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Sample records for coturnix japonica fed

  1. Semen characteristics and biochemical composition of cloacal foam of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) fed diet incorporated with selenium.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A; Mohan, J; Mandal, A B; Lal, N

    2017-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on physical and cloacal gland size, foam production, biochemical composition of foam and semen biochemical characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Two hundred twenty-five (225)-day-old male Japanese quail were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 20 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates, each containing 25 chicks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg (T1 , T2 and T3, respectively), and diet T1 was considered as control. Sodium selenite was used as the source of selenium. All the birds were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Cloacal foam characteristics, that is cloacal gland index and foam weight, were significantly higher in T2 group. However, body weight, frequency of foam discharge and testes weight (left and right) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Physical characteristics of semen, that is semen volume and sperm concentration, did not differ (p > 0.05) among the Se-treated groups. The sperm motility, live-dead count and abnormality improved significantly (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented group compared to 0 or 1.0 mg/Se-supplemented groups. Similarly, fertility and hatchability percentages were higher (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented group than in control or 1.0 mg/Se-supplemented counterparts. The biochemical characteristics of foam in terms of total protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and nitric oxide did not differ (p > 0.05), while the concentration of glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented diet. On the other hand, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were lower (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented group compared to control or 1.0 mg/Se-supplemented groups. From this study, it was concluded that supplementation of 0.5 mg Se/kg diet was beneficial for foam

  2. Effects of an active immunization on the immune response of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed with or without genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis-maize.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, N D; Halle, I; Dänicke, S; Hartmann, G; Zur, B; Sauerwein, H

    2010-06-01

    Potentially adverse effects of diets containing transgenic plants are a concern for many consumers, particularly in Europe. For Bacillus thuringiensis-maize, several studies in livestock and poultry showed that the zootechnical data provide no indication for such adverse effects. These studies were all done in homeostatic situations; it remained open whether a deflection of the regulatory physiological systems might yield divergent dynamic responses in B. thuringiensis-maize-fed animals. We therefore tested the effect of an active immunization using BSA as antigen in a feeding regimen with or without B. thuringiensis-maize using quail as a model organism. Newly hatched Japanese quail were randomly allocated to 2 groups (n=120 per group) fed with diets containing either B. thuringiensis-maize or isogenic maize of the same cultivar. The diets did not differ in concentrations of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, which were both far below guidance values. After 16 wk on the experimental diets, one-half of each group was immunized against BSA. The remaining birds were injected with saline. Thirty-six hours after the injection, half of the BSA-injected subgroup (n=30) and half of the saline subgroup (n=30) from B. thuringiensis-maize- and isogenic-fed birds were killed and blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum zinc levels, indicative for acute phase response. For determining IgY-mediated immune responses, eggs were collected every other week for 6 wk after the injections from the remaining birds and total IgY concentrations and BSA-specific IgY titers were measured in egg yolk. The BSA injections did not elicit significant decreases of serum zinc concentrations. The serum zinc levels were significantly higher in B. thuringiensis-maize-fed quail. Expectedly, total IgY as well as BSA-specific IgY titers increased with time in the BSA-immunized quail. The response of both variables to the BSA injection did not differ between the feeding groups

  3. Effect of early feed restriction on reproductive performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Reproductive performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was evaluated following feed restriction (100, 85, and 70% of ad libitum) between 2 to 5 wk of age with three replicates of 12, 2-wk-old chicks per replicate. Body weight, feed conversion, and leucocyte distribution were measured during feed restriction. After experimental feed treatment, BW, age at first egg, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality were evaluated from five replicates of two females and one male per treatment. Feed-restricted female chicks had lower BW from 3 to 5 wk of age, but male weights were depressed only during the most severe restriction at 4 and 5 wk. No treatment differences were observed among BW within a sex from 6 to 13 wk. Body weights at first egg were significantly heavier for females fed 70% ad libitum than for birds on other treatments. Fertility, age at first egg, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight were unaffected by feed restriction. Although hatchability was unaffected by feed restriction, percentage of late dead and total dead embryos were significantly reduced in eggs from restricted quail. Thirty quail fed 70% of ad libitum control intake had significantly increased egg specific gravity. Feed restriction increased the percentage of heterophils and basophils and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, whereas the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Feed can be restricted to 85 or 70% of ad libitum feed intake from 2 to 5 wk of age without detrimentally affecting reproductive parameters between 6 to 13 wk of age.

  4. Effect of feeding time on the reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Several feeding regimens are applied to improve performance of fertile egg production during times of heat stress. During a period of heat stress (34 to 36 degrees C), two feeding periods were used to measure the impact of feeding time on reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix cotunix japonica) between 44 and 60 wk of age. Each feeding time treatment had 25 individually caged male and female pairs. Quail were fed ad libitum between 0600 to 1400 or 1400 to 2200 h daily. Results indicated that feeding between 0600 to 1400 h reduced BW, fertility, hatchability, egg production, and egg specific gravity when compared with the effects of feeding between 1400 to 2200 h. Feeding time had no effect on total embryonic mortality, egg weight, or the period between subsequent ovipositions. The different feeding times affected the distribution curve of oviposition over time. An instrument designed to record oviposition time is described. Results showed that selection of the time of day for application of an 8-h restricted feeding regimen affected BW, fertility, hatchability, egg production, egg specific gravity, and oviposition time in Japanese quail.

  5. Interaction between Eimeria uzura infection and aflatoxicosis in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Rao, J R; Sharma, N N; Iyer, P K; Sharma, A K

    1990-03-01

    The clinical signs and gross lesions caused by Eimeria uzura (10(5) oocysts) in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exhibited little or no influence in the face of intercurrent dietary aflatoxicosis (1 p.p.m. of aflatoxin B1 from Day 0 to 55). Similarly, no significant differences in the mucosal morphology of the intestine were evident histologically between the two groups of Japanese quail. The nervous signs of ataxia, leg weakness, incoordination of movement, torticollis and terminal opisthotonos were toxin-induced manifestations. In the aflatoxic quail, hypoplastic changes and selective depletion of lymphocytes were more prominent in the bursa of fabricius. Increased relative mean weights of liver, kidney, spleen, crop, proventriculus and gizzard were observed in birds due to aflatoxin sensitivity. The combination of E. uzura infection and aflatoxicosis in Japanese quail may cause significant weight loss, and increased oocyst production and reproductive potential.

  6. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid in drinking water on reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    The impact of acetyl salicylic add (ASA) on reproductive performance during periods of heat stress was studied in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). During a season when daily high temperatures averaged between 34 and 40 degrees C, four treatments each containing four replicates of five males and five females were given 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 g/L ASA in drinking water from 34 to 45 wk of age. At 39 wk of age control quail were lighter than quail fed ASA. Quail receiving 1.5 g/L ASA exhibited increased fertility, hatchability, and egg production and decreased late dead and total embryonic mortality. Early dead embryos, pips, chick weight, and egg weight were not different among treatments. The lumen of uterovaginal junction sperm host glands (UVJSHG) from control quail was apparently devoid of spermatozoa, whereas quail receiving 1.5 g/L ASA had the greatest apparent accumulation of spermatozoa. Control caudal infundibulum host glands (CPOI) were devoid of spermatozoa in contrast with CPOI from quail receiving ASA. Results show that UVJSHG lumens from quail receiving 1.5 g/L ASA had larger inside diameters than other treatment groups. However, the CPOI inside diameter and the outside diameters of both UVJSHG and CPOI were not affected by ASA. Adding 1.5 g/L ASA to the drinking water of quail under heat stress improved body weight, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, egg production, egg specific gravity, and sperm storage capacity.

  7. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  8. Dynamics of crowing development in the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Saar, Sigal; Gahr, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Species-specific behaviours gradually emerge, via incomplete patterns, to the final complete adult form. A classical example is birdsong, a learned behaviour ideally suited for studying the neural and molecular substrates of vocal learning. Young songbirds gradually transform primitive unstructured vocalizations (subsong, akin to human babbling) into complex, stereotyped sequences of syllables that constitute adult song. In comparison with birdsong, territorial and mating calls of vocal non-learner species are thought to exhibit little change during development. We revisited this issue using the crowing behaviour of domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Crowing activity was continuously recorded in young males maintained in social isolation from the age of three weeks to four months. We observed developmental changes in crow structure, both the temporal and the spectral levels. Speed and trajectories of these developmental changes exhibited an unexpected high inter-individual variability. Mechanisms used by quails to transform sounds during ontogeny resemble those described in oscines during the sensorimotor phase of song learning. Studies on vocal non-learners could shed light on the specificity and evolution of vocal learning. PMID:19324760

  9. Effects of 2 G hypergravity exposure on Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.

  10. Water intake induced by water deprivation in the quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Okawara, Y; Kobayashi, H

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms inducing drinking after water deprivation, and mechanisms terminating drinking after rehydration, were investigated in the quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. 1. Water intake was induced after 4 h of water deprivation, and the amount of water drunk increased in proportion to the period of water deprivation. Drinking occurred immediately after deprivation. Drinking occurred immediately after deprived birds were given access to water, and continued for periods proportional to the period of water deprivation. 2. Plasma angiotensin II concentration increased, as did plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration, and blood volume decreased after water deprivation. The increase in plasma angiotensin II concentration and decrease in blood volume occurred soon after the start of water deprivation, whereas plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration did not increase until at least 4 h after the start of water deprivation. 3. These results indicate that extracellular dehydration and angiotensin II are responsible for the significant drinking that follows 4 h of water deprivation, and that cellular dehydration is also involved in the stimulation of drinking that occurs after longer periods of water deprivation. 4. Plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration in birds deprived of water for 48 h quickly returned to normal levels after the birds were allowed access to water. Plasma angiotensin II levels and blood volume also approached the values measured prior to water deprivation. However, the rate and degree of restoration of normal values were reduced, and normal values were not restored even after 1.5 h or rehydration when drinking terminated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Dynamics of crowing development in the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Saar, Sigal; Gahr, Manfred

    2009-06-22

    Species-specific behaviours gradually emerge, via incomplete patterns, to the final complete adult form. A classical example is birdsong, a learned behaviour ideally suited for studying the neural and molecular substrates of vocal learning. Young songbirds gradually transform primitive unstructured vocalizations (subsong, akin to human babbling) into complex, stereotyped sequences of syllables that constitute adult song. In comparison with birdsong, territorial and mating calls of vocal non-learner species are thought to exhibit little change during development. We revisited this issue using the crowing behaviour of domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Crowing activity was continuously recorded in young males maintained in social isolation from the age of three weeks to four months. We observed developmental changes in crow structure, both the temporal and the spectral levels. Speed and trajectories of these developmental changes exhibited an unexpected high inter-individual variability. Mechanisms used by quails to transform sounds during ontogeny resemble those described in oscines during the sensorimotor phase of song learning. Studies on vocal non-learners could shed light on the specificity and evolution of vocal learning.

  12. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty.

  13. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections.

  14. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  15. Concentration of cadmium in Coturnix quail fed earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbriscus terrestris), collected from soils in southern Ontario, Canada, that had no previous history of cadmium application, contained 3 ppm cadmium. They were fed to Coturnix quail as 60% dry weight of their diet for 63 d to examine the extent of deposition of native cadmium. Cadmium in kidney, liver, and excreta was greatly elevated above that of birds fed a control diet without worms. No increase in the level of cadmium in eggs was found. The factors affecting the association of cadmium in soils and worms and their assimilation and possible toxic effects in foraging birds are discussed.

  16. Comparison of ventriculotomy closure with and without a coelomic fat patch in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Simova-Curd, Stefka; Foldenauer, Ulrike; Guerrero, Tomas; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hoop, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Removal of foreign bodies from the ventriculus in birds may necessitate ventriculotomy. Complications with this intervention include leakage and adhesion formation. To investigate if the use of a coelomic fat patch and a tension-relieving suture in addition to a simple interrupted pattern would improve the healing process after ventriculotomy, 2 groups of 9 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) underwent ventriculotomy. In group 1, only simple-interrupted and tension-relieving sutures were used for closure of the ventriculotomy. In group 2, a coelomic fat patch from the surrounding adipose tissue was applied to the incision site in addition to the sutures. All quail recovered normally and were considered clinically healthy after surgery. Three birds from each group were euthanatized at days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. On histologic examination, the suture techniques used for closure of the ventriculotomy led to minimal inflammation of the surrounding tissues in both groups. Serosal inflammation was significantly greater in group 2 birds that had the adipose patch at closure compared with group 1 birds. Therefore, the use of a coelomic fat patch to cover the site of ventriculotomy did not result in an improved healing process and its use is not recommended in quail.

  17. Plasma enzyme activities in coturnix quail fed graded doses of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl, malathion, and mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1974-01-01

    Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed diets for 12 weeks containing graded levels of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254), malathion, and mercuric chloride. Birds were bled prior to exposure and at 2, 4 and 12 weeks, and the plasma used to measure the activities of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholinesterase, fructose-diphosphate aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abnormal activity of certain plasma enzymes was noted in birds after 2 and 4 weeks, but these changes were not proportional to dose or exposure time. At 12 weeks increases in each of the activities of plasma enzymes of birds fed organochlorines, and decreases in cholinesterase activity of birds fed malathion or mercuric chloride, were proportional to the log dose of the respective agents. In addition, the pattern of enzyme responses in the 4 experimental groups had changed, and was illustrative of the specific type of substance that had been fed. The data suggest that qualitative and quantitative identification of environmental contaminants in birds, and perhaps a variety of wild animals, may be possible by utilization of multiple plasma enzyme assays. Residue analyses after 12 weeks of feeding showed that DDE accumulated in carcasses and livers at concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those in the diets. In contrast residues of Aroclor 1254 attained in carcasses were identical to, and in livers one-half of, the concentration in the feed. Mercury did not accumulate as much in the tissues; residues attained were one-twentieth or less of those in the feed.

  18. Effect of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) on performance, egg traits and blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity in laying Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Konca, Y; Yalcin, H; Karabacak, M; Kaliber, M; Durmuscelebi, F Z

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (HS) on performance, egg traits, serum lipid profile and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 2. A total of 120 eight-week-old laying quail were divided into 4 experimental groups with 10 replicates. The treatments were as follows: (1) control diet (C, no HS in the diet); (2) 5% HS in the diet (HS5); (3) 10% HS in the diet (HS10); and (4) 20% HS in the diet (HS20). The quail were fed the experimental diets from 8 to 14 weeks of age. 3. There was no significant difference in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of the birds overall in the experiment. The egg production was not influenced by the HS contents in the diet; however the HS10 diet increased egg weight and egg-specific gravity. The carcass traits were not affected by the HS contents. 4. The serum triglyceride, cholesterol and the high density lipoprotein were not significantly altered; however, low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in HS-supplemented groups were lower than that of the C group. 5. The malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and nitrogen oxide concentrations were not significantly affected, but in the HS10 and HS20, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) concentration was higher than in the C and HS5 groups. 6. The omega-3 fatty acid content of eggs increased linearly with increasing dietary HS content in the diet. 7. In conclusion, HS could be a potential feed and health benefit as a natural antioxidant in relation to decreasing serum LDL and increasing GSH-Px concentration in the liver of laying quail.

  19. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates and heavy metals in birds. I. Plasma and brain cholinesterase in Coturnix quail fed methyl mercury and orally dosed with parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    We found that mercury potentiated the toxicity and biochemical effects of parathion. Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed a sublethal concentration of morsodren (4 ppm as methyl mercury) for 18 weeks. This resulted in an accumulation of 21.0 ppm of mercury in the liver and 8.4 ppm in the carcass. Birds fed clean feed and those fed morsodren-treated feed were orally dosed with 2, 4, 6, 8,and 10 mg/kg parathion, and their 48-h survival times compared. The computed LD50 was 5.86mg/kg in birds not fed morsodren and 4.24 in those fed the heavy metal. When challenged with a sublethal, oral dose of parathion (1.0 mg/kg), morsodren-fed birds exhibited significantly greater inhibition of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity than controls dosed with parathion. Brain cholinesterase activity was inhibited 41% in morsodren-fed birds and 26in clean-fed birds dosed with parathion, which suggested that the increase in parathion toxicity in the presence of morsodren was directly related to the inhibitation of brain cholinesterase.

  20. Hypocholesterolemic effect of karaya saponin in Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2011-12-01

    The effect of karaya saponin supplementation on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in egg yolk were investigated in Japanese quails. A total of 80 Japanese quails aged 5 weeks were equally divided into four groups of 20. Four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg feed) of karaya saponin were included in the basal diet and experiment was lasted for 6 weeks. The cholesterol fractions in the egg yolk and serum were measured by enzymatic assay, and the fatty acid composition in egg yolk was determined by gas chromatography. The results revealed that the supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin significantly reduced (p < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum and egg yolk. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was increased, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and the atherogenic index were decreased (p < 0.05) by the dietary supplementations. Hepatic cholesterol was reduced (p < 0.05) by the 25 mg/kg karaya saponin. A higher degree of yolk colour was improved (p < 0.05) when 75 mg/kg saponin was supplemented in the diet. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in egg yolk was increased (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in quails fed the supplemented diet than the control diet. The ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p < 0.05) by 75 mg/kg feed karaya saponin-supplemented diet. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin may be a feasible means of producing quail eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA content for health conscious consumers.

  1. Catch-up growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica): relationships with food intake, metabolic rate and sex.

    PubMed

    Chin, Eunice H; Storm-Suke, Andrea L; Kelly, Ryan J; Burness, Gary

    2013-08-01

    The effects of early environmental conditions can profoundly affect individual development and adult phenotype. In birds, limiting resources can affect growth as nestlings, but also fitness and survival as adults. Following periods of food restriction, individuals may accelerate development, undergoing a period of rapid "catch-up" growth, in an attempt to reach the appropriate size at adulthood. Previous studies of altricial birds have shown that catch-up growth can have negative consequences in adulthood, although this has not been explored in species with different developmental strategies. Here, we investigated the effects of resource limitation and the subsequent period of catch-up growth, on the morphological and metabolic phenotype of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species with a precocial developmental strategy. Because males and females differ in adult body size, we also test whether food restriction had sex-specific effects. Birds that underwent food restriction early in development had muscles of similar size and functional maturity, but lower adult body mass than controls. There was no evidence of sex-specific sensitivity of food restriction on adult body mass; however, there was evidence for body size. Females fed ad lib were larger than males fed ad lib, while females subjected to food restriction were of similar size to males. Adults that had previously experienced food restriction did not have an elevated metabolic rate, suggesting that in contrast to altricial nestlings, there was no metabolic carry-over effect of catch-up growth into adulthood. While Japanese quail can undergo accelerated growth after re-feeding, timing of food restriction may be important to adult size, particularly in females. However, greater developmental flexibility compared to altricial birds may contribute to the lack of metabolic carryover effects at adulthood.

  2. Extinction of food-reinforced instrumental behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Buriticá, Jonathan; Ortega, Leonardo A; Papini, Mauricio R; Gutiérrez, Germán

    2013-02-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were reinforced with food for traversing a runway for either 18 or 36 trials, administered at a rate of 1 trial per day. Then, all animals received 18 extinction trials. The latency to run from the start box to the goal box was the dependent variable. Extinction was significantly slower in animals that had received 50% partial reinforcement during acquisition, whether relative to a group matched in terms of acquisition trials (36 trials, twice the number of reinforced trials) or relative to a group matched in terms of reinforcements (18 trials). The latter group was also matched in terms of the temporal distribution of acquisition trials with the partial reinforcement group, being trained only on days when the partial group was scheduled to receive a reinforced trial. Thus, there was evidence of a spaced-trial partial reinforcement extinction effect. A comparison of groups receiving large versus small reward magnitudes yielded no evidence of the spaced-trial magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect, even though the large-reward group consumed approximately 3 times more food than the small-reward group. Moreover, a comparison of groups that received 36 versus 18 acquisition trials produced no evidence of the spaced-trial overtraining extinction effect, even though acquisition latencies were significantly lower for the group that received 36 acquisition trials. These results are discussed in relation to comparative research on learning phenomena involving incentive downshift manipulations.

  3. Effect of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa sp.) Inclusion to the Diet on Performance, Carcass and Antioxidative Activity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Cimen, Behzat; Yalcin, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (H) on performance, carcass traits, and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192 quail with seven-days old were divided into four experimental groups with four replicates. The treatments were; i) Control diet (C, no hempseed); ii) 5% hempseed in diet (H5); iii) 10% hempseed in diet (H10); and iv) 20% hempseed in diet (H20). The body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of quail was determined at 7, 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d of age four quail were slaughtered and the carcass and internal organ traits were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein were determined in the blood serum end of the experiment. The BW of the groups were not significant at 7 and 21 d, however in the 20% hempseed group BW decreased at 42 d (p<0.05). The FI and feed conversion ratio were not significant among the treatment groups. The carcass, liver, intestine and heart weight and their percentage to carcass were significantly differ in treatment groups (p<0.05). The serum MDA and NO decreased in hempseed addition (p <0.001). The serum SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were increased by hempseed supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, hempseed supplementation to quail diets may not improve quail performance traits but increase antioxidant activity in blood. PMID:26760931

  4. Effects of 4-nonylphenol in drinking water on the reproductive capacity of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Shan, Zhengjun; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Li, Pengfu; Lu, Shan

    2017-02-08

    4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a major degradation product of Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), is widespread in environment. In this study, the effects of long-term 4-NP exposure in drinking water on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were investigated. A total of 45 quails were evenly divided into 15 groups and administrated with various doses (0.1 μg L(-1), 1.0 μg L(-1), 10 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1), which reflected the environmental concentrations of 4-NP) of 4-NP in drinking water. The results showed that 4-NP in drinking water had no effect on quails' food intake, but significantly decreased the quails' body weights (P < 0.05) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The egg fertilization rates were also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups. Moreover, the hatchability was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in 10 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1) groups, and the 14 d survival rates of young quails were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in 1.0 μg L(-1), 10 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1) groups. Damaged spermatogenesis in male quails was observed in all treatment groups. Therefore, administration of 4-NP in drinking water impaired the reproductive ability of Japanese quails, and led to pathological lesions in the male gonads.

  5. Deposition of cadmium in tissues of Coturnix quail fed honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Morse, R.A.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    Insects have been reported to concentrate cadmium probably through food or water intake or by contact with contaminated surfaces. It is conceivable that avian species consuming such insects could concentrate cadmium in their tissues. In the work reported here, domesticated honey bees were found to contain appreciable levels of cadmium. The bees were collected in quantity and fed to Coturnix quail to study the extent to which an avian species may accumulate cadmium in liver and kidney as well as in their eggs.

  6. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Oh, Jae-Don; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Tae Sub; Shin, Sangsu; Jiao Jiao, Zhang; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight). Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2), and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2). Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP), as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87) in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1) shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis) indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production. PMID:26418419

  7. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  8. Discovery and functional characterization of leptin and its receptors in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an important endocrine regulation factor of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals; however, the existence of a poultry leptin gene (LEP) is still debated. Here, for the first time, we report the cloning of a partial exon 3 sequence of LEP (qLEP) and four different leptin receptor splicing variants, including a long receptor (qLEPRl) and three soluble receptors (qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The qLEP gene had high GC content (64%), which is similar to other reported avian leptin genes. The encoded qLEP protein possessed the conserved pair of cysteine residues that are required to form a lasso knot for full biological activity, but shared relatively low identities with LEPs of other vertebrates. The translated qLEPRl protein contained 1143 amino acids and shared high amino acid sequence identity with a chicken homolog (89% identity). qLEPRl also contained all the motifs, domains, and basic tyrosine residues that are conserved in the LEPRl proteins of other vertebrates. qRT-PCR analysis showed that LEP and the four LEPR variants were expressed extensively in all tissues examined; the expression levels of LEP were relatively high in hypothalamus, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, while the expression levels of the LEPRs were highest in the pituitary. Compared with the expression levels of juvenile qLEP and total qLEPR (including all LEPR variants), the expression levels of mature qLEP and total qLEPR were up-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and down-regulated in the ovary. The expressions of LEP/LEPR increased when fasting and decreased when refeeding in the brain and peripheral tissues of juvenile quail, which suggested that the LEP/LEPR system modulated food intake and energy expenditure, although, unlike in mammals, LEP may actually act to inhibit food intake during fasting, at least in juvenile quail. The results indicate that qLEP and qLEPR have unique expression patterns and that the encoded

  9. Reproductive aging in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica is associated with changes in central opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, M A; Corbitt, C; Hoffman, R; Thompson, N; Russek-Cohen, E; Deviche, P

    2006-12-18

    Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to measure specific mu and delta opioid receptor densities in regions of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, brain that regulates reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses to determine the possible involvement of the opioid system in reproductive decline seen during aging. Densities were measured in selected brain regions of young sexually active (YAM), young photoregressed (YPM), old reproductively senescent (OIM) male, young active (YF), and old senescent female (OF) Japanese quail. Medial and lateral septum (SM, SL), medial preoptic area (POM), and n. intercollicularis (ICo) were of particular interest for reproductive responses. Similar to previous observations, mu and delta opioid receptors showed differential distributions in the areas measured. Some age-related changes were observed, with lower SM mu receptor densities in aged males (OIM) than females or young males (YAM). Densities of mu receptors in the POM and in other areas examined did not vary with sex or age. Similarly, OIM males had lower densities of delta receptors in the SM than young males (YAM and YPM); POM delta receptor densities were also low in OIM males compared to the YPM males, and YAM males were intermediate. Interestingly, photoregressed males (YPM) had higher SL delta receptor densities than any other group. Thus there were age-related differences detected in mu receptor densities among groups in the SM of OIM relative to other groups; and the mu and delta receptor densities did not differ in females with brain region. Additionally for delta receptors specifically, YF and OF did not differ from OIM for any brain region and similarly had lower densities of delta receptors compared to YAM males. These data provide support for regional differences in opioid receptor distribution and for age- and sex-related differences in delta opioid receptor densities. The direction of change presents an interesting dichotomy in that, compared to

  10. Circulating estradiol and the activation of male and female copulatory behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Watson, J T; Abdelnabi, M; Wersinger, S; Ottinger, M A; Adkins-Regan, E

    1990-02-01

    Previous experiments using systemic and preoptic area (POA) hormone treatments have shown that aromatization of testosterone (T) to estrogen (E) is essential for activation of male-typical copulatory behavior in castrated male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Two experiments were conducted to determine whether circulating estrogen levels characteristic of normal intact males are high enough to activate male-typical or female-typical copulatory behavior. In Experiment 1, blood samples were drawn every 4 hr from groups of sexually active male quail housed under a 16L:8D light-dark cycle, and assayed for estradiol (E2) concentration. The mean +/- SEM serum E2 was 54.2 +/- 3.6 pg/ml, and no daily cycle in serum E2 was seen. The males were then tested for sexual behavior; 88% mounted females, and 23% crouched when mounted by males. In Experiment 2, 51 males were castrated and implanted with Silastic tubes containing estradiol benzoate (EB) and/or cholesterol designed to produce five different levels of serum E2, then tested for male- and female-typical copulatory behavior and bled. The serum E2 in EB-implanted quail which mounted (253 +/- 30 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that of intact quail in Experiment 1, and only 10.2% of intact males had serum E2 as high as the minimum associated with mounting in EB-implanted males. These results show that serum E2 levels in intact males are not high enough to support male-typical copulation, and that aromatization in the POA to produce locally high E2 levels may be required. In addition, it was found that the threshold serum E2 to elevate receptivity significantly was 3.6 times the intact male level, and only slightly higher than serum E2 reported for intact females. Thus the lack of receptivity in intact males is probably due to insufficient circulating E2, and the male is not defeminized with respect to sensitivity to E2 for activation of receptivity.

  11. Diagnosis and Control of a LPAI H5N8 Outbreak in a Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Commercial Flock in the Central Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, Silvia; Crossley, Beate; Breitmeyer, Richard; Charlton, Bruce R; Bland, Mark; Fowler, Kent; De La Torre, Felicia; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Wong, Sook-San; Wilson, Dennis; Jones, Annette; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    In April 2014 an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 North American genetic lineage was diagnosed in a commercial quail operation in Stanislaus County, California. Sudden increase in mortality prompted the submission of 20 Japanese quail hens (Coturnix c. japonica) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock Branch. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs tested positive for influenza A virus H5N8 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The virus was subsequently isolated. In vivo assay and sequencing of the hemagglutinin protein cleavage site classified the virus as a North American genetic lineage of low pathogenicity for chickens. Following the diagnosis, a rapid and coordinated response took place to contain the outbreak. The affected premise was depopulated, cleaned, and disinfected. Three areas from the affected premises-a 3 kilometer (km) radius (High Risk Zone), a 3-10 km area (Buffer Zone), and a 10-20 km (Surveillance Zone)-were established for avian influenza testing of commercial and noncommercial poultry operations. Surveillance testing and rapid control measures were successful in the control and eradication of the outbreak and revealed no area of spread of the virus from the index flock. This report describes the history, diagnosis, surveillance, and control measures applied to manage this outbreak.

  12. Primary analysis of DNA polymorphisms in the TRIM region (MHC subregion) of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kana; Tsuda, Kaoru; Hara, Hiromi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akira; Mizutani, Makoto; Shiina, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Based on sequences of two cosmid clones from Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, Coja), we confirmed that the syntenic cluster, GNB2L1∼BTN1∼BTN2, is located in the quail TRIM subregion of the quail major histocompatibility complex (MHC Coja) region. These cosmids also included four CjBG loci and one CjLEC locus; therefore, the quail TRIM subregion was thought to be adjacent to the BG/LEC subregion. We then identified three polymorphic markers - CjHEP21, CjTRIM39.2 and CjBTN2 - in the TRIM subregion that may be useful for the functional analysis of the MHC-Coja region. We examined MHC-Coja sequences from 321 individual quails sampled from 11 inbred strains, and we found eight alleles for each of the three genes - CjHEP21, CjTRIM39.2 and CjBTN2. These polymorphisms represent the first avian DNA markers in the TRIM subregion. Additionally, we discovered a quail-specific VNTR (variable number of long tandem repeats, 133-137 bp) in intron 7 of CjBTN2. We identified 25 haplotypes in the sample of 321 quail; these haplotypes comprised combinations of all 24 alleles of the three polymorphic genes. We suggest that there are two recombination hotspots, one between each pair of adjacent loci. All strains, except AMRP, contained multiple haplotypes; the AMRP strain contained a single, apparently fixed haplotype.

  13. Plasma disposition and tissue residue of Moxifloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Goudah, A; Hasabelnaby, S

    2014-01-01

    The disposition kinetics and the plasma availability of moxifloxacin were investigated in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration at 5 mg/kg body weight. Tissue residue profiles (liver, kidney, lung and muscle) and plasma were also studied after multiple intramuscular and oral administrations of 5 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Following intravenous injection, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 2.14 and 1.94 μg/ml and were obtained at 1.40 and 1.87 h (Tmax), post administration, respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities following intramuscular and oral administration, respectively, of moxifloxacin were 92.48 and 87.94%. 6. Tissue concentrations following i.m. and p.o. administration were highest in liver and kidney, respectively, and decreased in the following order: plasma, lung and muscle. No moxifloxacin residues were detected in tissues and plasma after 120 h after i.m. or oral administration.

  14. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) inseminations are more likely to fertilize eggs in a context predicting mating opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; MacKillop, Emiko A

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical developments in behavioural ecology have generated increased interest in the proximate mechanisms underlying fertilization, but little is known about how fertilization success is regulated by cues from the external or social environment in males and females. Here, we use a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm to show that inseminations resulting from mating male and female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) are more likely to fertilize eggs when they occur in a context predicting that an opposite-sex bird will appear than when they occur in a context predicting that an opposite-sex bird will not appear. This effect occurs when either the male or the female is the target of the conditioning. Thus, processes occurring during or after mating that contribute to fertilization success are subject to the influence of distal cues, confirming control by brain-level mechanisms. Conditioning is a widespread property of the nervous system and the demonstration that context conditioning can influence male and female reproductive success, and not simply mating success, has widespread implications for the fertilization successes of different types of copulation in natural mating systems. PMID:12964995

  15. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  16. Complete sequence of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) mitochondrial genome and its genetic relationship with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Hayashi, T; Tsudzuki, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2001-12-01

    The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; JQ) is one of the domesticated fowl species of Japan. To provide DNA sequence information for examination of its phylogenetic position in the order Galliformes, the complete sequence of the JQ mitochondria was determined. Sequence analysis revealed that the JQ mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA of 16 697 basepairs (bp), which is smaller than the chicken mitochondrial DNA of 16 775 bp, but the genomic structure of JQ mitochondria was the same as that of the chicken. The sequence homologies of all mitochondrial genes including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), between Japanese quail and chicken ranged from 78.0 to 89.9%. Because the sequences of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes had been reported in five species [Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant: RP), Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken: CH), Perdix perdix (grey partridge: GP), Bambusicola thoracia (Chinese bamboo partridge: CP), and Aythya americana (redhead: RH)], the concatenated nucleotide sequences (2184 bp) and amino acid sequences of these two genes were used in a phylogenetic analysis of JQ against these five species using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. Using the first and second bases of the codons, and the third base of the codons indicated a phylogenic tree of [RH, (RP, GP), (JQ, (CH, CP))]. A phylogenic tree of [RH, JQ, (RP, GP), (CH, CP)] was determined using amino acid sequences. Because the local bootstrap values for the JQ branch in these trees are not high, additional sequence is necessary for construction of a reliable tree.

  17. A low dose of an organophosphate insecticide causes dysbiosis and sex-dependent responses in the intestinal microbiota of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Moyano, Laura T.; Wilkinson, Ngare; Prasai, Tanka; Brown, Philip H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides have been directly or indirectly implicated in avian populations declining worldwide. Birds in agricultural environments are commonly exposed to these insecticides, mainly through ingestion of invertebrates after insecticide application. Despite insecticide exposure in birds occurring mostly by ingestion, the impact of organophosphates on the avian digestive system has been poorly researched. In this work we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as an avian model to study short-term microbial community responses to a single dose of trichlorfon at low concentration in three sample origins of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): caecum, large intestine and faeces. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons as bacterial markers, the study showed that ingestion of insecticide caused significant changes in the GIT microbiome. Specifically, microbiota composition and diversity differed between treated and untreated quail. Insecticide-associated responses in the caecum showed differences between sexes which did not occur with the other sample types. In caecal microbiota, only treated females showed significant shifts in a number of genera within the Lachnospiraceae and the Enterobacteriaceae families. The major responses in the large intestine were a significant reduction in the genus Lactobacillus and increases in abundance of a number of Proteobacteria genera. All microbial shifts in faeces occurred in phylotypes that were represented at low relative abundances. In general, changes in microbiota possibly resulted from contrasting responses towards the insecticide, either positive (e.g., biodegrading bacteria) or negative (e.g., insecticide-susceptible bacteria). This study demonstrates the significant impact that organophosphate insecticides have on the avian gut microbiota; showing that a single small dose of trichlorfon caused dysbiosis in the GIT of the Japanese quail. Further research is necessary to understand the

  18. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Hervé, Jessica C; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Yang, Yinfei; Jones, Paul D; Wan, Yi; Collins, Brian; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Egg injection studies were performed to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of birds to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In this model, species are classified as belonging to one of three categories of sensitivity based on amino acid substitutions in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Embryo lethality and relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) were compared with TCDD for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; least sensitive), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; moderately sensitive), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus; most sensitive). Doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 pmol/g egg (0.015-12 ng/g egg) were injected into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. LD(50) (95% confidence intervals) values, based on rate of hatching for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, were 30 (25-36), 4.9 (2.3-9.2), and 15 (11-24) pmol/g egg for the quail, 3.5 (2.3-6.3), 0.61 (0.28-1.2), and 1.2 (0.62-2.2) pmol/g egg for pheasant, and 0.66 (0.47-0.90), 0.75 (0.64-0.87), and 0.33 (0.23-0.45) pmol/g egg for chicken, respectively. LD(50)-based relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF were 6.1 and 2.0 for quail, 5.7 and 2.9 for pheasant, and 0.88 and 2.0 for chicken, respectively. TCDD was not the most potent compound among the species tested, with PeCDF and TCDF being more potent than TCDD in the quail and pheasant. TCDF was the most potent in chicken. Species sensitivity was as expected for TCDD and TCDF, whereas for PeCDF, the chicken and pheasant were similar in sensitivity and both were more sensitive than the quail. Results from companion in vitro studies are generally similar to those reported here with a few exceptions.

