutritional baseline level information on mineral composition of Brown Birch Scaber Stalk from unpolluted sites. PMID:18074278

  3. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  4. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  5. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  11. Regrowth of the stalk of the sea lily, Metacrinus rotundus (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroaki; Hibino, Taku; Hara, Yuko; Oji, Tatsuo; Amemiya, Shonan

    2004-06-01

    Sea lilies are critical to understanding the evolution of the echinoderm body plan, because they are the only extant group whose adults possess a stalk, a prevalent feature in the radiation of a number of primitive echinoderm lineages. Extensive crown regeneration ability has been reported in Metacrinus rotundus, but the regenerative potential of the stalk has never been determined in any species of sea lilies. In this study, we show that M. rotundus whose stalks have been completely excised are capable of stalk regeneration. The process is similar to the growth of the original stalk, but much slower, and the regenerated stalks are not morphologically identical to the original stalk. Since stalk regeneration, in contrast to well-studied regeneration events, probably requires little additional activation of morphogenetic programs, we refer to the stalk regeneration phenomenon as "stalk regrowth" to distinguish it as a special form of regeneration. Since specimens whose entire stalk below the basal plates had been removed were able to regrow, the basal plates, and probably the aboral nerve center within them, are essential for stalk regrowth. Sea lily stalk regrowth is described in detail, and the evolution of feather stars is discussed in light of the growth pattern of the sea lily stalk.

  12. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  13. Granulation and ferric oxides loading enable biochar derived from cotton stalk to remove phosphate from water.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Li, Nan; Li, Lei; An, Jing-Kun; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-02-01

    Granulation of biochar powder followed by immobilization of ferric oxides on the macroporous granular biochar (Bg-FO-1) substantially enhanced phosphate removal from water. BET analysis confirmed that both granulation and ferric oxides loading can increase the surface areas and pore volumes effectively. Bg-FO-1 was proven to be a favorable adsorbent for phosphate. The phosphate adsorption capacity was substantially increased from 0 mg/g of raw biochar powder to 0.963 mg/g (Bg-FO-1). When the ferric oxides loading was prior to granulation, the adsorption capacity was decreased by 59-0.399 mg/g, possibly due to the decrease of micropore and mesopore area as well as the overlaying of binders to the activated sites produced by ferric oxides.

  14. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  15. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  16. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  17. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  18. Selective Predation of a Stalking Predator on Ungulate Prey.

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Zeis, Klara; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Müller, Jörg; Belotti, Elisa; Bufka, Luděk; Woelfing, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. An optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. Predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. Stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. Due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking carnivores are still scarce. We show how the stalking predator Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) selects prey individuals based on species identity, age, sex and individual behaviour. To address the difficulties in assessing prey population structure, we confirm inferred selection patterns by using two independent data sets: (1) data of 387 documented kills of radio-collared lynx were compared to the prey population structure retrieved from systematic camera trapping using Manly's standardized selection ratio alpha and (2) data on 120 radio-collared roe deer were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Among the larger red deer prey, lynx selected against adult males-the largest and potentially most dangerous prey individuals. In roe deer lynx preyed selectively on males and did not select for a specific age class. Activity during high risk periods reduced the risk of falling victim to a lynx attack. Our results suggest that the stalking predator lynx actively selects for size, while prey behaviour induces selection by encounter and stalking success rates. PMID:27548478

  19. Selective Predation of a Stalking Predator on Ungulate Prey

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Zeis, Klara; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Müller, Jörg; Belotti, Elisa; Bufka, Luděk; Woelfing, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. An optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. Predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. Stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. Due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking carnivores are still scarce. We show how the stalking predator Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) selects prey individuals based on species identity, age, sex and individual behaviour. To address the difficulties in assessing prey population structure, we confirm inferred selection patterns by using two independent data sets: (1) data of 387 documented kills of radio-collared lynx were compared to the prey population structure retrieved from systematic camera trapping using Manly’s standardized selection ratio alpha and (2) data on 120 radio-collared roe deer were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Among the larger red deer prey, lynx selected against adult males—the largest and potentially most dangerous prey individuals. In roe deer lynx preyed selectively on males and did not select for a specific age class. Activity during high risk periods reduced the risk of falling victim to a lynx attack. Our results suggest that the stalking predator lynx actively selects for size, while prey behaviour induces selection by encounter and stalking success rates. PMID:27548478

  20. Selective Predation of a Stalking Predator on Ungulate Prey.

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Zeis, Klara; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Müller, Jörg; Belotti, Elisa; Bufka, Luděk; Woelfing, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. An optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. Predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. Stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. Due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking carnivores are still scarce. We show how the stalking predator Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) selects prey individuals based on species identity, age, sex and individual behaviour. To address the difficulties in assessing prey population structure, we confirm inferred selection patterns by using two independent data sets: (1) data of 387 documented kills of radio-collared lynx were compared to the prey population structure retrieved from systematic camera trapping using Manly's standardized selection ratio alpha and (2) data on 120 radio-collared roe deer were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Among the larger red deer prey, lynx selected against adult males-the largest and potentially most dangerous prey individuals. In roe deer lynx preyed selectively on males and did not select for a specific age class. Activity during high risk periods reduced the risk of falling victim to a lynx attack. Our results suggest that the stalking predator lynx actively selects for size, while prey behaviour induces selection by encounter and stalking success rates.

  1. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  2. College students' Facebook stalking of ex-partners.

    PubMed

    Lyndon, Amy; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer; Cratty, Alyssa D

    2011-12-01

    There are abundant anecdotes and warnings of inappropriate behaviors on social networking sites, particularly about Facebook. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether individuals obsessively monitor or harass their ex-partners on Facebook (related to general "Facebook stalking") and, if so, whether those individuals would also engage in cyber obsessional pursuit (COP) and obsessive relational pursuit (ORI), which are categories of cyberstalking and stalking. A total of 411 valid participants answered questions about the ways they communicated with their ex-romantic partners using Facebook, resulting in three factors: Covert Provocation, Public Harassment, and Venting. Each category of Facebook harassment was related to perpetration of COP and ORI. Additionally, participants who engaged in COP were almost six times more likely to also perpetrate ORI. If participants admitted to engaging in some types of stalking behaviors, they did so online, offline, and on Facebook. Implications for social networking site usage and stalking laws are discussed. There is a kernel of truth to the popular term "Facebook stalking."

  3. Cotton, fleece, and beads

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-05-22

    Texas researchers are exploring two types of environmentally friendly spilled oil-cleanup products. These new nontoxic products not only sop up oil but also facilitate the breakdown of that oil. One group is looking at microscopic glass bubbles coated with titanium dioxide, which functions as a photocatalyst for the breakdown of chemical including hydrocarbons. The surface reactions yield far fewer toxic material and a more complete breakdown than sunlight-only decomposition. Another group is looking at cotton fiber. In its raw form poor quality cotton, rejected by fabric manufactures and weavers, makes a superior mop for spilled oil and, unlike synthetic materials, is biodegradable. The oil absorbed on cotton fibers could also be recovered for further fermentation or reuse. Relatively little oil-cleanup research is being done worldwide. The USA, a world leader in this area, recent federal spending on R D has averaged only about $30 million.

  4. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  5. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time. PMID:14964389

  6. Predicting Overt and Cyber Stalking Perpetration by Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Kim S.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, self-report student surveys on early childhood maltreatment, attachment styles, alcohol expectancies, and narcissistic personality traits are examined to determine their influence on stalking behavior. Two subtypes of stalking were measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion: cyber stalking (one…

  7. Mediating Effects of Stalking Victimization on Gender Differences in Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that stalking victimization may have a serious mental health impact. The present article investigates gender differences in mental health and possible mediating effects of stalking victimization in a community sample. The study includes a postal survey of 665 German community residents on the experience of stalking and various…

  8. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  18. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  19. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  20. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  1. PTEN mediates Notch-dependent stalk cell arrest in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Serra, Helena; Chivite, Iñigo; Angulo-Urarte, Ana; Soler, Adriana; Sutherland, James D; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Ragab, Anan; Lim, Radiance; Malumbres, Marcos; Fruttiger, Marcus; Potente, Michael; Serrano, Manuel; Fabra, Àngels; Viñals, Francesc; Casanovas, Oriol; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Bigas, Anna; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Gerhardt, Holger; Graupera, Mariona

    2015-07-31

    Coordinated activity of VEGF and Notch signals guides the endothelial cell (EC) specification into tip and stalk cells during angiogenesis. Notch activation in stalk cells leads to proliferation arrest via an unknown mechanism. By using gain- and loss-of-function gene-targeting approaches, here we show that PTEN is crucial for blocking stalk cell proliferation downstream of Notch, and this is critical for mouse vessel development. Endothelial deletion of PTEN results in vascular hyperplasia due to a failure to mediate Notch-induced proliferation arrest. Conversely, overexpression of PTEN reduces vascular density and abrogates the increase in EC proliferation induced by Notch blockade. PTEN is a lipid/protein phosphatase that also has nuclear phosphatase-independent functions. We show that both the catalytic and non-catalytic APC/C-Fzr1/Cdh1-mediated activities of PTEN are required for stalk cells' proliferative arrest. These findings define a Notch-PTEN signalling axis as an orchestrator of vessel density and implicate the PTEN-APC/C-Fzr1/Cdh1 hub in angiogenesis.

  2. 7 CFR 51.579 - Length of stalk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length of stalk. 51.579 Section 51.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  3. 7 CFR 51.579 - Length of stalk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Length of stalk. 51.579 Section 51.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  4. Stalking on Campus: Ensuring Security with Rights and Liberties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Julie; Longo, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    College campuses are often perceived as idyllic communities. While there is much truth in such perceptions, not surprisingly there are many complicated issues on college campuses. Stalking is one such problem that seems to persist and thrive in the cloistered college setting. Campus safety efforts must temper security practices with civil rights…

  5. 77 FR 211 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., let us come together to prevent abuse, violence, and harassment in all their forms and renew our... affected by stalking and strengthen our resolve to prevent this crime before it occurs. Stalkers inspire... precursor to more violent offenses, including sexual assault and homicide. The consequences of this...

  6. [Allelopathy of decomposing pepper stalk on pepper growth].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongxia; Zhou, Baoli; Wu, Xiaoling; Fu, Yawen; Wang, Yueying

    2006-04-01

    With decomposing pepper stalk as test material, this paper studied its allelopathy on the growth of pepper plants. The results showed that after 60 days of decomposition, the decomposed pepper stalk could decrease the plant height, stem diameter, dry weights of above-and underground biomass, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of pepper plants by 0.0374 - 0.0646, 0.0020 - 0.0097, 0.0050 - 0.0355 and 0.0916 - 0.3584, 0.0016 - 0.0251, and 0.0043 - 0.0242 respectively. These inhibitory effects were enhanced after 120 days of decomposition, but the difference with CK was not significant. The root vigor and its SOD, POD and CAT activities of pepper plants were decreased, while the MDA content and relative conductivity were increased with the increasing concentration of decomposed pepper stalk and with the prolong of treating time. The allelopathic effects of decomposed pepper stalk on the physiological indices of pepper root activity ranged from 0.0163 to 0.6507, which was significantly higher than that of plant growth index.

  7. Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk

    2008-05-15

    In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  9. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  10. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  11. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal. PMID:23419275

  12. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  13. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  14. What can we learn from the first community-based epidemiological study on stalking in Germany?

    PubMed

    Dressing, Harald; Gass, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of community-based studies on prevalence rates of stalking and the impact of stalking on victims in continental European countries. The authors published the first community-based epidemiological study on stalking in Germany. The purpose of this paper is to discuss possible implications of these epidemiological data for the mental health system, forensic psychiatry and legal regulations in Germany. For these reasons some data of our epidemiological study are outlined and reanalyzed. To examine lifetime and point prevalence rates of stalking, behavioural and psychological consequences for victims and the impact of stalking on current psychological well-being in a German community sample, a postal survey was conducted with 2000 inhabitants randomly selected from Mannheim (response rate 34.2%, n=679). The survey included a stalking questionnaire and the WHO-5 well-being scale. Almost 12% of the respondents reported having been stalked. This study identified a high lifetime prevalence of stalking in the community. Effects on victims' psychological health were significant and there was a high rate of physical (31%) and sexual (19%) violence in the context of stalking. Our data suggest that the phenomenon deserves more attention in future forensic psychiatric research and practice. Implications for forensic psychiatric assessment and treatment of stalkers as well as for management of stalking victims are discussed.