  19. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  20. Cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica regulates the diabetic and hyperlipidemic signs of high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Ciou, Jiun-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin; Ho, Hui-Ya

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet (n = 9), whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was orally given TA or rosiglitazone or not for 4 weeks. Blood and visceral adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Treatment with TA reduced body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT) (including epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric WAT and visceral fat), and hepatic triacylglycerol content significantly without affecting food intake in diet-induced diabetic mice. TA effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) and attenuated insulin resistance. Treatment with TA, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TA effectively significantly increased the protein contents of phosphorylation of AMPK-α (Thr172) both in liver and adipose tissue. It is shown that TA exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by decreasing gene expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of triglycerides, and antidiabetic properties occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) down- regulation, improved insulin sensitization and TA (at 1.0 g/kg dose) decreased expression of hepatic and adipose 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Futhermore, TA at doses of 0

  1. Developmental and posthatch effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    An egg injection study was conducted to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of three avian species to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. It was previously reported that the order of species sensitivity to in ovo exposure to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 picomoles (pmol)/g egg was the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) based on embryo mortality and hepatic enzyme induction. In the present study, the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses, and organ pathology of hatchlings as additional indicators of species sensitivity were assessed; in addition, embryo mortality in the three species was categorized by stage of development. Embryo mortality varied temporally with significant increases generally occurring after organogenesis and just prior to hatching. A significant increase in the percentage of developmental deformities was observed only in Japanese quail exposed to TCDF. Body and relative organ masses of quail, pheasants, and chickens dosed in ovo with TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF were not consistently affected. Chemical-related pathology occurred only in livers of quail at the greatest doses of each compound. These results indicated that the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses and organ pathology could not be used as indicators of species sensitivity or chemical potency.

  2. Are Farm-Reared Quails for Game Restocking Really Common Quails (Coturnix coturnix)?: A Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Donoso, Ines; Vilà, Carles; Puigcerver, Manel; Butkauskas, Dalius; Caballero de la Calle, José Ramón; Morales-Rodríguez, Pablo Antonio; Rodríguez-Teijeiro, José Domingo

    2012-01-01

    The common quail (Coturnix coturnix) is a popular game species for which restocking with farm-reared individuals is a common practice. In some areas, the number of released quails greatly surpasses the number of wild breeding common quail. However, common quail are difficult to raise in captivity and this casts suspicion about a possible hybrid origin of the farmed individuals from crosses with domestic Japanese quail (C. japonica). In this study we used a panel of autosomal microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic origin of quails reared for hunting purposes in game farms in Spain and of quails from an experimental game farm which was founded with hybrids that have been systematically backcrossed with wild common quails. The genotypes of these quail were compared to those of wild common quail and domestic strains of Japanese quail. Our results show that more than 85% of the game farm birds were not common quail but had domestic Japanese quail ancestry. In the experimental farm a larger proportion of individuals could not be clearly separated from pure common quails. We conclude that the majority of quail sold for restocking purposes were not common quail. Genetic monitoring of individuals raised for restocking is indispensable as the massive release of farm-reared hybrids could represent a severe threat for the long term survival of the native species. PMID:22701745

  3. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. PMID:26506376

  4. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-10-21

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis.

  5. Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest

  6. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Pourlis, Aris F.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies. PMID:24198967

  7. Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Maruccio, L; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; Gatta, C; Lucini, C; Cotea, C; Solcan, C; Nechita, E L

    2016-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts. By western blotting we detected that the investigated NTs and Trks receptors are expressed in all oviductal tracts. By immunohistochemistry we were able to define the distribution of NTs and Trks. Specifically, NGF, BDNF and NT3 were localized in lining and ductal epithelial cells, and NGF was also detected in secretory cells of tubular glands and in nervous fibers of vessel wall. TrkA and TrkB were present in the lining and ductal epithelium; TrkA and TrkC were present in nervous fibers of vessel wall in all oviductal tracts. Furthermore, we also observed NGF and BDNF co-localized with TrkA and TrkB in cells of the lining and ductal epithelium, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of action.

  8. Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Maruccio, L; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; Gatta, C; Lucini, C; Cotea, C; Solcan, C; Nechita, E L

    2017-03-01

    Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts. By western blotting we detected that the investigated NTs and Trks receptors are expressed in all oviductal tracts. By immunohistochemistry we were able to define the distribution of NTs and Trks. Specifically, NGF, BDNF and NT3 were localized in lining and ductal epithelial cells, and NGF was also detected in secretory cells of tubular glands and in nervous fibers of vessel wall. TrkA and TrkB were present in the lining and ductal epithelium; TrkA and TrkC were present in nervous fibers of vessel wall in all oviductal tracts. Furthermore, we also observed NGF and BDNF co-localized with TrkA and TrkB in cells of the lining and ductal epithelium, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of action.

  9. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Shukla, R.

    1997-01-01

    Short-latency vestibular-evoked potentials to pulsed linear acceleration were characterized in the quail. Responses occurred within 8 ms following the onset of stimuli and were composed of a series of positive and negative peaks. The latencies and amplitudes of the first four peaks were quantitatively characterized. Mean latencies at 1.0 g ms-1 ranged from 1265 +/- 208 microseconds (P1, N = 18) to 4802 +/- 441 microseconds (N4, N = 13). Amplitudes ranged from 3.72 +/- 1.51 microV (P1/N1, N = 18) to 1.49 +/- 0.77 microV (P3/N3, N = 16). Latency-intensity (LI) slopes ranged from -38.7 +/- 7.3 microseconds dB-1 (P1, N = 18) to -71.6 +/- 21.9 microseconds dB-1 (N3, N = 15) and amplitude-intensity (AI) slopes ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.08 microV dB-1 (P1/N1, N = 18) to 0.07 +/- 0.04 microV dB-1 (P3/N3, N = 11). The mean response threshold across all animals was -21.83 +/- 3.34 dB re: 1.0 g ms-1 (N = 18). Responses remained after cochlear extirpation showing that they could not depend critically on cochlear activity. Responses were eliminated by destruction of the vestibular end organs, thus showing that responses depended critically and specifically on the vestibular system. The results demonstrate that the responses are vestibular and the findings provide a scientific basis for using vestibular responses to evaluate vestibular function through ontogeny and senescence in the quail.

  10. Serum chemistry reference values in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) including sex-related differences.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, N; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G; Sauerwein, H

    2009-06-01

    Serum chemistry reference values may provide useful information about the physical condition of individuals, making them a useful tool in differentiating normal and healthy animals from abnormal or diseased states. For Japanese quail that are used for producing eggs and meat for human consumption and also as laboratory animals, we aimed to extend the available array of reference values and to compare 16-wk-old adult male versus female birds. In the present study, clinical chemistry data (albumin, total protein, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, bilirubin, cholinesterase, creatinine, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase) in blood serum from up to 125 male and 151 female Japanese quail were established. Statistical comparisons were made between male and female birds. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholinesterase, and bilirubin values were higher (P < 0.01) in males, whereas females had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of albumin, total protein, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. No significant sex-based differences were observed for creatinine and uric acid. The reference values provided are relevant in particular for the use of quail as laboratory animals when responses to specific treatments have to be monitored and appraised.

  11. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  12. Effect of 17ß trenbolone on male and female reproduction in japanese quail (Coturnix japonica japonica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anabolic steroid 17ß trenbolone (17ß-TB), a known endocrine disruptive chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17ß-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturati...

  13. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix).

    PubMed

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

    2010-02-26

    Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix), the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses). Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  14. Interspecific Hybridization as a Tool to Understand Vocal Divergence: The Example of Crowing in Quail (Genus Coturnix)

    PubMed Central

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not ‘fossilize’. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix), the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses). Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation. PMID:20195481

  15. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Hill, E F; Shaffner, C S

    1976-07-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  16. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  17. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.

    1988-05-01

    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile.

  18. Chronic stress and environmental enrichment as opposite factors affecting the immune response in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H

    2011-03-01

    Procedures in the commercial production of animals involve stressful situations which lessen the animal's welfare. This study on Japanese quail evaluated whether an environmental enrichment manipulation can affect avian immune responses and if combined with a chronic stressor exposure can help to counteract the negative effects of stress on the immune system. Potential gender effects were also considered. After hatch, half of the birds were housed in non-enriched boxes and half were housed in environmentally enriched boxes. From day 33 to 42 of age, all birds within half of the non-enriched and enriched boxes remained undisturbed while the other half were daily exposed to a 15 min restraint stressor (chronic stressor). The inflammatory response (lymphoproliferation after phytohemagglutinin-p), percentage of lymphocytes, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and primary antibody response against sheep red blood cells were assessed. The chronic stressor application and the enrichment procedure, respectively, either increased or reduced the four immunological parameters evaluated and always in opposite directions. Males consistently showed lower antibody titres than females and presented the highest H/L ratio in response to the stressor when reared in the non-enriched environment. The findings indicate that submitting these animals to an enriched environment can be effectively used to improve their immune response and to reduce the detrimental effects of a stressor exposure.

  19. Effects of corticosterone treatment on growth, development, and the corticosterone response to handling in young Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hull, K L; Cockrem, J F; Bridges, J P; Candy, E J; Davidson, C M

    2007-11-01

    Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid secreted during stress responses, has a range of actions that help birds respond to stressors. Although effects of corticosterone treatment have been described in several avian species, the impacts of defined increases in plasma corticosterone on early development and on corticosterone stress responses are little known. These issues were addressed by providing quail with different doses of corticosterone in drinking water from days 8 to 38 post-hatch. The corticosterone dose consumed by each bird during treatment days 15-30 was calculated by measuring water intake. The corticosterone dose was inversely, but weakly, correlated with weights of the bursa, thymus, spleen, liver, testes, oviduct, muscle, and body, and positively correlated with peritoneal fat deposition. When birds were divided into groups based on their corticosterone intake, weights of the spleen, thymus, bursa, muscle, testes, and oviduct were significantly reduced in birds receiving the highest doses; with the exception of muscle, similar reductions were also observed in birds receiving medium doses, and thymic growth was inhibited in birds receiving low doses. The acute corticosterone stress response was measured by handling birds for 15 min. Plasma corticosterone was transiently increased at 15 min in control birds in response to the handling stressor. Some birds consuming low doses of corticosterone had corticosterone responses similar to control birds. Initial corticosterone concentrations were elevated in birds consuming higher doses of corticosterone. Plasma corticosterone in these birds decreased from 0 to 15 min, then increased from 15 to 30 min. The initial decrease could be due to corticosterone clearance, whilst the increase could indicate that the birds had a greater response than control birds to isolation as a stressor. Corticosterone treatment may have reduced the strength of corticosterone negative feedback within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. The results indicate that individuals and organs differ in their sensitivity to corticosterone. Moreover, elevated plasma corticosterone may disrupt the acute corticosterone stress response, and may thus reduce the ability of birds to cope with stressors.

  20. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p < 0.05) on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability.

  1. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: Sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  2. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  3. Cellular metabolic rates in cultured primary dermal fibroblasts and myoblast cells from fast-growing and control Coturnix quail.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Cooper-Mullin, Clara; Anthony, Nicholas B; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-05-01

    Fibroblast cells have been extensively used in research, including in medicine, physiology, physiological-ecology, and conservation biology. However, whether the physiology of fibroblasts reflects the physiology of other cell types in the same animal is unknown. Dermal fibroblasts are responsible for generating connective tissue and involved in wound healing, but generally, this cell type is thought to be metabolically inactive until it is required at the site of tissue damage. Thus, one might question whether fibroblasts are a representative model system to portray the metabolic profile of the whole organism, as compared with cells isolated from other tissues, like muscle, brain or kidneys. To explore whether fibroblasts have the same metabolic profile as do myoblast cells, we cultured cells from day-old chicks of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) selected for fast-growth or normal growth (our control group). Our results suggest that isolated primary fibroblasts and myoblast cells had higher rates of glycolysis, oxygen consumption and more mitochondria in the fast-growing line than in the control line. Our findings lend support for the idea that fibroblasts are a representative cell system to characterize the whole organism metabolic signature at the cellular-level. These data are striking, however, because fibroblasts had higher rates of metabolism for every parameter measured than myoblast cells isolated from the same individuals.

  4. Effects of Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Type 2 Diabetes via PPAR-γ Activation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Min; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Haesu; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2015-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetic symptoms. Notwithstanding its use, the scientific basis on anti-diabetic properties of L. japonica is not yet established. This study is designed to investigate anti-diabetic effects of L. japonica in type 2 diabetic rats. L. japonica was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced rats. After the treatment of 4 weeks, L. japonica reduced high blood glucose level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic rats. In addition, body weight and food intake were restored by the L. japonica treatment. In the histopathologic examination, the amelioration of damaged β-islet in pancreas was observed in L. japonica-treated diabetic rats. The administration of L. japonica elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor subunit-1 protein expressions. The results demonstrated that L. japonica had anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetic rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulatory action of L. japonica as a potential mechanism.

  5. Immune Neuroendocrine Phenotypes in Coturnix coturnix: Do Avian Species Show LEWIS/FISCHER-Like Profiles?

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, F. Nicolas; Barrios, Bibiana E.; Kaiser, Pete; Marin, Raul H.; Correa, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoneuroendocrinology studies have identified conserved communicational paths in birds and mammals, e.g. the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by glucocorticoids. Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) have been proposed for mammals implying the categorization of a population in subgroups underlying divergent immune-neuroendocrine interactions. These phenotypes were studied in the context of the LEWIS/FISCHER paradigm (rats expressing high or low pro-inflammatory profiles, respectively). Although avian species have some common immunological mechanisms with mammals, they have also evolved some distinct strategies and, until now, it has not been studied whether birds may also share with mammals similar INPs. Based on corticosterone levels we determined the existence of two divergent groups in Coturnix coturnix that also differed in other immune-neuroendocrine responses. Quail with lowest corticosterone showed higher lymphoproliferative and antibody responses, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β mRNA expression levels and lower frequencies of leukocyte subpopulations distribution and interleukin-13 levels, than their higher corticosterone counterparts. Results suggest the existence of INPs in birds, comparable to mammalian LEWIS/FISCHER profiles, where basal corticosterone also underlies responses of comparable variables associated to the phenotypes. Concluding, INP may not be a mammalian distinct feature, leading to discuss whether these profiles represent a parallel phenomenon evolved in birds and mammals, or a common feature inherited from a reptilian ancestor millions of years ago. PMID:25793369

  6. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  7. Influence of animal age on body concentrations of minerals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sales, J; Skřivan, M; Englmaierová, M

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical modelling of the relationships between mineral inputs and outputs would enable the prediction of mineral requirements of poultry under a wide range of conditions. To establish the feasibility of possible modelling of mineral requirements, the current study aimed to describe the individual mineral concentrations of whole bodies of quail over the life cycle from hatching to 70 days of age. Quail were reared indoors without any restrictions that could limit growth. Sampling of birds (n = 6-18) was carried out at 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49 and 70 days after hatching. Freeze-dried samples of whole bodies (digestive contents removed) were analysed for ash, and macrominerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium) and microminerals (copper, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, zinc). Ash concentration followed a curvilinear trend, with a maximum of 101.7 g/kg dry matter at 32.77 days. Individual mineral concentrations, expressed as a proportion of ash, were fluctuating over time, with the most prominent changes at 3 days and again at either 14 or 21 days. Dissimilar patterns in individual mineral concentrations resulted that ratios between minerals followed inconsistent patterns over time. Although mineral contents in absolute quantities can be described through modelling over the entire life cycle of the bird, it can be concluded that variable concentrations of individual minerals could complicate further model development.

  8. Pavlovian Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Methamphetamine in Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, B. Levi; Singleton, Destiny L.; Akins, Chana K.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian drug discrimination (DD) procedures demonstrate that interoceptive drug stimuli may come to control behavior by informing the status of conditional relationships between stimuli and outcomes. This technique may provide insight into processes that contribute to drug-seeking, relapse, and other maladaptive behaviors associated with drug abuse. The purpose of the current research was to establish a model of Pavlovian DD in male Japanese quail. A Pavlovian conditioning procedure was used such that 3.0 mg/kg methamphetamine served as a feature positive stimulus for brief periods of visual access to a female quail and approach behavior was measured. After acquisition training, generalization tests were conducted with cocaine, nicotine, and haloperidol under extinction conditions. SCH 23390 was used to investigate the involvement of the dopamine D1 receptor subtype in the methamphetamine discriminative stimulus. Results showed that cocaine fully substituted for methamphetamine but nicotine only partially substituted for methamphetamine in quail. Haloperidol dose-dependently decreased approach behavior. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 modestly attenuated the methamphetamine discrimination suggesting that the D1 receptor subtype may be involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. The findings are discussed in relation to drug abuse and associated negative health consequences. PMID:24965811

  9. Efficacy of voriconazole in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) experimentally infected with Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Tell, Lisa A; Clemons, Karl V; Kline, Yvonne; Woods, Leslie; Kass, Philip H; Martinez, Marife; Stevens, David A

    2010-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes disease in birds. Our objectives were to determine pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate efficacy of voriconazole (VCZ) in a novel experimental quail model. After a single oral VCZ dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg, plasma concentrations peaked 2 h postdose (5.8 and 6.9 microg/ml) and remained above 0.5 microg/ml for 4 and 12 h postdose, respectively. For the efficacy study, ten-day-old Japanese quail (n = 60) were infected intratracheally with A. fumigatus conidia. Daily oral VCZ at 20 or 40 mg/kg was initiated 24 h postinfection (PI); infected diluent-treated birds were given de-ionized water orally. Preassigned birds were euthanized on days 5 or 10 PI. VCZ at 40 mg/kg prolonged survival compared to 20 mg/kg or diluent-treatment (P < 0.05) and lungs from birds given VCZ at 40 mg/kg had fewer colony forming units (CFU) than diluent-treated (P = 0.03). At day 10 PI, birds treated with VCZ at 20 mg/kg had significantly fewer fungi in the lungs as demonstrated by methenamine silver stain (P = 0.017) or immunohistochemistry, as compared to diluent-treated (P = 0.034). Histopathologically, VCZ-treated birds did not have necrotic lesions and showed a trend toward fewer with acute inflammatory changes. VCZ at 40 mg/kg was efficacious in quail with experimental pulmonary aspergillosis.

  10. Pavlovian discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Levi Bolin, B; Singleton, Destiny L; Akins, Chana K

    2014-07-01

    Pavlovian drug discrimination (DD) procedures demonstrate that interoceptive drug stimuli may come to control behavior by informing the status of conditional relationships between stimuli and outcomes. This technique may provide insight into processes that contribute to drug-seeking, relapse, and other maladaptive behaviors associated with drug abuse. The purpose of the current research was to establish a model of Pavlovian DD in male Japanese quail. A Pavlovian conditioning procedure was used such that 3.0 mg/kg methamphetamine served as a feature positive stimulus for brief periods of visual access to a female quail and approach behavior was measured. After acquisition training, generalization tests were conducted with cocaine, nicotine, and haloperidol under extinction conditions. SCH 23390 was used to investigate the involvement of the dopamine D1 receptor subtype in the methamphetamine discriminative stimulus. Results showed that cocaine fully substituted for methamphetamine but nicotine only partially substituted for methamphetamine in quail. Haloperidol dose-dependently decreased approach behavior. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 modestly attenuated the methamphetamine discrimination suggesting that the D1 receptor subtype may be involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. The findings are discussed in relation to drug abuse and associated negative health consequences.

  11. Effect of proctodeal gland foam on sperm kinetics in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Farooq, U; Cho, S; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, P K; Singh, R P; Malecki, I A

    2015-01-15

    The proctodeal gland of the male Japanese quail produces thick foam that accompanies semen when it is transferred to the female. It is thought that this foam enhances fertilization by improving the motility of the sperm, but reports are conflicting because the effect of foam on sperm motility has only been assessed subjectively The velocity of individual sperm was not able to be measured accurately, variations were large, and small changes in motility could not be accurately evaluated. So, we tested the hypothesis that foam affects the motility of spermatozoa of Japanese quail by analyzing motility objectively using computer-assisted semen analysis and determining changes in sperm kinetics in the presence of different concentrations of proctodeal gland foam. The addition of 5% or 10% foam to the sperm suspension increased (P < 0.05) all sperm kinetic parameters (the curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, the velocity of the average path, linearity, straightness, and beat cross frequency). As a result, the percentage of motile and progressive motile sperm also increased. All these parameters declined (P < 0.05) with a further increase in the concentration of foam to 15% and 20%. Furthermore, this effect was similar in males that were 8, 16, or 26 weeks of age. We conclude that sperm motility is enhanced by proctodeal gland foam, and this enhancement depends on its concentration.

  12. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ({sup 3}H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following {sup 3}H-T or {sup 3}H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following {sup 3}H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following {sup 3}H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus.

  13. Diagnosis of Marek's Disease From a Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) Using Paraffin-embedded Liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single paraffin-embedded liver section was submitted from a research flock of Japanese quail that had revealed focal infiltrations of immature lymphocytes within multiple visceral organs. Tumor cells were characterized as T-cells positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV) pp38 antigen by IHC dual st...

  14. Sperm proteasome degrades egg envelope glycoprotein ZP1 during fertilization of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sasanami, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Yoshizaki, Norio; Dohra, Hideo; Nishio, Shunsuke; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2012-10-01

    At the time of fertilization, the extracellular matrix surrounding avian oocytes, termed the perivitelline membrane (pvm), is hydrolyzed by a sperm-borne protease, although the actual protease that is responsible for the digestion of the pvm remains to be identified. Here, we show evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is functional in the fertilization of Japanese quail. The activities for the induction of the acrosome reaction and binding to ZP3 as revealed by ligand blotting of purified serum ZP1 are similar to those of pvm ZP1. Western blot analysis of purified ZP1 and ZP3 by the use of the anti-ubiquitin antibody showed that only pvm ZP1 was reactive to the antibody. In vitro penetration assay of the sperm on the pvm indicated that fragments of ZP1 and intact ZP3 were released from the pvm. Western blot analysis using the anti-20S proteasome antibody and ultrastructural analysis showed that immunoreactive proteasome was localized in the acrosomal region of the sperm. Inclusion of specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 in the incubation mixture, or depletion of extracellular ATP by the addition of apyrase, efficiently suppressed the sperm perforation of the pvm. These results demonstrate for the first time that the sperm proteasome is important for fertilization in birds and that the extracellular ubiquitination of ZP1 might occur during its transport via blood circulation.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following intravenous and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, M

    2012-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin were investigated in Japanese quails after a single dose of 10 mg/kg BW, given either intravenously or orally. 2. Following intravenous administration, the mean value of distribution at steady state (Vd(ss)), total body clearance (Cl(tot)) and mean residence time (MRT) of levofloxacin were 1·25 l/kg, 0·39 l/h/kg and 2·72 h, respectively. 3. Following oral administration of levofloxacin, the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 3·31 µg/ml and was achieved at a maximum time (T(max)) of 2 h. Mean residence time (MRT), mean absorption time (MAT) and bioavailability were 4·26 h, 1·54 h and 69·01%, respectively. In vitro plasma protein binding of levofloxacin was 23·52%. 4. Based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration, an oral dose of 10 mg/kg levofloxacin for every 12 h is recommended for a successful clinical effect in quails.

  16. Genetic variation of body temperature of Coturnix coturnix in two ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Becker, W A; Harrison, P

    1975-05-01

    Coturnix quail were placed in an environmental chamber maintained at 21 degree C. and rectal temperatures taken. The birds were subjected to an abrupt change to 36 degree C. and the temperatures taken hourly for eight hours and at 25, 38 and 72 hours. Females had higher temperatures than males. When birds were moved to 36 degrees C. their temperatures rose rapidly and then dropped to a level higher than when birds were in the 21 degrees C. chamber. The genetic and total variation estimated from the analysis of variance method decreased under this sudden thermal stress condition. Birds kept in 36 degrees C. for three weeks were shifted to 21 degrees C. Their body temperature dropped sharply and then increased to a level lower than that obtained in the 36 degrees C. environment. The genetic variation was essentially zero when shifted to a lower temperature while the total variation increased.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  18. Subchronic mercury exposure in coturnix and a method of hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCI 2) and organic (CH3HgCI) mercury chloride was studied in coturnix (Corurnix japonica) by feeding them mercuric compounds (CH3HgCI at concentrations of 0.125,0.5,2 and 8 ppm; HgCI2 at 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 ppm) in ad libitum diets from hatching to adulthood. Differences of response to the mercurials were compared on the basis of selected indicator enzymes and plasma chemistries. Comparisons of response to equivalent concentrations of the two mercurials and dose-response relationships were made at 1,3,5,7 and 9 weeks. Changes of activity were detected for brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (ASA T), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT). Changes of ASA T, LDH and OCT were then quantified by probit analysis and the mercurials were compared through their median effective concentrations (EC50). This quantal procedure was based on the establishment of normal control values for each enzyme and then classifying mercury-treated outliers (more than + 2 SD) as respondents. The EC50 values at 9 weeks for ASA T, LDH and OCT, respectively, were 9, 3 and 63 ppm for HgCl 2, and 5, 1 and 4 ppm for CH3HgCI. These results provided the basis for two hazard indices that were calculated by dividing the EC50 into the oral LD50 and the 5-d dietary LC50. Mercury also had contradictory effects on gonadal maturation in both sexes.

  19. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n = 15) was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P < 0.05) at lower concentrations. PMID:24527206

  20. Proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells in germinal disc and non-disc regions during follicular growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in situ.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Y; Okamoto, T; Tamura, T

    1996-05-01

    Proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells was analysed during ovarian follicular growth in laying Japanese quail. The birds were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 10 or 4 h before ovulation, that is, before or after a preovulatory LH surge, respectively, and incorporation of BrdU by follicular tissues was detected immunocytochemically. Cells labelled with BrdU were seldom seen in the most immature follicles in the ovarian cortex, whereas many granulosa and thecal cells were labelled with BrdU in medium-sized white yolky follicles (approximately 13.3% and 14.4% in granulosa and theca layers, respectively). Ten and four hours before ovulation, the granulosa cells in the germinal disc and non-disc regions of the third largest yellow yolky follicle (F3) were labelled with BrdU (approximately 8.4% and 9.4% in germinal disc; 6.1% and 9.0% in the non-disc region), but only those in the germinal disc region were labelled (approximately 5.4% and 4.0%) in the largest yellow yolky follicle (F1). The percentage of thecal cells labelled with BrdU 4 h before ovulation was significantly higher than the percentage labelled 10 h before ovulation, and was higher in F3 (approximately 11.7%) than in F1 follicles (approximately 5.4%) 4 h before ovulation. These results show that proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells occurs in both germinal disc and non-disc regions in growing follicles, but when a follicle matures proliferation is reduced and in the case of granulosa cells it is restricted to the germinal disc region.

  1. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  2. Identification and Metabolic Transformations of Carotenoids in Ocular Tissues of the Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica†

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Prakash; Serban, Bogdan; Zhao, Da You; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    As in humans and monkeys, lutein [(3R,3′R,6′R)-βε, -carotene-3,3′-diol] and zeaxanthin [a mixture of (3R,3′R)-β,β-carotene-3,3′diol and (3R,3′S-meso)-β,β-carotene-3,3′-diol] are found in substantial amounts in the retina of the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica. This makes the quail retina an excellent non-primate small animal model for studying the metabolic transformations of these important macular carotenoids that are thought to play an integral role in protection against light-induced oxidative damage such as that found in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we first identified the array of carotenoids present in the quail retina using C30-HPLC coupled with in-line mass-spectral and photodiode-array detectors. In addition to dietary lutein (2.1%) and zeaxanthin (11.8%), we identified adonirubin (5.4%), 3′-oxolutein (3.8%), meso-zeaxanthin (3.0%), astaxanthin (28.2%), galloxanthin (12.2%), ε,ε-carotene (18.5%), and β-apo-2′-carotenol (9.5%) as major ocular carotenoids. We next used deuterium-labeled lutein and zeaxanthin as dietary supplements to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolic transformations of these two ocular pigments in serum and ocular tissues. We then detected and quantitated labeled carotenoids in ocular tissue using both HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry and non-invasive resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results indicated that dietary zeaxanthin is the precursor of 3′-oxolutein, β-apo-2′-carotenol, adonirubin, astaxanthin, galloxanthin, and ε, ε-carotene, whereas dietary lutein is the precursor for meso-zeaxanthin. Studies also revealed that the pharmacokinetic patterns of uptake, carotenoid absorption, and transport from serum into ocular tissues were similar to results observed in most human clinical studies. PMID:17630780

  3. Shewanella japonica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E P; Sawabe, T; Gorshkova, N M; Svetashev, V I; Mikhailov, V V; Nicolau, D V; Christen, R

    2001-05-01

    Two strains of agar-digesting bacteria, KMM 3299T and KMM 3300, respectively isolated from sea water and the mussel Protothaca jedoensis, have been characterized. Based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, KMM 3299T showed the highest similarity (93-95%) to members of the genus Shewanella. The G+C contents of the DNAs of these strains were 43-44 mol%. The level of DNA homology between the two strains was conspecific (95%), indicating that they represent a distinct genospecies. These organisms were non-pigmented, Gram-negative, polarly flagellated, facultatively anaerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic and able to degrade a wide range of high molecular mass polymers, including alginate, carrageenan, laminaran and agar. The novel organisms were susceptible to gentamycin, carbenicillin, lincomycin and oleandomycin. The predominant cellular fatty acids were i-15:0, 16:0, 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7). Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5(n-3), was detected in the two isolates at levels of 1-8%, depending on the temperature of cultivation. Phylogenetic evidence, together with phenotypic characteristics, showed that the two isolates studied constitute a novel species of the genus Shewanella. The name Shewanella japonica is proposed; the type strain is KMM 3299T(= LMG 19691T = CIP 106860T).

  4. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  5. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:28300767

  6. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail.

  7. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those fed with untreated L. japonica feedstuff (mean weight gain of 1.31 g). At the same time, they also showed significantly higher levels of amylase, protease, and alginate lyase activities than the other groups. These individuals and those fed with the commercial feedstuff or heat-inactivated but B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonicas feedstuff showed enhanced levels of activities for the immune enzymes nitric oxide synthase, lysozyme, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase, compared to those fed with nontreated L. japonica feedstuff. Furthermore, A. japonicus individuals fed with B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonica feedstuff exhibited greater resistance to disease following Vibrio splendidus challenge, as shown by the much lower cumulative symptom (10 %) compared to the rest, which showed as much as 73 % in the case of individuals fed with the untreated L. japonica feedstuff. Analysis of their intestinal tract revealed a much lower number of total Vibrio sp. These results demonstrated that L. japonica in which the algin

  8. Reproductivity of Japanese quail fed mercuric chloride in the absence of vitamin D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was tested at 16 p.p.m. Hg for vitamin D sparing activity by presenting it dietarily in the presence and absence of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC) to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) for 25 days. No gross signs characteristic of mercury poisoning were observed, but some predictable effects of vitamin D deficiency on avian reproduction were manifested within 10 days. Rate of lay, egg shell thickness, and hatchability of fertile eggs decreased markedly for birds on vitamin D-deficient diets. Shell-less eggs were laid by these birds after 20 days and laying stopped entirely on the 23rd day. Laying resumed within 5 days after diets were refortified with 25-HCC. There was no detectable interaction between HgCl2 and vitamin D.

  9. Ancient DNA Resolves Identity and Phylogeny of New Zealand's Extinct and Living Quail (Coturnix sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Seabrook-Davison, Mark; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M.; Brunton, Dianne H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The New Zealand quail, Coturnix novaezealandiae, was widespread throughout New Zealand until its rapid extinction in the 1870's. To date, confusion continues to exist concerning the identity of C. novaezealandiae and its phylogenetic relationship to Coturnix species in neighbouring Australia, two of which, C. ypsilophora and C. pectoralis, were introduced into New Zealand as game birds. The Australian brown quail, C. ypsilophora, was the only species thought to establish with current populations distributed mainly in the northern part of the North Island of New Zealand. Owing to the similarities between C. ypsilophora, C. pectoralis, and C. novaezealandiae, uncertainty has arisen over whether the New Zealand quail is indeed extinct, with suggestions that remnant populations of C. novaezealandiae may have survived on offshore islands. Methodology/Principal Findings Using fresh and historical samples of Coturnix sp. from New Zealand and Australia, DNA analysis of selected mitochondrial regions was carried out to determine phylogenetic relationships and species status. Results show that Coturnix sp. specimens from the New Zealand mainland and offshore island Tiritiri Matangi are not the New Zealand quail but are genetically identical to C. ypsilophora from Australia and can be classified as the same species. Furthermore, cytochrome b and COI barcoding analysis of the New Zealand quail and Australia's C. pectoralis, often confused in museum collections, show that they are indeed separate species that diverged approximately 5 million years ago (mya). Gross morphological analysis of these birds suggests a parallel loss of sustained flight with very little change in other phenotypic characters such as plumage or skeletal structure. Conclusion/Significance Ancient DNA has proved invaluable for the detailed analysis and identification of extinct and morphologically cryptic taxa such as that of quail and can provide insights into the timing of evolutionary changes

  10. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  11. [HPLC-FPS establishment of Iris japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-zhuan; Luo, Ai-qin; Liu, Li-wen; Fang, Min; Deng, Yu-lin

    2006-09-01

    Samples extracted from the root of Iris japonica Thunb were analyzed and the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions was confirmed. Through analyzing the chromatography, the HPLC-FPS of Iris japonica Thunb was established.

  12. [EST-SSR identification of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Gui-Ming; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Xu-Min; Yu, Jun; Chen, Min

    2012-06-01

    Simple and effective methods are needed for the identification of Chinese medicinal material species and their variety. Lonicera japonica Thunb. is one of Chinese herbal medicines widely demanded. A total of 3 705 EST-SSRs of L. japonica and 2 818 EST-SSRs of L. japonica var. chinensis Thunb. were identified from EST database in our lab. In average, there was one EST-SSR per 4.05 kb in L. japonica ESTs and per 7.49 kb in L. japonica var. chinensis ESTs, separately. The identified SSRs in L. japonica were consisted of 51.98% dinucleotide and 34.61% trinucleotide repeats, while SSRs in L. japonica var. chinensis had 57.45% dinucleotide and 30.09% trinucleotide. The results reviewed that the classes AG/TC and GAG/TCT were predominant in the dinucleotide motifs and the trinucleotide motifs, respectively. Total 87 EST-SSRs were identified of significant difference between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. PCR products were obtained from 52 L. japonica samples in 13 out of 15 SSR markers tested. The polymorphism in L. japonica, L. japonica var. chinensis and other honeysuckles could be distinguished by three markers (jp.ssr4, jp.ssr64 and jp.ssr65) tested.

  13. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  14. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  15. Mitochondrial genome of Japanese angel shark Squatina japonica (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae).

    PubMed

    Chai, Aihong; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Squatina japonica belonging to the monogenetic family Squatinidae is endemic to the Northwest Pacific. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. japonica is 16,689 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The base composition of the genome is 31.10% A, 31.04% T, 24.42% C, and 13.43% G. The geographic clade and phylogenetic relationship of S. japonica are ambiguous. Therefore, studying the complete mitochondrial genome of S. japonica is highly important to understand the aforementioned aspect and to analyze the conservation genetics in the genus Squatina.

  16. Production of biodiesel from carbon sources of macroalgae, Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Yu Ri; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-10-01

    As aquatic biomass which is called "the third generation biomass", Laminaria japonica (also known as Saccharina japonica) consists of mannitol and alginate which are the main polysaccharides of algal carbohydrates. In this study, oleaginous yeast (Cryptococcus curvatus) was used to produce lipid from carbon sources derived from Laminaria japonica. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced by fermentation of alginate extracted from L. japonica. Thereafter, mannitol was mixed with VFAs to culture the oleaginous yeast. The highest lipid content was 48.30%. The composition of the fatty acids was similar to vegetable oils. This is the first confirmation of the feasibility of using macroalgae as a carbon source for biodiesel production.

  17. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950

  18. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-03-23

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen.

  19. Effects of low-protein diets on growth performance and carcass yields of growing French meat quails (France coturnix coturnix).

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Du, Y K; Xie, M; Li, X M; Wang, J D; Yang, P L

    2016-10-04

    A dose-response experiment with 5 analyzed dietary crude protein (CP) levels (17.61, 19.73, 21.58, 23.24, and 25.32%) was conducted to investigate the effects of low-protein diets on growth performance and carcass yields of French meat quails from 15 to 42 d of age. All diets were formulated to contain a similar dietary energy level and amino acid profile. A total of 400 fifteen-day-old French quails were divided into 5 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 4 replicate pens of 20 birds (10♂+10♀). At 42 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, CP intake, feed/gain, and the yields of breast part with bone, leg part with bone, and liver of quails from each pen were measured. The results showed significant effects of the low-CP diets on CP intake, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain at different experiment periods except for the sixth wk of age (P < 0.05). In addition, as dietary CP decreased from 25.32 to 17.61%, feed intake and feed/gain were increased linearly (P < 0.05), whereas CP intake showed the opposite trend and decreased gradually. On the other hand, the carcass yields of quail were not influenced by reducing dietary CP at 42 day of age (P > 0.05). Based on broken-line regression, 23.0%, 22.5%, and 20.4% were the minimum dietary CP to keep weight gain similar to the quails fed with 25.32% CP diets during the third, fourth, and fifth wk of age, respectively. In summary, with crystalline amino acid supplementation based on a similar amino acid profile, it was possible to formulate the low-protein diets containing about 22.0% CP for growing meat quails without adverse effects on growth and carcass yields of meat quails.

  20. Optimization and evaluation of microencapsulated artificial diet for mass rearing the predatory ladybird Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Artificial diet optimization is a key aspect in mass rearing of natural enemies since it influences the quality and feeding effectiveness, and thus the success of the biological control program. Here, we introduced the microencapsulation method to package liquid artificial diet for feeding of the ladybird Propylea japonica. An orthogonal test of the quality of microencapsulated artificial diets (ADMs) was performed on key variables in production; Ca-alginate concentration, chitosan concentration and weight ratio of wall material to inner diet. We compared the development and reproduction of P. japonica fed on the ADMs under different cold-stored periods with those fed on fresh aphids and liquid artificial diets, in addition to a comparison of respiration, locomotion and predation. Our results indicated that chitosan concentration and ratio of shell to core significantly influence the quality of ADMs. The optimal recipe is 1.0% Ca-alginate, 1.6% chitosan and shell : core = 1 : 2. Insects reared on fresh optimized ADMs were similar to those fed on fresh prey in all developmental and reproductive characteristics except for survival ratio and female fertility. ADMs appeared more beneficial than using a liquid artificial diet, although this may decrease with the prolonging of the cold-storage period. P. japonica fed either on fresh ADMs or fresh prey showed improved respiration and predation abilities compared to where liquid artificial diet was used. Our study indicates advantages of microencapsulation in the production of artificial diet for predatory ladybird rearing. A microencapsulated diet can directly increase the efficiency and stability of mass rearing.

  1. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Cai, Weiyan; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Wang, Yajie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qing; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. PMID:26257818

  2. Sensitive embryonic endpoints with in ovo treatment for detecting androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of chemicals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Utsumi, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the sensitive embryonic endpoints and a test system for detecting androgenic and anti-androgenic potential of chemicals using an in ovo treatment assay in Japanese quail. In ovo injection with 0 to 75 microg of cyproterone acetate (CA) was performed on d 12 of incubation, followed by 0 to 300 microg of testosterone propionate (TP) injection on d 13 and histological examination on d 16. Experimental groups were composed of control (twice injected corn oil injections; on d 12 and d 13, respectively), TP-L (corn oil and 30 microg of TP), TP-H (corn oil and 300 microg of TP), CA-L + TP-H (7.5 microg of CA and 300 microg of TP), and CA-H+ TP-H (75 microg of CA and 300 microg of TP). Histological examinations were performed in the cloacal gland, liver, kidneys, testes, ovaries, uropygial gland, and bursa of Fabricius. The cloacal gland consists of many glandular units (tubular gland structures) lined by developed or undeveloped glandular cells. The developed glandular cells were tall in height and contained mucous substance in the cytoplasm. The glandular units containing developed glandular cells were termed as the developing glandular units. The developing glandular units were observed in the TP-H, CA-L + TP-H, and CA-H + TP-H groups, but not in the control and TP-L groups, in both males and females. The ratio of developing glandular units to the total number of glandular units was significantly greater in TP-H than control and TP-L and was significantly decreased in CA-L + TP-H and CA-H + TP-H compared with TP-H in both males and females. The ratio was significantly greater in males than in females of CA-L + TP-H. No significant structural differences were observed in the other organs. These results suggest that the most sensitive endpoint of androgenic effects in quail embryo appeared in the cloacal glands. The ratio of the developing glandular units could be used for evaluation of androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of compounds.

  3. Effect of egg turning and incubation time on carbonic anhydrase gene expression in the blastoderm of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica).

    PubMed

    De Winter, P; Sugden, D; Baggott, G K

    2008-09-01

    1. The gene expression of carbonic anhydrase, a key enzyme for the production of sub-embryonic fluid (SEF), was assessed in turned and unturned eggs of the Japanese quail. The plasma membrane-associated isoforms CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV, and the cytoplasmic isoform CA II, were investigated in the extra-embryonic tissue of the blastoderm and in embryonic blood. 2. Eggs were incubated at 37.6 degrees C, c.60% RH, and turned hourly (90 degrees ) or left unturned. From 48 to 96 h of incubation mRNA was extracted from blastoderm tissue, reverse-transcribed to cDNA and quantified by real-time qPCR using gene-specific primers. Blood collected at 96 h was processed identically. 3. Blastoderm CA IV gene expression increased with the period of incubation only in turned eggs, with maxima at 84 and 96 h of incubation. Only very low levels were found in blood. 4. Blastoderm CA II gene expression was greatest at 48 and 54 h of incubation, subsequently declining to much lower levels and unaffected by turning. Blood CA II gene expression was about 25-fold greater than in the blastoderm. 5. The expression of CA IX in the blastoderm was the highest of all isoforms, yet unaffected by turning. CA XII did not amplify and CA XIV was present at unquantifiable low levels. 6. It is concluded that only gene expression for CA IV is sensitive to egg turning, and that increased CA IV gene expression could account for the additional SEF mass found at 84 to 96 h of incubation in embryos of turned eggs.

  4. [Bioinformatics analysis of DNA demethylase genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Chong; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-03-01

    The DNA demethylase genes are widespread in plants. Four DNA demethylase genes (LJDME1, LJDME2, LJDME3 and LJDME4) were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb by using bioinformatics methods and the proteins' physicochemical properties they encoded were predicted. The phylogenetic tree showed that the four DNA demethylase genes and Arabidopsis thaliana DME had a close relationship. The result of gene expression model showed that four DNA demethylase genes were different between species. The expression levels of LJDME1 and LJDME2 were even more higher in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis than those in L. japonica. LJDME] and LJDME2 maybe regulate the active compounds of L. japonica. This study aims to lay a foundation for further understanding of the function of DNA demethylase genes in L. japonica.

  5. The effect of sublethal dosages of five pesticides and a polychlorinated biphenyl on the avoidance response of coturnix quail chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.; Heinz, G.H.

    1974-01-01

    Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix) chicks were given sublethal amounts of chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, DDE, Ceresan M, or Aroclor 1254 (a polychlorinated biphenyl) in their feed, beginning at seven days of age, and their avoidance response to a moving silhouette was measured daily for fourteen days. The birds were on dosage for eight days, and on untreated feed for six days immediately thereafter. Group avoidance response was significantly suppressed (P from 0?01 to <0?001) by chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, Ceresan M, and Aroclor 1254. No effect of DDE on the birds' behaviour could be detected. The behaviour of the endrin-treated birds returned to normal after two days on untreated feed. The data indicated partial recovery for birds treated with dieldrin and chlordane, but none for those Ceresan M, or Aroclor 1254. The percentage of controls responding to the silhouette dropped from an average of 84 for the first four days to 70 on the sixth day; then it increased until the end of the test when it was almost 80. This apparently aberrant behaviour of healthy birds is tentatively attributed to a daily decrease in the discrepancy between the moving silhouette and the birds' schema for the silhouette, followed by maturation of the central nervous system, beginning at about the fourteenth day of age. We believe this maturation effected revival of interest and hence a heightened reaction to the stimulus.

  6. [Selection behavior of Cuscuta japonica on their hosts].

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Kong, Chuihua; Zhang, Chaoxian; Liang, Wenju; Wang, Peng

    2005-02-01

    A field investigation on the selection behavior of Cuscuta japonica on their hosts showed that among the test plant communities, the number of coiling, the time of haustorium occurring, and the rate of coiling of C. japonica on hosts followed the order of B. papyrifera, W. chinensis, I. cairica, and L. camara; but the length of the elongation of C. japonica growing tips from coiling to haustorium occurring was with the order of L. camara, I. cairica, W. chinensis, and B. papyrifera. Furthermore, the growing tips of C. japonica coiled 3 circles in left direction on all selected hosts in 12 hrs, but grew away after contacting PVC rods within 24 hrs. The host diversity of C. japonic was beneficial to the survival of both C. japonica and its hosts. The selection behavior of C. japonica on their hosts had no correlation with the total N contents of different hosts. It could be postulated that the secondary metabolites of hosts made a contribution to the selection behavior of C. japonica on their hosts.

  7. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos. PMID:27403439

  8. Immunosuppressive activities of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanbin; Li, Zhien; Zhou, Gefei; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong

    2003-12-01

    Effects of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and the serum levels of IgG, IgM, complement C3 and C4 were investigated in the present study. Results showed that oral administration of fucoidan at dose of 150 and 300 mg/(kg· d) for 9 days before the hapten challenge significantly inhibited 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; and also inhibited the humoral immunity. Serum C3 and C4 levels were markedly reduced by fucoidan at dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg; and serum IgG and IgM levels were reduced by fucoidan at dose of 300mg/kg. The inhibitory effects of fucoidan on delayed-type hypersensitivity suggested that it may be potential medication for chronic inflammatory diseases in the future.

  9. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  10. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  11. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of the alga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Ly, Hoang Vu; Choi, Gyeong-Ho; Kim, Jinsoo; Woo, Hee Chul

    2012-11-01

    Saccharina japonica can be converted to bio-oil, gas, and char through pyrolysis. In this study, the pyrolysis characteristics of S. japonica were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Most of the materials decomposed between 200°C and 350°C at heating rates of 10-20°C/min. The apparent activation energy increased from 102.5kJmol(-1) to 269.7kJmol(-1) with increasing pyrolysis conversion. The kinetic parameters of S. japonica pyrolysis were determined using nonlinear least-squares regression of the experimental data assuming first-order kinetics. The kinetic rate constants indicated that the predominant reaction pathway was B (bio-oil) to C (gas; C(1)-C(4)), rather than A (S. japonica) to B (bio-oil) and/or to C (gas; C(1)-C(4)). The proposed lumped kinetics of S. japonica pyrolysis offers a guide for the scale-up of the process at the research and industrial level.

  12. Rapid quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicera species in preparations of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Qing; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is often adulterated with Lonicerae Flos, which is derived from the other four Lonicera species, in both the crude drug and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. We proposed a methodology for the quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. Taking macranthoidins A, B, dipsacoside B (saponins), sweroside (iridoids), and luteolin-7-O-d-glucoside (flavonoids) as markers, a method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was employed to determine their amounts in Lonicerae Flos, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. The proportion of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations was estimated based on the saponin contents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. All analytes separated under isocratic elution in 12 min with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was easily distinguished from Lonicerae Flos by the total amount of saponins (0.067 and > 45.8 mg/g for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, respectively). Eighteen of twenty one Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparation samples were adulterated with Lonicerae Flos in proportions of 11.3-100%. The developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method could be used for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the four species of Lonicerae Flos and for the analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations adulterated with Lonicerae Flos.

  13. Translocation of (133)Cs administered to Cryptomeria japonica wood.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Dan; Asai, Ryutaro; Tomioka, Rie; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Tabuchi, Masao; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-15

    To reveal the in planta behaviour of caesium (Cs), the stable isotope (133)Cs was administered into 3-year-old Cryptomeria japonica seedlings by the application of (133)CsCl aqueous solution to the bark surface. The administered (133)Cs was quantified by ICP-MS measurements, which showed transportation of (133)Cs in an ascending direction in the stem. Distribution of (133)Cs was visualized using freeze-fixed C. japonica woody stem samples and cryo-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry/scanning electron microscopy (cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM) analysis. Cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM visualization suggested that (133)Cs was rapidly transported radially by ray parenchyma cells followed by axial transportation by pith and axial parenchyma cells. Adsorption experiments using powdered C. japonica wood samples and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis suggested that (133)Cs was in the hydrated state following its deposition into tracheid cell walls.

  14. Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-01-01

    New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties. PMID:25054108

  15. Identification of carotenoids from the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yatsunami, Rie; Ando, Ai; Yang, Ying; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kohno, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fukui, Toshiaki; Nakasone, Kaoru; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Sekine, Mitsuo; Takashina, Tomonori; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The carotenoids produced by extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica were extracted and identified by their chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic characteristics (UV-Vis and mass spectrometry). The composition (mol%) was 68.1% bacterioruberin, 22.5% monoanhydrobacterioruberin, 9.3% bisanhydrobacterioruberin, <0.1% isopentenyldehydrorhodopin, and trace amounts of lycopene and phytoene. The in vitro scavenging capacity of a carotenoid, bacterioruberin, extracted from Haloarcula japonica cells against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of bacterioruberin was much higher than that of β -carotene. PMID:24672517

  16. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  17. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory components from Cayratia japonica.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang Hua; Hong, Seong Su; Hwang, Ji Sang; Lee, Myung Koo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Ro, Jai Seup

    2007-01-01

    Seven flavonoids were isolated from the whole plants and fruits of Cayratia japonica through the activity-guided isolation of a methanol extract using a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition assay as a monitor. The chemical structures of the isolates were assigned as apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), apigenin (2), luteolin (3), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), (+)-dihydroquercetin (taxifolin) (5), (+)-dihydrokaempferol (aromadendrin) (6) and quercetin (7). Among the isolated compounds, flavones such as apigenin (2) and luteolin (3), as well as the flavonol, quercetin (7) showed potent inhibitory effects against the MAO activity with IC50 values of 6.5, 22.6, and 31.6 microM, respectively. However, the flavone glycosides, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1) and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), showed mild MAO inhibition (IC50 values: 81.7 and 118.6 microM, respectively). The flavanonol derivatives, taxifolin (5) and aromadendrin (6), also showed weak inhibition (IC50 values: 154.7 and 153.1 microM, respectively). Furthermore, quercetin (7) had a more potent inhibitory effect on MAO-A (IC50 value: 2.8 microM) than MAO-B (IC50 value: 90.0 microM). Apigenin (2) and luteolin (3) also preferentially inhibited MAO-A (IC50 values: 1.7 and 4.9 microM, respectively) compared with MAO-B (IC50 values: 12.8 and 59.7 microM, respectively).

  18. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388

  19. Anti-inflammatory terpenes from flowers of Inula japonica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng-An; Zhu, Hong; Qin, Nan; Zhou, Jing-Ya; Lee, Eunkyung; Kong, De-Xin; Jin, Mei-Hua; Duan, Hong-Quan

    2014-05-01

    Five new terpenes (1-5) and ten known compounds (6-15) were isolated from Inula japonica, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 3 and 14 showed positive inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production. Furthermore, compound 14 suppressed both leukotriene C4 synthesis and degranulation in c-kit ligand-induced bone marrow-derived mast cells.

  20. Sheath-blight resistance QTLs and in japonica rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and genetic resistance is in demand by rice breeders. With the goal of resistance-QTL discovery in U. S. japonica breeding material, a set of 197 F1 doubled-haploid lines (DHLs)...

  1. Study on sori formation in Laminaria japonica aresch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuankui; Jiang, Shumei; Chen, Benzhou; Li, He

    1989-06-01

    Sori formation in Laminaria japonica was studied from the ecological and physiological point of view. Cutting through the medulla of Laminaria japonica improved the formation of sori. Sori formation under different water temperature, photoperiod, and light intensity was investigated and total nitrogen and reducible sugar content determined. The result showed that sori of L. japonica can be formed in 1 22°C water in Dalian. No sori were found in water over 23°C. High temperature inhibits the formation of sori, but low temperature has no effect. Apparently, light intensity affects the formation of sori, but photoperiod does not. In shallow water L. japonica grows slower but stores dry material faster and forms sori rapidly. In deeper water it grows faster in length but stores dry material slower and the sori formation is slow. Analysis of dry material shows that during sori formation the water content decreases but total nitrogen and total reducible sugar increase. Only when the storage of sugar reaches a certain level can sori begin to form. Cutting through the medulla interrupts the passage of nutrients to the growth area. Storage of carbohydrates and nitrogen is the main factor affecting sori formation.

  2. Comparison of bioactive components and pharmacological activities of ophiopogon japonicas extracts from different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Xu, Wan-Feng; Shen, Han-Yuan; Shen, Pei-Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Dan-Dan; Xu, Han; Wang, Hong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Lin; Hao, Hai-Ping; Wang, Guang-Ji; Cao, Li-Juan

    2017-02-07

    Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl (O. japonicas), mainly cultivated in Sichuan and Zhejiang province in China, has different bioactive components and therefore their pharmacological activities. To explain the different clinical efficacy of O. japonicas derived preparations, herein we report differences of pharmacological activities between Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas and behind them the exact differences of bioactive components. Based on a LC/MS-IT-TOF method, the differences of bioactive components between Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas extracts were analyzed and respective characteristic components were picked out. We determined 39 ophiopogonones and 71 ophiopogonins compounds in Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas extracts and found the contents of these compositions have several times difference. Evidenced by experimental data of pharmacological activities in inhibiting cardiomyocyte damage induced by H2O2, mouse macrophage cell inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide and cytotoxicity in vitro, Zhejiang O. japonicas extract had a stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity than Sichuan O. japonicas extract, and the two O. japonicas extracts exhibited selective cytotoxicity on different cancer cell lines in vitro. These data shed light on the links between bioactive components and pharmacological activities of O. japonicas derived preparations. Thus, geographical origin of O. japonicas should be considered to be a key factor in efficacy studies and further clinical application.

  3. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  4. [Bioinformatics analysis and expressed level of histone methyltransferase genes in Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Long, Ping; Zha, Liang-ping; Wang, Yao-long

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three histone methyltransferase genes were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica. The nucleotide and proteins characteristics, subcellular localization, senior structural domains and conservative forecasting were analyzed. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that 23 histone methyltransferases were mainly divided into two groups: lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferases. The result of gene expression showed that 23 histone methyltransferases showed preference in terms of interspecies and organs. They were more expressed in buds of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis and lower in leaves of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis. Eight genes were specific expressed in flower. These results provided basis for further understanding the function of histone methyltransferase and epigenetic regulation of active ingredients of L. japonica.

  5. Schistosomiasis japonica: modelling as a tool to explore transmission patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Lv, Shan; Wang, Qing-Yun; Qian, Men-Bao; Liu, Qin; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Modelling is an important tool for the exploration of Schistosoma japonicum transmission patterns. It provides a general theoretical framework for decision-makers and lends itself specifically to assessing the progress of the national control programme by following the outcome of surveys. The challenge of keeping up with the many changes of social, ecological and environmental factors involved in control activities is greatly facilitated by modelling that can also indicate which activities are critical and which are less important. This review examines the application of modelling tools in the epidemiological study of schistosomiasis japonica during the last 20 years and explores the application of enhanced models for surveillance and response. Updated and timely information for decision-makers in the national elimination programme is provided but, in spite of the new modelling techniques introduced, many questions remain. Issues on application of modelling are discussed with the view to improve the current situation with respect to schistosomiasis japonica.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes; order Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masato; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    We used two sequencing methods, namely long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer walking, to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Dugesia japonica and most of the mtDNA sequence of Dugesia ryukyuensis. The genome of D. japonica contained 36 genes including 12 of the 13 protein-coding genes characteristic of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The genome of D. ryukyuensis contained 33 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 19 transfer RNA genes. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome from the Dugesia species showed no clear homology with either the Neodermata or other free-living Rhabditophora. This indicates that the platyhelminths exhibit great variability in mitochondrial gene order. This is the first complete sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome of a free-living member of Rhabditophora, which will facilitate further studies on the population genetics and genomic evolution of the Platyhelminthes.

  7. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hee Ju; Nho, Chu Won; Bae, Gwi- Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively). In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97%) than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß)-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a bioaerosol control

  8. Extremely low genomic diversity of Rickettsia japonica distributed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-04

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers." The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of R. japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles.

  9. Extremely Low Genomic Diversity of Rickettsia japonica Distributed in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P.; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as “spotted fevers”. The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles. PMID:28057731

  10. Application of praziquantel in schistosomiasis japonica control strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Huang, Yixin

    2013-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in the world, and in China, schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in the south part of the country. In 1960s, before praziquantel was developed, there were about seven million patients. Praziquantel has a high efficacy against Schistosoma, few and transient side effects, simple administration and competitive cost, and is equally suited for both individual and large-scale treatment. Praziquantel has been widely used in the morbidity control, transmission control, and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica in China since 1980s. The schemes of praziquantel chemotherapy include the diagnostic selective chemotherapy, extensive chemotherapy, mass chemotherapy, stratified chemotherapy, phased chemotherapy, etc. Chemotherapy alone or combined with other control measure, such as Oncomelania snail control, health education, safety water supply, and so on, has achieved a great success, and there are only 0.33 million infected people now. This paper reviews the application of praziquantel in the schistosomiasis japonica control strategies in China so as to provide the rich experiences for reference of health workers of other countries where schistosomiasis is endemic.

  11. [Numerical taxonomy of agronomic trait in cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Sixty-three morphological traits from 743 specimens of the 41 taxa within the cultivated Lonicera japonica were observed and measured, such as the height of plants, the length of leaf, the width of leaf, the length of anther, the alabastrum's number of one branch, the color of alabastrum and so on. A numerical taxonomy is presented by using the cluster analysis, principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis. Sixteen of 63 characters were screened by means of PCA and used for cluster analysis of 41 taxa with the method of Ward linkage and average euclidean distance. The cluster analysis showed that the 41 taxa could be divided into 5 groups when the Euclidean distance coefficient was 11.84. The factor analysis indicated that the shape of leaf, color of alabastrum, the pilosity and color of twiggery were of significance for the cultivated L. japonica classification. The results of this study will be a base for the core collection and breeding of L. japonica.

  12. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  13. Duration of Temperature exposure controls growth of Zostera japonica: implications for zonation and colonization

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass congeners in the genus Zostera are found along the Pacific Coast of North America: native Z. marina L. and the non-native Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn. Efforts to understand the drivers behind the expanding colonization of Z. japonica have led to interest ...

  14. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  15. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  16. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  17. A comparative karyological study of the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, Phasianidae) and California quail (Callipepla californica, Odontophoridae).

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    We conducted comparative chromosome painting and chromosome mapping with chicken DNA probes against the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, CCH) and California quail (Callipepla californica, CCA), which are classified into the Old World quail and the New World quail, respectively. Each chicken probe of chromosomes 1-9 and Z painted a pair of chromosomes in the blue-breasted quail. In California quail, chicken chromosome 2 probe painted chromosomes 3 and 6, and chicken chromosome 4 probe painted chromosomes 4 and a pair of microchromosomes. Comparison of the cytogenetic maps of the two quail species with those of chicken and Japanese quail revealed that there are several intrachromosomal rearrangements, pericentric and/or paracentric inversions, in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 between chicken and the Old World quail. In addition, a pericentric inversion was found in chromosome 8 between chicken and the three quail species. Ordering of the Z-linked DNA clones revealed the presence of multiple rearrangements in the Z chromosomes of the three quail species. Comparing these results with the molecular phylogeny of Galliformes species, it was also cytogenetically supported that the New World quail is classified into a different clade from the lineage containing chicken and the Old World quail.

  18. A bacterial pathogen infecting gametophytes of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yanting; Li, Wei

    2013-03-01

    A newly identified bacterial disease of kelp ( Saccharina japonica) gametophytes was found in clone cultures. It is characterized by swollen gametophyte cells in the early period of infection followed by filamentous fading. An alginolytic marine bacterium referred to as A-1 was isolated from the diseased gametophytes. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing and morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterium was identified as a strain of the genus Alteromonas. By testing Koch's postulates, Alteromonas sp. A-1 was further confirmed as the pathogen. The infection process was also investigated using both scanning electron and light microscopy.

  19. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females. PMID:26492411

  20. Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2017-04-01

    Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

  1. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  2. Concentrating phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cunyu; Ma, Yun; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Response surface analysis methodology was used to optimize the concentrate process of phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technique. On the basis of the influences of pressure, temperature and circulating volume, the retention rate of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were selected as index, molecular weight cut-off of nanofiltration membrane, concentration and pH were selected as influencing factors during concentrate process. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The optimal concentrate conditions were as following: nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off, 150 Da; solutes concentration, 18.34 µg/mL; pH, 4.26. The predicted value of retention rate was 97.99% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 98.03±0.24%, which was in accordance with the predicted value. These results demonstrate that the combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process of Lonicera japonica water-extraction by nanofiltration, and the results provide the basis for nanofiltration concentrate for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Hirata, Makiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  4. [Study on antioxidant chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica leaves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Zhang, Qi-wei; Li, Chun; Liu, Su

    2015-06-01

    Guided by the antioxidant activity, the EtOAc-soluble and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the 50% methanol extract of Lonicera japonica leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatorgraphic methods, and the structures were identified by spectral analysis and comparison to the data reported in literature. As a result, nine compounds were obtained and identified as 5-O-caffeoylquinicacid (1), chlorogenicacid (2), 4-O-caffeoylquinicacid (3), luteolin-7-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)] -β-D-glucopyranoside (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8) and luteolin (9). The antioxidant activity of the nine compounds were determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging method, and ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Their antioxidant activities from high to low were 5 > 9 > 2 > 8 > 7 > 6 > 1 > 3 > 4. Among them, luteoloside (5) had the strongest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 0.018 18 g x L(-1), and luteolin (IC50 0.023 6 g x L(-1)) and chlorogenicacid (IC50 0.035 17 g x L(-1)) ranks No. 2 and 3. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of luteoloside and luteolin were stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 0.027 54 g x L(-1)). These results gave a basis for the further study and utilization of L. japonica leaves.

  5. Complete plastid genome of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl and comparative analysis in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liqun; Guan, Qijie; Amin, Awais; Zhu, Wei; Li, Mengzhu; Li, Ximin; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-01-01

    Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl (loquat) is an evergreen Rosaceae fruit tree widely distributed in subtropical regions. Its leaves are considered as traditional Chinese medicine and are of high medical value especially for cough and emesis. Thus, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of E. japonica to better utilize this important species. The complete plastid genome of E. japonica is 159,137 bp in length, which contains a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IR, 26,326 bp) separated by large (LSC, 89,202 bp) and small (SSC, 19,283 bp) single-copy regions. The E. japonica plastid genome encodes 112 unique genes which consist of 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Gene structure and content of E. japonica plastid genome are quite conserved and show similarity among Rosaceous species. Five large indels are unique to E. japonica in comparison with Pyrus pyrifolia and Prunus persica, which could be utilized as molecular markers. A total of 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected and most of them are mononucleotide repeats composed of A or T, indicating a strong A or T bias for base composition. The Ka and Ks ratios of most genes are lower than 1, which suggests that most genes are under purifying selection. The phylogenetic analysis described the evolutionary relationship within Rosaceae and fully supported a close relationship between E. japonica and P. pyrifolia.

  6. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  7. Utilization of weedy rice for development of japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Ma, Dian Rong; Xu, Zheng Jin; Deng, Hua Feng; Chen, Wen Fu; Yuan, Long Ping

    2011-05-01

    Two representative weedy rice lines, three typical japonica varieties and three typical indica varieties were used for 6 pairs of reciprocal crosses. The morphological traits of twelve F(1) hybrid lines, their parents and four elite cultivars were investigated for heterosis over mid-parent (HM), over parent (HP) and competitive heterosis (CH) analysis. Traits detected in weedy rice lines seemed larger than those in cultivars and excellent heterosis was produced in weedy rice crossing with japonica rice. Although weedy rice kept closer relationships with japonica rice compared to indica rice. But the heterosis of reciprocal crosses between weedy rice and japonica was closed to those of crosses between indica rice and japonica rice. In six of one hundred and eighteen weedy rice lines, the fertility restore gene for BT type cytoplasmic male sterility (BT-CMS) were detected. Weedy rice was very valuable germplasm resources with the abundant polymorphism. Meanwhile, the disadvantage, lodging, shattering and incompact plant type, should be modified by hybridization, backcross and multiple cross with japonica rice. Although it is difficult to use weedy rice directly, weedy rice may be available to breed both male sterile line and restorer line through improvement, developing japonica hybrid rice.

  8. Science and management of the introduced seagrass Zostera japonica in North America.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Deborah J; Kaldy, James E; Gaeckle, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Zostera japonica. Z. japonica is considered "invasive" and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. Oregon and British Columbia, Canada appear to have no specific policies with regard to Z. japonica. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develop better informed management decisions and aid in defining a uniform management strategy for Z. japonica.

  9. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Deborah J.; Kaldy, James E.; Gaeckle, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Zostera japonica. Z. japonica is considered "invasive" and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. Oregon and British Columbia, Canada appear to have no specific policies with regard to Z. japonica. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develop better informed management decisions and aid in defining a uniform management strategy for Z. japonica.

  10. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  11. [Ecological characteristics of Zostera japonica population in Swan Lake of Rongcheng, Shandong Province of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Feng; Liu, Peng; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Xu-Jia; Yang, Hong-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a large area of well preserved Zostera japonica dominated meadow was found in a coastal lagoon, Swan Lake, in Rongcheng of Shandong Province. Due to its unique geographical position and high biomass, this meadow may act as a typical Z. japonica bed in the coastal area of Shandong. From September, 2011 to October, 2012, an annual investigation was conducted on the Z. japonica and its habitats in east coast of Swan Lake, and the distribution of the Z. japonica and its habitats ecological characteristics were preliminarily understood. The major ingredients of sediments particles in the Z. japonica bed was sand (81%) and silt (14%). The C and N contents in the sediments were the highest in winter, and the C/N ratio was the highest in autumn. The shoot density, shoot height, and biomass of the Z. japonica were all significantly correlated with water temperature (P < 0.05). There was an obvious change in the Z. japonica growth among seasons, with the peak biomass obtained in August-September. The C and N contents and C/N in Z. japonica leaves also varied with seasons. The leaf C content was significantly higher in autumn than in spring and summer (P < 0.05), the leaf N content was significantly lower in summer than in spring and autumn (P < 0.01), whereas the leaf C/N ratio was significantly higher in summer than in spring (P < 0.05). The annual carbon sequestration by the Z. japonica in the Swan Lake was estimated to be 111.4 g C x m(-2).

  12. Genetic relationships in a germplasm collection of Camellia japonica and Camellia oleifera using SSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Ruan, C J; Ding, G J; Mopper, S

    2017-02-16

    Camellia japonica produces different color and bigger flowers, widely being used for gardening green in southern China. However, cultivars were introduced from different regions, but their origin and pedigree information is either not available poorly documented, causing problems in authentication. Many low-yield trees in Camellia oleifera forests have been used as stocks for grafting C. japonica. However, the survival rate of grafts between these two species is related to genetic relationship between stock of C. oleifera and scion of C. japonica. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to genotype 41 C. japonica cultivars from different regions, as well as nine genotypes of C. oleifera in China. Twenty-one SSR markers generated 438 alleles, with an average of 20.85 alleles per locus. All alleles were used to generate Dice coefficients between two genotypes of all genotypes of these two species. Cluster analysis based on SSR data clustered genotypes showed clustering of genotypes into groups that agreed well with their taxonomic classification and geographic origin. Cultivar 'Damaonao' was a large tree with flowers of composite color, and showed the most genetic distance from other C. japonica cultivars and C. oleifera genotypes in the cluster analysis. The cultivars of C. japonica are distinct from genotypes of C. oleifera. The results for cultivars of C. japonica also revealed the presence of different cultivars with the same name, and identical cultivars but with a different name. SSR profiles can improve C. japonica germplasm management, and provide potential determine correlations between genetic relationship and graft compatibility among scions of C. japonica and genotypes of C. oleifera.

  13. Floral affinity and benefits of dietary mixing with flowers for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2004-07-01

    Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits.

  14. Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean A; Jones, Stephanie K Courtney; Munn, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta.

  15. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  16. Suppressive effects of long-term exposure to P-nitrophenol on gonadal development, hormonal profile with disruption of tissue integrity, and activation of caspase-3 in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Fayez, Mostafa; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Samir, Haney; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-07-01

    P-Nitrophenol (PNP) is considered to be one of nitrophenol derivatives of diesel exhaust particles. PNP is a major metabolite of some organophosphorus compounds. PNP is a persistent organic pollutant as well as one of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Consequently, bioaccumulation of PNP potentiates toxicity. The objectives of the current study were to assess in vivo adverse effects of long-term low doses of PNP exposure on reproductive system during development stage. Twenty-eight-day-old male Japanese quails were orally administered different doses of PNP (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg body weight) daily for 2.5 months. Testicular histopathology, hormones, caspase-3 (CASP3), and claudin-1 (CLDN1) tight junction protein, as well as plasma hormones were analyzed. The results revealed that long-term PNP exposure caused testicular histopathological changes such as vacuolation of spermatogenic cell and spermatocyte with significant testicular and cloacal gland atrophy. PNP activated CASP3 enzyme that is an apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase. Besides, it disrupted the expression of CLDN1. Furthermore, a substantial decrease in plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone was observed after 2 and 2.5 months in the PNP-treated groups. Meanwhile, the pituitary LH did not significantly change. Site of action of PNP may be peripheral on testicular development and/or centrally on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through reduction of pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Consequently, it may reduce the sensitivity of the anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH. In conclusion, PNP induced profound endocrine disruption in the form of hormonal imbalance, induction of CASP3, and disruption of CLDN1 expression in the testis. Hence, it may hinder the reproductive processes.

  17. Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

    2010-05-01

    Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

  18. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P < 0.05). The highest total coelomocytes counts in coelomic fluid were found in the treatment with 150 mg/kg of dietary NT (P < 0.05). Compared to those fed with the basal diet, sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P < 0.05). Respiratory burst activities in coelomic fluid significantly increased with increasing dietary NT supplementations up to 700 mg/kg (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the activities of superoxide dismutase, total nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase in coelomic fluid were found among all the treatments (P > 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P < 0.05). Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 375 mg/kg NT is able to enhance both non-specific immune response and growth of sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in

  19. Salinity tolerance of eggs of Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura) inhabiting coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Buergeria japonica is one of a few frogs that breed in coastal areas. To understand why this species can breed in coastal areas, I tested the salinity tolerance of eggs of B. japonica collected from a coastal area of Okinawa Island, Japan. All eggs hatched within four days after oviposition. At 0%. salinity (control), over 94% of eggs hatched normally, and even at 1 per thousand salinity over 85% of eggs hatched. Survival rate of eggs was low at 2, 3, and 4 per thousand, and no eggs hatched at 5 per thousand salinity. These results indicate that low salinity, close to pure water, is necessary for successful egg development, even for populations of B. japonica that breed in coastal areas. Future studies are necessary to examine whether females of B. japonica breeding in coastal areas select appropriate oviposition sites where the environmental salinity level is sufficiently low for eggs.

  20. Dissolution of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Zoysia japonica in AMIMCl with ultrasonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Hou, Qidong

    2013-10-15

    In this study, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), an ionic liquid, was synthesized and characterized by a series of test methods. Pretreatment of Zoysia japonica by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) was shown to reduce significantly the mass of hemicellulose and lignin in biomass, thereby breaking the lignocellulosic structure. Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX showed reasonable solubility in AMIMCl upon ultrasonic treatment. The rate of cellulose regeneration from Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX increased with increase in applied power of ultrasonication within a certain power range from 0 to 110 W. The regeneration rate of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Z. japonica reached a maximum of 97% when the ultrasonic power was 110 W. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that the regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose.

  1. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  2. Antigenic analysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa using anti-Cry j 1 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Ito, M; Ito, H; Baba, S; Takagi, I; Yasueda, H; Ohta, N

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, pollen of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa are a yearly source of distress for many people suffering seasonally from allergic rhinitis. To study common epitopes shared by the two species, two monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) were raised against Cry j 1, which is the most predominant allergen in C. japonica. One of the moAbs was found to be reactive even to the major allergen of C. obtusa, demonstrating that the moAb (J1B01) can detect an epitope shared by both species J1B01 strongly inhibited the binding of the major allergens of C. japonica and C. obtusa to IgE of patients who are sensitive to C. japonica and C. obtusa. This finding signifies the importance of the epitope recognized by J1B01.

  3. Development of microsatellite markers for the clonal shrub Orixa japonica (Rutaceae) using 454 sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Setsuko, Suzuki; Sugai, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0.140 to 0.875, respectively. Five of the 16 loci showed a low null allele frequency. Because Orixa is a monotypic genus, cross-amplification in a consubfamilial species, Skimmia japonica, was tested, and only one locus showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers developed for O. japonica contribute to clone identification for studies examining the clonal structure and true sex ratio in the wild. Moreover, five markers that have a low null allele frequency can also be used for estimating mating systems or performing parentage analysis. PMID:27785383

  4. Aromatic glycosides from the whole plants of Iris japonica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-Ru; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan; Li, Li; Ni, Gang; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the whole plants of Iris japonica led to the isolation of four new aromatic glycosides. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (2), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (3), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (4), respectively.

  5. Quality comparision of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae by several dissimilarity methods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjing; Deng, Xiangyu; Liu, Zhongbo

    2013-01-01

    Computing similarity is extremely important in modern scientific research such as computational biology and data mining. In this paper, we put forward the concept of quantitative dissimilarity (QDS) and define a series of formulations to measure how similar or dissimilar between two objects are in quality and content for their n-dimentional properties, which is based on a simple mathematical model. Through establishing the HPLC fingerprints (HPLC-FPs) of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) to obtain n-dimentional vectors, in which each peak area serves as an element, the authentical quality control of FLJ were successfully implemented by several QDSs. The presented dissimilarity methods can accurately and quantitativey assess all objects differences in n-dimentional properties. PMID:25332952

  6. Distribution and metabolism of galactitol in Euonymus japonica L

    SciTech Connect

    Boersig, M.R.; Negm, F.B.