  15. [Effects of hot-NaOH pretreatment on Jerusalem artichoke stalk composition and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Jingwen; Li, Yang; Shen, Fei

    2015-10-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40.5%) and lower hemicellulose (19.6%) than those of traditional crop stalks. After pretreatment, the lignin content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased by 13.1%-13.4%, 8.3%-13.5%, and 19.9%-27.2%, respectively, compared with the unpretreated substrates. The hemicellulose content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased 87.8%-96.9%, 87.6%-95.0%, and 74.0%-90.2%, respectively. Correspondingly, the cellulose content in the pretreated whole stalk, pitch, and core increased by 56.5%-60.2%, 52.2%-55.4%, and 62.7%-73.2%, respectively. Moreover, increase of NaOH concentration for pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole stalk and pitch by 2.3-2.6 folds and 10.3-18.5 folds, respectively. The hydrolysis of pretreated stalk core decreased significantly as 2.0 mol/L NaOH was employed, although the increased NaOH concentration can also improve its hydrolysis performance. Based on these results, hot-NaOH can be regarded as an option for Jerusalem artichoke stalk pretreatment. Increasing NaOH concentration was beneficial to hemicellulose and lignin removal, and consequently improved sugar conversion. However, the potential decrease of sugar conversion of the pretreated core by higher NaOH concentration suggested further optimization on the pretreatment conditions should be performed. PMID:26964335

  16. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  17. Influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-based antibodies and vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Florian; Palese, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies against the conserved stalk domain of the hemagglutinin are currently being discussed as promising therapeutic tools against influenza virus infections. Due to the conservation of the stalk domain these antibodies are able to broadly neutralize a wide spectrum of influenza virus strains and subtypes. Broadly protective vaccine candidates based on the epitopes of these antibodies, e.g. chimeric and headless hemagglutinin structures, are currently under development and show promising results in animals models. These candidates could be developed into universal influenza virus vaccines that protect from infection with drifted seasonal as well as novel pandemic influenza virus strains therefore obviating the need for annual vaccination, and enhancing our pandemic preparedness. PMID:23978327

  18. Fuel ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke stalks using different yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Bajpai, P.; Bajpai, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    The inulin-type sugars present in the stalks of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) were extracted with hot water and were used as a substrate to produce fuel EtOH. Seven different yeasts were used to obtain batch kinetic data. The medium consisted of stalk extract from Jerusalem artichoke containing 7.3% total sugars, supplemented with 0.01% oleic acid, 0.01% corn steep liquor, and 0.05% Tween 80. All batch fermentations were carried out in a 1-L bioreactor at 35 degrees and pH 4.6, and the following parameters were measured as a function of time: total sugars, EtOH and biomass concentration, maximum specific growth rate, and biomass and EtOH yields. The best EtOH producer was Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD (FST) 55-82 which gave an EtOH-to-sugar yield 97% of the theoretical maximum value, with almost 100% sugar utilization.

  19. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    PubMed Central

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  20. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  5. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  6. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  7. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  8. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  19. Chemical composition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) stalk and suitability in the particleboard production.

    PubMed

    Guuntekin, Ergun; Uner, Birol; Karakus, Beyhan

    2009-09-01

    This study examined chemical composition of tomato stalks and their possible feasibility in the production of particleboard. Three-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.53, 0.63, and 0.73 g cm(-3) were manufactured from tomato stalks using certain ratios of urea formaldehyde (UF) and melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives. Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB), thickness swelling (TS) properties of the boards were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed in order to examine possible feasibility of these stalks in commercial particleboard manufacturing. The experimental results have shown that production of general purpose particleboard used in dry conditions using tomato stalks is technically viable. The results of the study demonstrate that tomato stalks can be an alternative raw material source for particleboard industry. Use of agricultural waste such as tomato stalk can help solving waste management problems and contribute conservation of natural resources.

  20. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. PMID:27393832

  1. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  2. Hemagglutinin Stalk Immunity Reduces Influenza Virus Replication and Transmission in Ferrets.

    PubMed

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Miller, Matthew S; Hai, Rong; Ryder, Alex B; Rose, John K; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Krammer, Florian; Albrecht, Randy A

    2015-12-30

    We assessed whether influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-based immunity protects ferrets against aerosol-transmitted H1N1 influenza virus infection. Immunization of ferrets by a universal influenza virus vaccine strategy based on viral vectors expressing chimeric hemagglutinin constructs induced stalk-specific antibody responses. Stalk-immunized ferrets were cohoused with H1N1-infected ferrets under conditions that permitted virus transmission. Hemagglutinin stalk-immunized ferrets had lower viral titers and delayed or no virus replication at all following natural exposure to influenza virus.

  3. Simulations of multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC of 112 MHz superconducting electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Xin T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

    2012-05-20

    A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be used for testing of the performance of various high quantum efficiency photocathodes. In a previous paper, we presented the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). In this paper we present updated designs of the cathode stalk and FPC. Multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC was simulated using three different codes. All simulation results show no serious multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC.

  4. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. PMID:25392391

  5. Hemagglutinin Stalk Immunity Reduces Influenza Virus Replication and Transmission in Ferrets.

    PubMed

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Miller, Matthew S; Hai, Rong; Ryder, Alex B; Rose, John K; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Krammer, Florian; Albrecht, Randy A

    2016-03-01

    We assessed whether influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-based immunity protects ferrets against aerosol-transmitted H1N1 influenza virus infection. Immunization of ferrets by a universal influenza virus vaccine strategy based on viral vectors expressing chimeric hemagglutinin constructs induced stalk-specific antibody responses. Stalk-immunized ferrets were cohoused with H1N1-infected ferrets under conditions that permitted virus transmission. Hemagglutinin stalk-immunized ferrets had lower viral titers and delayed or no virus replication at all following natural exposure to influenza virus. PMID:26719251

  6. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition.

  7. Hemagglutinin Stalk Immunity Reduces Influenza Virus Replication and Transmission in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Miller, Matthew S.; Hai, Rong; Ryder, Alex B.; Rose, John K.; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-based immunity protects ferrets against aerosol-transmitted H1N1 influenza virus infection. Immunization of ferrets by a universal influenza virus vaccine strategy based on viral vectors expressing chimeric hemagglutinin constructs induced stalk-specific antibody responses. Stalk-immunized ferrets were cohoused with H1N1-infected ferrets under conditions that permitted virus transmission. Hemagglutinin stalk-immunized ferrets had lower viral titers and delayed or no virus replication at all following natural exposure to influenza virus. PMID:26719251

  8. Investigation on thermal and trace element characteristics during co-combustion biomass with coal gangue.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2015-01-01

    The thermochemical behaviors during co-combustion of coal gangue (CG), soybean stalk (SS), sawdust (SD) and their blends prepared at different ratios have been determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The simulate experiments in a fixed bed reactor were performed to investigate the partition behaviors of trace elements during co-combustion. The combustion profiles of biomass was more complicated than that of coal gangue. Ignition property and thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be enhanced by the addition of biomass. No interactions were observed between coal gangue and biomass during co-combustion. The volatilization ratios of trace elements decrease with the increasing proportions of biomass in the blends during co-combustion. Based on the results of heating value, activation energy, base/acid ratio and gaseous pollutant emissions, the blending ratio of 20-30% biomass content is regarded as optimum composition for blending and could be applied directly at current combustion application with few modifications.

  9. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved. PMID:25978652

  10. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved.

  11. Antiquity of American Polyploid Cotton.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Macneish, R S

    1964-02-14

    Fragments of a boll of Gossypium hirsutum L. from archeological excavations near Tehuacán, Mexico, prove that this species existed in 5800 B. C. No doubt remains that American tetraploid cotton species originated through natural hiybridization.

  12. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  13. Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

    2008-01-01

    Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

  14. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  15. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  16. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  17. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  18. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  19. Design and Simulation of an Anode Stalk Support Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Houck, T; Westenskow, G

    2005-05-16

    An anode stalk support insulator in a magnetically insulated transmission line was designed and modeled. One of the important design criteria is that within space constraints, the electric field along the insulator surface has to be minimized in order to prevent a surface flashover. In order to further reduce the field on the insulator surface, metal rings between insulator layers were also specially shaped. To facilitate the design process, electric field simulations were performed to determine the maximum field stress on the insulator surfaces and the transmission line chamber.

  20. Granular Cell Tumor in the Pituitary Stalk: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jeong; Chang, Youn Hyuk; Yang, Na-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) have been reported in various tissues, especially the skin and subcutaneous soft tissue of the head and neck. We report a 60-year-old man who presented with intermittent headache and dizziness for 3 months, but no other neurological symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a mass in the pituitary stalk, and contrast-enhanced MRI showed nodular enhancement in this region. The lesion was completely excised microscopically via a frontotemporal (pterional) approach. On pathological examination, a final diagnosis of a typical GCT was made. PMID:25977911

  1. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications.

  2. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  3. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  4. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  6. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  7. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  8. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  9. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  11. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  15. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  16. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  17. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  19. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  20. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  2. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  4. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  5. Combustion characteristics of different parts of corn straw and NO formation in a fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Qunyi; Sun, Rui; Meng, Baihong; Zhao, Guangbo

    2008-05-01

    Experiments with five samples of corn straw were carried out on a one-dimensional bench combustion test rig. The bed temperature distribution and the mass loss of fuel and gas components such as O2, CO, CO2 and NO were measured in the bed. The combustion of corn straw occurred in two stages, ignition front propagation and char oxidation. The average burning rate increased with an increase in the primary air flow until a critical point was reached, beyond which a further increase in the primary air flow resulted in a decreased burning rate. The mean concentration of NO reached a minimum value and then increased with increased primary air flow. The time taken for the drying front to reach the bottom of the bed was 800 s, 700 s, and 500 s; the temperatures in the high bed temperature zones were 900-935 degrees C, 800-850 degrees C and 700-743 degrees C; and the maximum concentrations of NO were 725 ppmv, 1287 ppmv, and 2730 ppmv, for whole corn stalks, hollow corn stalks and flaked corn stalks, respectively. The maximum concentrations of CO and NO were quite different between samples. There was only one peak in the distribution of NO concentration for sample B, but there were two peaks for whole corn stalks and sample A.

  6. 24 CFR 5.2007 - Documenting the occurrence of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements of 24 CFR part 5. (e) Response to conflicting certification. In cases where the PHA, owner, or... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. 5.2007 Section 5.2007 Housing and Urban Development Office...; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section...

  7. 24 CFR 5.2007 - Documenting the occurrence of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements of 24 CFR part 5. (e) Response to conflicting certification. In cases where the PHA, owner, or... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. 5.2007 Section 5.2007 Housing and Urban Development Office...; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section...

  8. 24 CFR 5.2007 - Documenting the occurrence of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements of 24 CFR part 5. (e) Response to conflicting certification. In cases where the PHA, owner, or... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. 5.2007 Section 5.2007 Housing and Urban Development Office...; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section...

  9. 24 CFR 5.2007 - Documenting the occurrence of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements of 24 CFR part 5. (e) Response to conflicting certification. In cases where the PHA, owner, or... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. 5.2007 Section 5.2007 Housing and Urban Development Office...; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section...

  10. Image analysis of anatomical traits in stalk transections of maize and other grasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heckwolf, Sven; Heckwolf, Marlies; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Spalding, Edgar P

    2015-04-09

    Grass stalks architecturally support leaves and reproductive structures, functionally support the transport of water and nutrients, and are harvested for multiple agricultural uses. Research on these basic and applied aspects of grass stalks would benefit from improved capabilities for measuring internal anatomical features. In particular, methods suitable for phenotyping populations of plants are needed.

  11. Understanding Stalking Behaviors by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Recommended Prevention Strategies for School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Michal; Haymes, Linda; Storey, Keith; Loughrey, Tamara; Campbell, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Stalking behavior among some students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is of concern both for the individual being stalked as well as the student with ASDs. This manuscript reviews effective interventions based upon functional assessment and appropriate positive behavior supports. Specific interventions for addressing staking behavior by…

  12. High-speed video cinematographic demonstration of stalk and zooid contraction of Vorticella convallaria.

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Y; Hiyama, S; Asai, H

    1998-01-01

    Stalk contraction and zooid contraction of living Vorticella convallaria were studied by high-speed video cinematography. Contraction was monitored at a speed of 9000 frames per second to study the contractile process in detail. Complete stalk contraction required approximately 9 ms. The maximal contraction velocity, 8.8 cm/s, was observed 2 ms after the start of contraction. We found that a twist appeared in the zooid during contraction. As this twist unwound, the zooid began to rotate like a right-handed screw. The subsequent stalk contraction steps, the behavior of which was similar to that of a damped harmonic oscillator, were analyzed by means of the equation of motion. From the beginning of stalk contraction, the Hookean force constant increased, and reached an upper limit of 2.23 x 10(-4) N/m 2-3 ms after the start of contraction. Thus, within 2 ms, the contraction signal spread to the entire stalk, allowing the stalk to generate the full force of contraction. The tension of an extended stalk was estimated to be 5.58 x 10(-8) N from the Hookean force constant of a stalk. This value coincides with that of the isometric tension of a glycerol-treated V. convallaria, confirming that the contractile system of V. convallaria is well preserved despite glycerol treatment. PMID:9449349

  13. [Are journalists more frequently victims of stalking? Results of first empirical examinations].