    1987-04-01

    Metabolism of (/sup 14/C)-galactitol was studied in immature and mature leaves of Euonymus japonica L. The highest rates of galactitol metabolism occurred in young expanding leaves. After a 12 h incubation in (/sup 14/C)-galactitol, the proportions of label remaining in galactitol were 82 and 96% in immature and mature tissues, respectively. A NAD dependent galactitol dehydrogenase reaction was demonstrated in extracts from immature leaves. The product of this reaction was the aldose sugar, galactose. Label from (/sup 14/C)-galactitol was detected in two unidentified carbohydrates as well as in sucrose, glucose, fructose and galactose. When incubated with (/sup 14/C)-galactose, immature and mature leaf strips, respectively, accumulated 1 and 22% of the label in the form of galactitol.

  7. The biogeography of the North Pacific right whale ( Eubalaena japonica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Coyle, Kenneth O.

    2009-03-01

    The eastern North Pacific population of right whales ( Eubalaena japonica) is among the most endangered whale populations, with an estimated size of only 10s of individuals. The effectiveness of measures (e.g., protected areas, abundance surveys) intended to promote recovery of this population will be enhanced by understanding its distribution, habitat use, and habitat characteristics. In order to facilitate such understanding, we summarized relevant right whale biology, reviewed the life history of their zooplankton prey species, and related North Pacific oceanography to the production, distribution, and concentration of these prey at three scales of variability. We discuss how ocean processes may drive zooplankton distribution and concentration, and present hypotheses about how prey patches suitable for right whale foraging might be formed. Such hypotheses, combined with available distributional data and descriptions of the ocean environment, would be suitable for predicting potential right whale foraging habitat.

  8. Effect of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of Saccharina japonica populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiuliang; Yao, Jianting; Li, Qiuying; Liu, Fuli; Yotsukura, Norishige; Krupnova, Tatiana N.; Duan, Delin

    2017-01-01

    Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S. japonica populations could be divided into two groups (a cultivated/introduced group and a wild indigenous group) with significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.0001). Divergent selection, continuous inbreeding and inter-specific hybridization have caused the divergence of these two genetically separate gene pools. The significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern cultivated populations appears to be due to inter-specific hybridization and wild germplasm introduction during the domestication process. In addition, the cultivation of S. japonica has not resulted in any serious genetic disturbance of wild introduced S. japonica populations. An understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of domesticated S. japonica will be necessary for further genetic improvement and effective use of germplasm. PMID:28176848

  9. Effect of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of Saccharina japonica populations in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiuliang; Yao, Jianting; Li, Qiuying; Liu, Fuli; Yotsukura, Norishige; Krupnova, Tatiana N; Duan, Delin

    2017-02-08

    Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S. japonica populations could be divided into two groups (a cultivated/introduced group and a wild indigenous group) with significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.0001). Divergent selection, continuous inbreeding and inter-specific hybridization have caused the divergence of these two genetically separate gene pools. The significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern cultivated populations appears to be due to inter-specific hybridization and wild germplasm introduction during the domestication process. In addition, the cultivation of S. japonica has not resulted in any serious genetic disturbance of wild introduced S. japonica populations. An understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of domesticated S. japonica will be necessary for further genetic improvement and effective use of germplasm.

  10. Combined De-Algination Process as a Fractionation Strategy for Valorization of Brown Macroalga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-11-17

    A combined process, de-algination followed by enzymatic saccharification, was designed to produce alginate and glucose from Saccharina japonica consecutively. The process conditions of de-algination were optimized separately for each stage of acidification and alkaline extraction. Collectively, the de-algination yield was 70.1% under the following optimized conditions: 2.4 wt% of Na2CO3, 70 °C, and 100 min with the acidified S. japonica immersed in a 0.5 wt% H2SO4 solution for 2 h at room temperature. The glucan content in the de-alginated S. japonica increased to 38.0%, which was approximately fivefold higher than that of the raw S. japonica. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the de-alginated S. japonica almost completed in 9 h, affording 5.2 g (96.8% of glucan digestibility) of glucose at a de-alginated S. japonica loading of 14.2 g.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs and Target Genes in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Fu, Chunhua; Long, Yan; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and play very important roles in plant development. Lonicera japonica is one of the important medicinal plants in China. However, few studies on the discovery of conserved and novel miRNAs from L. japonica were reported. In this study, we employed deep sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in leaf and flower tissues of L. japonica. A total of 22.97 million clean reads from flower and leaf tissues were obtained, which generated 146 conserved miRNAs distributed in 20 families and 110 novel miRNAs. Accordingly, 72 differentially expressed miRNAs (P≤0.001) between leaves and flowers and their potential target genes were identified and validated. The qRT-PCR validation showed that majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed significant tissue-specific expression in L. japonica. Furthermore, the miRNA-mRNA and mRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, this study identified a large number of miRNAs and target genes in L. japonica, which not only provides the first global miRNA expression profiles, but also sheds light on functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future. PMID:27711182

  12. The Fed's Year of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  13. Different Gene Expression Patterns between Leaves and Flowers in Lonicera japonica Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Libin; Long, Yan; Fu, Chunhua; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Jia, Haibo; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), GO (Gene Ontology), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P ≤ 0.05) between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including “Metabolic process,” “Response to stimulus,” “Cellular process,” and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future. PMID:27242839

  14. Host preferences in host-seeking and blood-fed mosquitoes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schönenberger, A C; Wagner, S; Tuten, H C; Schaffner, F; Torgerson, P; Furrer, S; Mathis, A; Silaghi, C

    2016-03-01

    The avian zoonotic agent for West Nile virus (WNV) can cause neuroinvasive disease in horses and humans and is expanding its range in Europe. Analyses of the risk for transmission to these hosts in non-endemic areas are necessary. Host preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vectors of WNV, were determined in Switzerland using animal-baited trap (horse, chickens) experiments at a natural and a periurban site. This was undertaken on four occasions during May-September 2014. In addition, the hosts of 505 blood-fed mosquitoes collected in a zoo and in the field were determined. Mosquito data obtained in the animal bait experiments were corrected for host weight and body surface area and by Kleiber's scaling factor. Collections of 11-14 different mosquito species were achieved with these approaches. Statistically significant host preferences were identified in three species in both approaches. The other species showed opportunistic feeding behaviours to varying extents. Specifically, the invasive species Hulecoeteomyia japonica (= Aedes japonicus) was identified for the first time as feeding on avians in nature. Abundance data, spatiotemporal activity and laboratory vector competence for WNV suggested that, in addition to the main WNV vector Culex pipiens, H. japonica and Aedimorphus vexans (= Aedes vexans) are the most likely candidate bridge vectors for WNV transmission in Switzerland.

  15. Mapping invasive Fallopia japonica by combined spectral, spatial, and temporal analysis of digital orthophotos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Lucieer, Arko; Podobnikar, Tomaž; Čarni, Andraž

    2012-10-01

    Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is listed among 100 of the World's worst invasive alien species and poses an increasing threat to ecosystems and agriculture in Northern America, Europe, and Oceania. This study proposes a remote sensing method to detect local occurrences of F. japonica from low-cost digital orthophotos taken in early spring and summer by concurrently exploring its temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics. Temporal characteristics of the species are quantified by a band ratio calculated from the green and red spectral channels of both images. The normalized difference vegetation index was used to capture the high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of F. japonica in summer while the characteristic texture of F. japonica is quantified by calculating gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) measures. After establishing the optimum kernel size to quantify texture, the different input features (spectral, spatial, and texture) were stacked and used as input to the random forest (RF) classifier. The proposed method was tested for a built-up and semi-natural area in Slovenia. The spectral, spatial, and temporal provided an equally important contribution for differentiating F. japonica from other land cover types. The combination of all signatures resulted in a producer accuracy of 90.3% and a user accuracy of 98.1% for F. japonica when validation was based on independent regions of interest. A producer accuracy of 61.4% was obtained for F. japonica when comparing the classification result with all occurrences of F. japonica identified during a field validation campaign. This is an encouraging result given the very small patches in which the species usually occur and the high degree of intermingling with other plants. All hot spots were identified and even likely infestations of F. japonica that had remained undiscovered during the field campaign were detected. The probability images resulting from the RF classifier can be used to reduce the

  16. Calystegine B4, a novel trehalase inhibitor from Scopolia japonica.

    PubMed

    Asano, N; Kato, A; Kizu, H; Matsui, K; Watson, A A; Nash, R J

    1996-10-31

    GLC-MS analysis has been developed for screening plants of the family Solanaceae for new calystegines. GLC-MS analyses of the extract of Scopolia japonica showed the presence of a new tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid in addition to the known calystegines A3, A5, B1, B2, B3, and C1. We gave this new alkaloid the trivial name calystegine B4. The structure of calystegine B4 was determined as 1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 alpha, 4 alpha-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane from a variety of NMR spectral data. Calystegines B1, B2, and C1 are potent competitive inhibitors with Ki values ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-7) M for almond beta-glucosidase, while calystegine B4 inhibited this enzyme in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 7.3 microM. Calystegine B2 is also a potent inhibitor of green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase, whereas calystegine B4 exhibited no significant activity for this enzyme. Among rat intestinal glycosidases, only trehalase was potently inhibited by calystegine B4, with an IC50 value of 9.8 microM. Furthermore, calystegine B4 potently inhibited pig kidney trehalase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 1.2 microM, but it was almost inactive against yeast and fungal trehalases.

  17. Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in loquat fruits (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Ríos, José Julián; Roca, María; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and nonfluorescent dioxobilane chlorophyll catabolites (NDCCs) are the terminal compounds of the chlorophyll degradation pathway that may display beneficial properties to human health related to their antioxidant properties, which were recently shown. A profile of NCCs/NDCC of the loquat fruit Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. is described. From the 13 known different NCC structures described to date, three have been identified in loquats. Two new structures not defined so far were characterized in loquat fruits: Ej-NCC2, which corresponds to the methyl ester at C13(2) of Bn-NCC1 and in very low amount Ej-NDCC1, the only NDCC found in loquats. Keto-enol tautomerism at the C13(1) position in NCCs is described for the first time as a regular process in chlorophyll catabolism, probably through a nonspecific mechanism since almost all the chlorophyll catabolites structures detected in fruits of loquat present keto and enol tautomers. The results obtained have been possible through a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry fitted with a powerful postprocessing software.

  18. Expression of Nephrin Homologue in the Freshwater Planarian, Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomomi; Takagi, Sota; Matsumoto, Midori; Tashiro, Fumio; Sakai, Tatsuo; Ichimura, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells. PMID:25859064

  19. The neuroprotective activities of heteropolysaccharides extracted from Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hong; Song, Ning; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-08-14

    Crude fucoidan extracted from Saccharina japonica was separated by anion-exchange chromatography. Then, the neuroprotective activities of the crude fucoidan (J) and its fractions (J0.4, J0.5, J1 and J2) were tested. J, J0.4 and J0.5 were shown to have neuroprotective effects. To simplify the structural features of the compounds, crude fucoidan was degraded to obtain low molecular weight fucoidan (DJ). DJ was further fractionated into DJ0.5, DJ1 and DJ2, and the neuroprotective activities of these fractions were determined. This analysis revealed that DJ and DJ0.5 retained the neuroprotective activity. However, the DJ0.5 fraction remained very complex. Thus, DJ0.5 was further separated into six fractions (F0.1, F0.2, F0.3, F0.4, F0.5 and F1). Finally, it was concluded that the anion-exchange fractions F0.1, F0.2 and F0.3 exhibited neuroprotective activities. These results suggest that heteropolysaccharides might contribute to the neuroprotective activity. Moreover, the neuroprotective heteropolysaccharide fractions contained relatively low fucose (less than 20%) and sulfate (25%), high UA content (more than 10%) and a high molar ratio of all other monosaccharides.

  20. Protective function of silicon deposition in Saccharina japonica sporophytes (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    We investigated biogenic silica deposition in sporophytes of kelp, Saccharina japonica (Laminariaceae). Silicon content was measured in different sporophyte regions and there was a trend for the silicon content to increase longitudinally from the stipe-blade transition to apical regions. The transverse trend was for the content to be higher in the marginal region than in the medial region. The silicon content was also higher in the scar and sorus regions compared with the adjacent vegetative regions. High silicon content was detected in the margin of the disc and in the sorus region of cultured sporophyte discs. Moreover, rhodamine 123 staining suggested that silicon was deposited in the mouth of the marginal wound of the disc. Rhodamine 123 fluorescence was also detected in the paraphyses and mucilaginous caps of sori. These results suggest that silicon plays important roles in tissue protection and vegetative tissue wound healing. It is also suggested that silicon is required for the protection of reproductive tissues. We also discuss the physiological and ecological roles of biogenic silica deposition in kelp and its management in cultivated fields.

  1. Terpenoids from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica inhibiting nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-03-01

    A new sesquiterpenoid, 1, and three new diterpenoids, 3-5, along with five known compounds, 2 and 6-9, were isolated from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined as (1R,4R,6S,7S,9S)-4α-hydroxy-1,9-peroxybisabola-2,10-diene (1), methyl (12E)-16-oxolabda-8(17),12-dien-15-oate (3), (12R)-15-ethoxy-12-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4), and methyl (11E)-14,15,16-trinorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-oate (5) by means of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations at C(4) in 1 and C(12) in 4 were deduced from the circular dichroism (CD) data of the in situ-formed [Rh2 (CF3 COO)4 ] complexes. Inhibitory effects of the isolates on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 2-4, 6, and 7 were found to exhibit inhibitory activities with IC50 values between 14.6 and 34.3 μM.

  2. Withanolides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea japonica and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Choi, Sang Zin; Son, Mi Won; Lee, Kang Ro

    2011-07-13

    Edible yams are tropical crops that serve as important staple foods in many parts of the world. The rhizome of Dioscorea japonica , well-known as "Japanese yam", is a food and medicinal source known as "San Yak" in Korea. Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the extract of this yam resulted in the identification of two new withanolides, named dioscorolide A (1) and dioscorolide B (2). The structures of these new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and chemical methods. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1 and 2) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) and a human normal cell line (HUVEC) using a sulforhodamine B (SRB) bioassay. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) with IC(50) values ranging from 6.3 to 26.9 μM and exhibited lower activity against the normal cell line (HUVEC) with IC(50) values ranging from 27.1 to 28.8 μM, suggesting selective toxicity among tumor and normal cells.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Sophora japonica Transcriptome Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Wenna; Xu, Xin-Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Sophora japonica Linn (Chinese Scholar Tree) is a shrub species belonging to the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. In this study, RNA sequencing of S. japonica transcriptome was performed to produce large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis. Approximate 86.1 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 143010 unique transcripts and 57614 unigenes. The average length of unigenes was 901 bps with an N50 of 545 bps. Four public databases, including the NCBI nonredundant protein (NR), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG), were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST procedure. A total of 27541 of 57614 unigenes (47.8%) were annotated for gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology. Moreover, an interaction network of unigenes in S. japonica was predicted based on known protein-protein interactions of putative orthologs of well-studied plant genomes. The transcriptome data of S. japonica reported here represents first genome-scale investigation of gene expressions in Faboideae plants. We expect that our study will provide a useful resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics, functional genomics, and protein-protein interaction in S. japonica. PMID:24516854

  4. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Gene Expression of MicroRNAs in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaolong; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Junhui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Tiying; Jiang, Chao; Zha, Liangping; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which play crucial regulatory roles in plant secondary metabolism and responses to the environment, could be developed as promising biomarkers for different varieties and production areas of herbal medicines. However, limited information is available for miRNAs from Lonicera japonica, which is widely used in East Asian countries owing to various pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target miRNA expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of secondary metabolic regulation in different tissues and varieties of L. japonica. For precise normalization of gene expression data in L. japonica, 16 candidate miRNAs were examined in three tissues, as well as 21 cultivated varieties collected from 16 production areas, using GeNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed combination of u534122 and u3868172 as the best reference genes across all samples. Their specificity was confirmed by detecting the cycling threshold (Ct) value ranges in different varieties of L. japonica collected from diverse production areas, suggesting the use of these two reference miRNAs is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization with different tissues, varieties, and production areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on validation of reference miRNAs in honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.). Restuls from this study can further facilitate discovery of functional regulatory miRNAs in different varieties of L. japonica. PMID:27507983

  5. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  6. INTERTIDAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURE VARIANCE AS A POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND ZOSTERA JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...

  7. Effects of salinity on survival of the exotic seagrass Zostera japonica subjected to extreme high temperature stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-indigenous seagrass that is expanding along the Pacific Coast of North America. The ecophysiology of this seagrass is poorly studied and management of the species is fragmented. We collected Z. japonica plants from Padilla Bay, WA., Yaquina Bay and Coo...

  8. Study on creep properties of Japonica cooked rice and its relationship with rice chemical compositions and sensory evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creep properties of four varieties japonica cooked rice were tested using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA Q800). The creep curve was described by Burgers model. The creep process of japonica cooked rice mainly consisted of retarded elastic deformation, epsilonR and viscous flow deformation, epsil...

  9. Microsatellite markers for Nuphar japonica (Nymphaeaceae), an aquatic plant in the agricultural ecosystem of Japan1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Shiga, Takashi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. Methods and Results: Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N. japonica. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.47 (range = 2−9; n = 32), and the average expected heterozygosity per locus was 0.84 (range = 0.5–1.0); 11 loci were amplified in N. oguraensis var. akiensis and 15 in N. ×saijoensis. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for investigating the levels of genetic diversity within remnant populations of Nuphar taxa and could provide a valuable tool for conservation genetics of these taxa. PMID:28101435

  10. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  11. Pharmacological assessment of methamphetamine-induced behavioral hyperactivity mediated by dopaminergic transmission in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Natsuka; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Daido, Kanako; Oka, Tomoe; Todo, Mio; Toshikawa, Asami; Tsushima, Jun; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2014-07-11

    The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion.

  12. Cellulose extraction from Zoysia japonica pretreated by alumina-doped MgO in AMIMCl.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-26

    In this study, alumina-doped MgO was produced as a solid alkali for lignocellulose pretreatment. Pretreatment with alumina-doped MgO disrupted the lignocellulose structure and significantly reduced the lignin content of the Z. japonica. After pretreatment, Z. japonica showed significant solubility in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The similar high solubility of pretreated Z. japonica samples by original alumina-doped MgO and used alumina-doped MgO also proved that alumina-doped MgO had strong stability, which can be recycled and used repeatedly. The regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose according to FTIR and NMR analyses. Compared to microcrystalline cellulose, only the crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose decreased.

  13. Terminal N-Acetylgalactosamine-Specific Leguminous Lectin from Wisteria japonica as a Probe for Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Keisuke; Teruya, Futaba; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Millettia japonica was recently reclassified into the genus Wisteria japonica based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Because the seed of Wisteria floribunda expresses leguminous lectins with unique N-acetylgalactosamine-binding specificity, we purified lectin from Wisteria japonica seeds using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Glycan microarray analysis demonstrated that unlike Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria brachybotrys lectins, which bind to both terminal N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues, Wisteria japonica lectin (WJA) specifically bound to both α- and β-linked terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose residues on oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. Further, frontal affinity chromatography using more than 100 2-aminopyridine-labeled and p-nitrophenyl-derivatized oligosaccharides demonstrated that the ligands with the highest affinity for Wisteria japonica lectin were GalNAcβ1-3GlcNAc and GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, with Ka values of 9.5 × 104 and 1.4 × 105 M-1, respectively. In addition, when binding was assessed in a variety of cell lines, Wisteria japonica lectin bound specifically to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells while other Wisteria lectins bound equally to all of the cell lines tested. Wisteria japonica lectin binding to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells was dramatically decreased in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose, mannose, or N-acetylglucosamine, and was completely abrogated by β-hexosaminidase-digestion of these cells. These results clearly demonstrate that Wisteria japonica lectin binds to terminal N-acetylgalactosamine but not galactose. In addition, histochemical analysis of human squamous cell carcinoma tissue sections demonstrated that Wisteria japonica lectin specifically bound to differentiated cancer tissues but not normal tissue. This novel binding characteristic of Wisteria japonica lectin has the potential to become a powerful tool for clinical applications. PMID:24349556

  14. Characterization of Venom and Oviduct Components of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Matsumura, Takashi; Hirata, Makiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagata, Noriyo; Kataoka, Michiyo; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    During natural parasitization, Asobara japonica wasps introduce lateral oviduct (LO) components into their Drosophila hosts soon after the venom injection to neutralize its strong toxicity; otherwise, the host will die. Although the orchestrated relationship between the venom and LO components necessary for successful parasitism has attracted the attention of many researchers in this field, the molecular natures of both factors remain ambiguous. We here showed that precipitation of the venom components by ultracentrifugation yielded a toxic fraction that was inactivated by ultraviolet light irradiation, boiling, and sonication, suggesting that it is a virus-like entity. Morphological observation of the precipitate after ultracentrifugation showed small spherical heterogeneous virus-like particles 20–40 nm in diameter. The venom’s detrimental effect on D. melanogaster larvae was not directly neutralized by the LO components but blocked by a hemolymphal neutralizing factor activated by the LO factor. Furthermore, we found that A. japonica venom and LO components acted similarly on the larvae of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura: the venom injection caused mortality but coinjection of the LO factor protected S. litura larvae from the venom’s toxicity. In contrast, D. ficusphila and D. bipectinata, which are closely related to D. melanogaster but non-habitual host species of A. japonica, were not negatively affected by A. japonica venom due to an intrinsic neutralizing activity in their hemolymph, indicating that these species must have acquired a neutralizer of A. japonica venom during evolution. These results give new insights into the characteristics of both the venom and LO components: A. japonica females have utilized the virus-like toxic venom factor to exploit a wider range of host species after the evolutionary process enabled them to use the LO factor for activation of the host hemolymph neutralizer precursor, although the non-habitual host Drosophila

  15. First occurrence of the non-native bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ryland, John S; Holt, Rohan; Loxton, Jennifer

    2014-03-24

    Schizoporella japonica Ortmann was described from Japan but was subsequently introduced on Pacific oysters to the Pacific coast of North America, where it is now well established. In this paper we record it for the first time in European waters. The initial discovery was in a marina at Holyhead, North Wales, in July 2010 but S. japonica has since been observed abundantly in the Orkney Islands (from May 2011) and, subsequently, at other localities in northern Scotland. Introduction seems most likely to have been on an ocean-going vessel. The British material is here fully described and illustrated with SEMs and colour photographs; some unusual characters are discussed. Unlike other recently introduced bryozoans, S. japonica is a cold-water species and its breeding season in Britain extends through the winter. Extensive confusion between this and other species of Schizoporella on the west coast of Canada and the USA led us to make thorough morphometric comparisons between the species concerned (Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood), Schizoporella errata (Waters) and Schizoporella pseudoerrata Soule, Soule and Chaney). Zooid size in cheilostomate bryozoans is variable and often an unreliable character for species separation but shape (and therefore ratios between variables, which are independent of size) are often valuable: S. japonica zooids have a much greater length:width ratio than the other species. Density of frontal pseudopores provides a useful discriminatory character. Schizoporella unicornis, repeatedly reported in error from the Pacific coast of North America, does not occur there; it is a European species. Full comparisons are made between S. japonica and S. unicornis for European identification and between S. japonica, S. errata and S. pseudoerrata (which are also illustrated) for North American localities.

  16. Allelopathy is involved in the formation of pure colonies of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-04-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica is one of the most widely distributed fern and occurs throughout East to South Asia. The species often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific colonies. However, the potential mechanism for this domination has not yet been described. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that allelochemicals are involved in the formation of G. japonica colonies. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica inhibited the growth of seedlings of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and timothy (Phleum pratense). Increasing extract concentration increased the inhibition. These results suggest that G. japonica contain allelopathic substances. The extract was then purified by several chromatographies with monitoring the inhibitory activity and two growth inhibitory substances causing the allelopathic effect were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to be a novel compound 3-O-β-allopyranosyl-13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool (1) and 18-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13-epitorreferol (2). These compounds inhibited the shoot and root growth of garden cress, lettuce, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy, ryegrass and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) at concentrations greater than 0.1-1.0mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of root and shoot growth of these test plants ranged from 0.72 to 3.49mM and 0.79 to 3.51mM for compounds 1 and 2, respectively. Concentration of compounds 1 and 2 in soil under the pure colony of G. japonica was 4.9 and 5.7mM, respectively, indicating concentrations over those required for 50% growth inhibition are potentially available under monocultural stands of these ferns. Therefore, these compounds may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by presence of G. japonica and may thus contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity. PMID:21851599

  18. Estrogenic activity of a naringinase-treated extract of Sophora japonica cultivated in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Ali M; Chung, Mi Hwa; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nishihara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Masao

    2010-02-01

    The naringinase-treated methanol extract of Sophora japonica L. (Fabaceae) seeds showed potent estrogen agonist activity. Through bioassay-guided isolation of the main active constituents from the naringinase-treated methanol extract of S. japonica, the aglycones genistein and kaempferol were found to be the main phytoestrogens in the naringinase-treated extract. In addition, kaempferol was nearly equipotent to genistein as an estrogen agonist. Concerning the compounds isolated from the untreated methanol extract, sophoricoside showed weak estrogenic activity on ERbeta only.

  19. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  20. Exploiting genes and functional diversity of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera japonica and their substitutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-25

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species.

  1. Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially amplified tandem repeats as a major genome component of Northern Europe's oldest Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Heitkam, Tony; Petrasch, Stefan; Zakrzewski, Falk; Kögler, Anja; Wenke, Torsten; Wanke, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads. We performed graph-based read clustering implemented in the RepeatExplorer pipeline to estimate the C. japonica repeat fraction of 73 %. This enabled us to identify and characterize the most prominent satellite DNAs, Camellia japonica satellite 1-4 (CajaSat1-CajaSat4), and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by bioinformatics, fluorescent in situ and Southern hybridization. Within the Camellia genus, satellite spreading, array expansion and formation of higher-order structures highlight different modes of repeat evolution. The CajaSat satellites localize at prominent chromosomal sites, including (peri)centromeres and subtelomeres of all chromosomes, thus serving as chromosomal landmarks for their identification. This work provides an insight into the C. japonica chromosome organization and significantly expands the Camellia genomic knowledge, also with respect to the tea plant Camellia sinensis.

  2. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and antioxidative activities of fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  3. The FedEx Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The original shipping strategy of FedEx was to fly all packages to a hub during the afternoon and evening, sort them there, and then fly them to their destinations overnight for delivery the next day. This leads to interesting mathematical questions: Given a population represented by points in Euclidean space or on a sphere, what is the location…

  4. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  5. Polyculture of scallop Chlamys farreri and kelp Laminaria japonica in Sungo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jian-Guang; Sun, Hui-Ling; Yan, Jing-Ping; Kuang, Shi-Huan; Li, Feng; Newkirk, Gary F.; Grant, Jon

    1996-12-01

    Several polyculture models of scallop Chlamys farreri and kelp Laminaria japonica currently employed in Sungo Bay and other parts of northern China are described in this paper. Economic benefits of different polyculture models are analysed based on the growth rate, culture density and market price. In addition, site selection, critical environmental conditions and polyculture problems are discussed in detail.

  6. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (p<0.01). All above results indicated that rLj-NIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (p<0.05). These data suggest that Lampetra japonica-NIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  7. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  8. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  9. [Study on standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on GAP of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-nan; Li, Yong; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-liang; Wang, Pin-shu; Ding, Wan-long

    2015-09-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a method of residue analysis for thiamethoxam and to study its degradation dynamic and final residue and its standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on Lonicera japonica. Samples extracted with methanol by ultrasonication were purified with dichloromethane by liquid-liquid extraction and SPE column and analysed by HPLC-UV. The results showed that average rate was 84.91%-94.44% and RSD 1.74%-4.96% with addition of thiamethoxam in respectively diverse concentration, which meets inspection requirement of pesticide residue. Two kinds of dosages of thiamethoxam were treated- varying from recommended dosage (90 g x hm(-2)) to high dosage (135 g x hm(-2)), Results of two years test showed that thiamethoxam was degraded more than 90% seven days after application and the half - life period of thiamethoxam was 1.54-1.66 d. The digestion rate of thiamethoxam was fast in the L. japonica. The recommended MRL of thiamethoxam in the L. japonica is 0.1 mg x kg(-1), the dosage of 25% thiamethoxam WDG from 90-135 g x hm(-2) is sprayed less than three times a year on L. japonica and 14 days is proposed for the safety interval of the last pesticide application's and harvest's date.

  10. Comparison of photosynthetic characteristics of the seagrasscongeners Zostera marina L. and Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb.

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America two seagrass species in the genus Zostera co-exist; the native species Zostera marina, and an introduced species, Z. japonica. These two species typically occupy separate habitat niches, with Z. marina occupying the lower intertidal and shal...

  11. Temperature trumps light: Teasing apart interactive factors controlling non-indigenous Zostera japonica growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...

  12. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  13. Sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida: isolation, structural characteristics, and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2011-12-13

    During the last decade brown seaweeds attracted much attention as a source of polysaccharides, namely laminarans, alginic acids, and sulfated polysaccharides-fucoidans, with various structures and biological activities. In this study, sulfated polysaccharides were isolated from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica (formerly named Laminaria) and Undaria pinnatifida and their antitumor activity was tested against human breast cancer T-47D and melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The sulfated polysaccharide form S. japonica was highly branched partially acetylated sulfated galactofucan, built up of (1→3)-α-L-fucose residues. The sulfated polysaccharide from U. pinnatifida was partially acetylated highly sulfated galactofucan consisting of (1→3)- or (1→3);(1→4)-α-L-fucose residues. Fucoidans from S. japonica and U. pinnatifida distinctly inhibited proliferation and colony formation in both breast cancer and melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the use of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds S. japonica and U. pinnatifida might be a potential approach for cancer treatment.

  14. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity.

  15. Preliminary analysis of population genetic diversity of cultivated Laminaria japonica sporophyte via AFLP technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Heng; Sui, Zhenghong; Bao, Zhenmin

    2010-03-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphic DNA (AFLP) technique was adopted to estimate the population genetic polymorphism among 30 sporophytes of Laminaria japonica collected from a cultivating farm in Rongcheng, China. Three methods were used for genomic DNA extraction from Laminaria japonica sporophyte and only the products obtained using the improved genomic DNA extraction kit method proved qualified for AFLP analysis. The parameters of the method were optimized. Samples of forty milligrams and the cell lysis time of 120 min were suggested to replace the parameters recommended by the manufacturer. Thirty individuals of Laminaria japonica from the same cultivating site were investigated using one pair of selective primers. A total of 21 loci were obtained and 17 of them were polymorphic. The mean percent age of polymorphic loci of this population was 80.95%. The Nei’s gene diversity (H) within this population was 0.3028 and the average Shannon’s Information index (I) was 0.4498. A genetic distance matrix among different individuals was constructed as well. Through this study, an applicable AFLP genetic analysis working system for Laminaria japonica sporophyte was established. The results of this research also revealed a high level of genetic diversity within the studied population.

  16. First report of Pilidium concavum causing leaf necrosis on Fallopia japonica in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. (= Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.; Japanese knotweed) is an invasive perennial forb in the Polygonaceae. It has been identified as a target for biological control in many parts of the world, including the USA. Plants with an unknown disease were collect...

  17. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-03

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  18. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  19. Development of Japonica mapping populations to validate GWAS in the rice diversity panel 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to validate associations identified in the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) between SNP markers and 34 phenotypic traits, four bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica accessions that were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. ...

  20. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  1. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  2. Reproduction in mallards fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Weller, D.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 1, 5, 10, 25 or 100 ppm selenium as sodium selenite, a diet containing 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine or a control diet. There were no effects of 1, 5 or 10 ppm selenium as sodium selenite on either weight or survival of adults or on reproductive success, and there did not appear to be a dose-response relationship at these lower levels. The 100 ppm selenium diet killed 11 of 12 adults; one adult male fed 25 ppm selenium died. Selenium at 25 and 100 ppm caused weight loss in adults. Females fed 25 ppm selenium took longer to begin laying eggs and intervals between eggs were longer than in females in other treatment groups. Hatching success appeared to be reduced in birds fed 10 ppm selenium at selenomethionine, but the reduction was not statistically significant. The survival of ducklings and the mean number of 21-d-old ducklings produced per female were reduced in the 25 ppm selenium as sodium selenite group and the 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine group. Egg weights were not affected by any selenium treatment, but 25 ppm selenium lowered the Ratcliffe Index. Duckling weights at hatching and at 21 d of age were reduced 28 and 36%, respectively, in birds fed 25 ppm selenium, as compared with controls. Body weights measured on day 21 were lower for ducklings fed 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine than in some other groups. Selenium in concentrations of 10 and 25 ppm as sodium selenite caused mainly embryotoxic effects, whereas 10 ppm as selenomethionine was more teratogenic, causing hydrocephaly, bill defects, eye defects (microphthalmia and anophthalmia) and foot and toe defects, including ectrodactyly. Selenomethionine was much more readily taken up by mallards and passed into their eggs than was sodium selenite, and a greater proportion of the selenium in the eggs ended up in the white when selenomethionine was fed. Adult males accumulated more selenium than did females, probably because of the

  3. Structure and heterologous expression of the gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein from Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    PubMed

    Wakai, H; Takada, K; Nakamura, S; Horikoshi, K

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein (CSG) of Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 was cloned and sequenced. The structural gene consisted from an open reading frame of 2,586 bp. A potential promoter sequence was found about 150 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Ha. japonica CSG revealed that the mature CSG consisted of 828 amino acids. Five potential N-glycosylation sites were found in the mature sequence. The cloned CSG gene of Ha. japonica was expressed in closely-related halophilic archaea.

  4. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2016-06-11

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers.

  5. A SCAR MOLECULAR MARKER SPECIFICALLY RELATED TO THE FEMALE GAMETOPHYTES OF SACCHARINA (LAMINARIA) JAPONICA (PHAEOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-S; Li, L-H; Wu, W-K; Zhou, Z-G

    2009-08-01

    PCR amplification was employed to identify female or male gametophyte associated markers in Saccharina japonica (Aresch.) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders (=Laminaria japonica Aresch.). One pair of the primers, P5, was screened from five pairs designed based on a specific sequence (GenBank accession no. AB069714) of Marchantia polymorpha Y chromosome, resulting in a differential band ∼500 bp in size between female and male gametophytes of Rongfu strain of S. japonica. According to the SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified regions) strategies, one pair of primers, P51, was designed on the basis of the sequence of this band that was only present in female gametophytes. A SCAR marker, designated FRML-494 (494-bp Female-Related Marker of S. japonica, GenBank accession no. EU931619), was developed successfully by PCR amplification using the designed P51 primer pair. The SCAR marker was verified to be present only in female gametophytes of another variety 901 of this kelp that was a hybrid between S. japonica as paternal and S. longissima (Miyabe) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl et G. W. Saunders (=Laminaria longissima Miyabe) as maternal, suggesting that the FRML-494 marker was specifically related to female gametophytes of the genus. This marker is the first molecular tool reported for sex identification in kelps. This study was beneficial for identifying gametophyte gender during vegetative growth and for judging whether the monogenetic sporophytes came from exclusive male or female gametophytes, as well as for further research on sex determination at the molecular level in kelps.

  6. Evolutionary meaning of non-synchronous medusa release and spawning in the most advanced bivalve-inhabiting hydrozoan, Eugymnanthea japonica.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shin

    2012-08-01

    Circadial spawning times of medusa of the bivalve-inhabiting hydrozoans Eugymnanthea japonica Kubota and Eutima japonica Uchida are confirmed to be morning (possibly sunrise) for the former species and night for the latter. Eugymnanthea, with small, short-lived, univoltine medusae, seems to have evolved from a form similar to Eutima japonica, with larger, longer-lived, multivoltine medusae; the morning spawning of medusae in Eugymnanthea may therefore be a newly evolved trait. Medusa release from polyps and spawning of medusae are not synchronous in Eugymnanthea japonica. This non-synchrony may represent an evolutionarily transitional state leading to the most advanced state, synchrony of these two reproductive events, as in certain other ephemeral hydrozoan medusae.

  7. The High-throughput sequencing of Sillago japonica mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic position within the genus Sillago.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sufang; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Sillago japonica was determined through high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The circular mtDNA molecule was 16 645 bp in size and encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and content identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The identity analysis revealed that the mitogenome sequence of S. japonica shared a relatively high sequence identity to S. asiatica (81.5%) compared with S. aeolus (77.5%), S. indica (77.1%), and S. sihama (76.3%). The neighbor-joining tree of complete mitogenome sequence showed that S. japonica firstly clustered together with S. asiatica, then grouped with S. indica and S. sihama, and finally gathered with S. aeolus. Taken together, the results absolutely supported the evolutionary position of S. japonica and provided new insights into phylogenetic relationships of Sillago.

  8. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  9. Effects of elevated pCO2 on reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Jun; Kikkawa, Takashi; Asai, Takamasa; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2013-08-30

    We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 in seawater both on the acute mortality and the reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica with the purpose of accumulating basic data for assessing potential environmental impacts of sub-sea geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 in Japan. Acute tests showed that nauplii of T. japonicus have a high tolerance to elevated pCO2 environments. Full life cycle tests on T. japonicus indicated NOEC=5800μatm and LOEC=37,000μatm. Adult B. japonica showed remarkable resistance to elevated pCO2 in the acute tests. Embryonic development of B. japonica showed a NOEC=1500μatm and LOEC=5400μatm. T. japonicus showed high resistance to elevated pCO2 throughout the life cycle and B. japonica are rather sensitive during the veliger stage when they started to form their shells.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein of Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    PubMed

    Wakai, H; Nakamura, S; Kawasaki, H; Takada, K; Mizutani, S; Aono, R; Horikoshi, K

    1997-02-01

    The triangular disk-shaped halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 has a glycoprotein on its cell surface. The complete gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein (CSG) was cloned and sequenced. The gene has an open reading frame of 2586 bp, and a potential archaeal promoter sequence approximately 150 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. The mature CSG is composed of 828 amino acids and is preceded by a signal sequence of 34 amino acid residues. A hydropathy analysis showed a hydrophobic stretch at the C-terminus, that probably serves as a transmembrane domain. The amino acid sequence of the Ha. japonica CSG showed 52.1% and 43.2% identities to those from the Halobacterium halobium and Haloferax volcanii CSGs, respectively. Five potential N-glycosylation sites were found in the mature Ha. japonica CSG, sites that were distinctly different from those in Hb. halobium and Hf. volcanii. The Ha. japonica CSG gene was expressed in Escherichia coli.

  11. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  12. Growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-06-01

    The seagrass Zostera japonica occurs mainly in the intertidal zone and is thus exposed to widely varying environmental conditions affecting its growth and distribution compared to subtidal seagrasses. The growth dynamics of Z. japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone were investigated in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea to examine the environmental stresses and limiting factors on the growth of intertidal seagrasses. The shoot density and morphology, biomass, and leaf productivity of Z. japonica were measured in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors at its upper and lower distributional limits and in an intermediate zone of the intertidal area. The mean exposure time to the atmosphere during low tide in the upper intertidal zone was approximately 1.5- and 1.9-fold longer than that in the intermediate and lower intertidal zones, respectively. Shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in the intermediate zone than at the upper and lower distributional limits. Longer emersion leading to a various of environmental stresses appeared to reduce Z. japonica growth in the upper intertidal zone, whereas interspecific competitive interactions related to irradiance seemed to affect Z. japonica growth in the lower intertidal zone. Shoot size, density, biomass, and leaf productivity were lower in the upper than in the lower zone, implying that emersion-associated stresses in the upper zone had a greater detrimental effect on Z. japonica growth than did stresses occurring in the lower zone. The productivity of Z. japonica showed strong positive correlations with air and water temperature, suggesting enhancement of Z. japonica production at higher temperatures. Thus, the predicted increases in air and water temperature associated with global climate change might have positive effects on the growth and extension in distributional range of this species.

  13. Development of RAPD-SCAR markers for Lonicera japonica (Caprifolicaceae) variety authentication by improved RAPD and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luquan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Mei, Zhiqiang; Yang, Manman; Zhang, Tiandan; Wei, Chunli; Yang, Weichan; Zhu, Li; Long, Yan; Fu, Junjiang

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diversity within a species is a common feature, which plays a vital role in its survival and adaptability, and is important for the identification and authentication of a species. Lonicera japonica is a traditionally used medicinal plant, which have been recently genetically characterized by an improved ran- dom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In this study, the molecular markers on the basis of these RAPD fragments have been developed to identify specific L. japonica variety. The DNAs were extracted from fresh young leaves of different samples of L. japonica collected from Shenzhen, Yichang, Leshan, Emei and Loudi, China. The DNA materials were amplified using improved RAPD PCR. Different RAPD bands were excised, cloned and developed for stable sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with differ- ent species. Two SCAR markers, JYH3-3 and JYH4-3, have been successfully cloned from improved.RAPD fragments. The SCAR marker JYH3-3 was found specific for all of the L. japonica samples collected from the different regions, and another marker JYH 4-3 was strictly specific to the Shenzhen sample from Guangdong province, which is geographically distant from Hubei, Sichuan and Hunan Provinces (source of other L. japonica samples). The marker JYH3-3 was found as specific molecular marker for the identification of L. japonica, while JYH4-3 was found as molecular marker strictly specific for the Shenzhen sample. The developed SCAR markers might serve as more specific molecular markers for L. japonica variety authentication. The combination of improved RAPD analysis and SCAR marker development have resulted useful tools to study the genetic variety of any organism, which we have successfully applied here in L. japonica.

  14. Comparative evaluation of dietary probiotics Bacillus subtilis WB60 and Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC3928 on the growth performance, immunological parameters, gut morphology and disease resistance in Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghan; Katya, Kumar; Park, Youngjin; Won, Seonghun; Seong, Minji; Hamidoghli, Ali; Bai, Sungchul C

    2017-02-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two different probiotics Bacillus subtilis WB60 and Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC3928 in diet of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain no probiotics (CON), three graded levels of B. subtilis at 10(6) (BS1), 10(7) (BS2), 10(8) (BS3) and L. plantarum at 10(6) (LP1), 10(7) (LP2), 10(8) (LP3) CFU/g diet. Twenty fish averaging 8.29 ± 0.06 g were distributed in to 21 aquaria and were randomly assigned to one of the experimental diets in triplicate groups. Average weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed B. subtilis at 10(7) (BS2) and 10(8) (BS3) CFU/g diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed other experimental diets (P < 0.05). Nonspecific enzymatic activities including lysozyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO) from fish fed B. subtilis at 10(7) (BS2) and 10(8) (BS3) CFU/g diet were detected to be significantly higher than that from fish fed CON diet (P < 0.05). Whereas, level of intestine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), heat shock protein 70, 90 (HSP70, 90) and immunoglobulin (IgM) from fish fed B. subtilis at 10(7) and 10(8) CFU/g diet were recorded to be significantly higher than those of fish fed other experimental diets (P < 0.05). Parameters for intestinal morphology and histology suggested a healthier gut for the fish fed10(8) (BS3) CFU/g diet as compared to other treatment groups. Whereas, results from the disease challenge test with bacteria Vibrio angulillarum showed significantly lower survival rate for fish fed CON diet than those of fish fed other experimental diets. Therefore, these results indicated that oral supplement of B. subtilis at 10(8) (BS3) CFU/g diet could be a more effective source of probiotic compared to L. plantarum in Japanese eel.

  15. Behavioral and Heart Rate Pattern Differences Between Breast-Fed and Bottle-Fed Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessed behavioral and physiological differences between 61 breast-fed and 39 bottle-fed neonates. Mean postpartum assessment occurred at 37 hours. Results suggest that breast-fed infants had significantly longer heart periods, elevated heart period variability, and higher vagal tone than bottle-fed infants. (Author/RWB)

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-04

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds.

  17. [Clonal plasticity of Iris japonica under different soil and canopy conditions in subtropocal evergreen broad-leaved forest].

    PubMed

    He, Yue-Jun; Han, Wen-Ping; Zhong, Zhang-Cheng

    2011-02-01

    An investigation was made on the growth indices of Iris japonica growing on the yellow soil and Karst soil within a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and in the forest gaps, aimed to approach the clonal plasticity of I. japonica in heterogeneous habitats. The results showed that the ramet height and diameter and the rhizome diameter of I. japonica were significantly higher in yellow soil habitat than in Karst soil habitat, while the individual density was in adverse. Light had significant effects on rhizome diameter, but soil condition had lesser effects under the same light environment. Within the forest of Karst soil habitat, the bud number and flower number of I. japonica were zero, possibly due to the double pressure from soil quality and light environment for the balance between resources uptake and energy assignment and for the sustaining of growth. In a certain extent, I. japonica in yellow soil habitat tended to K strategy via decreasing the individual number for improving competition to adapt environment, while I. japonica in Karst soil habitat tended to r strategy via increasing individual number for sustaining competition capability.

  18. Transcriptome-wide analysis of SAMe superfamily to novelty phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase copy in Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Qi, Linjie; Yu, Jun; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-12-29

    The S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase superfamily plays important roles in plant development. The buds of Lonicera japonica are used as Chinese medical material and foods; chinese people began domesticating L. japonica thousands of years ago. Compared to the wild species, L. japonica var. chinensis, L. japonica gives a higher yield of buds, a fact closely related to positive selection over the long cultivation period of the species. Genome duplications, which are always detected in the domestic species, are the source of the multifaceted roles of the functional gene. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the SAMe genes in L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis and further analyzed the roles of the duplicated genes among special groups. The SAMe protein sequences were subdivided into three clusters and several subgroups. The difference in transcriptional levels of the duplicated genes showed that seven SAMe genes could be related to the differences between the wild and the domesticated varieties. The sequence diversity of seven SAMe genes was also analyzed, and the results showed that different gene expression levels between the varieties could not be related to amino acid variation. The transcriptional level of duplicated PEAMT could be regulated through the SAM-SAH cycle.

  19. Detection system of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by brackish water benthic shellfish (Corbicula japonica) as a biological indicator in river water.

    PubMed

    Izumi, T; Yagita, K; Endo, T; Ohyama, T

    2006-11-01

    The brackish water benthic shellfish, Corbicula japonica, was experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts at 1.51x10(4)oocysts/clam/day for 7 or 14 days. Oocysts were predominantly eliminated through the feces of Corbicula japonica in both cases by microscopic and PCR methods. The fecal excretion rates of oocysts within 4 days after the last exposure to Corbicula japonica were 87.6% for the 7-day exposure group and 86.0% for the 14-day exposure group. The tissue residue level of oocysts in the gastrointestinal tract 3 days after the last exposure was 2.7% of total exposed oocysts and that of 7 days was 1.1% for the 7-day exposure case and 1.6 and 0.5% for the 14-day exposure case, respectively, maintaining infectivity to cultured cells (HCT-8) in vitro. At the same time, field tests of Corbicula japonica for collecting oocysts showed that this clam could certainly collect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in the natural river and, furthermore, the gene type of C. parvum could be also identified proving its effectiveness as a biological indicator. The present study showed that the brackish water benthic shellfish Corbicula japonica may be capable of gathering and preserving Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts to a considerable extent under the natural ecological conditions, and further suggests the effectiveness of Corbicula japonica as a practical and general bioindicator for estimates of river water contamination by oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  20. Antiviral activities of purified compounds from Youngia japonica (L.) DC (Asteraceae, Compositae).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; He, Zhendan; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-06-30

    The ethanol extract of a biannual medicinal herb, Youngia japonica (commonly known as Oriental hawk's beard) was reported previously to have potent antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cultured in HEp-2 cells. Three anti-microbial agents, namely 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were subsequently purified and chemically characterized from the ethanol extract of Youngia japonica. The two dicaffeoylquinic acids exhibited prominent anti-RSV with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.5 microg/ml in vitro. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside together with the two dicaffeoylquinic acids were also manifested to have some antibacterial activity towards the causal agents of food-borne disease, namely Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at the concentration of 2mg/ml. Bacillus cereus was sensitive to 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid only, but not to luteolin-7-O-glucoside.

  1. Self and nonself recognition in a marine sponge, Halichondria japonica (Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    The function of allogeneic recognition in a marine sponge, Halichondria japonica, was examined by use of cut pieces contact assay. Individuals of this species were able to distinguish an allogeneic individual from an autogeneic one, and showed rejection reactions against allogeneic individuals. There were two types of allogeneic rejection reaction: barrier formation at the contact area to separate from allogeneic individuals and necrosis with cytotoxic reactions at the contact area. In both types of rejection reactions, mesohyl cells accumulate at the contact area at the early stages of the rejection reaction. Fusion between two pieces of allogeneic individuals was very rare, and in most of combinations of allogeneic individuals rejection reactions appeared at the contact area. Xenogeneic rejections were also observed. Halichondria japonica showed rejection reaction against individuals of Halichondria okadai, but the intensity of rejection was less than that of allogeneic rejection.

  2. The isolation and characterization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation microorganisms for Laminaria japonica utilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jae-Hwa

    2011-05-01

    Brown seaweed contains various carbohydrates, such as alginate, laminaran, and mannitol, therefore ethanol fermentation was attempted with Nuruk and a mixed culture that included Laminaria japonica. Nuruk is used to make Korean traditional alcohol. In the research, four microorganisms that produced ethanol and had the ability to achieve alginate degradation were obtained on the L. japonica medium. Nuruk 4 was found to produce a better result than the other tested microorganisms, and the optimal substrate for ethanol production was found to be mannitol (2.59 g/L at 96 h). Nuruk 4 was more than three times better compared with Candida tropicalis in regards to ethanol production. When alginate lyase activity occurred, it appeared as a clear zone around Nuruk 3. The maximal ethanol production yield conditions were comprised of Nuruk 3 and 4 on the anaerobic culture. In this case, 2.0 g/L of ethanol were efficiently produced under the same conditions.

  3. Metabolic variation between japonica and indica rice cultivars as revealed by non-targeted metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chaoyang; Shi, Jianxin; Quan, Sheng; Cui, Bo; Kleessen, Sabrina; Nikoloski, Zoran; Tohge, Takayuki; Alexander, Danny; Guo, Lining; Lin, Hong; Wang, Jing; Cui, Xiao; Rao, Jun; Luo, Qian; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-01-01

    Seed metabolites are critically important both for plant development and human nutrition; however, the natural variation in their levels remains poorly characterized. Here we profiled 121 metabolites in mature seeds of a wide panel Oryza sativa japonica and indica cultivars, revealing correlations between the metabolic phenotype and geographic origin of the rice seeds. Moreover, japonica and indica subspecies differed significantly not only in the relative abundances of metabolites but also in their corresponding metabolic association networks. These findings provide important insights into metabolic adaptation in rice subgroups, bridging the gap between genome and phenome, and facilitating the identification of genetic control of metabolic properties that can serve as a basis for the future improvement of rice quality via metabolic engineering. PMID:24861081

  4. Detection of Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus in Anguilla japonica elvers.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Yasumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Satoshi; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Naoi, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-05-03

    Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers.

  5. Soluble starch synthase I effects differences in amylopectin structure between indica and japonica rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Suzuki, Keitaro; Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Keníchi

    2006-11-29

    The effect of soluble starch synthase I (SSI) on differences of amylopectin structure between the indica and japonica rice varieties was investigated. Native-PAGE/active staining analysis showed that the SSI activity of an indica rice variety, "Kasalath", was significantly lower than that of a japonica rice variety, "Nipponbare", and that the low activity in "Kasalath" was maintained during seed development. The result of northern blot analyses suggests that the low expression of SSI in "Kasalath" is controlled at the transcription levels of SSI mRNA. Chain length distribution of amylopectin in F3 endosperms derived from a cross between two varieties showed that not only SSIIa but also SSI regulated the population of short chains. These results indicate that the low activity of SSI gives rise to the decrease of short chains in amylopectin of indica rice varieties, suggesting that SSI effects the differences in physicochemical properties between two varieties.

  6. QTL analysis of percentage of grains with chalkiness in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, Y; Wang, S W

    2012-03-22

    Appearance quality of rice grains is a major problem for rice production in many areas of the world. We conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGWC), which is a determining factor for appearance quality; it strongly affects milling, eating and cooking quality. An F(8) recombinant inbred line population, which consists of 261 lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari (Japonica) and C602 (Japonica), was used for QTL mapping. Three QTLs related to PGWC were detected on chromosomes 5, 8 and 10, together explaining 50.8% of the genetic variation. The 'Koshihikari' alleles qJPGC-5, qJPGC-8 and the 'C602' alleles at qJPGC-10 were associated with reduced PGWC. The QTL contributions to phenotypic variance were 18.2, 9.6 and 25%, respectively. These QTL markers for PGWC could be used for developing improved varieties.

  7. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles.

  8. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction.

  9. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  10. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Profile of Estrogen Receptor in Common Chinese Cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Li-Qin; Wang, Tian-Ming; Shi, Hui-Lai; Ping, Hong-Ling; Chi, Chang-Feng; Yang, Jing-Wen; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues. The deduced ER protein consisted of six nuclear receptor characteristic domains. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the ER DNA-binding domain and ligand-binding domain are highly conserved compared to other mollusc ERs. Highest aa identities were found for sjER with common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ER (89%) and pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ER (61%). Tissue expression analysis confirmed that sjER was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain, liver, gonad (testis and ovary), and other accessory sexual gland (nidamental gland). The ER expression was temporally upregulated in the brain, liver, and ovary during the early sexual maturation period in S. japonica, which is coincident with the fluctuation of ovary estradiol content. These suggest that sjER may be involved in regulating the reproductive cycle of S. japonica. A fusion protein transient transfections assay showed that sjER was mainly located in the nucleus, suggesting a possible orthodox working mechanism of S. japonica ER in the nucleus through a ligand-dependent activation of specific gene transcription.

  11. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, T.

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  12. (2-Nitroethyl)benzene: a major flower scent from the Japanese loquat Eriobotrya japonica [Rosales: Rosaceae].

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Ichiki, Yayoi; Morita, Masashi; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    (2-Nitroethyl)benzene was identified as a major component of the flower scent of the Japanese loquat Eriobotrya japonica [Rosales: Rosaceae], together with p-methoxybenzaldehyde and methyl p-methoxybenzoate. The corresponding volatiles from chopped leaves did not contain these three compounds. This is the first time that 1-nitro-2-phenyl-ethane has been demonstrated to be a natural product among Japanese plants, although two Japanese millipedes are known to possess the same aromatics.

  13. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  14. Quality control of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Cheng, Zhiwei; Wang, Yuefei; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    A set of qualitative and quantitative methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was established for the geographical origin identification, quantitative determination of active compounds, and fingerprint analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The spectra of 140 samples from different origins were collected with two NIR instruments from different manufacturers (Thermo Scientific and Buchi). A Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model was established for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from the genuine producing area. Using the established discriminant analysis model, 22 samples from Henan province were predicted with 100% rate of accuracy, while the 68 samples from other producing areas were predicted with 9 samples incorrectly judged. Futhermore, partial least square regression method was used for developing the quantitative calibration models with the reference values determined with a validated HPLC-UV method. The RMSEP values of external validation are 0.169%, 0.048%, 0.172%, 0.007%, 0.203%, and 0.066% for NCA, CA, CfA, 3,4-DCA, 3,5-DCA, and 4,5-DCA, respectively, which indicated that the established models possess satisfactory predictive abilities. In addition, the models established on the primary instrument can also be transferred to the secondary instrument using direct standardization algorithm, which enlarged the application scope of the established models. Since the NIR spectra can reflect the comprehensive quality information of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, a fingerprint analysis method was finally proposed for the quality consistency check of raw materials. The proposed methods are rapid and effective, and possess good portability, which is helpful to the quality control of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

  15. A trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunyan; Wang, Xiuliang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2014-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjaTPS) (Accession: KC578568) was isolated based on homologous cloning and RACE-PCR. It was 4,127 bp, with 320 bp 5'-UTR, 21 bp 3'-UTR, and open reading frame (ORF) of 3,786 bp. The deduced 1,261 amino acids characterized with predicted molecular weight of 137.84 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.12. The SjaTPS had one N-terminal CBM20 (family 20 carbohydrate-binding module) domain, one TPS domain (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) in the middle region and a single TPP (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase) domain near the C-terminus. Structural analysis suggested that the SjaTPS putatively functioned as trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, and might be related to laminaran metabolism in S. japonica. Homology analysis indicated that the SjaTPS shared 49-70 % similarities with the 13 known TPS sequences of other algae; only 55 % amino acid similarities were detected between SjaTPS and the previously reported TPS sequence of S. japonica (Accession: DQ666325). Phylogenetic analysis revealed close affinity between SjaTPS and TPS of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Accession: CBJ29609). Transcriptional analysis showed that desiccation greatly enhanced SjaTPS expression and the maximum appeared at 3 h, which was about 300-fold compared to that of the start, implied that SjaTPS was involved with drought adaption in kelp. In vitro expression of SjaTPS showed that one distinct band existed at ~115 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was positive to the anti-His antibody with high specificity. Our results increased the knowledge of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase properties in S. japonica and also important for better understanding the role trehalose plays in kelp abiotic tolerance for adaption to the sublittoral habitats.

  16. Structural analysis of sulfated fucan from Saccharina japonica by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-03-22

    Desulfation of a fucoidan from Saccharina japonica by treatment with DMSO-MeOH resulted in partial degradation of polymeric molecules by methanolysis giving rise to a mixture of neutral, monosulfated, and disulfated fucooligosaccharides in the form of methyl glycosides. These oligomeric fragments were characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-CID-MS/MS. It was found that oligosaccharide structures coincided with the polysaccharide backbone built up mainly of (1→3)-linked fucose residues sulfated at positions 4 and 2.

  17. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs.

    PubMed

    Shirane, T

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  18. Genetic population structure of Osmunda japonica, rheophilous Osmunda lancea and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoko; Tsutsumi, Chie; Hirayama, Yumiko; Mori, Keigo; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    Rheophilous Osmunda lancea often hybridizes with a dryland ally, Osmunda japonica, to produce O. x intermedia, forming zonation in riverbanks and the adjacent dryland along flooding frequency clines. This study examined the genetic structure of populations consisting of O. x intermedia and the two parental species by analyzing ten nuclear DNA markers [six cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers and three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from an expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and the sequence of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene GapCp] and chloroplast DNA sequences. The results suggest that the nuclear genes of O. japonica and O. lancea are genetically differentiated despite shared polymorphism in their chloroplast DNA sequences. This discrepancy may be attributable to natural selection and recent introgression, although it is not evident if introgression occurs between O. japonica and O. lancea in the examined populations. Our findings of putative F2 hybrids in O. x intermedia support its partial reproducibility, and also suggest that formation of later-generation hybrids generates morphological variation in O. x intermedia. O. lancea plants collected from geographically distant localities were genetically very similar, and it is suggested that O. lancea originated monotopically.

  19. Symbiotic associations in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Krupnova, Tatiana N; Ayala, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    The brown alga Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is a highly polymorphic representative of the family Laminariaceae, inhabiting the northwest Pacific region. We have obtained 16S rRNA sequence data in symbiont microorganisms of the typical form (TYP) of S. japonica and its common morphological varieties, known as "longipes" (LON) and "shallow-water" (SHA), which show contrasting bathymetric distribution and sharp morphological, life history traits, and ecological differences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences shows that the microbial communities are significantly different in the three forms studied and consist of mosaic sets of common and form-specific bacterial lineages. The divergence in bacterial composition is substantial between the TYP and LON forms in spite of their high genetic similarity. The symbiont distribution in the S. japonica forms and in three other laminarialean species is not related to the depth or locality of the algae settlements. Combined with our previous results on symbiont associations in sea urchins and taking into account the highly specific character of bacteria-algae associations, we propose that the TYP and LON forms may represent incipient species passing through initial steps of reproductive isolation. We suggest that phenotype differences between genetically similar forms may be caused by host-symbiont interactions that may be a general feature of evolution in algae and other eukaryote organisms. Bacterial symbionts could serve as sensitive markers to distinguish genetically similar algae forms and also as possible growth-promoting inductors to increase algae productivity.

  20. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies.

    PubMed

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-03-14

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells.

  1. Effects of N,N-dimethylformamide on behaviour and regeneration of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyong; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zheng, Mingyue; Sun, Yuqian; Wang, Youjun; Yang, Shudong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the toxicity, behavioural and regeneration effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. One control and six different concentrations of DMF (10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm) were used in triplicate. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMF concentration and planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) was significantly reduced by increasing the exposure time and DMF concentration. pLMV of D. japonica was significantly reduced at a lower concentration of 10 ppm after 7 days of continuous exposure to DMF. The recovery of the motility of planarians pretreated with DMF was found to be time- and dose dependent, all planarians had complete recovery in their motility after 48 h. The appearance of auricles in regenerating animals was easily affected by DMF exposure in comparison with the appearance of eyespot. The present results suggest that the intact adult mobility in the aquatic planarian D. japonica is a more sensitive biomarker than mortality, and the appearance of auricles in regenerating animals is a more sensitive biomarker than eyespot.

  2. Effects of several immunostimulants on phenoloxidase and hemocytes of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tingjun; Yu, Miaomiao; Yang, Lingling; Shi, Zhenping; Sun, Wenjie; Cong, Rishan; Yang, Xiuxia; Jiang, Guojian

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the stimulating effects of immunostimulants on the autogenous immunocompetence of crabs and the possible mechanisms involved, the immunostimulating effects of β-1,3-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inactivated Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum on phenoloxidase (PO) and hemocytes of Charybdis japonica were investigated in this study. It was found that the yields and the enzymatic activities of purified PO in C. japonica increased significantly after the crabs were treated with immunostimulants, while the unit enzymatic activities remained almost the same. After treatment with β-1,3-glucan and LPS, the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the number of mitochondria in both semigranular cells and granular cells increased greatly, and the number of cytoplasmic granules decreased but with enlarged volume. However, the corresponding characteristics of hyaline cells remained almost the same. On the other hand, the number of granules in semigranular cells decreased greatly, and the number of mitochondria of hyaline cells increased greatly, after treatment with inactivated vibrios. It may be concluded that the effect of polysaccharide immunostimulants on the innate immune system of C. japonica is different from that of inactivated vibrio immunostimulants. The immunity-enhancing mechanism of polysaccharides in crab autogenous immunocompetence is probably accomplished by the increased yields of PO and total PO activities, while that of inactivated vibrios is probably accomplished by the partially increased yields of PO and total PO activities as well as the significantly improved phagocytotic abilities of semigranular cells and hyaline cells.

  3. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  4. In vitro fermentation of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu

    2016-10-01

    In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects.

  5. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells. PMID:26973288

  6. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  7. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  8. Proteomics analysis of UV-irradiated Lonicera japonica Thunb. with bioactive metabolites enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Zheng, Wen; Fu, Zhirong; Li, Wenting; Ma, Luyu; Li, Ke; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui

    2013-12-01

    A previous study showed that the contents of caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids, the major bioactive components in the postharvest Lonicera japonica Thunb., were induced by enhanced ultraviolet (UV)-A or UV-B irradiation. To clarify the UV-responsive key enzymes in the bioactive metabolites biosynthetic pathway and the related plant defense mechanism in L. japonica, 2DE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was employed. Seventy-five out of 196 differential proteins were positively identified. Based on the functions, these proteins were grouped into nine categories, covering a wide range of molecular processes including the secondary metabolites (caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids) biosynthetic-related proteins, photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress, DNA, transport-related proteins, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, cell wall. Of note is the increasing expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase, which was crucial to supply more precursor for the secondary metabolites including caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids. Thus, this study provides both the clues at the protein level for the increase of the two bioactive components upon UV irradiation and the profile of UV-responsive proteins in L. japonica.

  9. Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lian; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhouli; Huang, Yanqing; Yu, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate possible hormetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced a significant increase in plant growth, leaf water content and content of photosynthetic pigments in L. japonica, but decreased them at high concentrations, displayed inverted U-shaped dose response curves, confirming a typical biphasic hormetic response. The U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in leaves at low doses of Cd, indicating reduce oxidative stress and toxic effect. The increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, indicative of increase in anti-oxidative capacity that ensures redox homeostasis is maintained. After 28 days exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and leaf Cd concentrations reached 502.96 ± 28.90 and 103.22 ± 5.62 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had high bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF'). Moreover, the maximum TF value was found at 2.5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment, implying that low Cd treatment improved the ability to transfer Cd from medium via roots to aerial structures. Taking together, L. japonica could be considered as a new plant to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormesis and Cd tolerance. Our results suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil.

  10. [Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of FatB genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb and its substitutes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou-yong; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Min; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Shu-fang; Wu, Zhi-gang

    2012-10-01

    A FatB unigene was obtained from the transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Full-length FatB cDNA was cloned from buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Wats.) Bak., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. and Lonicera dasystyla Rehd. using RT-PCR technology, and named as LJFatB, LHFatB, LJCFatB and LDFatB. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB and Arabidopsis thaliana AtFatB had a closely relationship. Nucleotide sequences and protein secondary structure of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB are different and their proteins had conserved FatB substrate binding sites and catalytic activity sites. Transcriptive level of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB in bud was not significantly different. Therefore, LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB could have the same biological function as AtFatB.

  11. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  12. [Anti-radical activity of products of processing of holothurian Cucumaria japonica and their practical application for lipid stabilization].

    PubMed

    Tabakaeva, O V; Kalenik, T K; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Products of technological and biotechnological modification (acid and enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts) of the holothurian Cucumariajaponica from the Far East region are the complex multicomponent systems containing biologically active agents of a sea origin that has to provide them biological activity. The research objective consisted in quantitative studying of anti-radical properties of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from soft fabrics of a holothurian from the Far East region (Cucumaria japonica) and their influence on oxidation of lipids in fat emulsion products. The reaction with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used as a model system. Radical relating activity of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica varied over a wide range from 48 to 78%. The maximum radical binding activity was noted for acid hydrolyzates. The activity of the hydrolyzate from a nimbus and feelers of Cucumaria japonica was comparable with activity of ionol. It has been defined that levels of manifestation of anti-radical activity depended on a way of technological and biotechnological processing of raw materials. Studying of fractional composition of melanoidins of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica established that they can be divided into fractions--with molecular masses about 10,000 and 1000 Da. The maximum content of melanoidins has been defined in fraction weighing about 1000 Da. Introduction of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in the composition of oil-fat emulsion systems allowed to slow down processes of lipid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in mayonnaise. Introduction of hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in an oil-fat emulsion product allowed to reduce peroxide value by 22-45%, acid value by 12-35% on the 90th days of storage. Acid hydrolysates of Cucumaria Japonica most significantly reduce the rate of

  13. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from a full-length enriched cDNA library of Cryptomeria japonica male strobili

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Norihiro; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Igasaki, Tomohiro; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Seki, Motoaki; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Mari, Adriano; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinohara, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Background Cryptomeria japonica D. Don is one of the most commercially important conifers in Japan. However, the allergic disease caused by its pollen is a severe public health problem in Japan. Since large-scale analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the male strobili of C. japonica should help us to clarify the overall expression of genes during the process of pollen development, we constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library that was derived from male strobili at various developmental stages. Results We obtained 36,011 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from either one or both ends of 19,437 clones derived from the cDNA library of C. japonica male strobili at various developmental stages. The 19,437 cDNA clones corresponded to 10,463 transcripts. Approximately 80% of the transcripts resembled ESTs from Pinus and Picea, while approximately 75% had homologs in Arabidopsis. An analysis of homologies between ESTs from C. japonica male strobili and known pollen allergens in the Allergome Database revealed that products of 180 transcripts exhibited significant homology. Approximately 2% of the transcripts appeared to encode transcription factors. We identified twelve genes for MADS-box proteins among these transcription factors. The twelve MADS-box genes were classified as DEF/GLO/GGM13-, AG-, AGL6-, TM3- and TM8-like MIKCC genes and type I MADS-box genes. Conclusion Our full-length enriched cDNA library derived from C. japonica male strobili provides information on expression of genes during the development of male reproductive organs. We provided potential allergens in C. japonica. We also provided new information about transcription factors including MADS-box genes expressed in male strobili of C. japonica. Large-scale gene discovery using full-length cDNAs is a valuable tool for studies of gymnosperm species. PMID:18691438

  14. Use of a pollen-based diet to expose the ladybird beetle Propylea japonica to insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F.

  15. Characterization of genome-wide microsatellites of Saccharina japonica based on a preliminary assembly of Illumina sequencing reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Cui, Cuiju; Sun, Juan; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) function widely and locate dependently in genome. However, their characteristics are often ignored due to the lack of genomic sequences of most species. Kelp ( Saccharina japonica), a brown macroalga, is extensively cultured in China. In this study, the genome of S. japonica was surveyed using an Illumina sequencing platform, and its microsatellites were characterized. The preliminarily assembled genome was 469.4 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 20529 bp. Among the 128370 identified microsatellites, 90671, 25726 and 11973 were found in intergenic regions, introns and exons, averaging 339.3, 178.8 and 205.4 microsatellites per Mb, respectively. These microsatellites distributed unevenly in S. japonica genome. Mononucleotide motifs were the most abundant in the genome, while trinucleotide ones were the most prevalent in exons. The microsatellite abundance decreased significantly with the increase of motif repeat numbers, and the microsatellites with a small number of repeats accounted for a higher proportion of the exons than those of the intergenic regions and introns. C/G-rich motifs were more common in exons than in intergenic regions and introns. These characteristics of microsatellites in S. japonica genome may associate with their functions, and ultimately their adaptation and evolution. Among the 120140 pairs of designed microsatellite primers, approximately 75% were predicted to be able to amplify S. japonica DNA. These microsatellite markers will be extremely useful for the genetic breeding and population evolution studies of kelp.

  16. COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF NATIVE EELGRASS ZOSTERA MARINA AND THE NON-NATIVE DWARF EELGRASS Z. JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    When non-native plant species invade a system they often change patterns of primary production. I evaluate the contribution of the seagrass Zostera marina and it's non-native congener Z. japonica to primary production in Yaquina Bay. Few measurements of Z. japonica production e...

  17. EFFECTS OF THE INVASIVE, NONINDIGENOUS SEAGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA ON NUTRIENT FLUXES BETWEEN THE WATER COLUMN AND BENTHOS IN A NE PACIFIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its introduction in the early to mid-20th century, the Asian seagrass Zostera japonica has become established in marine and mesohaline portions of many estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. Z. japonica forms dense patches from 0.3-2.4m above mean lower low water, a zone that...

  18. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  19. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  20. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) was to show, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using a microprocessor to automate the onboard orbit determination functions. The software and hardware configuration used to support FEDS during the demonstration and the results of the demonstration are discussed.

  1. Reproduction and health of mallards fed endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Hulse, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of 0, 1 and 3 ppm endrin in dry duck mash were fed to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) starting in December, and health and reproduction were measured the following spring and summer. One male fed 3 ppm endrin died with 2.0 ppm endrin (wet weight), a diagnostically lethal level, in its brain. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin reproduced as well as, if not better than, controls. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin had significantly greater hatching success of fertile eggs than did those fed 0 or 3 ppm, and their clutches hatched significantly earlier than did those of birds fed 3 ppm. Mallards fed 3 ppm endrin appeared to reproduce more poorly than controls, but this finding must be regarded with caution because the results of statistical tests often were not significant. Endrin accumulated in eggs to a mean of 1.1 and 2.9 ppm (wet weight) when fed to hens at 1 and 3 ppm. The concentration of endrin in the cacasses of adults was similar to that in eggs, but the concentration in the fat of adults was about 4 to 7 times higher than in eggs.

  2. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  3. Antioxidant activity and protective effects of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in Chang cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Kwon, Hyuck-Ju; Hong, Heeok; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts were evaluated through several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The antioxidant activities were compared with other natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results showed that higher radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity in FRAP than those of vitamin C as a positive control. T. japonica pericarp extracts have antioxidant properties through its ability to prevent tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced toxicity which enhance the cell viability, reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inhibits of oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in Chang liver cells. Therefore, based on these finding, it seems reasonable to suggest that T. japonica pericarp extracts has the potential to protect liver against t-BHP-induced cell damage and should be considered as a potential functional food.

  4. Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular characterisation of Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae) from Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell) (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Hasegawa, Hideo; Roca, Vicente; Xu, Zhen; Guo, Yan-Ning; Sato, Akiko; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Gnathostomatid nematodes identified morphologically as Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 were collected from the dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell) (Amphibia: Ranidae) in China. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology of this species in detail. Previously unreported morphological features are revealed and others corrected. In addition, adult nematodes of S. japonica collected from P. nigromaculatus and Spiroxys hanzaki Hasegawa, Miyata & Doi, 1998 collected from Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in China and Japan, respectively, and the third-stage larva of S. japonica collected from Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw) (Anura: Ranidae) in Japan, were characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [large ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed space] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1] target regions, respectively. The new morphological and genetic data contributes to a more accurate diagnosis of this hitherto little known nematode genus.

  5. The ecological importance of the dwarf seagrass Zostera japonica in intertidal areas on the southern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Kun-Seop; Li, Wen-Tao; Park, Sang Rul

    2016-03-01

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica, which is distributed in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, is exposed to nutrients from over-enriched land-based discharge and storm water runoff before they can be washed out to sea. Despite its ecological importance, only a few studies have examined the ecology and physiology of Z. japonica in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the productivity and tissue nutrient contents of above- and below-ground tissues to evaluate the potential role of Z. japonica in carbon capture and as a nutrient sink. The average total, above-, and below-ground productivity per shoot was 0.56, 0.34, and 0.21 mg DW shoot-1 day-1, respectively. Annual leaf production was 1.5 times higher than annual below-ground production. Estimated annual whole-plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus incorporation based on shoot production and tissue nutrient contents was 312.8 g C m-2 y-1, 25.7 g N m-2 y-1, and 1.6 g P m-2 y-1, respectively. These values were equivalent to 7.8 × 103 kg C y-1, 6.4 × 102 kg N y-1, and 40 kg P y-1 for all Z. japonica beds in Geoje Bay. This suggests that Z. japonica meadows can incorporate a considerable amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the intertidal zone. High N:P ratios of above- and below-ground tissues suggest that Z. japonica growth is probably limited by phosphorus availability in the study area.