    PubMed

    Dressing, H; Martini, M; Witthöft, M; Bailer, J; Gass, P

    2007-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence of stalking is about 12% in the general population. The risk to become a stalking victim is increased for psychiatrists and psychologists. However, there are no studies with regard to other professions. The present study analyses the lifetime prevalence of stalking victimization for journalists, because some professional tasks may also put members of this professional group at a higher risk to become a stalking victim. 493 journalists answered an internet questionnaire. 12% of the journalists reported stalking victimization due to private or other non-professional reasons. This is nearly exactly the same lifetime prevalence that was found in a German community sample. However, 2.2% of the journalists reported stalking victimization that was related to their professional work. This is the first empirical study on this issue. Due to methodological problems no other studies have been published on this topic so far. The reported data of this study have to be interpreted cautiously, because the data are not based on a representative sample. However, comparisons with community-based epidemiological studies render our data a valid basis for starting a discussion of a so far neglected research issue. Our preliminary data suggest that journalists may be at higher risk to become a stalking victim because of their professional activities. Since stalking may cause severe psychological distress in the victims and, in some cases, puts them in severe risk of aggressive violence, preventive strategies should be considered.

  14. Sorghum pathology and biotechnology - A fungal disease perspective: Part II. Anthracnose, stalk rot, and downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases and stalk rots are among the most damaging diseases of sorghum in terms of lost production potential, thus commanding considerable research time and expenditure. This review will focus on anthracnose, a fungal disease that causes both foliar symptoms and stalk rots along with the st...

  15. Predicting the Occurrence of Stalking in Relationships Characterized by Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Heather C.

    2007-01-01

    A high correlation has been found between domestic violence and stalking. However, very few studies have examined what factors predict the occurrence of stalking in relationships characterized by domestic violence. Using in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence whose cases have gone through the criminal justice system, this article…

  16. The Prevalence of Stalking among College Students: The Disparity between Researcher- and Self-Identified Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Corinne L.; Marsil, Dorothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Researchers examined the prevalence of self-identified and researcher-identified stalking victimization among college students. Participants and Methods: A representative sample of 1,573 (70.1% female; 29.9% male) student respondents completed an online stalking questionnaire. Results: Overall, 12% self-identified as having been…

  17. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging that are...

  18. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  19. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  20. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  2. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  3. Evaluation of the mass transfer effect of the stalk contraction cycle of Vorticella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-03-01

    Vorticella is a protozoan with a contractile stalk that can contract pulling the cell body toward the substrate in less than 10 ms and return to the extended state in a few seconds. Although this stalk contraction is one of the fastest cellular motions, it is unknown why Vorticella contracts. Because the flow field induced by Vorticella shows different characteristics between contraction and relaxation, it has been suggested that Vorticella augments mass transfer near the substrate based on its stalk contraction-relaxation. We investigate this hypothesis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. In both approaches, Vorticella is modelled as a solid sphere that translates perpendicular to a solid surface in liquid based on the measured stalk length changes of Vorticella. Based on the computationally and experimentally simulated flow, we evaluate the mass transfer capability of Vorticella, for a possible application of the stalk contraction of Vorticella as a biomimetic model system for microfluidic mixers.

  4. Stalk cell differentiation without polyketides in the cellular slime mold.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie G; Suarez, Teresa; Saito, Tamao

    2016-07-01

    Polyketides induce prestalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. In the double-knockout mutant of the SteelyA and B polyketide synthases, most of the pstA cells-the major part of the prestalk cells-are lost, and we show by whole mount in situ hybridization that expression of prestalk genes is also reduced. Treatment of the double-knockout mutant with the PKS inhibitor cerulenin gave a further reduction, but some pstA cells still remained in the tip region, suggesting the existence of a polyketide-independent subtype of pstA cells. The double-knockout mutant and cerulenin-treated parental Ax2 cells form fruiting bodies with fragile, single-cell layered stalks after cerulenin treatment. Our results indicate that most pstA cells are induced by polyketides, but the pstA cells at the very tip of the slug are induced in some other way. In addition, a fruiting body with a single-cell layered, vacuolated stalk can form without polyketides.

  5. Stalk cell differentiation without polyketides in the cellular slime mold.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie G; Suarez, Teresa; Saito, Tamao

    2016-07-01

    Polyketides induce prestalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. In the double-knockout mutant of the SteelyA and B polyketide synthases, most of the pstA cells-the major part of the prestalk cells-are lost, and we show by whole mount in situ hybridization that expression of prestalk genes is also reduced. Treatment of the double-knockout mutant with the PKS inhibitor cerulenin gave a further reduction, but some pstA cells still remained in the tip region, suggesting the existence of a polyketide-independent subtype of pstA cells. The double-knockout mutant and cerulenin-treated parental Ax2 cells form fruiting bodies with fragile, single-cell layered stalks after cerulenin treatment. Our results indicate that most pstA cells are induced by polyketides, but the pstA cells at the very tip of the slug are induced in some other way. In addition, a fruiting body with a single-cell layered, vacuolated stalk can form without polyketides. PMID:27305283

  6. Surface coating for flame-retardant behavior of cotton fabric using a continuous layer-by-layer process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than their synthetic counterparts. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-cl...

  7. Age Dependence and Isotype Specificity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Stalk-Reactive Antibodies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Izikson, Ruvim; Cox, Manon M.; Palese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza remains a major global health burden. Seasonal vaccines offer protection but can be rendered less effective when the virus undergoes extensive antigenic drift. Antibodies that target the highly conserved hemagglutinin stalk can protect against drifted viruses, and vaccine constructs designed to induce such antibodies form the basis for a universal influenza virus vaccine approach. In this study, we analyzed baseline and postvaccination serum samples of children (6 to 59 months), adults (18 to 49 years), and elderly individuals (≥65 years) who participated in clinical trials with a recombinant hemagglutinin-based vaccine. We found that baseline IgG and IgA antibodies against the H1 stalk domain correlated with the ages of patients. Children generally had very low baseline titers and did not respond well to the vaccine in terms of making stalk-specific antibodies. Adults showed the highest induction of stalk-specific antibodies, but the elderly had the highest absolute antibody titers against the stalk. Importantly, the stalk antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed neutralizing activity in neutralization assays and protected mice in a passive-transfer model in a stalk titer-dependent manner. Finally, we found similar patterns of stalk-specific antibodies directed against the H3 and influenza B virus hemagglutinins, albeit at lower levels than those measured against the H1 stalk. The relatively high levels of stalk-specific antibodies in the elderly patients may explain the previously reported low influenza virus infection rates in this age group. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00336453, NCT00539981, and NCT00395174.) PMID:26787832

  8. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  9. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  10. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  11. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  12. Lateral Movement of Water and Sugar Across Xylem in Sugarcane Stalks

    PubMed Central

    Bull, T. A.; Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    Laterally connected vascular bundles in the nodes of sugarcane (Saccharum species cv. Pindar) stalks allow a rapid redistribution of water across the stalk should the vascular continuity be partly disrupted. Tritiated water supplied to the roots exchanged rapidly between the xylem and storage tissue so that net movement up the stalk was slow. The half-time for exchange in a labeled stalk was about 4 hours so that the entire water content of a sugarcane stalk can turn over at least once in a single day. No rapid flux of sugar between xylem and phloem or xylem and storage tissue was detected. Functional xylem contained only low sugar concentrations: less than 0.3% w/v in the stalk and less than 0.02% w/v in the leaf. Previous reports of high sugar levels (9% w/v) in sugarcane stalk xylem reflect some degree of xylem blockage followed by a slow equilibration with free space sugars in the storage tissue. PMID:16658067

  13. Lateral movement of water and sugar across xylem in sugarcane stalks.

    PubMed

    Bull, T A; Gayler, K R; Glasziou, K T

    1972-06-01

    Laterally connected vascular bundles in the nodes of sugarcane (Saccharum species cv. Pindar) stalks allow a rapid redistribution of water across the stalk should the vascular continuity be partly disrupted. Tritiated water supplied to the roots exchanged rapidly between the xylem and storage tissue so that net movement up the stalk was slow. The half-time for exchange in a labeled stalk was about 4 hours so that the entire water content of a sugarcane stalk can turn over at least once in a single day. No rapid flux of sugar between xylem and phloem or xylem and storage tissue was detected. Functional xylem contained only low sugar concentrations: less than 0.3% w/v in the stalk and less than 0.02% w/v in the leaf. Previous reports of high sugar levels (9% w/v) in sugarcane stalk xylem reflect some degree of xylem blockage followed by a slow equilibration with free space sugars in the storage tissue.

  14. Soil Properties, Nutrient Dynamics, and Soil Enzyme Activities Associated with Garlic Stalk Decomposition under Various Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5∶100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5∶100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks. PMID:23226411

  15. The behavior and the morphology of sea lilies with shortened stalks: implications on the evolution of feather stars.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroaki; Hibino, Taku; Hara, Yuko; Oji, Tatsuo; Amemiya, Shonan

    2002-08-01

    Extant crinoids can be divided into two groups, stalked sea lilies and stalkless feather stars. Feather stars are considered to have evolved from stalked ancestors by losing most of the stalk, but other differences are present between the two groups. The unsegmented centrodorsal, long and curved cirri near the crown, small calyx, and the ability to swim are all feather star features not found in the sea lilies. To figure out which of the above features evolved directly correlating with loss of the stalk in feather stars, we cut off the stalk from the sea lily Metacrinus rotundus and kept them alive in an aquarium. The specimens with shortened stalks were able to stand and crawl with their arms without the support of their stalks, but swimming was not observed for any of the animals. Morphologically, neither fusion of the remaining segments nor the reduction of the size of the calyx were observed, but the cirri became long and curved near the crown. Therefore, the extant sea lilies possess a potential to adapt to incidents of stalk loss. Specimens autotomizing most of their stalks were observed, suggesting that the potential is actually employed in nature. This mechanism linking the reduction of the stalk and the changes in the morphology of cirri may have played an important role in the evolution of the feather stars, if the stalked ancestors of feather stars also possessed this potential. Experimental zoological approaches as this study may provide new insights to the questions of evolution.

  16. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  17. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-04-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2  μm  h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (∼100  nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

  18. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 μm h−1). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (∼100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

  19. PAH and soot emissions from burning components of medical waste: examination/surgical gloves and cotton pads.

    PubMed

    Levendis, Y A; Atal, A; Carlson, J B; Quintana, M D

    2001-01-01

    This is a laboratory investigation on the emissions from batch combustion of representative infectious ("red bag") medical waste components, such as medical examination latex gloves and sterile cotton pads. Plastics and cloth account for the majority of the red bag wastes by mass and, certainly, by volume. An electrically heated, horizontal muffle furnace was used for batch combustion of small quantities of shredded fuels (0.5-1.5 g) at a gas temperature of approximately 1000 degrees C. The residence time of the post-combustion gases in the furnace was approximately 1 s. At the exit of the furnace, the following emissions were measured: CO, CO2, NOx, particulates and polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs). The first three gaseous emissions were measured with continuous gas analyzers. Soot and PAC emissions were simultaneously measured by passing the furnace effluent through a filter (to collect condensed-phase PACs) and a bed of XAD-4 adsorbent (to capture gaseous-phase PACs). Analysis involved soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results were contrasted with previously measured emissions from batch combustion of pulverized coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) under similar conditions. Results showed that the particulate soot) and cumulative PAC emissions from batch combustion of latex gloves were more than an order of magnitude higher than those from cotton pads. The following values are indicative of the relative trends (but not necessarily absolute values) in emission yields: 26% of the mass of the latex was converted to soot, 11% of which was condensed PAC. Only 2% of the mass of cotton pads was converted to soot, and only 3% of the weight of that soot was condensed PAC. The PAC yields from latex were comparable to those from TDF. The PAC yields from cotton were higher than those from coal. A notable exception to this trend was that the three-ring gas-phase PAC yields from cotton were more significant than those from latex

  20. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  1. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    PubMed

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  2. Cotton moisture – its importance, measurements and impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton moisture impacts cotton from field to fabric. The proper control, and measurement to allow for control, of cotton moisture is essential to maintaining and preserving fiber quality. Cotton color, length and strength; as well as other properties, are all impacted by cotton moisture content. ...

  3. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  4. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  5. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  10. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  11. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  12. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  13. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  14. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  19. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  2. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  4. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  7. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  10. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  11. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  12. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  13. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  15. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  17. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  20. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  3. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  4. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  6. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  8. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  10. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  11. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  12. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  14. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  20. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  2. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  4. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  5. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  6. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  9. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  10. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding.

  11. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  12. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  13. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  14. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  15. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  16. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  17. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-hui

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  18. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  19. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo.

  20. Structure and energy of fusion stalks: the role of membrane edges.

    PubMed Central

    May, Sylvio

    2002-01-01

    Fusion of lipid bilayers proceeds via a sequence of distinct structural transformations. Its early stage involves a localized, hemifused intermediate in which the proximal but not yet the distal monolayers are connected. Whereas the so-called stalk model most successfully accounts for the properties of the hemifused intermediate, there is still uncertainty about its microscopic structure and energy. We reanalyze fusion stalks using the theory of membrane elasticity. In our calculations, a short (cylindrical micelle-like) tether connects the two proximal monolayers of the hemifused membranes. The shape of the stalk and the length of the tether are calculated such as to minimize the overall free energy and to avoid the formation of voids within the hydrocarbon core. Our free energy expression is based on three internal degrees of freedom of a perturbed lipid layer: thickness, splay, and tilt deformations. Based on exactly the same model, we compare fusion stalks with and without the ability included to form sharp edges at the interfacial region between the hydrocarbon core and the polar environment. Requiring the interface to be smooth everywhere, our detailed calculations recover previous results: the stalk energies are far too high to account for the experimental observation of fusion intermediates. However, if we allow the interface to be nonsmooth, we find a remarkable reduction of the stalk free energy down to more realistic values. The corresponding structure of a nonsmooth stalk exhibits sharp edges at the transition regions between the bilayer and tether parts. In addition to that, a corner is formed at each of the two distal monolayers. We discuss the mechanism how membrane edges reduce the energy of fusion stalks. PMID:12496070

  1. Susceptibility of Maize to Stalk Rot Caused by Fusarium graminearum Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Mutants.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Al-Haddad, J; Scruggs, A C; Buell, C R; Trail, F

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a destructive pathogen of cereals that can cause stalk rot in maize. Stalk rot results in yield losses due to impaired grain filling, premature senescence, and lodging, which limits production and harvesting of ears. In addition, mycotoxins can make infected tissues unfit for silage. Our objectives were to evaluate the natural variation in stalk rot resistance among maize inbreds, to establish whether deoxynivalenol (DON)- and zearalenone (ZEA)-deficient strains are pathogenic on a panel of diverse inbreds, and to quantify the accumulation of DON in infected stalk tissue. Wild-type F. graminearum and mycotoxin mutants (DON and ZEA) were used to separately inoculate stalks of 9-week-old plants of 20 inbreds in the greenhouse. Plants were evaluated for lesion area at the inoculation point at 0, 2, 14, and 28 days postinoculation and tissues around lesions were sampled to determine the DON content. Regardless of their ability to produce DON or ZEA, all tested F. graminearum strains caused stalk rot; however, significant differences in disease levels were detected. Among the tested inbreds, Mp717 was resistant to all three F. graminearum strains while Mp317 and HP301 were only partially resistant. Accumulation of DON was significantly lower in infected stalks of the resistant and partially resistant inbreds than the susceptible inbreds. Analysis of the 20 inbreds using data from 17 simple-sequence repeats revealed population structure among the individuals; however, there was no association between genetic clustering and stalk rot resistance. These findings are an additional step toward breeding maize inbreds suitable for planting in fields infested with F. graminearum.

  2. Carbon adsorption onto Fe oxyhydroxide stalks produced by a lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S A; Toner, B M; Barco, R; Edwards, K J

    2014-03-01

    Iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to produce morphologically unique structures that may be used as biosignatures in geological deposits. One particular example is Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, which produces extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks consisting of ferrihydrite, co-located with organic and inorganic elements. It is currently thought that M. ferrooxydans excrete and co-precipitate polysaccharides and Fe simultaneously; however, the cellular production of these polysaccharides has yet to be confirmed. Here, we report on a time-series study that used scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and C 1s and Ca 2p near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy to investigate production of polysaccharides over the growth cycle of M. ferrooxydans. The production and morphology of twisted iron stalks were consistent with previous observations, but unexpectedly, in the log phase, the carbon content of the stalks was extremely low. It was not until stationary growth phase that a significant component of carbon was detected on the stalks. During the log phase, low levels of carbon, only detectable when the stalks were thin, suggested that M. ferrooxydans produce an extracellular polysaccharide template onto which the Fe precipitates. By stationary phase, the increased carbon association with the stalks was a result of adsorption of organic compounds that were released during osmotic shock post-stalk production. In the environment, elevated concentrations of DOC could adsorb onto the Fe stalks as well as a number of other elements, for example, Si, P, Ca, which, by preventing chemical interactions between the Fe nanoparticles, will prevent structural deformation during recrystallization and preserve the structure of these filaments in the rock record. PMID:24428517

  3. Colonization of habitat islands in the deep sea: recruitment to glass sponge stalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.

    2001-04-01

    Biogenic structures in the deep sea often act as hard substratum 'islands' for the attachment of encrusting fauna. At an abyssal station in the NE Pacific, stalks of hexactinellid sponges in the genus Hyalonema are habitat islands for species-rich epifaunal communities. An experimental study was conducted to (1) determine the colonization rates of artificial Hyalonema stalks, (2) compare the species composition and diversity of recruits to newly available substrata to that of the natural communities, and (3) examine the vertical distribution of recruits. Four sets of six artificial sponge stalks, constructed of Hyalonema spicules, were deployed at 4100 m depth for 3- to 5-month periods. There was no difference in net colonization or immigration rate among the four deployments. Colonization rates were similar to those reported for other deep-sea, hard substratum recruitment experiments. The taxa that recruited to the artificial stalks were a subset of the taxa found in natural communities. However, several taxa important in structuring natural communities did not recruit to the artificial stalks. The two taxa with the highest invasion rates, a calcareous foraminiferan ( Cibicides lobatulus) and a serpulid polychaete ( Bathyvermilia sp.), also were the two taxa with greatest relative abundance in natural communities. Vertical distributions of Cibicides and an agglutinated foraminiferan ( Telammina sp.) were skewed towards the top of the artificial stalks, potentially because of active habitat selection. These results have several implications for natural Hyalonema stalk communities. Most importantly, species composition and abundance of individuals in the stalk communities appear to be maintained by frequent recruitment of a few common taxa and infrequent recruitment of many rare taxa. An argument is presented for temporal-mosaic maintenance of diversity in these deep-sea, hard substratum communities.

  4. Carbon adsorption onto Fe oxyhydroxide stalks produced by a lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S A; Toner, B M; Barco, R; Edwards, K J

    2014-03-01

    Iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to produce morphologically unique structures that may be used as biosignatures in geological deposits. One particular example is Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, which produces extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks consisting of ferrihydrite, co-located with organic and inorganic elements. It is currently thought that M. ferrooxydans excrete and co-precipitate polysaccharides and Fe simultaneously; however, the cellular production of these polysaccharides has yet to be confirmed. Here, we report on a time-series study that used scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and C 1s and Ca 2p near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy to investigate production of polysaccharides over the growth cycle of M. ferrooxydans. The production and morphology of twisted iron stalks were consistent with previous observations, but unexpectedly, in the log phase, the carbon content of the stalks was extremely low. It was not until stationary growth phase that a significant component of carbon was detected on the stalks. During the log phase, low levels of carbon, only detectable when the stalks were thin, suggested that M. ferrooxydans produce an extracellular polysaccharide template onto which the Fe precipitates. By stationary phase, the increased carbon association with the stalks was a result of adsorption of organic compounds that were released during osmotic shock post-stalk production. In the environment, elevated concentrations of DOC could adsorb onto the Fe stalks as well as a number of other elements, for example, Si, P, Ca, which, by preventing chemical interactions between the Fe nanoparticles, will prevent structural deformation during recrystallization and preserve the structure of these filaments in the rock record.

  5. Expansion of the fusion stalk and its implication for biological membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Bubnis, Gregory; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, it has been widely accepted that membrane fusion proceeds via a hemifusion step before opening of the productive fusion pore. An initial hourglass-shaped lipid structure, the fusion stalk, is formed between the adjacent membrane leaflets (cis leaflets). It remains controversial if and how fusion proteins drive the subsequent transition (expansion) of the stalk into a fusion pore. Here, we propose a comprehensive and consistent thermodynamic understanding in terms of the underlying free-energy landscape of stalk expansion. We illustrate how the underlying free energy landscape of stalk expansion and the concomitant pathway is altered by subtle differences in membrane environment, such as leaflet composition, asymmetry, and flexibility. Nonleaky stalk expansion (stalk widening) requires the formation of a critical trans-leaflet contact. The fusion machinery can mechanically enforce trans-leaflet contact formation either by directly enforcing the trans-leaflets in close proximity, or by (electrostatically) condensing the area of the cis leaflets. The rate of these fast fusion reactions may not be primarily limited by the energetics but by the forces that the fusion proteins are able to exert. PMID:25024174

  6. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  7. Preventing lodging in bioenergy crops: a biomechanical analysis of maize stalks suggests a new approach.

    PubMed

    Von Forell, Greg; Robertson, Daniel; Lee, Shien Yang; Cook, Douglas D

    2015-07-01

    The hypothetical ideal for maize (Zea mays) bioenergy production would be a no-waste plant: high-yielding, with silage that is easily digestible for conversion to biofuel. However, increased digestibility is typically associated with low structural strength and a propensity for lodging. The solution to this dilemma may lie in our ability to optimize maize morphology using tools from structural engineering. To investigate how material (tissue) and geometric (morphological) factors influence stalk strength, detailed structural models of the maize stalk were created using finite-element software. Model geometry was obtained from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, and scan intensity information was integrated into the models to infer inhomogeneous material properties. A sensitivity analysis was performed by systematically varying material properties over broad ranges, and by modifying stalk geometry. Computational models exhibited realistic stress and deformation patterns. In agreement with natural failure patterns, maximum stresses were predicted near the node. Maximum stresses were observed to be much more sensitive to changes in dimensions of the stalk cross section than they were to changes in material properties of stalk components. The average sensitivity to geometry was found to be more than 10-fold higher than the average sensitivity to material properties. These results suggest a new strategy for the breeding and development of bioenergy maize varieties in which tissue weaknesses are counterbalanced by relatively small increases (e.g. 5%) in stalk diameter that reduce structural stresses.

  8. Effects of lesions of the pituitary stalk on lactation in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Cowie, A T; Tindal, J S

    1975-07-01

    The daily milk yields and the yields of fat, lactose and protein in milk were studied in New Zealand White rabbits in which the pituitary stalk and its portal vessels had been interrupted by a radiofrequency lesion placed during the second or third weeks of lactation. In comparison with yields from control rabbits i.e. animals in which the lesion did not completely interrupt the stalk, the yields of milk anf of milk constituents were depressed after interruption of the stalk on day 11 or day 15 of lactation. When the lesion was placed on day 19 of lactation the molk yield was depressed whether or not the stalk was completely disrupted; the decline in yield exaggerated the normal decline of yield that occurs at this stage of lactation. After interruption of the pituitary stalk changes in milk composition were associated with changes in milk production, not evidence being obtained to support anearlier suggestion that section of the pituitary stalk in the rabbit alters the milk compostion whilst leaving milk output unaffected.

  9. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize.

  10. Origin and function of the stalk-cell vacuole in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Toru; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Inouye, Kei

    2011-04-01

    Large vacuoles are characteristic of plant and fungal cells, and their origin has long attracted interest. The cellular slime mould provides a unique opportunity to study the de novo formation of vacuoles because, in its life cycle, a subset of the highly motile animal-like cells (prestalk cells) rapidly develops a single large vacuole and cellulosic cell wall to become plant-like cells (stalk cells). Here we describe the origin and process of vacuole formation using live-imaging of Dictyostelium cells expressing GFP-tagged ammonium transporter A (AmtA-GFP), which was found to reside on the membrane of stalk-cell vacuoles. We show that stalk-cell vacuoles originate from acidic vesicles and autophagosomes, which fuse to form autolysosomes. Their repeated fusion and expansion accompanied by concomitant cell wall formation enable the stalk cells to rapidly develop turgor pressure necessary to make the rigid stalk to hold the spores aloft. Contractile vacuoles, which are rich in H(+)-ATPase as in plant vacuoles, remained separate from these vacuoles. We further argue that AmtA may play an important role in the control of stalk-cell differentiation by modulating the pH of autolysosomes.

  11. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  12. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    PubMed

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  13. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology. PMID:1175552

  14. Light absorption of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-11-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC absorption. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light absorption of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light absorption of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (Absorption Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher absorption. Imaginary refractive index of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  15. Microwave propagation constant for a vegetation canopy with vertical stalks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Tavakoli, Ahad; Senior, Thomas B. A.

    1987-01-01

    An equivalent-medium model is developed to relate the propagation constant gamma, associated with propagation of the mean field through a vegetation canopy, to the geometrical and dielectric parameters of the canopy constituents. The model is intended for media containing vertical cylinders, representing the stalks, and randomly oriented disks, representing the leaves. The formulation accounts for both absorption and scattering by the cylinders, but uses a quasi-static approximation with respect to the leaves. The model was found to be in good agreement with experimental results at 1.62 and 4.75 GHz, but underestimates the extinction loss at 10.2 GHz. The experimental component of the study included measurements of the attenuation loss for horizontally polarized and vertically polarized waves transmitted through a fully grown corn canopy, and of the phase difference between the two transmitted waves. The measurements were made at incidence angles of 20, 40, 60, and 90 deg relative to normal incidence. The major conclusion of this study is that the proposed model is suitable for corn-like canopies, provided the leaves are smaller than lambda in size.