  6. Evaluation of Rickettsia japonica Pathogenesis and Reservoir Potential in Dogs by Experimental Inoculation and Epidemiologic Survey ▿

    PubMed Central

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Matsuda, Hironori; Sakamoto, Leo; Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia japonica pathogenesis and reservoir potential in dogs were evaluated by both experimental inoculation and epidemiologic survey. In the experimental inoculation study, dogs 1 and 2 were pretreated with an immunosuppressive dose of cyclosporine 14 days before inoculation and became ill after exposure to R. japonica. Dogs exhibited clinical signs, including fever, anorexia, depression, and decreased water consumption, between 36 and 96 h after inoculation, but these signs disappeared spontaneously by 5 days after inoculation. Dogs 3 and 4 were not pretreated with cyclosporine, and no clinical signs were detected in them throughout the 14-day observation period. The control dog was clinically normal and had a normal rectal temperature throughout the study period. We attempted to detect rickettsial DNA from peripheral blood and aspiration samples from kidney and spleen by nested PCR, but all samples examined were negative. The control dog lacked detectable titers to R. japonica antigen on day 14, while positive antibodies to R. japonica were detected in all four experimentally infected dogs, with titers of 1:160 to 1:80. In the epidemiologic survey, 24 (1.8%) of the 1,363 dogs examined throughout Japan had antibodies against R. japonica, with titers of 1:40 or more. However, we observed neither clinical signs at the time of sample collection nor nested PCR results indicative of rickettsial infection in these dogs. In conclusion, dogs in Japan can be exposed to R. japonica, and infected dogs with immunosuppressive conditions can temporarily develop clinical symptoms, including fever, anorexia, depression, and decreased water consumption. PMID:20980481

  7. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.

  8. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  9. Complete Biosynthetic Pathway of the C50 Carotenoid Bacterioruberin from Lycopene in the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Ando, Ai; Miyoko, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Toshiaki; Takaichi, Shinichi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon that requires high concentrations of NaCl for growth, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). By homology analysis, a gene cluster, including c0507, c0506, and c0505, was found and predicted to be involved in the synthesis of bacterioruberin. To elucidate the function of the encoded enzymes, we constructed Ha. japonica mutants of these genes and analyzed carotenoids produced by the mutants. Our research showed that c0507, c0506, and c0505 encoded a carotenoid 3,4-desaturase (CrtD), a bifunctional lycopene elongase and 1,2-hydratase (LyeJ), and a C50 carotenoid 2″,3″-hydratase (CruF), respectively. The above three carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes catalyze the reactions that convert lycopene to bacterioruberin in Ha. japonica. This is the first identification of functional CrtD and CruF in archaea and elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of bacterioruberin from lycopene. IMPORTANCE Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). In this study, we have identified three BR biosynthetic enzymes and have elucidated their functions. Among them, two enzymes were found in an archaeon for the first time. Our results revealed the biosynthetic pathway responsible for production of BR in Ha. japonica and provide a basis for investigating carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in other extremely halophilic archaea. Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in Ha. japonica may also prove useful for producing the C50 carotenoid BR efficiently by employing genetically modified haloarchaeal strains. PMID:25712483

  10. Evidence for cryptic northern refugia in the last glacial period in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Megumi K.; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Nakao, Katsuhiro; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; San Jose-Maldia, Lerma; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Distribution shifts and natural selection during past climatic changes are important factors in determining the genetic structure of forest species. In particular, climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary appear to have caused changes in the distribution ranges of plants, and thus strongly affected their genetic structure. This study was undertaken to identify the responses of the conifer Cryptomeria japonica, endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, to past climatic changes using a combination of phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) methods. Specifically, this study focused on the locations of refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Methods Genetic diversity and structure were examined using 20 microsatellite markers in 37 populations of C. japonica. The locations of glacial refugia were assessed using STRUCTURE analysis, and potential habitats under current and past climate conditions were predicted using SDM. The process of genetic divergence was also examined using the approximate Bayesian computation procedure (ABC) in DIY ABC to test the divergence time between the gene pools detected by the STRUCTURE analysis. Key Results STRUCTURE analysis identified four gene pools: northern Tohoku district; from Chubu to Chugoku district; from Tohoku to Shikoku district on the Pacific Ocean side of the Archipelago; and Yakushima Island. DIY ABC analysis indicated that the four gene pools diverged at the same time before the LGM. SDM also indicated potential northern cryptic refugia. Conclusions The combined evidence from microsatellites and SDM clearly indicates that climatic changes have shaped the genetic structure of C. japonica. The gene pool detected in northern Tohoku district is likely to have been established by cryptic northern refugia on the coast of the Japan Sea to the west of the Archipelago. The gene pool in Yakushima Island can probably be explained simply by long-term isolation from the other gene pools since

  11. Anticancer and antiviral activities of Youngia japonica (L.) DC (Asteraceae, Compositae).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; Luk, Choi-Wan; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Youngia japonica (also known as Oriental hawksbeard) were tested in vitro for anti-tumor activity against three cell lines, human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human myelogenous leukaemia (chronic K-562) and mouse Sarcoma 180 (S-180), and for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (Flu A) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Hot water extract of Youngia japonica inhibited cell proliferation and growth of all cancer cell lines to various extent. K-562 cells were the most sensitive to the extract whereas S-180 cells were the least. It did not show any significant cytotoxic effects on normal mammalian Vero cells up to the concentration of 450 microg/mL. The ethanol extract of whole plant of Youngia japonica exhibited antiviral activity against RSV cultured in HEp-2 cells, but did not have any activity against Flu A and HSV-1. Two partially purified fractions (Fr.10 and Fr.11) from the 95% ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-RSV with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the range of 3.0-6.0 microg/mL. The ratio of the viral titer reduction in the absence (viral control) and presence of the maximal non-cytotoxic concentration (MNCC) of the Fr.10 and Fr.11 was both estimated to be 1 x 10(4) (RF, viral titer reduction factors), indicating that their anti-RSV activity was high enough to justify for further analysis. Our preliminary analysis showed that the antiviral ingredients were likely to contain phenolic compounds including tannins by chemical tests.

  12. [Morphological and quality difference of adult Anguilla japonica under three aquaculture models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Zheng; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wei-Dong

    2012-05-01

    Anguilla japonica adults with a snout-vent length of (25.91 +/- 3.26) cm were randomly sampled from the ponds of monoculture A. japonica (M1) and polyculture A. japonica and Macrobrachium nipponense (M2) and the proliferation site in reservoir (M3) to compare the morphological and quality indices of the adults under the three aquaculture models. Discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and factor analysis were applied to reveal the differences among the individuals of these three cultured populations. Among the test 21 biological traits and 23 morphological and quality indices, there were significant differences in 15 biological traits and 14 morphological and quality indices between M1 and M2, 19 and 18 between M1 and M3, and 11 and 8 between M2 and M3, respectively. The Euclidean distance between M1 and M2, M1 and M3, and M2 and M3 was 1.433, 3. 516, and 2. 167, respectively, and the differences were significant. The accumulative variance percentage of the first five principal components was 82.1%, and the eigenvalues of these components were all larger than 1. The principal components 1 and 2 could be regarded as fatness factor and movement factor, the other three principal components could be regarded as well-being factor, and the three populations could be clearly separated each other by principal component 1. In discriminant analysis, the five principal components, i. e., body width / anal length, body length / anal length, net volume coefficient, swim bladder coefficient, and liver coefficient, were served as independent variables to establish discriminant functions of the populations, which could clearly distinguish the populations, with the discriminant accuracy and synthetic discriminant accuracy being 100%.

  13. Responses of Crepis japonica induced by supplemental blue light and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Constantino, L F da S; Nascimento, L B Dos S; Casanova, L M; Moreira, N Dos S; Menezes, E A; Esteves, R L; Costa, S S; Tavares, E S

    2017-02-15

    Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation). We recorded the length, width, and weight of fresh and dry leaves, the thickness of the epidermis and mesophyll, and stomata density. The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts of the aerial parts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. There was an increase in the leaf size, stomatal density, and phenolic production, and a thickening of the mesophyll and epidermis. UV-A radiation increased the phenolic production more than blue light. Blue light and UV-A radiation both improved the production of caffeic acid by about 6 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to control. This compound was first reported as a constituent of the extract from the aerial parts together with caftaric acid. UV-A also promoted the production of chlorogenic acid (about 1.5 times in comparison to the control). We observed that the morphological and chemical parameters of C. japonica are modified in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, which can be used as tools in the cultivation of this species in order to improve its medicinal properties and nutritional value.

  14. Two distinct roles of the yorkie/yap gene during homeostasis in the planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byulnim; An, Yang; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Adult planarians possess somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts that give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration and homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator family plays an important role in the regulation of tissue growth during development and regeneration, and therefore we investigated the role of a planarian yki-related gene (termed Djyki) during regeneration and homeostasis of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica. We found that knockdown of the function of Djyki by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated neoblast proliferation and caused regeneration defects after amputation. In addition, Djyki RNAi caused edema during homeostasis. These seemingly distinct defects induced by Djyki RNAi were rescued by simultaneous RNAi of a planarian mats-related gene (termed Djmats), suggesting an important role of Djmats in the negative regulation of Djyki, in accordance with the conservation of the functional relationship of these two genes during the course of evolution. Interestingly, Djyki RNAi did not prevent normal protonephridial structure, suggesting that Djyki RNAi induced the edema phenotype without affecting the excretory system. Further analyses revealed that increased expression of the D. japonica gene DjaquaporinA (DjaqpA), which belongs to a large gene family that encodes a water channel protein for the regulation of transcellular water flow, promoted the induction of edema, but not defects in neoblast dynamics, in Djyki(RNAi) animals. Thus, we conclude that Djyki plays two distinct roles in the regulation of active proliferation of stem cells and in osmotic water transport across the body surface in D. japonica.

  15. Comparison of transcriptome under red and blue light culture of Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Wang, Fei-Jiu; Sun, Xiu-Tao; Liu, Fu-Li; Liang, Zhou-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Saccharina japonica is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Several aspects such as photosynthesis in Saccharina lives are affected by blue light, the predominant light spectrum in the habitat. In this study, transcriptome profiling of S. japonica by next generation sequencing technology generated 55,102 qualified transcripts and 40.5 % transcripts were assigned to functional annotation. Expression of a large proportion of genes has been previously reported to be regulated by blue light, taking dark as control. However, by comparison among white, blue and red light, the significantly differentially expressed gene tags (DEGs) accounted for only 6.75 % of the identified sequences. It indicated that light-regulated gene expression in kelps is not a specific blue-light response. Unexpectedly, red light had more extensive effects on the transcriptomic activity than blue light did, since the most (68.4 %) DEGs were red light-regulated and only 17.5 % were specifically regulated by blue light. Some of the DEGs with the highest mRNA levels under blue light are not blue light-upregulated but red light-downregulated. The extensive regulation on gene expression under red light together with the abundant presence of phytochrome-like protein gene tags in S. japonica indicated their significant roles in the lives of brown algae. By highlighting the photosynthetic metabolism, blue light is more efficient than red light in triggering the pigment biosynthesis, light reaction and carbon fixation, revealing a molecular basis for rapid growth of kelps, since most of the time blue light is predominant in their habitat.

  16. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Safaa Yehia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Ashour, Mohamed Lotfy; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR). Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plants (N = 16) for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ) (Polygonaceae) shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81%) compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy. PMID:26346937

  17. Anti-photoaging capability of antioxidant extract from Camellia japonica leaf.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Taeko; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the Camellia japonica leaf exhibits antioxidant activity because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds. Thus, the extract prepared from mature leaves of C. japonica (CJML) has been widely used as an anti-ageing material in foods and cosmetics. Concerning the process of growing C. japonica, it is expected that the extract from green leaves (CJGL) has superior effects compared with that from mature leaves. However, there are few reports that discuss the difference between green and mature leaves. In this study, both CJML and CJGL were extracted with 50% 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG) and used for investigations. In a chemical examination, we compared both extracts in terms of scavenging activities against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and hydroxyl radicals. CJGL exhibited higher scavenging activities against both types of ROSs compared with CJML. In addition, CJGL reduced the carbonylation of tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC) after UVB irradiation. In a biological study, the intra-cellular ROS level of HaCaT keratinocytes precultured with CJGL for 24 h was significantly lower than that of the control cells. Furthermore, cell damage induced by H2 O2 exposure was attenuated by 24 h precultivation with CJGL but not by 2 h precultivation. The results of examinations indicate that CJGL possess properties that reduce oxidative stress. In addition, the result of 2 h precultivation with CJGL suggests that CJGL might affect the status of intra-cellular antioxidants.

  18. Characterization of the Promoter Region of Biosynthetic Enzyme Genes Involved in Berberine Biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshimoto, Tadashi; Yoshida, Sayumi T.; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs), a plant-specific WRKY-type TF, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix TF, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4′OMT and CYP719A1) were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC) reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4′OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed. PMID:27642289

  19. Impact of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin on Ivory Shell (Babylonia japonica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241

  20. Polarization Analysis of Light Scattered by Pollen Grains of Cryptomeria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Pollinosis to airborne pollen grains is a severe problem that concerns the whole world. Almost spring allergies in Japan are caused by pollen grains of Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) during the period of pollination from February to May. One of the key technologies in a pollen monitoring and forecast system is a pollen sensor. The pollen grain of Japan cedar is identified by introducing the degree of polarization to the optical sensor based on the scattered intensity. The detectability and discriminability in identifying the pollen grains of Japan cedar from the polystyrene spherical particles and the Kanto loam grains are achieved up to 95 and 86%, respectively.

  1. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos and embryonic axes of Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Janeiro, L V; Vieitez, A M; Ballester, A

    1996-05-01

    Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen was attempted with both somatic embryos and zygotic embryonic axes of the ornamental Camellia japonica L. Several protective measures were applied to somatic embryos (desiccation, chemical protectors, hardening by culture at low temperatures, encapsulation in alginate beads), but none allowed somatic embryos cultures to survive after 24 h in liquid nitrogen. Embryonic axes, however, were easily cryopreserved by means of the simplest technique: desiccation in a laminar flow hood and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Although the causes of the difference in cryopreservability between the two types of material are not known, one might be the difference between their degrees of differentiation and water content.

  2. Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) software system

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Wrench, L.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Model is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. FEDS is a multi-level energy analysis software system designed to provide a comprehensive approach to fuel-neutral, technology-independent, integrated (energy) resource planning and acquisition. The FEDS system includes Level-1, a top-down, first-pass energy systems analysis and energy resource acquisition decision software model for buildings and facilities; and the Level-2 software model, which allows specific engineering inputs and provides detailed output. FEDS Level-1 is a user-friendly, DOS-based, menu-driven software program for assessing the energy efficiency resource at a large federal installation. It uses high-level installation information (number, age, size, and types of buildings and energy systems), an internal data base of typical energy-system configurations and performance data, and sophisticated energy simulation and optimization models to estimate the net present value of potential energy retrofits in federal installations. The FEDS Level-1 analysis will typically be followed by a FEDS Level-2 analysis, which allows FEDS Level-1 information to be augmented with detailed energy-system information, and returns detailed project-by-project technology selection and economic information. FEDS Level-1 was released in October 1992. FEDS Level-2 is planned for release in October 1993. The first release which includes both levels will cover only building systems. The next release in early 1994 will cover other energy systems, including central heating and cooling plants and thermal distribution loops.

  3. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Rutherford, P. H.; Hogan, J.T.; Attenberger, S. E.; Holmes, J.A.; Borowski, S. K.; Brown, T. G.; Carreras, B. A.; Ehst, D. A.; Haines, J.R.; Hively, L. M.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Iida, H.; Lee, V. D.; Lynch, S.J.; Reid, R. L.; Rothe, K. E.; Strickler, Dennis J; Stewart, L. D.

    1983-08-01

    This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

  4. Development and characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Komaki, Shohei; Igawa, Takeshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Lin, Si-Min; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Buergeria japonica is a common frog species distributed throughout almost all islands in Ryukyu Archipelago. Because of their exceptionally wide distribution and higher physiological tolerance comparing to the other anurans, their demographic history and formation of distribution are intrinsic topics in the herpetological fauna of Ryukyu. Microsatellite marker is ideal genetic marker for such studies at inter- and intra-population level. We therefore developed microsatellite markers of B. japonica utilizing Ion PGM™ sequencing. As a result of the screening, we developed a total of 14 polymorphic markers. To test availabilities of these markers, we genotyped four island populations. The total number of alleles and expected hetelozygosities per locus ranged from 4 to 21 and 0.00 to 0.864, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the four populations based on the genetic distances of these markers was congruent with general divergence pattern of amphibians and reptiles in Ryukyu area. These markers developed in this study are considered to be useful for future studies about phylogeography and demography of this species.

  5. Isolation and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Evaluation of Bio-Active Compounds from Eriobotrya Japonica Stems

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Khaled Nabih; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Eriobotrya japonica stems as well investigation of its chemical composition. Methods: Methanol 80% extract of Eriobotrya japonica stems was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. Results: The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited significantly the growth of Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections, and it showed no effect on the other bacterial and fungal strains, the extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, while it showed a low value of polyphenol content. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenes, tannins and flavonoids, further phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation and identification of three triterpenic acids, oleanolic, ursolic and corosolic acids and four flavonoids, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside. Conclusion: These results may help to discover new chemical classes of natural antimicrobial antioxidant substances. PMID:24409413

  6. Molecular cloning of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulase genes from brackish water clam Corbicula japonica.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kentaro; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported endogenous Glycoside Hydrolase Family (GHF) 9 beta-1,4-glucanase gene, CjCel9A, from common Japanese freshwater clam Corbicula japonica. Here we identified another endogenous beta-1,4-glucanase genes which belong to GHF45 (CjCel45A, CjCel45B). Both genes encode ORF of 627 bp corresponding to 208 amino acids. CjCel45A and CjCel45B are different in 5' and 3'-untranslated regions and six nucleotides in the ORF. CjCEL45 has only one GHF45 catalytic domain without any carbohydrate binding modules as is the case with other molluskan GHF45 enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic structure of CjCel45 gene implies that this gene is likely to be acquired from fungi by common ancestor of mollusks. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that CjCel45A is likely to be expressed in the secretory cells in the digestive gland, suggesting that this cellulase is produced in the same site as CjCEL9A. CjCEL45A was successfully expressed in E. coli cells and zymographic analysis of the recombinant CjCEL45A showed that CjCEL45A is a functional beta-1,4-glucanase. The finding of multiple cellulase genes in C. japonica strongly supports our hypothesis that this species function as a cellulose decomposer in estuarine environments.

  7. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and cellular localization of an LFRFamide gene in the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zi-Hao; Sun, Lian-Lian; Chi, Chang-Feng; Liu, Hui-Hui; Zhou, Li-Qing; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes in metazoans, such as feeding, reproduction, and heart activities. In this study, an LFRFamide gene was identified from the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (designated as SjLFRFamide). The full-length sequence of SjLFRFamide cDNA has 841bp, and the open reading frame contains 567bp encoding 188 amino acids, which shared high similarity with precursor SOFaRP2 from Sepia officinalis. The deduced SjLFRFamdie precursor protein contains a signal peptide and four different FLPs (FMRFamide-like peptides): one pentapeptide (TIFRFamide), two hexapeptides (NSLFRFamide and GNLFRFamide) and one heptapeptide (PHTPFRFamide). Multiple sequence alignment showed that SjLFRFamide contains rather conserved mature peptides, which all ended in FRF. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that SjLFRFamide belongs to the LFRFamide subfamily. The tissue distribution analysis through quantitative real-time PCR method showed that SjLFRFamide mRNA is significantly expressed in the brain, and slight trace are detected in female nidamental gland and accessory nidamental gland. In situ hybridization assay of the brain indicated that SjLFRFamide is transcribed in several different functional lobes, suggesting SjLFRFamide might associate with multiple physiological regulations, such as feeding, chromatophore regulation and reproduction. This is the first study describing LFRFamide in S. japonica, which might have great importance for cuttlefish artificial breeding.

  8. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  9. Background matching by means of dorsal color change in treefrog populations (Hyla japonica).

    PubMed

    Choi, Noori; Jang, Yikweon

    2014-02-01

    Treefrogs change dorsal coloration to match background colors, presumably for predator avoidance. Dorsal coloration in treefrogs results from rearrangement of pigment granules in dermal chromatophores. This physiological basis for color change suggests that brightness and chroma are the color components that may change in response to background color. However, results of experiments are conflicting in that there is no consensus as to which color component is critical for color change in treefrogs. We tested predictions of the physiological model for color change in treefrogs by investigating dorsal color change under five background colors in three different populations of the treefrog Hyla japonica. Differences in color components between background colors and frogs were used as a measure of background matching. Throughout a 1-week experimental period, brightness and chroma differences decreased monotonically, while hue difference remained constant for all background colors. Chroma differences were smaller with the natural colors such as green and brown than with achromatic colors. Moreover, variation in color change among frogs from three localities that differed in land cover suggested that chroma change capacity may be sensitive to environmental conditions. Under the white background color, however, decreasing brightness difference seemed to be crucial to background matching. Furthermore, chroma difference and brightness difference did not decrease indefinitely, suggesting a trade-off between chroma difference and brightness difference under the white background. Thus, background matching may generally occur by decreasing chroma difference under most background colors in H. japonica, but brightness matching may be important under the white color.

  10. Bioactive triterpenoids from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica as the natural PDE4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing-Xin; Yang, Lu; Huang, Yi-You; Chen, Yun-Yun; Peng, Guang-Tian; Yu, Si; Wu, Yi-Nuo; Luo, Hai-Bin; He, Xi-Xin

    2017-03-10

    The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica exhibited inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D), which is a therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new triterpene (1), together with seven known triterpenoids, methyl corosolate (2), ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), methyl maslinate (5), α-amyin (6), 3β,19α,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene (7) and uvaol (8). The structure of compound 1 was established as 3β-hydroxyl-21β-acetoxyl-urs-12-en-28-carboxylate on the basis of interpretation of its 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data. The bioassay results verified compounds 2, 3 and 8 inhibited PDE4D2 effectively with the IC50 values of 3.06, 2.18 and 5.17 μM, respectively, which may provide a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of E. japonica.

  11. Identification and characterization of a phospholipid scramblase encoded by planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Li, Ao; Gao, Lili; Wu, Weiwei; Deng, Hongkuan; Hu, Wenjing; Li, Na; Sun, Shimin; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Bosheng; Liu, Baohua; Pang, Qiuxiang

    2017-02-20

    Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) are the conserved calcium-binding, type II transmembrane proteins synthesized in all eukaryotic organisms. In mammals, these proteins play essential roles in various physiological processes, especially in the immune responses. However, the existence of PLSCRs and their biological functions in planarian are still unknown at present. In this study, a new member of PLSCRs was identified in planarian Dugesia japonica (D. japonica), named DjPLSCR. The sequence analysis revealed that it contains an opening reading frame consisting of 726bp encoding a putative protein of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~28.7kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.21. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that mRNAs of DjPLSCR are predominantly expressed in adult and regenerative pharynx which is an important organ of immune system in planarians. Importantly, we found that the transcription level of DjPLSCR was significantly upregulated when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and β-glucan], suggesting that DjPLSCR is involved in the immune response upon pathogen invasion. Our findings provide the first experimental insights into the characteristics and potential functions of PLSCR in planarians.

  12. Responses of Soil Fungal Populations and Communities to the Thinning of Cryptomeria Japonica Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Wang, Pi-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Winder, Richard Scott

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities, such as tree thinning, alter forest ecology, including key components of forest ecosystems, including fungal communities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of forest thinning intensity on the populations and structures of fungal soil communities in the Cryptomeria japonica forests of central Taiwan as well as the dynamics of soil fungi communities in these forests after a thinning disturbance. Although the populations of soil fungi significantly increased in the first 6 months after thinning, these increases had subsided by 9 months. This pulse was attributed to a transient increase in the populations of rapid colonizers. A multiple regression analysis positively correlated fungal populations with organic matter content and cellulase activity. Thinning initially provided large amounts of fresh leaves and roots as nutrient-rich substrates for soil fungi. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles indicated that soil fungal communities significantly differed among plots with 0% (control), 25%, and 50% tree thinning in the first 21 months post-thinning, with no significant differences being observed after 21 months. The fungal communities of these forest soils also changed with the seasons, and an interactive relationship was detected between seasons and treatments. Seasonal variations in fungal communities were the most pronounced after 50% tree thinning. The results of the present study demonstrate that the soil fungi of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time. PMID:26903369

  13. Short-Term Efficacy of Laparoscopic Treatment for Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Hong-Gang, Jiang; Zhi-Heng, Chen; Bo-Hao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Schistosomiasis is associated with numerous complications such as thrombocytopenia, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and colitis. To the best of our knowledge, the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with schistosomiasis have not yet been studied. Methods. In this study, the data of 280 patients with colorectal carcinoma along with schistosomiasis japonica infection who underwent laparoscopic or open colorectal surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative data, operative data, pathological outcomes, postoperative complications, and recovery were compared between patients in the laparoscopic (LAC) and open (OC) groups. Results. There were no significant differences in the preoperative data between the groups. However, fewer postoperative complications, especially severe hypoproteinemia, early postoperative feeding, and shorter postoperative hospital stay, were observed in patients in the LAC group (P < 0.001). The mean operative time was higher in the LAC group (180 min versus 158 min; P < 0.001), while the mean blood loss was similar (95 mL versus 108 mL; P = 0.196) between groups. The mean number of lymph nodes harvested was also similar in both groups (15 versus 16; P = 0.133). Conclusion. Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe in patients with schistosomiasis japonica and has better short-term outcomes than open surgery. PMID:27843449

  14. Purification and partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na-na; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dai-jie; Zhou, Yi-bin; Lin, Xiao-jing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Sheng-bo

    2013-05-01

    The purification and partial enzymology characteristics of polyphenol oxidase from Lonicera japonica (LjPPO) were studied in this paper. The crude enzyme solution was purified in turn by ammonium sulfate, dialysis, and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography after preliminary treatments. Purification resulted in 31-fold enrichment and its molecular weight was estimated to be ~49 kDa exhibited on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The pH for optimal conditions of LjPPO was 7.5, and the temperature was 25 °C, in addition, the inhibitive effects of inhibitors were enhanced positively with increasing of the concentration. Moreover, crude enzyme solution showed diphenolase activity toward catechol, l-dopa and chlorogenic acid rather than monophenolase and triphenolase activity, and the best substrate was catechol because of the highest V(max)/K(m) value. However, the oxidation of diphenol related to browning significantly, so the data obtained in this research provided theoretical basis for the prevention of enzymatic browning of L. japonica during processing.

  15. Genetic Structure and Potential Environmental Determinants of Local Genetic Diversity in Japanese Honeybees (Apis cerana japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Mika; Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Inoue, Maki N.; Nishiyama, Mio; Goka, Koichi; Sugiura, Shinji; Maeto, Kaoru; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity. PMID:27898704

  16. Eriobotrya japonica seed biocomposite efficiency for copper adsorption: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mehwish; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove pollutants from wastewater; however, composites are gaining more importance due to their excellent adsorption properties. Bentonite composite with Eriobotrya japonica seed was prepared and used for the adsorption of copper (Cu) metal from aqueous media. The process variables such as pH, Cu(II) ions initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were optimized for maximum Cu(II) adsorption. At pH 5, adsorbent dose 0.1 g, contact time 45 min, Cu(II) ions initial concentration 75 mg/L and temperature 45 °C, maximum Cu(II) adsorption was achieved. Desorption studies revealed that biocomposite is recyclable. Langmuir, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura isotherms as well as pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) suggest that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the adsorption data. Results showed that biocomposite was more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption in comparison to individuals native Eriobotrya japonica seed biomass and Na-bentonite.

  17. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  18. Optimization of saccharification and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from seaweed, Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Suk; Cho, YuKyeong; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol was produced using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) method with macroalgae polysaccharide from the seaweed Saccharina japonica (Sea tangle, Dasima) as biomass. The seaweed was dried by hot air, ground with a hammer mill and filtered with a 200-mesh sieve prior to pretreatment. Saccharification was carried out by thermal acid hydrolysis with H(2)SO(4) and the industrial enzyme, Termamyl 120 L. To increase the yield of saccharification, isolated marine bacteria were used; the optimal saccharification conditions were 10% (w/v) seaweed slurry, 40 mM H(2)SO(4) and 1 g dcw/L isolated Bacillus sp. JS-1. Using this saccharification procedure, the reducing sugar concentration and viscosity were 45.6 ± 5.0 g/L and 24.9 cp, respectively, and the total yield of the saccharification with optimal conditions and S. japonica was 69.1%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was carried out for ethanol production. The highest ethanol concentration, 7.7 g/L (9.8 ml/L) with a theoretical yield of 33.3%, was obtained by SSF with 0.39 g dcw/L Bacillus sp. JS-1 and 0.45 g dcw/L of the yeast, Pichia angophorae KCTC 17574.

  19. Effects of mercuric chloride on antioxidant system and DNA integrity of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Xu, Chaoqun

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the commonly encountered heavy metals, which is widespread in inshore sediments of China. In order to investigate the toxicity of Hg on marine invertebrates, we studied the effects of the divalent mercuricion (Hg2+) (at two final concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.0050 mg L-1, prepared with HgCl2) on metallothionein (MT) content, DNA integrity (DNA strand breaks) and catalase (CAT) in the gills and hepatopancreas, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the hemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas of the portunid crab Charybdis japonica for an experiment period up to 15 d. The results indicated that MT was significantly induced after 3 d, with a positive correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the hepatopancreas and a negative correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the gills. While CAT in the hemolymph was not detected, it increased in the hepatopancreas during the entire experiment; SOD and GPx in the three tissues were stimulated after 12 h, both attained peak value and then reduced during the experimental period. Meanwhile, DNA strand breaks were all induced significantly after 12 h. These results suggested the detoxification strategies against Hg2+ in three tissues of C. japonica.

  20. Effects of CO2 and seawater acidification on the early stages of Saccharina japonica development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Bin; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao W; Ye, Nai H; Wang, Yitao; Mou, Shanli; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, we demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) had significant negative effects on the microscopic development of Saccharina japonica in a short-term exposure experiment under a range of light conditions. Under elevated CO2, the alga showed a significant reduction in meiospore germination, fecundity, and reproductive success. Larger female and male gametophytes were noted to occur under high CO2 conditions and high light magnified these positive effects. Under conditions of low light combined with high PCO2, the differentiation of gametophytes was delayed until the end of the experiment. In contrast, gametophytes were able to survive after having been subjected to a long-term acclimation period, of 105 days. Although the elevated PCO2 resulted in a significant increase in sporophyte length, the biomass abundance (expressed as individual density attached to the seed fiber) was reduced significantly. Further stress resistance experiments showed that, although the acidified samples had lower resistance to high light and high temperature conditions, they displayed higher acclimation to CO2-saturated seawater conditions compared with the control groups. These combined results indicate that OA has a severe negative effect on S. japonica, which may result in future shifts in species dominance and community structure.

  1. Structural, antioxidant, and emulsifying activities of fucoidan from Saccharina japonica using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Saravana, Periaswamy Sivagnanam; Cho, Yeon-Jin; Park, Yong-Beom; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2016-11-20

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was utilized to extract sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Saccharina japonica. Various conditions of temperature (80-200°C), pressure (5-100bar), and solvents (water, 0.1% sodium hydroxide, 0.1% formic acid, 70% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and 25% ethanol) were assessed; the best crude fucoidan (CF) yield was 8.23%, obtained from 140°C and 50bar (sodium hydroxide). Compositional analysis, FT-IR, molecular weight, monosaccharides, TGA, UV-vis, XRD, and elemental analysis confirm that extracted polysaccharides revealed the features of fucoidan. Fucose was the main monosaccharide present in CF obtained by various solvent systems. All CF showed antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH radical and ABTS(+) radical scavenging. CF demonstrates good emulsion-stabilizing capacities, especially with vegetable oils. This study demonstrates that PLE is an efficacious method for enhancing the yield of polysaccharides from S. japonica and that it could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

  2. Differential neuritogenic activities of two edible brown macroalgae, Undaria pinnatifida and Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hwang, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Kyungyong; Kim, Yang-Chun; Hong, Yong-Ki; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Saccharina japonica Areschoug are two common seaweeds, and both are known to have numerous pharmacological properties that include neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, we found that the ethanol extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE) and S. japonica (SJE) had neurite promoting activities on developing hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we studied and compared the effects of UPE and SJE on neuronal maturation. Both UPE and SJE promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations of 5 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. Initial neuronal differentiation was significantly promoted by UPE and SJE. Subsequently, treatment with both increased indices of axonal and dendritic cytoarchitecture, such as, the numbers and lengths of primary processes, although only UPE had a significant effect on branching frequencies. In addition, UPE and SJE showed no evidence of cytotoxicity, rather they protected neurons from naturally occurring death in vitro. These results indicate that UPE and SJE promote axodendritic maturation and neuronal survival and suggest that these algal extracts, especially UPE, have beneficial effects on the nervous system.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in cordate gametophytes of two ferns, Angiopteris lygodiifolia and Osmunda japonica.

    PubMed

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Sakoda, Aki; Ebihara, Atsushi; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is common among land plants including pteridophytes (monilophytes and lycophytes). In pteridophytes with diplohaplontic life cycle, mycorrhizal formations were mostly reported for sporophytes, but very few for gametophytes. To clarify the mycorrhizal association of photosynthetic gametophytes, field-collected gametophytes of Angiopteris lygodiifolia (Marattiaceae, n = 52) and Osmunda japonica (Osmundaceae, n = 45) were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Collected gametophytes were mostly cut into two pieces. One piece was used for light and scanning microscopic observations, and the other for molecular identification of plant species (chloroplast rbcL sequences) and mycorrhizal fungi (small subunit rDNA sequences). Microscopic observations showed that 96 % (50/52) of Angiopteris and 95 % (41/43) of Osmunda gametophytes contained intracellular hyphae with arbuscules and/or vesicles and fungal colonization was limited to the inner tissue of the thick midribs (cushion). Fungal DNA analyses showed that 92 % (48/52) of Angiopteris and 92 % (35/38) of Osmunda have sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which were highly divergent but all belonged to Glomus group A. These results suggest that A. lygodiifolia and O. japonica gametophytes consistently form arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal formation in wild fern gametophytes, based on large-scale sampling with molecular identification of host plant species, was demonstrated for the first time.

  4. Toxic effects in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka) exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Jiang, Senhao; Xia, Bin; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    To understand the physiological response of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas, were exposed to different concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the growth, survival, antioxidant enzyme (SOD and T-AOC) activities were tested. Meanwhile, the quantitative real-time PCR technology was utilized to quantize the expression of immune related genes (i.e. innate immune genes, HSP genes and anti-oxidative genes). In our result, the SOD activity and T-AOC activity were induced at lower level of B[a]P (0.03 μg/L), however, a reduction of SOD activity and T-AOC activity were observed at relatively high B[a]P concentration (3 and 9 μg/L) for A. japonicas. Furthermore, the distinct expression patterns of selected immune-related genes were detected among different concentrations, and a general trend of down-regulation was observed at higher concentration. Especially, lysozyme almost showed the highest down-regulation at all concentrations, followed by NOS. Collectively, the growth, survival and expression signatures of immune related genes reflected an overall suppression of innate immunity in sea cucumber following exposure. Future functional studies should be carried out to characterize the detailed roles of immune genes and their related responses under B[a]P toxicity. Additionally, better understanding of the molecular indicators governing the healthy status under environmental toxicity would facilitate a healthy and sustainable culture program.

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Bo; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    An eco-friendly approach for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract was investigated. The reduction of silver ions in solution was monitored using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 435 nm was observed. The proper condition to biosynthesize AgNPs using E. japonica leaf extract was optimized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurement (DLS). The biosynthesised nanoparticles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), DLS, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the crystalline character of AgNPs and the presence of elemental silver. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, and their average particle size determined by TEM was about 20 nm. Furthermore the AgNPs were found to exhibit effective antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Chronic effect of ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves on enhancing exercise activity in mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Lee, Jeongmin; Chun, Jiyeon; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Park, Jeongjin; Jun, Woojin

    2010-10-01

    Ferulic acid derived from Pseudosasa japonica leaves, which possessed antioxidative potentials with DPPH- (54%) and ABTs- (65%) radical scavenging activities, and lipid-peroxidation inhibitory activity (71%), was orally administered to mice for 12 days in order to investigate its effects on exercise endurance capacity and alterations of antioxidant defense systems. Exhaustive swimming time was increased in the ferulic acid-supplemented group compared with the control group on days 6 and 12 (1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively). When the mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, a high decrease (53%) was shown in the control group, but no change was found in the ferulic acid-treated group. The administration of ferulic acid significantly protected the depletion of enzymatic- and non enzymatic-antioxidants due to exhaustive exercise. Also, lipid-peroxidation levels decreased in the ferulic acid-treated group compared with the non exercised- and control-groups. These results suggest that ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves has a chronic effect on endurance exercise capacity, which is attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress by improving antioxidant potentials.