  16. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P.; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein–metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S–S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives. PMID:25657841

  17. Production of fiberboard using corn stalk pretreated with white-rot fungus Trametes hirsute by hot pressing without adhesive.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xin; Wan, Jilin; Ma, Fuying; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2011-12-01

    Corn stalk pretreated with white-rot fungus Trametes hirsute was used to produce fiberboard by hot pressing without adhesive. The moduli of rupture and elasticity of the corn-stalk-based fiberboard were increased 3.40- and 8.87-fold when bio-pretreated rather than untreated corn stalk was used. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis showed that bio-pretreated corn stalk increased the mechanical properties of the fiberboard because it had more than twice the number of hydroxyl group, an 18% higher crystallinity, and twice the polysaccharide content of untreated corn stalk. Its laccase content was 4.65 ± 0.38 U/g. Corn stalk-based fiberboard production did not require adhesives, thus eliminating a potential source of toxic emissions such as formaldehyde gas. PMID:22014702

  18. Production of fiberboard using corn stalk pretreated with white-rot fungus Trametes hirsute by hot pressing without adhesive.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xin; Wan, Jilin; Ma, Fuying; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2011-12-01

    Corn stalk pretreated with white-rot fungus Trametes hirsute was used to produce fiberboard by hot pressing without adhesive. The moduli of rupture and elasticity of the corn-stalk-based fiberboard were increased 3.40- and 8.87-fold when bio-pretreated rather than untreated corn stalk was used. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis showed that bio-pretreated corn stalk increased the mechanical properties of the fiberboard because it had more than twice the number of hydroxyl group, an 18% higher crystallinity, and twice the polysaccharide content of untreated corn stalk. Its laccase content was 4.65 ± 0.38 U/g. Corn stalk-based fiberboard production did not require adhesives, thus eliminating a potential source of toxic emissions such as formaldehyde gas.

  19. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official...

  20. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  1. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  2. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  3. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  4. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  5. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangyin; Zheng, Zheng; Yang, Shiguan; Fang, Caixia; Zou, Xingxing; Luo, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35+/-1 degrees C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35+/-1 degrees C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60+/-13.87 mL/g TS(added) was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30+/-11.01 mL/g TS(added) and methane yield of 259.35+/-13.85 mL/g TS(added) were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  6. Flame retardant polymer-clay nanocoatings on cotton textile substrates using a newly developed, continuous layer-by-layer deposition process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than most synthetic fabrics. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-clay nan...

  7. When professional kindness is misunderstood: boundaries and stalking issues: a case study for the home health clinician.

    PubMed

    Holz, Cheryl L

    2009-01-01

    There is the potential for home health nurses and other home care clinicians to be subjected to intrusive and possibly stalking behavior by current and former clients. Most healthcare clinicians do not receive training on the risk of intrusive interactions or stalking, nor on strategies to manage this objectionable client behavior. This article informs nurses and other home health clinicians about the potential risk of stalking. Included is a true case vignette, the legal definition of stalking, incidence occurrence among clinicians, the basic profile and behaviors of a stalker, the victimology and psychological consequences, and implications for policy and procedures and prevention techniques.

  8. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  10. Stalk-dependent and Stalk-independent Signaling by the Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors GPR56 (ADGRG1) and BAI1 (ADGRB1).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Ayush; Purcell, Ryan H; Nassiri-Toosi, Zahra; Hall, Randy A

    2016-02-12

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large yet poorly understood family of seven-transmembrane proteins. A defining characteristic of the aGPCR family is the conserved GAIN domain, which has autoproteolytic activity and can cleave the receptors near the first transmembrane domain. Several aGPCRs, including ADGRB1 (BAI1 or B1) and ADGRG1 (GPR56 or G1), have been found to exhibit significantly increased constitutive activity when truncated to mimic GAIN domain cleavage (ΔNT). Recent reports have suggested that the new N-terminal stalk, which is revealed by GAIN domain cleavage, can directly activate aGPCRs as a tethered agonist. We tested this hypothesis in studies on two distinct aGPCRs, B1 and G1, by engineering mutant receptors lacking the entire NT including the stalk (B1- and G1-SL, with "SL" indicating "stalkless"). These receptors were evaluated in a battery of signaling assays and compared with full-length wild-type and cleavage-mimicking (ΔNT) forms of the two receptors. We found that B1-SL, in multiple assays, exhibited robust signaling activity, suggesting that the membrane-proximal stalk region is not necessary for its activation. For G1, however, the results were mixed, with the SL mutant exhibiting robust activity in several signaling assays (including TGFα shedding, activation of NFAT luciferase, and β-arrestin recruitment) but reduced activity relative to ΔNT in a distinct assay (activation of SRF luciferase). These data support a model in which the activation of certain pathways downstream of aGPCRs is stalk-dependent, whereas signaling to other pathways is stalk-independent.

  11. Ionizing radiation graft polymerized and modified flame retardant cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. R. S.; Agathian, G.; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-03-01

    Halogen free flame retardant cotton (FR cotton) fabric was prepared by grafting 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GMA) on ordinary or untreated cotton (UT cotton) fabric by γ-rays from 60Co source. Epoxy groups present in GMA grafted cotton (GMA-g-cotton) fabric was reacted with ethylene diamine and subsequently modified with orthophosphoric acid solution to convert in to FR cotton fabric. Effects of imparted dose, concentration of monomer on grafting percentage were studied. The changes in thermal properties after treatment were investigated by using Thermo gravimetric analyser. Limiting oxygen index, char length, time after glow and time after flame were also studied as per ASTM D2863 and IS11871, respectively, for both FR cotton and UT cotton fabrics. The FR cotton fabric was found to pass all the above tests. Washing durability of the FR cotton fabric in different cleaning agents was also studied and a washing solution containing organic solvent mixture is suggested.

  12. Perceptual advertisement by the prey of stalking or ambushing predators.

    PubMed

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2012-12-21

    There has been previous theoretical explorations of the stability of signals by prey that they have detected a stalking or ambush predator, where such perceptual advertisement dissuades the predator from attacking. Here we use a game theoretical model to extend the theory to consider some empirically-motivated complexities: (i) many perceptual advertisement signals appear to have the potential to vary in intensity, (ii) higher intensity signals are likely to be most costly to produce, and (iii) some high-cost signals (such as staring directly at the predator) can only be utilised if the prey is very confident of the existence of a nearby predator (that is, there are reserved or unfakable signals). We demonstrate that these complexities still allow for stable signalling. However, we do not find solutions where prey use a range of signal intensities to signal different degrees of confidence in the proximity of a predator; with prey simply adopting a binary response of not signalling or always signalling at the same fixed level. However this fixed level will not always be the cheapest possible signal, and we predict that prey that require more certainty about proximity of a predator will use higher-cost signals. The availability of reserved signals does not prohibit the stability of signalling based on lower-cost signals, but we also find circumstances where only the reserved signal is used. We discuss the potential to empirically test our model predictions, and to develop theory further to allow perceptual advertisement to be combined with other signalling functions. PMID:22960570

  13. Suitability of sorghum stalk fibers for production of particleboard.

    PubMed

    Khazaeian, Abolghasem; Ashori, Alireza; Dizaj, Mostafa Yahyavi

    2015-04-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) stalk (SS) as a promising raw material for particleboard manufacturing. The SS particles and industrial hardwood particles in various proportions were used as the raw materials for the surface and core layers of the three-layer particleboards. Commercial urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive was used as a binder. Morphological and chemical characteristics of the SS were evaluated. Effects of five variable parameters on the physical (thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA)), and mechanical (modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB)) properties of the particleboards were determined. Other parameters such as type of resin (UF), hardener content (1%), type of hardener (NH4Cl), press closing time (5 mm/s), board density (0.70 g/cm(3)), and press pressure (30 kg/m(2)) were held constant. Fractional factorial was used to find the optimum condition for the studied variable parameters. The morphological results showed that SS had comparable fiber length with softwoods and fiber width and wall thickness values greater than the hardwood of common forest species. They had higher hot-water solubility values, lignin and ash contents than those of the other woody materials. The experimental results showed that increasing of SS particles usage in the surface layer significantly affects the board properties. Containing 50 wt% SS particles in the surface, the MOE and MOR values exceed the minimum requirements of the European norms (EN) standards, for general purposes. All of the particleboards produced from SS had IB higher than the EN standard requirement. The presence of SS in the particleboards resulted in higher WA and TS values. All the mechanical properties of the boards decreased when the press temperature was increased from 160 to 180°C. Finally, it can be stated that SS has enough potential as a supplement fibrous material, in combination with industrial

  14. Mass transfer effect of the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle of Vorticella convallaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a genus of protozoa living in freshwater. Its stalk contracts and coil pulling the cell body towards the substrate at a remarkable speed, and then relaxes to its extended state much more slowly than the contraction. However, the reason for Vorticella's stalk contraction is still unknown. It is presumed that water flow induced by the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle may augment mass transfer near the substrate. We investigated this hypothesis using an experimental model with particle tracking velocimetry and a computational fluid dynamics model. In both approaches, Vorticella was modeled as a solid sphere translating perpendicular to a solid surface in water. After having been validated by the experimental model and verified by grid convergence index test, the computational model simulated water flow during the cycle based on the measured time course of stalk length changes of Vorticella. Based on the simulated flow field, we calculated trajectories of particles near the model Vorticella, and then evaluated the mass transfer effect of Vorticella's stalk contraction based on the particles' motion. We acknowlege support from Laymann Seed Grant of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  15. Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian; Pica, Natalie; Hai, Rong; Margine, Irina; Palese, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current influenza virus vaccine strategies stimulate immune responses toward the globular head domain of the hemagglutinin protein in order to inhibit key steps of the virus life cycle. Because this domain is highly variable across strains, new vaccine formulations are required in most years. Here we demonstrate a novel vaccine strategy that generates immunity to the highly conserved stalk domain by using chimeric hemagglutinin constructs that express unique head and stalk combinations. By repeatedly immunizing mice with constructs that expressed the same stalk but an irrelevant head, we specifically stimulated a stalk-directed response that provided broad-based heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Notably, our vaccination scheme provides a universal vaccine approach that protects against challenge with an H5 subtype virus. Furthermore, through in vivo studies using passively transferred antibodies or depletion of CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated the critical role that humoral mechanisms of immunity play in the protection observed. The present data suggest that a vaccine strategy based on the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin protein could be used in humans to broadly protect against a variety of influenza virus subtypes. PMID:23576508

  16. Silicon and Phosphorus Linkage with Iron via Oxygen in the Amorphous Matrix of Gallionella ferruginea Stalks

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Itadani, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kunoh, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Gallionella are Fe-oxidizing bacteria that produce uniquely twisted extracellular stalks consisting of iron-oxide-encrusted inorganic/organic fibers in aquatic environments. This paper describes the degree of crystallinity of Gallionella stalks and the chemical linkages of constituent elements in the stalk fibers. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the matrix of the fiber edge consisted of an assembly of primary particles of approximately 3 nm in diameter. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the rough granular surfaces of the fibers, which reflect the disordered assembly of the primary particles, indicating a high porosity and large specific surface area of the fibers. This may provide the surface with broader reactive properties. X-ray diffractometry, selected-area electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy together showed that the primary particles had an amorphous structure. Furthermore, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected the bands characteristic of the vibrational modes assigned to O-H, Fe-O-H, P-O-H, Si-O-H, Si-O-Fe, and P-O-Fe bonds in the stalks, suggesting that the minor constituent elements P and Si could affect the degree of crystallinity of the fibers by linking with Fe via O. This knowledge about the mutual associations of these elements provides deeper insights into the unique inorganic/organic hybrid structure of the stalks. PMID:22020519

  17. Two Escape Mechanisms of Influenza A Virus to a Broadly Neutralizing Stalk-Binding Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ning; Swem, Lee R.; Reichelt, Mike; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Luis, Elizabeth; Park, Summer; Fouts, Ashley; Lupardus, Patrick; Wu, Thomas D.; Li, Olga; McBride, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Michael; Xu, Min; Tan, Man-Wah

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) are effective in blocking virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. The highly conserved epitopes recognized by these antibodies are critical for the membrane fusion function of HA and therefore less likely to be permissive for virus mutational escape. Here we report three resistant viruses of the A/Perth/16/2009 strain that were selected in the presence of a broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibody. The three resistant viruses harbor three different mutations in the HA stalk: (1) Gln387Lys; (2) Asp391Tyr; (3) Asp391Gly. The Gln387Lys mutation completely abolishes binding of the antibody to the HA stalk epitope. The other two mutations, Asp391Tyr and Asp391Gly, do not affect antibody binding at neutral pH and only slightly reduce binding at low pH. Interestingly, they enhance the fusion ability of the HA, representing a novel mechanism that allows productive membrane fusion even in the presence of antibody and hence virus escape from antibody neutralization. Therefore, these mutations illustrate two different resistance mechanisms used by IAV to escape broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibodies. Compared to the wild type virus, the resistant viruses release fewer progeny viral particles during replication and are more sensitive to Tamiflu, suggesting reduced viral fitness. PMID:27351973

  18. Fistular onion stalk extract exhibits anti-atherosclerotic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    HE, BENHONG; HAO, JIANJUN; SHENG, WEIWEI; XIANG, YUANCAI; ZHANG, JIEMEIA; ZHU, HAO; TIAN, JINGCHENG; ZHU, XU; FENG, YUNXIA; XIA, HAO

    2014-01-01

    Fistular onion stalk is used as a traditional herbal medicine, and its extract exhibits certain beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this study, the effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the pathological features, circulating inflammatory cytokines, local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and signaling pathway activities were examined using an in vivo model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis of the aorta was induced by loading Sprague Dawley rats with a high-fat diet and vitamin D2. Fistular onion stalk extract administration began five weeks after the induction of atherosclerosis and continued for 12 weeks. Rats treated with fistular onion stalk extract showed a significant reduction in the pathological region compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Inhibition of atherosclerosis was associated with preservation of the vascular wall and immune cell infiltration. The extract also reduced the levels of the local inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the extract downregulated the local activity of the RAAS. In addition, extract treatment inhibited several inflammatory signaling pathways by preventing phosphorylation, including the nuclear factor κB, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These data indicate that fistular onion stalk extract may be useful for the attenuation of atherosclerosis, and the mechanism includes the regulation of the local inflammatory response. PMID:25120600

  19. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  20. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  1. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  2. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  3. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  4. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  5. Cotton breeding-challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition with synthetic fibers is one of the greatest challenges facing today’s cotton industry. Improved fiber quality is essential to increase US cotton’s competitiveness in the global market place. Enhanced fiber quality also offers an opportunity to capture more value from cotton production. ...

  6. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  7. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  8. Cotton Classing and Inspection in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese market is important to U.S. cotton. China is the largest cotton producer, consumer and importer. China produced 35.8 million bales in 2007/08 crop year, India produced 21.8 million bales, and the U.S. produced 19.2 million bales. Comparing the production with consumption, China needs to i...

  9. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  10. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  11. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  12. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  13. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  14. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  15. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  16. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Hui; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038. PMID:27222813

  18. Application of cellulase for the modification of corn stalk: leading to oil sorption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Lan, Zhoulin; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chen; Dang, Zhi

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a new biotechnological procedure was developed using cellulase as a modifier to produce oil sorbent from corn stalk (CMCS). Cellulase treatment of raw corn stalk (RCS) with enzyme loading of 100 U/g at 45°C for 6h resulted in high oil sorption capacity. The sorption capacities of vegetable oil, diesel and crude oil by CMCS were 18.47, 16.15 and 27.23 g/g, respectively, which were found to be much higher than RCS. XRD, BET and SEM were applied to characterize RCS and CMCS. The effects of sorbent dose (0.1-0.5 g), initial oil amount (5-30 g), and the sorption kinetics were also studied. This work demonstrated that corn stalk modified by cellulase is an efficient and environment-friendly biosorbent for the removal of spilled oil. PMID:23618599

  19. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.; Shi, W.

    1998-04-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and chromium ions in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of four heavy metals are 29.3 mg/g (Cu{sup 2+}), 30.73 mg/g (Zn{sup 2+}), 42.18 mg/g (Cd{sup 2+}), and 25.07 mg/g (Cr{sup 3+}), respectively. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks affected the adsorption of metal ions; the finer size of particles showed better adsorption to the ions. Temperature also plays an interesting role in the adsorption of different metal ions. Copper, zinc, and cadmium exhibited lower adsorption on sunflower stalks at higher temperature, while chromium showed the opposite phenomenon. The adsorption rates of copper, cadmium, and chromium are quite rapid. Within 60 min of operation about 60--80% of these ions were removed from the solutions.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Hui; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  1. [Optimization of biotransformation conditions of active component in Panax notoginseng stalks and leaves by Fusarium sacchari].

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Hu, Xiao-Min; Jiang, Bin-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2007-12-01

    By using Fusarium sacchari, a rare microbial strain isolated and screened from planted ginseng soil, the active component notoginseng triterpenes in Panax notoginseng stalks and leaves was biotransformed. Taking three main anti-tumor components, i. e., 20 (S)-protopanoxadiol-20-O-beta-D-glucopyranose (compound K, C-K), 20-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxadiol (compound Mx, C-Mx) and 20 (S)-protopanoxadiol-20-O-alpha-L-arabofuranose (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranose (ginseng Mc, G-Mc) as evaluation indices, the optimization of biotransformation conditions of notoginseng triterpenes in P. notoginseng stalks and leaves were obtained by factor biotransformation experiment, i. e., initial pH value 6, substrate addition 40 mg, medium volume 30 ml, and transforming for 6 days at 30 degrees C. The method could increase the utility and economic benefit of P. notoginseng stalks and leaves effectively.

  2. Effect of acid pretreatment on different parts of corn stalk for second generation ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Cai, Di; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Changwei; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of different parts of corn stalk, including stem, leaf, flower, cob and husk on second generation ethanol production were evaluated. FTIR, XRD and SEM were performed to investigate the effect of dilute acid pretreatment. The bagasse obtained after pretreatment were further hydrolyzed by cellulase and used as the substrate for ethanol fermentation. As results, hemicelluloses fractions in different parts of corn stalk were dramatically removed and the solid fractions showed vivid compositions and crystallinities. Compared with other parts of corn stalk, the cob had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility. The highest glucose yield of 94.2% and ethanol production of 24.0 g L(-1) were achieved when the cob was used as feedstock, while the glucose yield and the ethanol production were only 86.0% and 17.1 g L(-1) in the case of flower. PMID:26849200

  3. Climate change and cotton production in modern farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is used every day in the form of clothing made from cotton fiber and products made from cotton-seed oil. Wild ancestors of cotton are found in arid regions, often with high daytime temperatures and cool nights, and are naturally adapted to surviving long periods of hot dry weather. Modern cul...

  4. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  5. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  6. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  8. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  10. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  14. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  15. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  16. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  19. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  20. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  2. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  3. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  4. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  5. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  7. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  10. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  12. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  13. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  14. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  15. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  18. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  19. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  20. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  1. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  2. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  4. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  6. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  7. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  8. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  10. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  11. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  12. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  13. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  15. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  17. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  18. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  20. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  1. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  2. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  3. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  5. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  7. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  8. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  10. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  13. Use of cotton gin trash and compatibilizers in polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ginning of cotton produces 15-42% of foreign materials, called “cotton gin trash”, including cotton burr, stems, leaf fragment, and dirt. In this work we examined the mechanical properties of composites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cotton burr. The burr was ground into powder, and se...

  14. Test of pressure transducer for measuring cotton-mass flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a cotton harvester yield monitor was developed based on the relationship between air pressure and the mass of seed cotton conveyed. The sensor theory was verified by laboratory tests. The sensor was tested on a cotton picker with seed cotton at two moisture contents, 5.9% and 8.5% we...

  15. [Multiaxial classification of stalking. Guidelines for the assessment of criminal liability and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Dressing, H; Kühner, C; Gass, P

    2007-07-01

    Stalking is a widespread phenomenon describing a pattern of intrusive and threatening behaviour that leads to the victim's perception of being harassed and of him or her being rendered fearful. Physical assault and even homicide may occur in the context of stalking. Anglo-Saxon studies have revealed a lifetime prevalence of being a victim of stalking ranging from 4-7% in men and 12-17% in women. Recently, these rates have been confirmed by the first community based study carried out in Germany. As a stalker can have a number of victims during his or her lifetime, the prevalence of stalkers may be less than this, although at present data for this are lacking. Although the phenomenology of stalking appears to be rather homogenous, fairly distinct stalker typologies and perpetrator-victim relationships have to be considered. Requests for psychiatric and forensic assessment of stalkers are increasing. According to the German penal code, psychiatrists must provide expert opinion on criminal responsibility and the placement of stalkers. So far, all typologies of stalkers refer to the Anglo-Saxon cultural background and do not consider the special needs of German forensic psychiatry. In particular, the psychopathological dimension is widely neglected in common typologies. The present paper proposes a multiaxial typology of stalking that considers the psychopathological dimension, the relationship between stalker and victim and motivational aspects. Consequences for the forensic psychiatric assessment according to section 20, 21 StGB are outlined. It should be pointed out that stalking is not a new diagnostic category, but only involves, at a descriptive level, deviation from a normal behavioural pattern. The central components of the forensic psychiatric assessment remain the known diagnostic categories, the effects of which on behaviour can be analysed.

  16. Structure of the entire stalk region of the Dynein motor domain.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yosuke; Oyama, Takuji; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Kon, Takahide; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Nakamura, Haruki; Kurisu, Genji

    2014-09-23

    Dyneins are large microtubule-based motor complexes that power a range of cellular processes including the transport of organelles, as well as the beating of cilia and flagella. The motor domain is located within the dynein heavy chain and comprises an N-terminal mechanical linker element, a central ring of six AAA+ modules of which four bind or hydrolyze ATP, and a long stalk extending from the AAA+ring with a microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) at its tip. A crucial mechanism underlying the motile activity of cytoskeletal motor proteins is precise coupling between the ATPase and track-binding activities. In dynein, a stalk region consisting of a long (~15nm) antiparallel coiled coil separates these two activities, which must facilitate communication between them. This communication is mediated by a small degree of helix sliding in the coiled coil. However, no high-resolution structure is available of the entire stalk region including the MTBD. Here, we have reported the structure of the entire stalk region of mouse cytoplasmic dynein in a weak microtubule-binding state, which was determined using X-ray crystallography, and have compared it with the dynein motor domain from Dictyostelium discoideum in a strong microtubule-binding state and with a mouse MTBD with its distal portion of the coiled coil fused to seryl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus. Our results strongly support the helix-sliding model based on the complete structure of the dynein stalk with a different form of coiled-coil packing. We also propose a plausible mechanism of helix sliding together with further analysis using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results present the importance of conserved proline residues for an elastic motion of stalk coiled coil and imply the manner of change between high-affinity state and low-affinity state of MTBD.

  17. Characterisation of a DNA sequence element that directs Dictyostelium stalk cell-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, A; Zhukovskaya, N; Kawata, T; Bozzaro, S; Williams, J

    2000-12-01

    The ecmB gene of Dictyostelium is expressed at culmination both in the prestalk cells that enter the stalk tube and in ancillary stalk cell structures such as the basal disc. Stalk tube-specific expression is regulated by sequence elements within the cap-site proximal part of the promoter, the stalk tube (ST) promoter region. Dd-STATa, a member of the STAT transcription factor family, binds to elements present in the ST promoter-region and represses transcription prior to entry into the stalk tube. We have characterised an activatory DNA sequence element, that lies distal to the repressor elements and that is both necessary and sufficient for expression within the stalk tube. We have mapped this activator to a 28 nucleotide region (the 28-mer) within which we have identified a GA-containing sequence element that is required for efficient gene transcription. The Dd-STATa protein binds to the 28-mer in an in vitro binding assay, and binding is dependent upon the GA-containing sequence. However, the ecmB gene is expressed in a Dd-STATa null mutant, therefore Dd-STATa cannot be responsible for activating the 28-mer in vivo. Instead, we identified a distinct 28-mer binding activity in nuclear extracts from the Dd-STATa null mutant, the activity of this GA binding activity being largely masked in wild type extracts by the high affinity binding of the Dd-STATa protein. We suggest, that in addition to the long range repression exerted by binding to the two known repressor sites, Dd-STATa inhibits transcription by direct competition with this putative activator for binding to the GA sequence.

  18. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Jung, Sook; Cheng, Chun-Huai; Ficklin, Stephen P.; Lee, Taein; Zheng, Ping; Jones, Don; Percy, Richard G.; Main, Dorrie

    2014-01-01

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, visualization and data retrieval of cotton research data. CottonGen contains annotated whole genome sequences, unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), markers, trait loci, genetic maps, genes, taxonomy, germplasm, publications and communication resources for the cotton community. Annotated whole genome sequences of Gossypium raimondii are available with aligned genetic markers and transcripts. These whole genome data can be accessed through genome pages, search tools and GBrowse, a popular genome browser. Most of the published cotton genetic maps can be viewed and compared using CMap, a comparative map viewer, and are searchable via map search tools. Search tools also exist for markers, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), germplasm, publications and trait evaluation data. CottonGen also provides online analysis tools such as NCBI BLAST and Batch BLAST. PMID:24203703

  19. New cotton-processing system saves energy, cuts pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1986-08-01

    This paper announces the invention of a machine which saves energy and reduces cotton dust pollution while it removes cotton lint from cottonseeds. The machine takes in seed cotton and puts out clean cotton lint which is ready for baling. It eliminates the need for three separate machines and massive air ducts to move the cotton between these machines. The elimination of the air-handling system, reduces electric power consumption and aeration of the cotton dust. The use of this prototype gin/cleaner will depend on the growth and modernization of existing cotton ginning operations.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Stalking Behavior: Exploration of Patterns and Correlates in a Sample of Acutely Battered Women

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide descriptive data on stalking in a sample of acutely battered women and to assess the interrelationship between constructs of emotional abuse, physical violence, and stalking in battered women. We recruited a sample of 114 battered women from shelters, agencies, and from the community at large. Results support the growing consensus that violent and harassing stalking behaviors occur with alarming frequency among physically battered women, both while they are in the relationship and after they leave their abusive partners. Emotional and psychological abuse emerged as strong predictors of within- and postrelationship stalking, and contributed a unique variance to women’s fears of future serious harm or death, even after the effects of physical violence were controlled. The length of time a woman was out of the violent relationship was the strongest predictor of postseparation stalking, with increased stalking found with greater time out of the relationship. Results suggest the need to further study the heterogeneity of stalking and to clarify its relationship to constructs of emotional and physical abuse in diverse samples that include stalked but nonbattered women, as women exposed to emotional abuse, and dating violence. PMID:10972514

  1. 24 CFR 5.2009 - Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted housing. 5.2009 Section 5.2009 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2009 Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating...