  7. Cytological features of oogenesis and their evolutionary significance in the fern Osmunda japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian-Guo; Dai, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Quan-Xi

    2012-03-01

    The development of the egg and canal cells in the fern Osmunda japonica Thunb. was studied during oogenesis by transmission electron microscopy. The mature egg possesses no fertilization pore and no typical egg envelope. In addition, an extra wall formed around the canal cells during oogenesis and apparently blocked protoplasmic connections between the egg and the canal cells. The periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction revealed that the extra wall was most likely composed of polysaccharides. Maturation of the egg was accompanied by the formation of a separation cavity above the egg and by some changes in the morphology of the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles. The chromatin of the nucleus becomes condensed and the upper surface of the nucleus becomes closely associated with the plasmalemma. Amyloplasts in the egg cytoplasm were numerous and conspicuous, with most in close proximity to the nucleus. Finally, the cytoplasm on one side of the egg became vesiculated and the overlying plasmalemma was easily disrupted. These cytological features of the egg and the canal cells during oogenesis in O. japonica are markedly different from those of the leptosporangiate ferns and suggest a significant evolutionary divergence in reproductive cellular features between Osmundaceae and leptosporangiate ferns.

  8. High efficiency induction of callus and regeneration of sporophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Hua; Qin, Song; Li, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Peng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui; Qin, Mei

    1998-03-01

    Four media (PESI solid, MS liquid, MS solid and ASP-C-I solid medium) were used to induce callus from excised tissues of the kelp Laminaria japonica. Only PESI solid medium and MS solid medium produced calli. Modified MS solid medium supplemented with mannitol (3%,W/V), yeast extract (0.1%, W/V), VB2 (0.5 mg/ml), VB12 (0.5 mg/ml), kinetin (0.108 μg/ml) and NAA (1.860μg/ml) showed much better effect on callus induction than non-modified MS solid medium. After 24 days of induction 75.5% of tissues in PESI solid medium showed callus formation. For modified MS solid medium, after three months of induction 67.3% of tissues dedifferentiated into calli. No callus could be found after five months of induction in either MS liquid or ASP-C-I solid medium. When calli were squashed and cultured in N-P enriched autoclaved seawater, MS liquid medium and ASP12-NTA liquid medium (both modified with kelp extract), differentiation of cells and regeneration of sporophytes were only observed in ASP12-NTA medium supplemented with kelp extract. Gametophyte-like filaments formed first, then eggs were released. It was suggested that sporophyte formation could be a process of parthenogenesis. Sterilization techniques in tissue culture of L. japonica were also tested in this study.

  9. Structural elucidation of a pectin from flowers of Lonicera japonica and its antipancreatic cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyan; Wang, Peipei; Du, Zhenyun; Wang, Wucheng; Cong, Qifei; Zheng, Changping; Jin, Can; Ding, Kan; Shao, Chenghao

    2016-07-01

    To investigate polysaccharide structure from Lonicera japonica, and study its effects on behavior of pancreatic cells, a homogenous polysaccharide, LJ-02-1, was extracted and purified from flowers of L. japonica by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200HR column. The molecular weight was estimated to be 54kDa. Monosaccharide composition was determined to be rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in the molar ratio of 10.77:7.88:15.45:65.89 by analyzing the PMP derivatives of the monosaccharides from 2M trifluoracetic acid hydrolysis via HPLC. Based on methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, and NMR spectra, the polysaccharide was elucidated to be a rhamnogalacturonan backbone and substituted partly at C-4 of rhamnose. The branches were determined to be T- and 1,4,6-linked β-d-Galp, T- and 1,5-linked α-l-Araf. The polysaccharide might inhibit BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth at the concentration of 1mg/mL with inhibitory ratio of 66.7% and 52.1%, respectively.

  10. Modulation effects of sweroside isolated from the Lonicera japonica on melanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-08-05

    In the course of screening for the melanogenesis inhibitors, sweroside was isolated from Lonicera japonica. Its chemical structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Sweroside inhibited potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300μM without cytotoxicity. Also, sweroside decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells. To identify the signaling pathway of sweroside, the ability of sweroside to influence Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation was investigated. Sweroside induced Akt and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the specific inhibition of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways were studied by specific inhibitor LY294002 and U0126, respectively and it was causing the increased melanin synthesis. Furthermore, sweroside presented inhibition of the body pigmentation and tyrosinase activity in zebrafish in vivo model. These results suggest that sweroside isolated from L. japonica may be an effective skin-whitening agent through the regulates the expression of MAP kinase and melanogenic enzymes.

  11. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Lonicera japonica Thumb. using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    He, H Y; Zhang, D; Qing, H; Yang, Y

    2017-01-23

    Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 21 accessions obtained from four provinces in China, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, and Sichuan. A total of 272 scored bands were generated using the eight primers previously screened across 21 accessions, of which 267 were polymorphic (98.16%). Genetic similarity coefficients varied from 0.4816 to 0.9118, with an average of 0.6337. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped 21 accessions into two main clusters. Cluster A comprised four Lonicera macranthoides Hand. Mazz. accessions, of which J10 was found to be from Sichuan, and J17, J18, and J19 were found to be from Shandong. Cluster B comprised 17 Lonicera japonica Thumb. accessions, divided into the wild accession J16 and the other 16 cultivars. The results of the principal component analysis were comparable to the cluster analysis. Therefore, the ISSR markers could be effectively used to distinguish interspecific and intraspecific variations, which may facilitate identification of Lonicera japonica cultivars for planting, medicinal use, and germplasm conservation.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of seven compounds in Lonicera japonica by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoxue; Cui, Xusheng; Su, He; Guo, Yuhai; Dong, Xuehui

    2012-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of seven compounds in Lonicera japonica and Folium Lonicerae with maximum wavelength conversion program, and analyze the content differences between them. The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) operated at normal temperature with the gradient elution by two mobile phases of water (including 0.3% (v/v) formic acid) (A) and acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The maximum detection wavelength was set at 330 nm and 350 nm by conversion. The contents of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Lonicera new leaves were 2.572% and 1.498 per thousand respectively, both higher than those cited in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, indicating that Lonicera new leaves have the necessity to be further studied and developed. This method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the seven compounds and the quality control of Lonicera japonica.

  13. Application of proteomics to identify the target molecules involved in Lonicera japonica-induced photokilling in human lung cancer CH27 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lonicera japonica has been used as natural and healthy drink for its anti-inflammatory effect and pleasant odor in China and Taiwan. Methods 2D electrophoresis was used to analyze the proteins involved in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. The fluorescent dyes MitoTracker Red CMXRos, calcein AM and JC-1 were used to elucidate mitochondrial function. The protein expression was performed by Western blotting. Fluorescent image of endoplasmic reticulum was accomplished by using ER-Tracker Green. This study used fluorescent dye CM-H2DCFDA to detect intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Results The identified proteins can be classified into three major groups, which include proteins involved in mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton-related proteins and proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Photoactivated Lonicera japonica caused a significant effect on the mitochondrial function and ER stress in CH27 cells. The reactive oxygen species producing was found to be involved in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. Conclusion Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are the integral targets in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. We also demonstrated that ethyl acetate fraction of Lonicera japonica extracts caused photocytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in CH27 cells. This could explain the fact that the ethyl acetate fraction of Lonicera japonica extracts may contain compounds which exhibit the photosensitizing activity in CH27 cells. PMID:24083475

  14. P38-associated pathway involvement in apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy with Lonicera japonica in human lung squamous carcinoma CH27 cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Henry W-C; Hour, M-J; Chang, W-T; Wu, Y-C; Lai, M-Y; Wang, M-Y; Lee, H-Z

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective therapy for local malignant tumors. Lonicera japonica was found to have the anti-tumor effect. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanisms of apoptosis induced by PDT in lung CH27 carcinoma cells with alcohol extract from Lonicera japonica as photosensitizer. Our study indicated that Lonicera japonica extracts exhibited significant photocytotoxicity in CH27 cells at a concentration range of 50-150 microg/ml, with 0.4-1.2J/cm2 light dose. PDT with Lonicera japonica extracts-induced cell death is a typical apoptosis that was accompanied by DNA condensation, externalization of phosphatidylserine and formation of apoptotic bodies. PDT with Lonicera japonica extracts was shown to be caspase-3-independent apoptosis via activation of AIF in this study. P38-associated pathway may be involved in apoptosis induced by PDT with Lonicera japonica extracts in CH27 cells. We also have demonstrated that PDT with Lonicera japonica extracts-induced CH27 cells apoptosis was probably related to its ability to change the protein expression and distribution of heat shock protein 27.

  15. Radiation from Axisymmetric Waveguide Fed Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinn, G. C.; Hoppe, D. J.; Epp, L. W.

    1995-01-01

    Return losses and radiation patterns for axisymmetric waveguide fed horns are calculated with the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with the method of moments (MoM) and the mode matching technique (MM).

  16. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) functional description and interface document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, R. C.; Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a functional description of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) and of interfaces between FEDS and external hardware and software. FEDS is a modification of the Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS). FEDS has been developed to support a ground demonstration of microprocessor-based onboard orbit determination. This document provides an overview of the structure and logic of FEDS and details the various operational procedures to build and execute FEDS. It also documents a microprocessor interface between FEDS and a TDRSS user transponder and describes a software simulator of the interface used in the development and system testing of FEDS.

  17. Identity and specificity of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from different populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Chen, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Qu, Bo; Duan, Ru; Xu, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.

  18. Identity and Specificity of Rhizoctonia-Like Fungi from Different Populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rui; Chen, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Qu, Bo; Duan, Ru; Xu, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation. PMID:25140872

  19. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica.

  20. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  1. Identification of SNPs in closely-related temperate japonica rice cultivars using restriction enzyme-phased sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very low polymorphism in the germplasm typically used by breeding programs poses a significant bottleneck with regarding to molecular breeding and the exploitation of breeding materials for quantitative trait analyses. California rice varieties, derived from a very small base of temperate japonica g...

  2. Diaphorina citri Induces Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus Plant Volatiles to Repel and Reduce the Performance of Propylaea japonica

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yongwen; Lin, Sheng; Akutse, Komivi S.; Hussain, Mubasher; Wang, Liande

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens through insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the host plants, insects, and pathogens. Simultaneous impact of the insect damage and pathogenic bacteria in infected host plants induce volatiles that modify not only the behavior of its insect vector but also of their natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps. Therefore, it is essential to understand how insects such as the predator ladybird beetle responds to volatiles emitted from a host plant and how the disease transmission alters the interactions between predators, vector, pathogens, and plants. In this study, we investigated the response of Propylaea japonica to volatiles from citrus plants damaged by Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus through olfactometer bioassays. Synthetic chemical blends were also used to determine the active compounds in the plant volatile. The results showed that volatiles emitted by healthy plants attracted more P. japonica than other treatments, due to the presence of high quantities of D-limonene and beta-ocimene, and the lack of methyl salicylate. When using synthetic chemicals in the olfactory tests, we found that D-limonene attracted P. japonica while methyl salicylate repelled the predator. However, beta-ocimene attracted the insects at lower concentrations but repelled them at higher concentrations. These results indicate that P. japonica could not efficiently search for its host by using volatile cues emitted from psyllids- and Las bacteria-infected citrus plants. PMID:28083006

  3. Chloroplast genome of one brown seaweed, Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta): its structural features and phylogenetic analyses with other photosynthetic plastids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuliang; Shao, Zhanru; Fu, Wandong; Yao, Jianting; Hu, Qiuping; Duan, Delin

    2013-06-01

    The chloroplast genome sequence of one brown seaweed, Saccharina japonica, was fully determined. It is characterized by 130,584 base pairs (bp) with a large and a small single-copy region (LSC and SSC), separated by two copies of inverted repeats (IR1 and IR2). The inverted repeat is 5015 bp long, and the sizes of SSC and LSC are 43,174 bp and 77,378 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome of S. japonica consists of 139 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. One intron was found in one tRNA-Leu gene in the chloroplast genome of S. japonica. Four types of overlapping genes were identified, ycf24 overlapped with ycf16 by 4 nucleotides (nt), ftrB overlapped with ycf12 by 6 nt, rpl4 and rpl23 overlapped by 8 nt, finally, psbC overlapped with psbD by 53 nt. With two sets of concatenated plastid protein data, 40-protein dataset and 26-protein dataset, the chloroplast phylogenetic relationship among S. japonica and the other photosynthetic species was evaluated. We found that the chloroplast genomes of haptophyte, cryptophyte and heterokont were not resolved into one cluster by the 40-protein dataset with amino acid composition bias, although it was recovered with strong support by the 26-protein dataset.

  4. The anticancer effects of Saccharina japonica on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hyung Rak; Kim, Gun Do

    2012-11-01

    Saccharina japonica (S. japonica), a brown macro-alga, has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea for thousands of years. In this study, the potential anticancer effects of S. japonica were evaluated on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells. The exposure of cells to the extract induced inhibition of cell growth by increasing the number of apoptotic cells with cell shrinkage and inhibition of cell cycle progression. The effects of the extract on the cells were assessed by studying the cleavage of caspases and the target proteins of caspases. The increased expression of various cleaved caspases and changed expression of other proteins related in the apoptosis pathway were observed. 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and immunofluorescence staining showed the cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis induced changes in the expression of proteins involved in a variety of signaling pathways such as endocellular reticulum (ER) stress, death receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-FoxO-mediated pathways. The data suggest that the extract (n-hexane sub-fraction) of S. japonica, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells, and has potential as a complementary agent for cancer prevention.

  5. Ethanol production from Saccharina japonica using an optimized extremely low acid pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji ye; Li, Pan; Lee, Jieun; Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2013-01-01

    An extremely low acid (ELA) pretreatment using 0.06% (w/w) sulfuric acid at 170 °C for 15 min was employed to extract non-glucan components from Saccharina japonica, a brown macroalgae. Subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted using Saccharomyces cerevisiae DK 410362 and cellulase (15 FPU/g-glucan) and ß-glucosidase (70 pNPGU/g-glucan). Deionized water was used for making fermentation suspension. After the ELA pretreatment, a glucan content of 29.10% and an enzymatic digestibility of 83.96% was obtained for pretreated S. japonica. These values are 4.2- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, than those of obtained with untreated S. japonica. In SSF, a bioethanol concentration of 6.65 g/L was obtained, corresponding to a glucose equivalent concentration of 13.01 g/L, which indicated an SSF yield of 67.41% based on the total available glucan of the pretreated S. japonica. The remaining separated liquid hydrolysate, which contains mannitol and alginate-derived oligosaccharides can be applied to other fermentations.

  6. Conserved and novel heat stress-responsive microRNAs were identified by deep sequencing in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuli; Wang, Wenjun; Sun, Xiutao; Liang, Zhourui; Wang, Feijiu

    2015-07-01

    As a temperate-cold species, Saccharina japonica often suffers heat stress when it is transplanted to temperate and subtropical zones. Study the heat stress response and resistance mechanism of Saccharina is of great significance for understanding the acclimation to heat stress under domestication as well as for breeding new cultivars with heat stress resistance. In this study, we identified a set of heat stress-responsive miRNAs and analysed their regulation during the heat stress response. CO (control) and heat stress (HS) sRNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. Forty-nine known miRNAs and 75 novel miRNAs were identified, of which seven known and 25 novel miRNAs were expressed differentially under heat stress. Quantitative PCR of six selected miRNAs confirmed that these loci were responsive to heat stress. Thirty-nine and 712 genes were predicted to be targeted by the seven known miRNAs and 25 novel miRNAs, respectively. Gene function and pathway analyses showed that these genes probably play important roles in S. japonica heat stress tolerance. The miRNAs identified represent the first set of heat-responsive miRNAs identified from S. japonica, and their identification can help elucidate the heat stress response and resistance mechanisms in S. japonica.

  7. PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF THE NON-INDIGENOUS SEAGRASS, DWARF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA JAPONICA ASCHER. & GRAEB.), IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb. (dwarf eelgrass) was first identified in central Oregon (USA) estuaries about 30 years ago. The autecology of this species is poorly described at the southern end of its non-native range although several process orien...

  8. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  9. Sympatric spawning but allopatric distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata: temperature- and oceanic current-dependent sieving.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-San; Yambot, Apolinario V; Zhang, Heng; Hung, Chia-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24 °C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them "temperate" and "tropical" eels, respectively.

  10. A comparative study on bioactive constituents in different parts of Lonicera japonica determined by HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Dan; He, Yi; Dai, Zhong; Kang, Shuai; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in most East Asian countries. In China, the flower bud and stem of this plant are used for various clinical therapies, while the leaf is not officially recognized as an active part. Due to the similarities in their chemical constituents but great differences in their commercial values, the flower bud has been found to be adulterated with leaf and/or stem during the production of formulations by some drug manufactures. In order to identify adulteration in products and enable quality control, it is necessary to chemically discriminate these three parts of L. japonica. In the current study, an HPLC-ESI-MS(n) method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of 18 bioactive compounds: 7 organic acids, 6 iridoids, and 5 flavonoids, in batches of flower bud, stem, and leaf samples. Subsequently, chemometric analyses, such as one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis, were performed based on the quantitative data. The results indicated that there were remarkable differences in the distribution of the investigated compounds among the three parts of L. japonica, and that they could be straightforwardly and reliably distinguished according to their chemical profiles. Twelve compounds were selected as potential differential metabolites, which would be useful for quality control of L. japonica. As the content of caffeic acid was low in the flower bud but much higher in the stem and leaf, it could be used as a chemical marker to identify adulteration.

  11. Conjugates of a secoiridoid glucoside with a phenolic glucoside from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Omichi, Yuka; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Miyake, Yoshiyuki; Kirimoto, Tsukasa; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2013-12-01

    Secoiridoid glucosides, including two conjugates with a phenolic and two conjugates with a nicotinic acid derivative (3 and 4), together with seven known secoiridoid derivatives, were isolated from flower buds of Lonicera japonica. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Anti-influenza activities of six isolated compounds were also evaluated by plaque assay and neuraminidase inhibitory assay.

  12. Cardiac lesions in rats fed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D

    1975-01-01

    Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010

  13. Perilla frutescens var. japonica and rosmarinic acid improve amyloid-β25-35 induced impairment of cognition and memory function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah Young; Hwang, Bo Ra; Lee, Myoung Hee; Lee, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plays a key role in cognitive dysfunction. Perilla frutescens var. japonica extract (PFE) and its major compound, rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether administration of PFE and RA contributes to cognitive improvement in an Aβ25-35-injected mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male ICR mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 to induce AD. Aβ25-35-injected mice were fed PFE (50 mg/kg/day) or RA (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and examined for learning and memory ability through the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze test. RESULTS Our present study demonstrated that PFE and RA administration significantly enhanced cognition function and object discrimination, which were impaired by Aβ25-35, in the T-maze and object recognition tests, respectively. In addition, oral administration of PFE and RA decreased the time to reach the platform and increased the number of crossings over the removed platform when compared with the Aβ25-35-induced control group in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PFE and RA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, kidney, and liver. In particular, PFE markedly attenuated oxidative stress by inhibiting production of NO and MDA in the Aβ25-35-injected mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that PFE and its active compound RA have beneficial effects on cognitive improvement and may help prevent AD induced by Aβ. PMID:27247723

  14. Evaluation of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers for Chamaecyparis obtusa based on expressed sequence tag information from Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, A; Tsumura, Y

    2004-12-01

    We have developed and evaluated sequence-tagged site (STS) primers based on expressed sequence-tag information derived from sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) for use in hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa), a species that belongs to a different family (although it appears to be fairly closely related to sugi). Of the 417 C. japonica STS primer pairs we screened, 120 (approximately 30%) were transferable and provided specific PCR amplification products from 16 C. obtusa plus trees. We used haploid megagametophytes to investigate the homology of 80 STS fragments between C. obtusa and C. japonica and to identify orthologous loci. Nearly 90% of the fragments showed high (>70%) degrees of similarity between the species, and 35 STSs indicated homology to entries with the same putative function in a public DNA database. Of the 120 STS fragments amplified, 72 showed restriction fragment length polymorphisms; in addition, the CC2430 primers detected amplicon length polymorphism. We assessed the inheritance pattern of 27 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, using 20 individuals from the segregation population. All the markers analyzed were consistent with the marker inheritance patterns obtained from the screening panel, and no markers (except CC2716) showed significant (P<0.01) deviation from the expected segregation ratio. In total, 136 polymorphic markers were developed using C. japonica-based STS primers without any sequence modification. In addition, the applicability of STS-based markers developed in one species to other species was found to closely reflect the evolutionary distance between the species, which is roughly concordant with the difference between their rbcL sequences. We plan to use these markers for genetic studies in C. obtusa. Most of the markers should also provide reliable anchor loci for comparative mapping studies of the C. obtusa and C. japonica genomes.

  15. Japonica array: improved genotype imputation by designing a population-specific SNP array with 1070 Japanese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yosuke; Mimori, Takahiro; Kojima, Kaname; Nariai, Naoki; Danjoh, Inaho; Saito, Rumiko; Yasuda, Jun; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasaki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization constructed the reference panel (referred to as the 1KJPN panel), which contains >20 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from whole-genome sequence data from 1070 Japanese individuals. The 1KJPN panel contains the largest number of haplotypes of Japanese ancestry to date. Here, from the 1KJPN panel, we designed a novel custom-made SNP array, named the Japonica array, which is suitable for whole-genome imputation of Japanese individuals. The array contains 659 253 SNPs, including tag SNPs for imputation, SNPs of Y chromosome and mitochondria, and SNPs related to previously reported genome-wide association studies and pharmacogenomics. The Japonica array provides better imputation performance for Japanese individuals than the existing commercially available SNP arrays with both the 1KJPN panel and the International 1000 genomes project panel. For common SNPs (minor allele frequency (MAF)>5%), the genomic coverage of the Japonica array (r2>0.8) was 96.9%, that is, almost all common SNPs were covered by this array. Nonetheless, the coverage of low-frequency SNPs (0.5%Japonica array reached 67.2%, which is higher than those of the existing arrays. In addition, we confirmed the high quality genotyping performance of the Japonica array using the 288 samples in 1KJPN; the average call rate 99.7% and the average concordance rate 99.7% to the genotypes obtained from high-throughput sequencer. As demonstrated in this study, the creation of custom-made SNP arrays based on a population-specific reference panel is a practical way to facilitate further association studies through genome-wide genotype imputations. PMID:26108142

  16. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar "Zenith" root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected "Zenith" roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of "Zenith" root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of "Zenith" root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain.

  17. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar “Zenith” root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected “Zenith” roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of “Zenith” root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of “Zenith” root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain

  18. Telomeric localization of the Arabidopsis-type heptamer repeat, (TTTAGGG)n , at the chromosome ends in Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyta).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Fan; Liu, Li; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2017-02-01

    Telomeres generally consist of short repeats of minisatellite DNA sequences and are useful in chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. To date, telomeres have not been characterized in the economically important brown seaweed Saccharina japonica, thus its full cytogenetic research and genetic breeding potential has not been realized. Herein, the tentative sequence of telomeres in S. japonica was identified by PCR amplification with primers designed based on the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence (TTTAGGG)n , which was chosen out of three possible telomeric repeat DNA sequences typically present in plants and algae. After PCR optimization and cloning, sequence analysis of the amplified products from S. japonica genomic DNA showed that they were composed of repeat units, (TTTAGGG)n , in which the repeat number ranged from 15 to 63 (n = 46). This type of repeat sequence was verified by a Southern blot assay with the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence as a probe. The digestion of S. japonica genomic DNA with the exonuclease Bal31 illustrated that the target sequence corresponding to the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was susceptible to Bal31 digestion, suggesting that the repeat sequence was likely located at the outermost ends of the kelp chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations with the aforementioned probe provided the initial cytogenetic evidence that the hybridization signals were principally localized at both ends of S. japonica chromosomes. This study indicates that the telomeric repeat of the kelp chromosomes is (TTTAGGG)n which differs from the previously reported (TTAGGG)n sequence in Ectocarpus siliculosus through genome sequencing, thereby suggesting distinct telomeres in brown seaweeds.

  19. Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Francisco, Perigio B; Hosaka, Yuko; Sato, Aya; Sawada, Takayuki; Kubo, Akiko; Fujita, Naoko

    2005-05-01

    Four amino acids were variable between the 'active' indica-type and 'inactive' japonica-type soluble starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) of rice plants; Glu-88 and Gly-604 in SSIIa of indica-cultivars IR36 and Kasalath were replaced by Asp-88 and Ser-604, respectively, in both japonica cultivars Nipponbare and Kinmaze SSIIa, whereas Val-737 and Leu-781 in indica SSIIa were replaced by Met-737 in cv. Nipponbare and Phe-781 in cv. Kinmaze SSIIa, respectively. The SSIIa gene fragments shuffling experiments revealed that Val-737 and Leu-781 are essential not only for the optimal SSIIa activity, but also for the capacity to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. Surprisingly, however, a combination of Phe-781 and Gly-604 could restore about 44% of the SSIIa activity provided that Val-737 was conserved. The introduction of the 'active' indica-type SSIIa gene enabled the japonica-type cv. Kinmaze to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. The starch in the transformed japonica rice plants exhibited gelatinization-resistant properties that are characteristic of indica-rice starch. Transformed lines expressing different levels of the IR36 SSIIa protein produced a variety of starches with amylopectin chain-length distribution patterns that correlated well with their onset temperatures of gelatinization. The present study confirmed that the SSIIa activity determines the type of amylopectin structure of rice starch to be either the typical indica-type or japonica-type, by playing a specific role in the synthesis of the long B(1) chains by elongating short A and B(1) chains, notwithstanding the presence of functional two additional SSII genes, a single SSI gene, two SSIII genes, and two SSIV genes in rice plants.

  20. Characterization of tyramine beta-hydroxylase in planarian Dugesia japonica: cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2008-12-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica has a relatively well-organized central nervous system (CNS) consisting of a brain and ventral nerve cords (VNCs), and can completely regenerate it CNS utilizing pluripotent stem cells present in the mesenchymal space. This remarkable capacity has begun to be exploited for research on neural regeneration. Recently, several kinds of molecular markers for labeling of neural subtypes have been reported in planarians. These molecular markers are useful for visualizing the distinct neural populations in planarians. In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding tyramine beta-hydroxylase (TBH), an octopamine (OA) biosynthetic enzyme, by degenerate PCR in the planarian D. japonica, and named it DjTBH (D. japonica tyramine beta-hydroxylase). In order to examine whether DjTBH contributes to OA biosynthesis, we measured the OA content in DjTBH-knockdown planarians created by RNA interference. In addition, to examine the specificity of DjTBH for OA biosynthesis, we measured not only OA content but also noradrenaline (NA) content, because NA is synthesized by a pathway similar to that for OA. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the amount of OA, but not NA, was significantly decreased in DjTBH-knockdown planarians. In addition, we produced anti-DjTBH antibody to visualize the octopaminergic neural network. As shown by immunofluorescence analysis using anti-DjTBH antibody, DjTBH-immunopositive neurons were mainly distributed in the head region, and elongated their dendrites and/or axons along the VNCs. In order to visualize octopaminergic and dopaminergic nervous systems (phenolamine/catecholamine nervous system) in the planarian CNS, double-immunofluorescence analysis was carried out using both anti-DjTBH antibody and anti-DjTH (a planarian tyrosine hydroxylase) antibody. DjTBH-immunopositive neurons and DjTH-immunopositive neurons mainly formed distinct neural networks in the head region. Here, we demonstrated that Dj

  1. Comprehensive facility energy assessment using FEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Quinones, R.

    1994-12-01

    The energy savings and demand reduction opportunities at the Army`s National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California, were evaluated. The Fort Irwin analysis made use of the recently developed Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) System Level-2 software tool. FEDS is a systematic, technology-neutral, and fuel-neutral approach to evaluating energy savings opportunities at large facilities. FEDS analyzes most major building end uses (e.g., heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, and service hot water), including interactive effects (e.g., the effect of a lighting technology on heating and cooling loads). FEDS output provides specific cost, energy (and demand) charges, and life-cycle cost (LCC) information, by cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs). The remaining end uses common to large facilities (e.g., motors, transmission and distribution, vehicles) are analyzed using manual calculation methods. The present value (PV) of the installed cost of all EROs constituting the minimum LCC efficiency resource (i.e., cost-effective) at Fort Irwin is approximately $23.9 million in 1994 dollars (1994$). The PV of the energy and demand, operations and maintenance (O&M), and replacement savings associated with this investment is approximately $87.3 million, for an overall NPV of $63.6 million. This paper will describe the FEDS process and present detailed results of the comprehensive energy resource assessment conducted at Fort Irwin.

  2. Outcome Differences between Breast-Fed and Bottle-Fed Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sandra K.; And Others

    DiPietro, Larson, and Porges (1987) found behavioral and physiological differences between breast-fed and bottle-fed newborns. It was suggested that breast-feeding is associated with more optimal physiological organization and with increased irritable reactivity early in the neonatal period. The present study investigated whether breast-fed…

  3. Transcriptomic profiling of spleen in grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grass-fed cattle obtain nutrients directly from pastures containing limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber; by contrast, grain-fed steers receive a diet that is comprised mainly of grains and serves as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Besides energy, these two type...

  4. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  5. Distribution and biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone in plants of Achyranthes japonica Nakai.

    PubMed

    Boo, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Doseung; Jeon, Gyeong Lyong; Ko, Seung Hee; Cho, Somi K; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Se Pill; Hong, Quanchun; Lee, Sang-Han; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key Zung

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in phytoecdysteroids (PEs) because of their potential role in plant defense against insects. To understand the mechanism regulating their levels in plants, the fluctuation, distribution, and biosynthesis of PE 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) examined in Achyranthes japonica. The total amount of 20E per individual plant initially remained at a constant level, and increased markedly after the first leaf pair (LP) stage, while the concentration of 20E in a given plant decreased rapidly during vegetative growth. In addition, the incorporation of [2-(14)C]-mevalonic acid into 20E did not differ significantly depending on plant organs and developmental stages, suggesting that biosynthesis of 20E is not restricted to particular organs or growth stages.

  6. New Isolinariins C, D and E, Flavonoid Glycosides from Linaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Widyowati, Retno; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Yamano, Yoshi; Sukardiman; Otsuka, Hideaki; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Three new flavonoid glycosides named isolinariins C, D and E (1-3), two known flavonoid glycosides (4, 5) and three known flavonoids (6-8) were isolated from the whole plant of Linaria japonica. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by spectroscopic analyses. The bioactivities of these isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against human cell line A549, collagenase, and advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Among the isolated compounds, isolinariins C, D and E (1, 2 and 3) showed inhibition toward AGE formation (IC50 values of 34.8, 35.0 and 19.5 µM, respectively). And linariin (4), pectolinarin (5) and luteolin (8) were found to be active against collagenase with IC50 values of 79.4, 78.6 and 40.5 µM, respectively, without significant cytotoxicity at these concentrations.

  7. Streptococcus mutans sortase A inhibitory metabolites from the flowers of Sophora japonica.

    PubMed

    Yang, Woo-Young; Won, Tae Hyung; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Lee, So-Hyoung; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki-Bong

    2015-04-01

    A new maltol derivative (2) along with three known maltol derivative (1) and flavonol glycosides (3 and 4) were isolated from the dried flowers of Sophora japonica. Based upon the results of combined spectroscopic methods, the structure of new compound (2) was determined to be maltol-3-O-(4'-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-β-glucopyranoside, an isomer of 1. These compounds strongly inhibited the action of sortase A (SrtA) from Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The onset and magnitude of inhibition of the saliva-induced aggregation in S. mutans treated with compound 2 (4×IC50) were comparable to the behavior of untreated srtA-deletion mutant.

  8. Genetic positioning of aquabirnavirus isolates from cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-04-23

    Aquabirnavirus is an epizootic virus in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica farms in Korea, although its origin is unclear. In the present study, nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of 9 Korean aquabirnaviruses from cultured eel in various areas of Korea during 2000-2009 were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. The nucleotide sequences showed more than 94.2% identity among the 9 Korean eel isolates, 71.2% identity among 16 Korean isolates from freshwater and marine fish, and 71.1% identity among 25 worldwide isolates. All 9 isolates in this study were phylogenetically classified into genogroup II, including isolates from Denmark, Spain, Taiwan and Japan, and were discrete from salmonid and marine fish isolates (genogroup I and VII) in Korea. These results suggest that the Korean eel isolates have most likely been introduced from outside the country and not from coastal areas of Korea.

  9. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide on behavior and antioxidant enzymes response of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhao, Bosheng; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the toxicity, behavioral and antioxidant activity effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMSO concentration, and planarian locomotor velocity decreased as the concentration of DMSO increased. The recovery of the motility for planarians pre-exposed to DMSO was found to be time- and dose-dependent, and only those pre-exposed to 0.1-3% DMSO resulted in full recovery. The antioxidant enzymes of planarians in response to long-term DMSO stress was also altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Planarians revealed more tolerance to DMSO toxicity at low DMSO (0.1%) level in short- and long-term DMSO stress, in which an efficient antioxidant system was involved and the motility was not affected.

  10. Regeneration in an evolutionarily primitive brain--the planarian Dugesia japonica model.

    PubMed

    Umesono, Yoshihiko; Tasaki, Junichi; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Inoue, Takeshi; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2011-09-01

    A unique aspect of planarians is that they can regenerate a brain from somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts, which have the ability to produce themselves (self-renew) and to give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration. Recent molecular studies have revealed that the planarian brain is composed of many distinct neuronal populations, which are evolutionarily and functionally conserved ones, and acts as an information-processing center to elicit distinct behavioral traits depending on a variety of signals arising from the external environment. How can planarians regenerate such a brain? On the basis of our recent findings, here we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the stem cell dynamics involved in the brain regeneration of the planarian Dugesia japonica. Our findings suggest the possible value of in vivo planarian studies for guiding regenerative medicine to treat neurodegenerative diseases via interlinking stem cell biology and regeneration biology.

  11. The neuroprotective activities and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-07-01

    The crude polysaccharide (W) was extracted by water from Saccharina japonica and five fractions were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. And their chemical constituents, neuroprotective activities and antioxidant activities were studied. It showed that W had the neuroprotective activity while its fractions did not. In addition, the fractions displayed higher activities on hydroxyl-radical scavenging effects and reducing power than these of W. Moreover, it was speculated that the neuroprotective activities of samples were related to the hydroxyl-radical scavenging effect and reducing power while did not relate to superoxide-radical scavenging effect. Finally, it was concluded that some fractions could be good candidate antioxidants in food chemistry owing to the high antioxidant activities and their non-toxic characteristics.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a fucoidan-degrading bacterium from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Piao, Meizi

    2013-11-01

    Fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing abundant fucose and sulfate ester group, was prepared from Laminaria japonica. In order to obtain fucoidan-degrading enzyme, bacteria capable of degrading fucoidan were screened from kelp. A bacterial strain named RC2-3 was obtained, which degraded fucoidan by the maximum extent of 54% ± 1.3%, the highest among all bacterial isolates. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the molecular weight of fucoidan was gradually reduced by RC2-3 with culturing time, suggesting the production of fucoidan-degrading enzyme by RC2-3. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence showed that RC2-3 belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, it showed different physiological and biochemical characteristics from the known Flavobacteriaceae members producing fucoidan-degrading enzyme, thus RC2-3 was proposed to be a new member of this family.

  13. Variation in organochlorine accumulation in relation to the life history of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-03-15

    Members of the catadromous eel live in various fresh, brackish and marine habitats. Therefore, these eels can accumulate organic pollutants and are a suitable bioindicator species for determining the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The ecological risk for organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Anguilla japonica with various migration patterns, such as freshwater, estuarine and marine residences, was examined to understand the specific accumulation patterns. The concentrations of HCB, ∑HCHs, ∑CHLs and ∑DDTs in the silver stage (maturing) eel were significantly higher than those in the yellow stage (immature) eel, in accordance with the higher lipid contents in the former versus the latter. The OC accumulations were clearly different among migratory types in the eel. The ecological risk of OCs increased as the freshwater residence period in the eel lengthened. The migratory histories and the lipid contents directly affected the OC accumulation in the catadromous eel species.

  14. Chemotactic movement in sperm of the oogamous brown algae, Saccharina japonica and Fucus distichus.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Nana; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2017-01-01

    In oogamous species of brown algae such as Saccharina japonica and Fucus distichus, the sperm possess an unusual long posterior flagellum, which oscillates actively and produces a propulsive force during swimming. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the effect of chemotactic responses on sperm swimming and flagellar waveforms by high-speed video recordings. We found that the thigmotactic response to the chemo-attractant was not enhanced during chemotactic swimming and that the swimming velocity of sperm did not decrease. As concentration of the chemo-attractant decreased, the sperm performed drastic U-turn movements, which was caused by a rapid and large bend of the posterior flagellum. Unilateral bending of the posterior flagellum when sensing a decrease in the concentration of the chemo-attractant may be a common response in male gametes during fertilization of brown algae both oogamous and isogamous species.