  2. 24 CFR 5.2009 - Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted housing. 5.2009 Section 5.2009 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2009 Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating...

  3. 24 CFR 5.2009 - Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted housing. 5.2009 Section 5.2009 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2009 Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating...

  4. 24 CFR 5.2009 - Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in HUD-assisted housing. 5.2009 Section 5.2009 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, or Stalking in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2009 Remedies available to victims of domestic violence, dating...

  5. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. 5.2005 Section 5.2005 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2005 Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public...

  6. Pyramiding Sclerotinia head rot and stalk rot resistances into elite sunflower breeding lines with the aid of DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work was conducted in 2008 to determine the stalk rot resistance of RILs from the RHA 280 x RHA 801 population, as well as to begin introgression of previously identified QTL for head rot resistance into elite sunflower germplasm lines. The stalk rot RILs and their testcrosses with cms HA 89 were t...

  7. Cotton buds, momentum, and impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ed; Nuñez, Jover; Guirit, Alfredo; van Huis, Cor

    2000-01-01

    Here is a simple experiment demonstrating impulse and momentum that was picked up from a Japanese presenter at a physics teacher conference held in Cebu City. We have not been able to trace the experiment farther and have never seen it in print. After student-author Nuñez demonstrated it during an exam on conducting demonstrations, we converted the qualitative idea into a quanitative experiment and even discovered some possibilities for student research. The lab is also suitable as homework, since it uses universally available "equipment" — cotton buds (swabs), drinking straws, and a ruler.

  8. Water-based chitosan/melamine polyphosphate multilayer nanocoating that extinguishes fire on polyester-cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Leistner, Marcus; Abu-Odeh, Anas A; Rohmer, Sarah C; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-10-01

    Polyester-cotton (PECO) blends are widely used in the textile industry because they combine the softness of cotton and the strength and durability of polyester. Unfortunately, both fiber types share the disadvantage of being flammable. The layer-by-layer coating technique was used to deposit a highly effective flame retardant (melamine polyphosphate) from water onto polyester-cotton fabric. Soluble melamine and sodium hexametaphosphate form this water-insoluble flame retardant during the coating procedure. This unique nanocoating imparts self-extinguishing properties to PECO with only 12% relative coating weight. Vertical flame testing, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the quality of the coating as well as its flame retardant performance. A combination of both condensed and gas-phase activity appears to be the reason for this effective flame retardancy. Degradation pathways of both cotton and polyester are affected by the applied coating, as shown by PCFC and TGA. Use of environmentally benign and non-toxic chemicals, and the ease of layer-by-layer deposition, making this coating an industrially feasible alternative to render polyester-cotton fabric self-extinguishing.

  9. Nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes of Diplodia maydis, a Zea mays L. stalk rot causing fungus.

    PubMed

    Bussard, J B; Larson, R L

    1979-02-01

    The nitrogen source available to Diplodia maydis in vivo is reported to affect the severity of stalk rot in maize. Nitrate and (or) ammonium salts were tested for their effect on the type of nitrogen metabolism found in Diplodia maydis in vitro. The level of glutamate dehydrogenase remained essentially constant on either nitrogen salt but nitrate reductase was induced by growth on nitrate salts and was not extractable on ammonium salts. Properties of nitrate reductase reported here are similar to those reported for the higher plant and Neurospora crassa enzymes. Thr relationship of nitrogen metabolism in Diplodia maydis to Zea mays L. stalk rot is discussed.

  10. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  11. Ignition/combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objectives for this initial technology are to generate an advanced, comprehensive combustion analytical code, and to verify the combustion flow dynamic predictions from this model with hot test experimental data.

  12. Programmed combustion steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.

    1984-08-14

    The present invention provides a steam generator which comprises rocket-type multielement injector head and a small diameter, highly elongated, cylindrical combustion chamber whose walls are formed from a plurality of longitudinally adjoined water tubes. The multielement injector head injects an array of associating streams of fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber under sufficient pressure to maintain a combustion pressure in the range of 25-150 psia whereupon the narrowness of the combustion chamber serves to constrict the resultant combustion gases to thereby promote radiant and convective heat transfer from the flame of combustion through the walls of the combustion chamber into the water passing through the water tubes. By such arrangement the production of nitrogen oxides in the combustion chamber is avoided.

  13. Using feature objects aided strategy to evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yuan, Hairong; Liu, Yanping; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Chufo, Wachemo A; Jaffar, Muhammad; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    Feature objects aided strategy was used to predict and evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion. The kinetics of co-digestion and mono-digestion of food waste and/or corn stalk was also analyzed. The results indicated that the compositions of food waste and corn stalk were significantly different. The anaerobic digestion of three feature objects at different mixing ratios showed the different biomethane yields and kinetic constants. Food waste and corn stalk co-digestion enhanced the digestion rate and achieved 22.48% and 41.55% higher biomethane production than those of food waste and corn stalk mono-digestion, respectively.

  14. Internal combustion engine with multiple combustion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, D.J.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a two-cycle compression ignition engine. It comprises one cylinder, a reciprocable piston moveable in the cylinder, a piston connecting rod, a crankshaft for operation of the piston connecting rod, a cylinder head enclosing the cylinder, the upper surface of the piston and the enclosing surface of the cylinder head defining a cylinder clearance volume, a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber located in the cylinder head. This patent describes improvement in means for isolating the combustion process for one full 360{degrees} rotation of the crankshaft; wherein the combustion chambers alternatively provide for expansion of combustion products in the respective chambers into the cylinder volume near top dead center upon each revolution of the crankshaft.

  15. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodova, E.; Shchepakina, E.

    2006-12-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models.

  16. An investigation of cotton for parachute cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, Wm D; Worner, R K

    1931-01-01

    This is a resume of the work of the Bureau of Standards on a cotton parachute cloth for use as a substitute for silk in the event of an emergency curtailing the supply. Cotton yarn of high strength in proportion to its weight and otherwise specially suitable for parachute cloth was developed. Cloth woven from this yarn in the bureau mill was equal or superior to parachute silk in strength and tear resistance, met the requirements with respect to air permeability, and weighed only a few tenths of an ounce per square yard more than the silk cloth. Practical trials of cotton parachutes carried out by the Navy Department clearly indicate that the cotton parachute closely approaches the silk parachute in performance as to rate of descent, opening time, strength and ability to function when stored in the pack for sixty days. The increase in weight of the equipment resulting from the use of cotton cloth instead of silk is considered to be well within practicable limits. A specification for cotton parachute cloth and the way in which the requirements of the specification have been met are given. Cotton yarns suitable for parachute cloth are now being woven commercially in the United States.

  17. [Enzymatic utilization of cotton soap stock].

    PubMed

    Davranov, K D; Guliamova, K A; Alimova, B Kh; Turapova, N M

    2000-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of neutral fat of cotton oil soap stock with a nonspecific lipase produced by Oospora lactis F-500 was designed. The culture liquid and a preparation of enzyme obtained by precipitation with isopropanol from a filtrate of the culture liquid were used. Utilization of cotton oil soap stock as the only source of carbon during cultivation of the fungus was studied. The rate of hydrolysis of soap stock fat strongly depended on the way of biological conversion of cotton oil soap stock. The most effective utilization was observed during cultivation of the fungus in the medium containing soap stock.

  18. A Statistical Analysis of Cotton Fiber Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anindya; Das, Subhasis; Majumder, Asha

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a statistical analysis of different cotton fiber properties, such as strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, micronaire, reflectance and yellowness measured from 1200 cotton bales. The uni-variate, bi-variate and multi-variate statistical analysis have been invoked to elicit interrelationship between above-mentioned properties taking them up singularly, pairwise and multiple way, respectively. In multi-variate analysis all cotton fiber properties are simultaneously considered for multi-dimensional techniques of principal factor analysis.

  19. Application of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) stalks as raw material for xylooligosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Samanta, A K; Jayapal, Natasha; Kolte, A P; Senani, S; Sridhar, Manpal; Mishra, Sukriti; Prasad, C S; Suresh, K P

    2013-04-01

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial plant widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of many countries. The present studies aimed to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from pigeon pea stalks in order to do value addition. The chemical analysis of stalks revealed 18.33 ± 1.40 % hemicelluloses in addition to cellulose, protein, and lignin. Sodium hydroxide coupled with steam application enabled almost 96 % recovery of original xylan, present in the pigeon pea stalks. Enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan led to production of XOS namely, xylobiose and xylotriose. Response surface model indicated a maximum yield of xylobiose (0.502 mg/ml) under the hydrolysis conditions of pH 4.91, temperature at 48.11 °C, enzyme dose at 11.01 U, and incubation time at 15.65 h. The ideal conditions for higher xylotriose yield (0.204 mg/ml) were pH 5.44, temperature at 39.29 °C, enzyme dose at 3.23 U, and incubation time at 15.26 h. The present investigation was successful in assessing the prospect of using pigeon pea stalks as a raw material for xylan extraction vis-à-vis XOS production. PMID:23456278

  20. Physicochemical properties of corn stalk after treatment using steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Gang; Ma, Yu-Long; Wang, Li-Qiong; Wang, Feng-Zhi; Wu, Qian-Qian; Pan, Guan-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the effects of different pretreatments including steam explosion, acid, and alkali, alone or in combination, on the structural properties and thermal stability of corn stalk. All of the treated treatments decreased the contents of hemicellulose and lignin and thereby increased the content of cellulose in corn stalks. But the combined treatments with alkali and steam explosion under 0.4-0.6 MPa were better as compared with other treatments based on the removals of hemicellulose and lignin, and about 71.58-79.59% of hemicellulose and 64.32-71.83% of lignin were removed. Treatment with steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali changed the bonding distribution and surface morphology and increased the crystallinity and thermal stability of corn stalks, and the degradation temperature reached over 350 °C. These results suggest that steam explosion coupled with alkali is a better method for the depolymerization of corn stalk polymer. PMID:25498662

  1. Getting Youth Started Tracking and Stalking: Sample Activities for Ages 6 to 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rain, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities on tracking and stalking wildlife that can be incorporated into the elementary secondary education curriculum. Includes activities such as Tracking and Questioning, Trail Detectives, Magic Tracking Stick, Trailing, Cast Collecting, Animal Forms Relay, Firekeeper, Bat and Moth, Grazing Deer, and Sneaking. (YDS)

  2. Types, Frequency, and Effectiveness of Responses to Unwanted Pursuit and Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Leila B.; Winstead, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the types, frequency, and effectiveness of responses to unwanted pursuit (UP) and stalking after relationship termination. Participants included female and male college students who were either pursued by a former partner or who pursued an ex-partner. Factor analyses of targets' responses to pursuit yielded four factors,…

  3. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens fusarium thapsinum and macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots has been reported, even though these diseases pose serious constraints f...

  4. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.; Guerboy, B.; Sanli, I.

    1999-11-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source.

  5. Application of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) stalks as raw material for xylooligosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Samanta, A K; Jayapal, Natasha; Kolte, A P; Senani, S; Sridhar, Manpal; Mishra, Sukriti; Prasad, C S; Suresh, K P

    2013-04-01

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial plant widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of many countries. The present studies aimed to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from pigeon pea stalks in order to do value addition. The chemical analysis of stalks revealed 18.33 ± 1.40 % hemicelluloses in addition to cellulose, protein, and lignin. Sodium hydroxide coupled with steam application enabled almost 96 % recovery of original xylan, present in the pigeon pea stalks. Enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan led to production of XOS namely, xylobiose and xylotriose. Response surface model indicated a maximum yield of xylobiose (0.502 mg/ml) under the hydrolysis conditions of pH 4.91, temperature at 48.11 °C, enzyme dose at 11.01 U, and incubation time at 15.65 h. The ideal conditions for higher xylotriose yield (0.204 mg/ml) were pH 5.44, temperature at 39.29 °C, enzyme dose at 3.23 U, and incubation time at 15.26 h. The present investigation was successful in assessing the prospect of using pigeon pea stalks as a raw material for xylan extraction vis-à-vis XOS production.

  6. 3 CFR 8925 - Proclamation 8925 of December 31, 2012. National Stalking Awareness Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States of America A Proclamation Each year, millions of Americans face the fear, isolation, and... perpetrators to justice. Stalking is a pattern of unwanted contact that causes victims to fear for their safety... American lives in fear of this crime. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States...

  7. Relationships between growth, morphology and wall stress in the stalk of Acetabularia acetabulum.

    PubMed

    von Dassow, M; Odell, G M; Mandoli, D F

    2001-08-01

    With carbon particles we analyzed patterns of growth in Acetabularia acetabulum (Lam.) P.C. Silva, a giant unicell famous for classic development studies. We focused on the stalk apex, which generates the stalk, whorls of hairs, and whorls of gametophores. To gain visual and physical accessibility, we amputated the youngest whorls of hair and the original apex and performed experiments on the apex that regenerated. Video analysis indicated that most growth occurred near the tip of the new apex. Less growth occured throughout the cut-interwhorl. We also analyzed cell wall thickness along stalks cleared of cytoplasm. Correlating growth data to wall morphology suggests growth near the apex may be proportional to stress on the cell wall. We propose that turgor-pressure wall stress modulates local apical cell wall growth rates. A supplementary model, relating cell wall curvature and growth rate in the cut-interwhorl, characterizes how the stalk's final dimensions and nearly cylindrical shap may arise. See http://faculty.washington.edu/mandoli/vondassow for supplementary data, analysis, and mathematical appendices. We believe this is the first quantiative description of apex morphogenesis of A. acetabulum.

  8. Introgression of cotton leaf curl virus-resistant genes from Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Hanif, M; Nazeer, W; Malik, W; Qayyum, A; Hanif, K; Mahmood, A; Islam, N

    2011-10-07

    Cotton is under the constant threat of leaf curl virus, which is a major constraint for successful production of cotton in the Pakistan. A total of 3338 cotton genotypes belonging to different research stations were screened, but none were found to be resistant against the Burewala strain of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). We explored the possibility of transferring virus-resistant genes from Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26) into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) through conventional breeding techniques. Hybridization was done manually between an artificial autotetraploid of G. arboreum and an allotetraploid G. hirsutum, under field conditions. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones, 50 mg/L gibberellic acid and 100 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Percentage pollen viability in F(1) hybrids was 1.90% in 2(G. arboreum) x G. hirsutum and 2.38% in G. hirsutum x G. arboreum. Cytological studies of young buds taken from the F(1) hybrids confirmed that they all were sterile. Resistance against CLCuV in the F(1) hybrids was assessed through grafting, using the hybrid plant as the scion; the stock was a virus susceptible cotton plant, tested under field and greenhouse conditions. All F(1) cotton hybrids showed resistance against CLCuV, indicating that it is possible to transfer resistant genes from the autotetraploid of the diploid donor specie G. arboreum into allotetraploid G. hirsutum through conventional breeding, and durable resistance against CLCuV can then be deployed in the field.

  9. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  10. Short-Stalked Prosthecomicrobium hirschii Cells Have a Caulobacter-Like Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle; Hoffman, Michelle D.; Daniel, Jeremy J.; Madren, Seth M.; Dhroso, Andi; Korkin, Dmitry; Givan, Scott A.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dimorphic alphaproteobacterium Prosthecomicrobium hirschii has both short-stalked and long-stalked morphotypes. Notably, these morphologies do not arise from transitions in a cell cycle. Instead, the maternal cell morphology is typically reproduced in daughter cells, which results in microcolonies of a single cell type. In this work, we further characterized the short-stalked cells and found that these cells have a Caulobacter-like life cycle in which cell division leads to the generation of two morphologically distinct daughter cells. Using a microfluidic device and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed that motile short-stalked cells attach to a surface by means of a polar adhesin. Cells attached at their poles elongate and ultimately release motile daughter cells. Robust biofilm growth occurs in the microfluidic device, enabling the collection of synchronous motile cells and downstream analysis of cell growth and attachment. Analysis of a draft P. hirschii genome sequence indicates the presence of CtrA-dependent cell cycle regulation. This characterization of P. hirschii will enable future studies on the mechanisms underlying complex morphologies and polymorphic cell cycles. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell shape plays a critical role in regulating important behaviors, such as attachment to surfaces, motility, predation, and cellular differentiation; however, most studies on these behaviors focus on bacteria with relatively simple morphologies, such as rods and spheres. Notably, complex morphologies abound throughout the bacteria, with striking examples, such as P. hirschii, found within the stalked Alphaproteobacteria. P. hirschii is an outstanding candidate for studies of complex morphology generation and polymorphic cell cycles. Here, the cell cycle and genome of P. hirschii are characterized. This work sets the stage for future studies of the impact of complex cell shapes on bacterial behaviors. PMID:26833409

  11. Manipulations in the Peripheral Stalk of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1F0-ATP Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Amanda K.; Bostwick, Caleb J.; Cain, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1F0-ATP synthase peripheral stalk is composed of the OSCP, h, d, and b subunits. The b subunit has two membrane-spanning domains and a large hydrophilic domain that extends along one side of the enzyme to the top of F1. In contrast, the Escherichia coli peripheral stalk has two identical b subunits, and subunits with substantially altered lengths can be incorporated into a functional F1F0-ATP synthase. The differences in subunit structure between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic peripheral stalks raised a question about whether the two stalks have similar physical and functional properties. In the present work, the length of the S. cerevisiae b subunit has been manipulated to determine whether the F1F0-ATP synthase exhibited the same tolerances as in the bacterial enzyme. Plasmid shuffling was used for ectopic expression of altered b subunits in a strain carrying a chromosomal disruption of the ATP4 gene. Wild type growth phenotypes were observed for insertions of up to 11 and a deletion of four amino acids on a nonfermentable carbon source. In mitochondria-enriched fractions, abundant ATP hydrolysis activity was seen for the insertion mutants. ATPase activity was largely oligomycin-insensitive in these mitochondrial fractions. In addition, very poor complementation was seen in a mutant with an insertion of 14 amino acids. Lengthier deletions yielded a defective enzyme. The results suggest that although the eukaryotic peripheral stalk is near its minimum length, the b subunit can be extended a considerable distance. PMID:21257750

  12. Manipulations in the peripheral stalk of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1F0-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Welch, Amanda K; Bostwick, Caleb J; Cain, Brian D

    2011-03-25

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase peripheral stalk is composed of the OSCP, h, d, and b subunits. The b subunit has two membrane-spanning domains and a large hydrophilic domain that extends along one side of the enzyme to the top of F(1). In contrast, the Escherichia coli peripheral stalk has two identical b subunits, and subunits with substantially altered lengths can be incorporated into a functional F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase. The differences in subunit structure between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic peripheral stalks raised a question about whether the two stalks have similar physical and functional properties. In the present work, the length of the S. cerevisiae b subunit has been manipulated to determine whether the F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase exhibited the same tolerances as in the bacterial enzyme. Plasmid shuffling was used for ectopic expression of altered b subunits in a strain carrying a chromosomal disruption of the ATP4 gene. Wild type growth phenotypes were observed for insertions of up to 11 and a deletion of four amino acids on a nonfermentable carbon source. In mitochondria-enriched fractions, abundant ATP hydrolysis activity was seen for the insertion mutants. ATPase activity was largely oligomycin-insensitive in these mitochondrial fractions. In addition, very poor complementation was seen in a mutant with an insertion of 14 amino acids. Lengthier deletions yielded a defective enzyme. The results suggest that although the eukaryotic peripheral stalk is near its minimum length, the b subunit can be extended a considerable distance. PMID:21257750

  13. Cysteines in the Stalk of the Nipah Virus G Glycoprotein Are Located in a Distinct Subdomain Critical for Fusion Activation

    PubMed Central

    Maar, Dianna; Harmon, Brooke; Chu, David; Schulz, Belinda; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur

    2012-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses initiate entry through the concerted action of the tetrameric attachment glycoprotein (HN, H, or G) and the trimeric fusion glycoprotein (F). The ectodomains of HN/H/G contain a stalk region important for oligomeric stability and for the F triggering resulting in membrane fusion. Paramyxovirus HN, H, and G form a dimer-of-dimers consisting of disulfide-linked dimers through their stalk domain cysteines. The G attachment protein stalk domain of the highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) contains a distinct but uncharacterized cluster of three cysteine residues (C146, C158, C162). On the basis of a panoply of assays, we report that C158 and C162 of NiV-G likely mediate covalent subunit dimerization, while C146 mediates the stability of higher-order oligomers. For HN or H, mutation of stalk cysteines attenuates but does not abrogate the ability to trigger fusion. In contrast, the NiV-G stalk cysteine mutants were completely deficient in triggering fusion, even though they could still bind the ephrinB2 receptor and associate with F. Interestingly, all cysteine stalk mutants exhibited constitutive exposure of the Mab45 receptor binding-enhanced epitope, previously implicated in F triggering. The enhanced binding of Mab45 to the cysteine mutants relative to wild-type NiV-G, without the addition of the receptor, implicates the stalk cysteines in the stabilization of a pre-receptor-bound conformation and the regulation of F triggering. Sequence alignments revealed that the stalk cysteines were adjacent to a proline-rich microdomain unique to the Henipavirus genus. Our data propose that the cysteine cluster in the NiV-G stalk functions to maintain oligomeric stability but is more importantly involved in stabilizing a unique microdomain critical for triggering fusion. PMID:22496210

  14. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ping; Swanson, Kurt A.; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2014-10-02

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein plays multiple roles in viral entry and egress, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activating the fusion (F) protein to activate membrane fusion and viral entry, and cleaving sialic acid from carbohydrate chains. HN is an oligomeric integral membrane protein consisting of an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stalk region, and an enzymatically active neuraminidase (NA) domain. Structures of the HN NA domains have been solved previously; however, the structure of the stalk region has remained elusive. The stalk region contains specificity determinants for F interactions and activation, underlying the requirement for homotypic F and HN interactions in viral entry. Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for understanding these dual affects on HN functions has been lacking. Here, we report the structure of the Newcastle disease virus HN ectodomain, revealing dimers of NA domain dimers flanking the N-terminal stalk domain. The stalk forms a parallel tetrameric coiled-coil bundle (4HB) that allows classification of extensive mutational data, providing insight into the functional roles of the stalk region. Mutations that affect both F activation and NA activities map predominantly to the 4HB hydrophobic core, whereas mutations that affect only F-protein activation map primarily to the 4HB surface. Two of four NA domains interact with the 4HB stalk, and residues at this interface in both the stalk and NA domain have been implicated in HN function.

  15. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  16. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  17. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  18. Catalytic combustion over hexaaluminates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, K.S.; Kingsley, J.J.; Hubler, T.L.; McCready, D.E.; Cox, J.L.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion is the oldest and most extensively used process for the production of light, heat, and energy utilization. Mankind has sought to control combustion since prehistoric times to more effectively utilize the combustible material, control the products of combustion, and harness the energy released during combustion. Catalysts provide the means to control the reactions of combustion beyond what can be achieved in the homogeneous gas phase (1). Catalysts also enable operation outside the range of flammability limits and control atmospheric pollutants of combustion, mainly NO{sub x}, carbon monoxide, and particles of incomplete combustion (soot). The major technical difficulty that has hindered widespread application of catalytic combustion devices is their poor performance, particularly durability of their ceramic substrates and catalytically active phases in the high temperature environment. Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons over metals and metal oxide catalysts has been explored extensively. Recent reviews of materials for high temperature catalytic combustion have been provided by Marcus et al. (2) and Trim (3). Hexaaluminates which show good thermal stability above 1200{degrees}C are one class of metal oxides receiving consideration for application in high temperature combustion devices. Matsuda et al. (4) have developed thermally stable La-hexaaluminates with the same layer structure as Ba-hexaaluminate and have investigated their catalytic application. Machida et al. (5-7) have investigated the catalytic properties of a number of hexaaluminates of BaMAl{sub 11}O{sub 19-{alpha}}(M=Cr, Mn,Fe,Co,Ni). Here we report the synthesis, properties and catalytic combustion of some new hexaaluminates.

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    LePori, W.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Lalk, T.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A 0.61 meter (2 ft) diameter fluidized-bed combustion reactor was used for tests on direct combustion of cotton gin trash. Raw gin trash was continuously augered into the unit with fuel and air rates set to maintain bed temperatures of 760/sup 0/ to 816/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/F). Particulate emissions in the hot stack gases were measured and found to be lower than federal standards for incinerators. Mild steel and stainless alloy samples were placed in the hot stack gas stream to study corrosion and erosion of materials. High rates of potassium, calcium, and sodium deposits accumulated on the samples, and high erosion rates were found. A 0.3 meter (13 in) diameter fluidized-bed gasifier was used to convert raw gin trash into a combustible gas with bed temperatures between 683/sup 0/C and 881/sup 0/C (1261/sup 0/F and 1618/sup 0/F). By limiting the amount of oxygen compared to the fuel feed, only partial combustion occurs, producing heat and endothermic gasification chemical reactions. The combustible gas was composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It had a heating value ranging from 3.40 to 4.82 M Joules per standard cubic meter (98 to 142 Btu/scf), and about 50 percent of the heat value of the gin trash was converted into this low energy gas.

  20. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... January 9, 2012 (76 FR 80278). AMS received four comments: One from a national trade organization that... Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...