  15. Cloning of genes and enzymatic characterizations of novel dioscorin isoforms from Dioscorea japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, You-Lin; Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam, has been shown to possess carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. In the present study, dioscorin from Dioscorea japonica was confirmed as a glycoprotein using the enhanced concanavalin A-peroxidase staining method, and the protein was shown to have both N- and O-glycans. Following the gene cloning, four full-length isoforms of dioscorin were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity purification and anion-exchange chromatography for structural and biochemical experiments. It was clearly observed that the recombinant dioscorins had carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. However, the dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were markedly decreased in recombinant dioscorins compared with native dioscorin. The decreased activities were closely related to the loss of the glycosylation from the protein.

  16. Self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica is mediated by physiological connection.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yuya; Yamawo, Akira

    2015-09-07

    Although self-discrimination has been well documented, especially in animals, self-discrimination in plants has been identified in only a few cases, such as self-incompatibility in flowers and root discrimination. Here, were port a new form of self-discrimination in plants: discrimination by vine tendrils. We found that tendrils of the perennial vine Cayratia japonica were more likely to coil around neighbouring non-self plants than neighbouring self plants in both experimental and natural settings. The higher level of coiling around a physiologically severed self plant compared with that around a physiologically connected self plant suggested that self-discrimination was mediated by physiological coordination between the tendril and the touched plant as reported for self-discrimination in roots. The results highlight the importance of self-discrimination for plant competition not only underground,but also above-ground.

  17. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Eriobotrya japonica Leaf Triterpene Acids in ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianai

    2017-01-01

    The interest focusing on Eriobotrya japonica leaf triterpene acid (ELTA) has increased recently because of its beneficial effects on health. However, there has been a lack of experimental data on its toxicity. The present study therefore was conducted to evaluate its toxicity in ICR mice. The results showed that ELTA produced neither mortality nor toxicity of the main organs in ICR male and female mice in both acute (0.30, 0.65, 1.39, and 3.00 g·kg−1 body weight) and subacute (150, 300, and 600 mg·kg−1 BW) 28-day toxicity studies. Because of lacking apparently adverse effects found in the hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histopathology evaluation, results of the present study together with the beneficial effects make ELTA as a promising dietary supplement and indicated that ELTA administered orally might have a large safety margin for human.

  18. Effectiveness of Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against Popillia japonica in the Azores

    PubMed Central

    Simões, N.; Laumond, C.; Bonifassi, E.

    1993-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae (Breton strain), S. glaseri, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were evaluated for their potential to control immature stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, on Terceira Island (the Azores). In bioassays carried out at temperatures higher than 15 C, S. glaseri and H. bacteriophora caused 100% mortality of larvae, whereas S. carpocapsae caused 56% larval mortality. At temperatures slightly below 15 C, only S. glaseri remained effective. In field plots, in September, S. glaseri and S. carpocapsae reduced larval populations by 91% and 44%, respectively, when applied at the rate of 10⁶ nematodes/m². In April, S. glaseri caused 31% reduction in numbers of larvae, but S. carpocapsae was ineffective. In colder months (November-February) neither steinernematids nor H. bacteriophora reduced larval populations. Increasing the application rate from 10⁶ to 5 x 10⁶ infective stage S. glaseri per m² increased efficacy from 63% to 79% mortality. PMID:19279799

  19. Influence of sulfur fumigation on the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Yan-Min; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-Zhong

    2014-10-15

    Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  20. Bioconcentration and biotransformation of [¹⁴C]methoxychlor in the brackish water bivalve Corbicula japonica.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Minoru; Ohyama, Kazutoshi; Hayashi, Osamu; Satsuma, Koji; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    To obtain basic information on the metabolic fate of xenobiotics in the brackish water, bivalve Corbicula japonica, bioconcentration and biotransformation experiments were performed using methoxychlor (MXC) as a model compound. Bivalves were exposed to [ring-U-¹⁴C]MXC (10 µg L⁻¹) for 28 days under semi-static conditions followed by a 14-day depuration phase. The ¹⁴C concentration in the bivalves rapidly increased and reached a steady state after exposure for 7 days (BCFss = 2010); however, it rapidly decreased with a half-life of 2.2 days in the depuration phase. Mono- and bis-demethylated MXC, and their corresponding sulphate conjugates, were identified as minor metabolites. No glycoside conjugates (including glucuronide and glucoside) were detected. Despite this biotransformation system, bivalves were found to excrete retained MXC mostly unchanged although its relatively hydrophobic nature.

  1. Analysis of motor function modulated by cholinergic neurons in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Kitamura, Y; Taniguchi, T; Agata, K

    2010-06-16

    Recent studies of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica have revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. Here, we identified the gene for planarian choline acetyltransferase (Djchat), which is essential for acetylcholine (ACh) biosynthesis. Immunofluorescence studies using anti-Dugesia japonica ChAT (DjChAT) antibody revealed that cholinergic neurons are widely distributed in the planarian nervous system, including the brain, ventral nerve cords, optic nerves, and pharyngeal nerve plexus. In order to investigate the function of cholinergic neurons in planarians, we used both pharmacological and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches. Administration of physostigmine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) clearly elevated the amount of ACh, and then induced sudden muscle contraction behavior in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, we found that pretreatment with tubocurarine (a muscle nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist) or atropine (a non-selective muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist), but not pretreatment with mecamylamine (a neural nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist), significantly extended the latency time for physostigmine-induced contraction behavior, suggesting that muscle nicotinic ACh receptors and muscarinic ACh receptors contribute to physostigmine-induced contraction behavior. We also confirmed that ACh biosynthesis ability and DjChAT-immunoreactivity were eliminated in Djchat(RNAi) planarians. Moreover, the decrease of the level of ACh induced by Djchat(RNAi) caused extension of the latency time for contraction behavior. Our findings support the possibility that the cholinergic functions of planarians are similar to those of vertebrates, suggesting that planarians are simple but useful model organisms for getting insight into the cholinergic nervous system in higher animals.

  2. Essential oil characterization of two Azorean Cryptomeria japonica populations and their biological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Moiteiro, Cristina; Esteves, Teresa; Ramalho, Luís; Rojas, Rosario; Alvarez, Sandra; Zacchino, Susana; Bragança, Helena

    2013-12-01

    Essential oils from foliage, bark and heartwood of Cryptomeriajaponica D. Don from Azores Archipelago (Portugal) were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Two populations, of black and reddish heartwood color, were studied. The main compounds found in the foliage of both populations were alpha-pinene (9.6-29.5%), (+)-phyllocladene (3.5-26.5%), ent-kaur-16-ene (0.2-20.6%), sabinene (0.5-19.9%) and limonene (1.4-11.5%), with a large variation in individual compounds from each population. Heartwood oils were characterized by a high content of cubebol (2.8-39.9%) and epi-cubebol (4.1-26.9%) isomers, which were absent in the foliage. Elemol and eudesmol isomers were found in the foliage and heartwood oils, while (+)-phyllocladene was absent in heartwood. Black and reddish bark oils were composed of the diterpenes dehydroferruginol (1.9-5.1%) and ferruginol (2.6-11.5%), along with the sesquiterpenes delta-cadinene (10.4-15.9%), alpha-muurolene (3.3-5.4%), epi-zonarene (4.0-5.0%), cubenol (9.3-14.0%), tau-muurolol (4.8-10.7%), beta-eudesmol (3.0-9.9%), gamma-eudesmol (1.9-7.0%) and hedycariol (1.4-6.2%). Azorean C. japonica oils exhibited significant chemical differences compared with native plants from Asia. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans and human pathogenic bacteria (especially against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils may be attributed to compounds such as ent-kaur-16-ene, (+)-phyllocladene, ferruginol and elemol, which are present in different proportions within the complex oil mixture. These results suggest a potential use for C. japonica oils obtained from wood industry leftovers.

  3. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality.

  4. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

  5. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases.

  6. A novel protein tyrosine kinase Tec identified in lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranran; Su, Peng; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Ting; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-08-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase Tec, a kind of non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is primarily found to be expressed in T cells, B cells, hematopoietic cells, and liver cells as a cytoplasmic protein. Tec has been proved to be a critical modulator of T cell receptor signaling pathway. In the present study, a homolog of Tec was identified in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica. The full-length Tec cDNA of L. japonica (Lja-Tec) contains a 1923 bp open reading frame that encodes a 641-amino acid protein. The multi-alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of Lja-Tec with typical vertebrate Tecs showed that it possesses all conserved domains of the Tec family proteins, indicating that an ortholog of Tec exists in the extant jawless vertebrate. In the phylogenetic tree that was reconstructed with 24 homologs of jawless and jawed vertebrates, the Tecs from lampreys and hagfish were clustered as a single clade. The genetic distance between the outgroup and agnathan Tecs' group is closer than that between outgroup and gnathostome Tecs' group, indicating that its origin was far earlier than any of the jawed vertebrates. The mRNA levels of Lja-Tec in lymphocyte-like cells and gills were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that it was significantly upregulated under stimulation with mixed pathogens. This result was further confirmed by western blot analysis. All these results indicated that Lja-Tec plays an important role in immune response. Our data will provide a reference for the further study of lamprey Tec and its immunological function in jawless vertebrates.

  7. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  8. Molecular weight controllable degradation of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides and its antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Zhao, Bing; Ouyang, Jie; Mo, Jianling; Chen, Jinjin; Cao, Lili; Zhang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    In this study, molecular weight controllable degradation of algal Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LPS) was investigated by ultrasound combined with hydrogen peroxide. Three main factors, i.e., ultrasonic power (A), ultrasonic time (B), and H2O2 concentration (C) were chosen for optimizing parameters by employing three-factors, three-levels BBD. The influence of degradation on structure change and antioxidant activities was also investigated. A second-order polynomial equation including molecular weight (Y) of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides and each variable parameter, i.e., ultrasonic power (A), ultrasonic time (B), and H2O2 concentration (C), was established: Y=20718.67-4273.13 A-4000.38 B-1438.75 C+2333.25 AB+1511.00 AC+873.00 BC+2838.29 A 2 + 2490.79 B 2+873.04 C 2. The equation regression coefficient value ( R 2 = 0.969) indicated that this equation was valid. The value of the adjusted determination coefficient (adjusted R 2 = 0.914) also confirmed that the model was highly significant. The results of selected experimental degradation conditions matched with the predicted value. FT-IR spectra revealed that the structures of LPS before and after degradation were not significantly changed. Antioxidant activities of LPS revealed that low Mws possessed stronger inhibitory than the original polysaccharides. The scavenging effects on superoxide radicals was the highest when IC50 of crude LPS was 4.92 mg mL-1 and IC50 of Mw 18.576 KDa was 1.02 mg mL-1, which was fourfold higher than initial polysaccharide.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly and characterization of nine tissues of Lonicera japonica to identify potential candidate genes involved in chlorogenic acid, luteolosides, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Kamochi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Michimi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hatada, Tomoki; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica is one of the most important medicinal plants with applications in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for thousands of years. Extensive studies on the constituents of L. japonica extracts have revealed an accumulation of pharmaceutically active metabolite classes, such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin and other flavonoids, and secoiridoids, which impart characteristic medicinal properties. Despite being a rich source of pharmaceutically active metabolites, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes involved, and their expression profile across different tissues of L. japonica. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for L. japonica, representing transcripts from nine different tissues. A total of 22 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads from nine tissues of L. japonica were used, resulting in 243,185 unigenes, with 99,938 unigenes annotated based on a homology search using blastx against the NCBI-nr protein database. Unsupervised principal component analysis and correlation studies using transcript expression data from all nine tissues of L. japonica showed relationships between tissues, explaining their association at different developmental stages. Homologs for all genes associated with chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways were identified in the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Expression of unigenes associated with chlorogenic acid was enriched in stems and leaf-2, unigenes from luteolin were enriched in stems and flowers, while unigenes from secoiridoid metabolic pathways were enriched in leaf-1 and shoot apex. Our results showed that different tissues of L. japonica are enriched with sets of unigenes associated with specific pharmaceutically important metabolic pathways and, therefore, possess unique medicinal properties. The present study will serve as a resource for future attempts for functional characterization of enzyme coding genes within key metabolic processes.

  10. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  11. Pressure fed thrust chamber technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Glenn M.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report for the Pressure Fed Technology Program. It details the design, fabrication and testing of subscale hardware which successfully characterized LOX/RP combustion for a low cost pressure fed design. The innovative modular injector design is described in detail as well as hot-fire test results which showed excellent performance. The program summary identifies critical LOX/RP design issues that have been resolved by this testing, and details the low risk development requirements for a low cost engine for future Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVi).

  12. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation.

  13. Pressure fed thrust chamber technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Glen M.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report for the Pressure Fed Technology Program. It details the design, fabrication, and testing of subscale hardware which successfully characterized Liquid Oxygen Rocket Propulsion (LOX/RP) combustion for low cost pressure fed design. The innovative modular injector design is described in detail as well as hot-fire test results which showed excellent performance. The program summary identifies critical LOX/RP design issues that have been resolved in this testing, and details the low risk development requirements for low cost engines for future Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV).

  14. Evaluation of Medicinal Categorization of Atractylodes japonica Koidz. by Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequencing Analysis and HPLC Fingerprinting Combined with Statistical Tools

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Doh, Eui-Jeong; Lee, Guemsan

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodes rhizomes have been used as the herbal medicine “Changchul” or “Baekchul,” according to their clinical purpose, in Korea, China, and Japan. Among the Atractylodes species, the medicinal use of Atractylodes japonica has been controversial, as it is categorized as both Changchul and Baekchul in those countries, and, moreover, parts of the rhizome have been differently used, depending on age of the plant, in Korea. Chromatographic fingerprinting by using HPLC combined with chemometric analyses and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analysis were conducted to classify and identify 34 crude drugs derived from Atractylodes rhizomes. The identification of the samples, authenticated by their morphological features as A. japonica Koidz. (Changchul and Baekchul), A. chinensis Koidz., and A. macrocephala Koidz., was confirmed as A. japonica, A. chinensis, and A. macrocephala by ITS sequencing. The results from chemometric analyses showed that the chemical components of the crude drugs from A. japonica were significantly different from those from A. macrocephala but were similar to those from A. chinensis. The analyses also suggested that the categorization by age of A. japonica as Changchul or Baekchul is not recommended. The results indicate that A. japonica should be categorized as “Changchul” and should not be further categorized by age. PMID:27190530

  15. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain-fed

  16. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A.; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals’ growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher’s exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and

  17. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-08-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams.

  18. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams. PMID:23486246

  19. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  20. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  1. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills. PMID:26217731

  2. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-06-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills.

  3. Development of novel SCAR markers for genetic characterization of Lonicera japonica from high GC-RAMP-PCR and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Li, J; Qiu, Y M; Wei, C L; Yang, L Q; Fu, J J

    2016-04-28

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were further developed from high-GC primer RAMP-PCR-amplified fragments from Lonicera japonica DNA by molecular cloning. The four DNA fragments from three high-GC primers (FY-27, FY-28, and FY-29) were successfully cloned into a pGM-T vector. The positive clones were sequenced; their names, sizes, and GenBank numbers were JYHGC1-1, 345 bp, KJ620024; YJHGC2-1, 388 bp, KJ620025; JYHGC7-2, 1036 bp, KJ620026; and JYHGC6-2, 715 bp, KJ620027, respectively. Four novel SCAR markers were developed by designing specific primers, optimizing conditions, and PCR validation. The developed SCAR markers were used for the genetic authentication of L. japonica from its substitutes. This technique provides another means of developing DNA markers for the characterization and authentication of various organisms including medicinal plants and their substitutes.

  4. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  5. Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber water extracts induce nitric oxide and cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Park, Chang-Shin; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-04-01

    Natural products are increasingly recognized as potential targets for drug discovery and development. We previously reported that Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber enhanced macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulating effects of these plants on lipopolysacharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. An aqueous extract of each plant was administered to female BALB/c mice every other day for 4 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were then collected and incubated to examine the immunoreactivity of macrophages against LPS at different time points. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inhibitory factor kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) proteins and the production of NO metabolite (nitrite), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in the activated macrophages treated with extracts from each plant individually or combined. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by A. scaber-, P. japonica-, and H. cordata-treated macrophages following 24 hours of LPS stimulation. P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber treatment also induced the production of nitrate by LPS-treated macrophages. Induction of iNOS mRNA and protein was also different in each group. PGE(2) secretion was up-regulated by all extract-treated macrophages at early time points; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups by 8 hours post-LPS stimulation. Treatment with A. scaber extract resulted in the highest levels of IkappaBalpha degradation. Our findings illustrate that the natural plant products P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber may enhance immune function by modulating ex vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO production as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2.

  6. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  7. A structure-activity relationship study on antiosteoclastogenesis effect of triterpenoids from the leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Ashour, Ahmed; Katakura, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-04-15

    Our previous results elucidated that the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica possessed the potential to suppress ovariectomy-induced bone mineral density deterioration, and ursolic acid, the major bioactive component in these leaves, suppressed the osteoclast differentiation. The aim of this study was to discover more candidates for development of novel antiosteoclastogenesis agents from the leaves of E. japonica. Phytochemical analysis following a cell-based osteoclastic tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity assay revealed 11 more compounds with a potent antiosteoclastogenesis effect. The potency of ursane-type triterpenoids from the leaves of E. japonica prompted us to investigate the structure-activity relationships underlying their antiosteoclastogenesis. The results revealed that both the hydroxyl group at C-3 and the carboxylic group at C-17 played indispensable roles in the antiosteoclastogenesis activity of ursane-type triterpenoids. The configuration at C-3 (a beta-form of the hydroxyl group) was found to be important for this activity. While introducing a hydroxyl group at C-19 increased the inhibitory activity of ursane-type triterpenoids carrying an alpha-form hydroxyl group at C-3. The bioactivity analyses of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid demonstrated that the antiosteoclastogenesis effect of ursolic acid may be related to different positions of the C-29 and C-30 methyl groups on the E-ring, since oleanolic acid showed limited activity. The addition of a hydroxyl group at C-2 would dramatically improve the inhibition of oleanane-type triterpenoids. Collectively, these findings could provide important clues for the improvement of multi-targeted antiosteoclastogenesis agents from the leaves of E. japonica.

  8. Whole-genome analysis revealed the positively selected genes during the differentiation of indica and temperate japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinli; Jia, Qi; Guo, Yuchun; Zheng, Xiujuan; Liang, Kangjing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the selective pressures acting on the protein-coding genes during the differentiation of indica and japonica, all of the possible orthologous genes between the Nipponbare and 93-11 genomes were identified and compared with each other. Among these genes, 8,530 pairs had identical sequences, and 27,384 pairs shared more than 90% sequence identity. Only 2,678 pairs of genes displaying a Ka/Ks ratio significantly greater than one were revealed, and most of these genes contained only nonsynonymous sites. The genes without synonymous site were further analyzed with the SNP data of 1529 O. sativa and O. rufipogon accessions, and 1068 genes were identified to be under positive selection during the differentiation of indica and temperate japonica. The positively selected genes (PSGs) are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes, and the proteins encoded by the PSGs are dominant with binding, transferase and hydrolase activities, and especially enriched in the plant responses to stimuli, biological regulations, and transport processes. Meanwhile, the most PSGs of the known function and/or expression were involved in the regulation of biotic/abiotic stresses. The evidence of pervasive positive selection suggested that many factors drove the differentiation of indica and japonica, which has already started in wild rice but is much lower than in cultivated rice. Lower differentiation and less PSGs revealed between the Or-It and Or-IIIt wild rice groups implied that artificial selection provides greater contribution on the differentiation than natural selection. In addition, the phylogenetic tree constructed with positively selected sites showed that the japonica varieties exhibited more diversity than indica on differentiation, and Or-III of O. rufipogon exhibited more than Or-I.

  9. Predicting the Function of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase (LJ4CL1) in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Shulin; Yu, Jun; Zhan, Zhilai; Li, Minhui; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    4-Coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) are a group of essential enzymes involved in the pathway of phenylpropanoid-derived compound metabolisms; however it is still difficult to identify orthologs and paralogs of these important enzymes just based on sequence similarity of the conserved domains. Using sequence data of 20 plant species from the public databases and sequences from Lonicera japonica, we define 1252 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent synthetase/ligase sequences and classify them into three phylogenetic clades. 4CLs are in one of the four subgroups, according to their partitioning, with known proteins characterized in A. thaliana and Oryza sativa. We also defined 184 non-redundant sequences that encode proteins containing the GEICIRG motif and the taxonomic distribution of these GEICIRG-containing proteins suggests unique catalytic activities in plants. We further analyzed their transcription levels in L. japonica and L. japonica. var. chinensis flowers and chose the highest expressed genes representing the subgroups for structure and binding site predictions. Coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the L. japonica flowers, the structural study on putative substrate binding amino acid residues, ferulate, and 4-coumaric acid of the conserved binding-site of LJ4CL1 leads to a conclusion that this highly expressed protein group in the flowers may process 4-coumarate that represents 90% of the known phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. The activity of purified crude LJ4CL1 protein was analyzed using 4-coumarate as template and high activity indicating that 4-coumarate is one of the substrates of LJ4CL1. PMID:24518682

  10. Isolation of virus-cell fusion inhibitory components from the stem bark of Styrax japonica S. et Z.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dung Gun; Jin, Qinglong; Jin, Hong-Guang; Shin, Ji Eun; Choi, Eun Jin; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2010-06-01

    Five compounds, styraxjaponoside A (1), matairesinoside (2), egonol glucoside (3), dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-O-glucoside (4), and styraxjaponoside B (5) were isolated from the stem bark of Styrax japonica. Among them, compounds 1 and 5 showed significantly high virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity. In addition, compound 5 exhibited almost equivalent virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity to that of dextran sulfate, which is used as a positive control.

  11. An optimized extraction technique for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from the Camellia japonica seed cake by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Cho Rong; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Nam, Sang Hae; Joo, Ok Soo; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity and extraction yield from Camellia japonica seed cake. Predicted values for AchE inhibition and extraction yield were 19.41 and 13.35%, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental values from validation, suggesting that RSM may provide a useful tool to optimization processes.

  12. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  13. Predicting the function of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (LJ4CL1) in Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Shulin; Yu, Jun; Zhan, Zhilai; Li, Minhui; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-02-10

    4-Coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) are a group of essential enzymes involved in the pathway of phenylpropanoid-derived compound metabolisms; however it is still difficult to identify orthologs and paralogs of these important enzymes just based on sequence similarity of the conserved domains. Using sequence data of 20 plant species from the public databases and sequences from Lonicera japonica, we define 1252 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent synthetase/ligase sequences and classify them into three phylogenetic clades. 4CLs are in one of the four subgroups, according to their partitioning, with known proteins characterized in A. thaliana and Oryza sativa. We also defined 184 non-redundant sequences that encode proteins containing the GEICIRG motif and the taxonomic distribution of these GEICIRG-containing proteins suggests unique catalytic activities in plants. We further analyzed their transcription levels in L. japonica and L. japonica. var. chinensis flowers and chose the highest expressed genes representing the subgroups for structure and binding site predictions. Coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the L. japonica flowers, the structural study on putative substrate binding amino acid residues, ferulate, and 4-coumaric acid of the conserved binding-site of LJ4CL1 leads to a conclusion that this highly expressed protein group in the flowers may process 4-coumarate that represents 90% of the known phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. The activity of purified crude LJ4CL1 protein was analyzed using 4-coumarate as template and high activity indicating that 4-coumarate is one of the substrates of LJ4CL1.

  14. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  15. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi−Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26892768

  16. Demonstration of genome-wide association studies for identifying markers for wood property and male strobili traits in Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica.

  17. A sialic acid-specific lectin from the mushroom Paecilomyces Japonica that exhibits hemagglutination activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hun; Ryu, Chang Soo; Kim, Ha Na; Na, Young Jun; Park, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hahyung

    2004-12-01

    The mushroom Paecilomyces japonica, grown on the silkworm larvae, has been used in Asia as a nutraceutical, tea, and Chinese medicine. In the present study, a sialic acid-specific lectin has been purified from the mushroom P. japonica using affinity chromatography on a fetuin-agarose column. Electrophoretical analyses indicated that this lectin, designated P. japonica agglutinin (PJA), is an acidic protein with a molecular mass of 16 kDa, and has no intermolecular disulfide bonds. PJA induced hemagglutination activity in human ABO, mouse, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes. This activity was inhibited by sialic acid and sialoglycoproteins, but not by any other carbohydrates. PJA was stable at pH 4.0-8.0, and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. The activity of PJA was independent of EDTA and divalent cations. In addition, PJA exerts cytotoxic effects on the following cancer cell lines: human stomach cancer SNU-1, human pancreas cancer AsPc-1, and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231.

  18. Structural characteristics and biological activity of Fucoidans from the brown algae Alaria sp. and Saccharina japonica of different reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Tarbeeva, Dariya V; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2012-04-01

    Structural characteristics and the antitumor activity of fucoidans isolated from vegetative and reproductive tissue of the brown algae Alaria sp. and Saccharina japonica were studied. The reproductive status of the brown algae affected the yield of fucoidans and their structural characteristics. The fucoidan yield was 5.7% (w/w on the basis of the dried algae weight) for fertile and 3.8% for sterile Alaria sp. and 1.42 and 0.71% for fertile and sterile S. japonica, respectively. The fucoidans from fertile Alaria sp. and S. japonica had a slightly higher degree of sulfation and a somewhat more homogeneous monosaccharide composition, with predominate amounts of fucose and galactose, than those isolated from sterile algae tissue. The fucoidans from both the sterile and fertile brown algae tissue tested possessed selective cytotoxicity towards human breast cancer (T-47D) and melanoma (RPMI-7951) cell lines, but not to normal mouse epidermal cells (JB6 Cl41), and effectively inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of the breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. The fucoidans from reproductive tissue of brown algae possessed higher antitumor activity than those from vegetative plants.

  19. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  20. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi‑Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  1. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-19

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi--Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  2. Parentage analysis of Dongfang No.2, a hybrid of a female gametophyte clone of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) and a male clone of L. longissima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guanpin; Liao, Meijie; Li, Xiaojie; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Wang, Tongyong

    2008-05-01

    The cultivation of the first filial generation of monoploid gametophyte clones of different Laminaria species (hybrid Laminaria) is an effective way of utilizing heterozygous vigor (heterosis). A female gametophyte clone of L. japonica and a male gametophyte clone of L. longissima were hybridized, generating Dongfang No.2 hybrid Laminaria. The parentage of this hybrid Laminaria was determined using AFLP of total DNA, SNP of the ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit and microsatellite DNA variation at two loci. In addition to 167 AFLP bands shared by Dongfang No.2, L. japonica and L. longissima, Dongfang No.2 hybrid Laminaria shared another 70 and 55 bands with L. japonica and L. longissima, respectively, which were obviously more than 11 bands shared by L. japonica and L. longissima. Dongfang No.2 held both ‘T’ and ‘C’ at position 847 of the ITS region, while ‘T’ at this position was specific for L. japonica and ‘C’ for L. longissima, respectively. Dongfang No.2 also held the microsatellite DNA alleles of two parents together at two microsatellite DNA marker loci. These observations clearly proved that Dongfang No.2 is a true hybrid of L. japonica and L. longissiuma. Unfortunately, the origin of the chloroplast of Dongfang No.2 was not determined based on the variation of RuBisCo spacer. More sequence variants of both ITS region and RuBisCo spacer were identified in Dongfang No.2 and most of them did not exist in either L. japonica or L. longissima. The unexpected variants may be due to the mutation of gametophyte clones occurring during their vegetative amplification.

  3. Isolation, expression, and characterization of blue light receptor AUREOCHROME gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunyan; Yao, Jianting; Fu, Gang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2014-04-01

    Photosynthetic stramenopile have chloroplasts of secondary endosymbiotic origin and are significant as aquatic primary productivity and biomass production. In marine environments, many photosynthetic stramenopiles utilize blue light to regulate growth, development, and organelle movement. Aureochrome (AUREO) is a new type blue light photoreceptor specific in photosynthetic stramenopiles. Previously, several AUREO orthologs were reported in genomes of stramenopile members, but the full-length cDNA sequences were completed only in Vaucheria frigida (Xanthophyceae), Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae), and Ochromonas danica (Chrysophyceae). In this study, the full-length cDNA of AUREO from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjAUREO) was isolated based on homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It characterized by the full length of 1,013 bp with an open reading frame of 612 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 203 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 23.08 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.63. The deduced amino acid sequence of SjAUREO contained one N-terminal basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription regulation domain and a single light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain near the C-terminus. Homologous analysis showed that SjAUREO shared 40-92 % similarities with those of other photosynthetic stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close phylogenetic affinity between SjAUREO and AUREO4 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Real-time PCR detection revealed that the SjAUREO transcription was markedly increased under BL exposure and dramatically upregulated in the 1-month juvenile sporophyte than those in the 2 and 3-month materials, which indirectly reflected the SjAUREO associated with the BL-mediated photomorphogenesis during the growth and early development of juvenile sporophytes. In vitro expression showed one distinct band existed at ∼27 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was

  4. Differences in organotin accumulation among ecological migratory types of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2006-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwater, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds, and their breakdown products, were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica having sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and fresh waters. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized 'sea eels' (spent most of their life in the sea and did not enter freshwater), 'estuarine eels' (inhabited estuaries or switched between different habitats), and 'river eels' (entered and remained in freshwater river habitats after arrival in the estuary) according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in A. japonica. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than those in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT and TPT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were

  5. Doubly fed machine review: agenda. Conference report, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The visual aids presented at the doubly fed machine review are presented. The doubly fed machine is a generating system either for wind turbines or hydro systems. Conceptual design and trade-offs are included, as well as testing. (LEW)

  6. Altered avoidance behavior of young black ducks fed cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 4 or 40 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride. One-week-old ducklings that had been fed thc same dietary concentrations of cadmium as had their parents were tested for avoidance of a fright stimulus. Ducklings fed 4 ppm cadmium ran significantly farther from the stimulus than did controls or ducklings fed 40 ppm cadmium. Such an alteration in behavior could have harmful effects on wild birds.

  7. Broadband Photoreceptors Are Involved in Violet Light Preference in the Parasitoid Fly Exorista Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Tokushima, Yoshiaki; Uehara, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Terumi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kainoh, Yooichi

    2016-01-01

    Phototaxis has been described in many insects, which are often attracted to specific wavelengths of light. However, little is known about phototaxis in parasitoid insect species that are potentially useful for integrated pest management. In this study, we investigated the wavelength dependency of the phototactic behavior of the parasitoid fly Exorista japonica and its possible mechanism. Multiple-choice tests with six monochromatic stimuli revealed that the flies were specifically attracted to violet light peaking at 405 nm, which was unexpected because insects are generally attracted to ultraviolet or green light. We measured the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye, and found that the sensitivity peaked at 340 nm, as in other brachyceran flies. We used statistical modeling and optimization of the process parameters to predict the type of photoreceptor contributing to the violet preference. The analysis revealed that the wavelength preference could be explained by linear models of the quanta received by photoreceptors, including the R1-6 broadband receptors. The broadband receptors appear to contribute positively, whereas the R7-8 narrowband receptors contribute negatively to achieve the violet preference; i.e., spectral opponency might be involved. PMID:27532635

  8. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-03-02

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population.

  9. Retrogenes in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) exhibit correlated expression with their source genes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Gaut, Brandon S

    2011-01-01

    Gene duplication occurs by either DNA- or RNA-based processes; the latter duplicates single genes via retroposition of messenger RNA. The expression of a retroposed gene copy (retrocopy) is expected to be uncorrelated with its source gene because upstream promoter regions are usually not part of the retroposition process. In contrast, DNA-based duplication often encompasses both the coding and the intergenic (promoter) regions; hence, expression is often correlated, at least initially, between DNA-based duplicates. In this study, we identified 150 retrocopies in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica), most of which represent ancient retroposition events. We measured their expression from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data generated from seven tissues. At least 66% of the retrocopies were expressed but at lower levels than their source genes. However, the tissue specificity of retrogenes was similar to their source genes, and expression between retrocopies and source genes was correlated across tissues. The level of correlation was similar between RNA- and DNA-based duplicates, and they decreased over time at statistically indistinguishable rates. We extended these observations to previously identified retrocopies in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may be general features of the process of retention of plant retrogenes.

  10. Retrogenes in Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) Exhibit Correlated Expression with Their Source Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene duplication occurs by either DNA- or RNA-based processes; the latter duplicates single genes via retroposition of messenger RNA. The expression of a retroposed gene copy (retrocopy) is expected to be uncorrelated with its source gene because upstream promoter regions are usually not part of the retroposition process. In contrast, DNA-based duplication often encompasses both the coding and the intergenic (promoter) regions; hence, expression is often correlated, at least initially, between DNA-based duplicates. In this study, we identified 150 retrocopies in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica), most of which represent ancient retroposition events. We measured their expression from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data generated from seven tissues. At least 66% of the retrocopies were expressed but at lower levels than their source genes. However, the tissue specificity of retrogenes was similar to their source genes, and expression between retrocopies and source genes was correlated across tissues. The level of correlation was similar between RNA- and DNA-based duplicates, and they decreased over time at statistically indistinguishable rates. We extended these observations to previously identified retrocopies in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may be general features of the process of retention of plant retrogenes. PMID:22042334

  11. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E S; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  13. Identification and characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 from Lampetra japonica and its protective role against cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Dan; Feng, Bin; Gou, Meng; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize aldehyde to corresponding acids, play a major role in the detoxification of various endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. In this study, we cloned and characterized ALDH9 (designated LjALDH9) from Arctic lamprey Lampetra japonica. The open reading frame of LjALDH9 was 1566 bp, encoding 521 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 55.68 kDa. LjALDH9 protein had a signal peptide and Aldedh domain with the active site Cys315. In addition, LjALDH9 shares high sequence homology with ALDH9 of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that LjALDH9 was highly expressed in the buccal gland. A reactive LjALDH9 protein was obtained by prokaryotic expression, two-step-denaturing and refolding and affinity purification. During enzyme activity analysis of recombinant LjALDH9, we found that the most suitable reaction conditions were pH7.0, 16-23 °C and Mn(2+) as the activator. Our study provides theoretical proof that LjALDH9 plays an important role in the parasitic life phase of lamprey.

  14. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  15. Quantitative resistance traits and suitability of woody plant species for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.

    PubMed

    Keathley, Craig P; Potter, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, has an unusually broad host range among deciduous woody plants, yet it feeds only sparingly, or not at all, on certain species in the field. We evaluated beetles' preference, survival over time and fecundity on eight woody plant species historically rated as susceptible or resistant and, after verifying those ratings, tested whether resistance is correlated with so-called quantitative defense traits including leaf toughness, low nutrient content (water, nitrogen, and sugars), and relatively high amounts of tannins or saponins, traditionally associated with such plants. We further tested whether species unsuitable for Japanese beetles are also rejected by fall webworms, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), the expected outcome if the aforementioned traits serve as broad-based defenses against generalists. Choice tests supported historical resistance ratings for the selected species: tuliptree, lilac, dogwood, and Bradford callery pear were rejected by Japanese beetles, whereas sassafras, cherry plum, Virginia creeper, and littleleaf linden were readily eaten. Rejected species also were unsuitable for survival over time, or egg-laying, indicating beetles' inability to overcome the resistance factors through habituation, compensatory feeding, or detoxification. None of the aforementioned leaf traits was consistently higher or lower in the resistant or susceptible plants, and plant species rejected by Japanese beetles often were not rejected by fall webworms. Specialized secondary chemistry, not quantitative defenses, likely determines the Japanese beetle's dietary range among deciduous woody plant species it may encounter.

  16. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle.

  17. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  18. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract. PMID:25648044

  19. Flavonoids from the leaves of Litsea japonica and their anti-complement activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Min, Byung-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Joongku; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu

    2005-04-01

    Four flavonoids, epicatechin (1), afzelin (2), quercitrin (3), and tiliroside (4), were isolated from the leaves of Litsea japonica (Thunb.) Jussieu (Lauraceae). The structures of compounds were identified by comparing their chemical and spectral data with those previously reported. The flavonoids (1-4) were tested for their anti-complement activity against classical pathway of complement system. Compounds 2-4 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with IC50 values of 258, 440, and 101 microm, respectively, whereas 1 was inactive. For the evaluation of the structure-activity relationship of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones, myricitrin (5) from Juglans mandshurica also tested for it's anti-complement activity and is inactive in this assay system. Furthermore, compounds 2, 3, and 5 were hydrolyzed with naringinase to give kaempferol (2a), quercetin (3a), and myricetin (5a), and these were also tested for their activity. Of the three aglycones, 2a exhibited anti-complement activity with an IC50 value of 730 microM, while 3a and 5a were inactive. The inhibitory potencies of 2, 2a, 3, 3a, 5, and 5a against complement activity increased in inverse proportion to number of free hydroxyls on B-ring of 5,7-dihydroxyflavone. Of the compounds tested, 4 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against the complement system.

  20. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  1. Identification of genes involved in spontaneous leaf color variation in Pseudosasa japonica.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Xia, X W; Fang, W; Fu, Y; An, M M; Zhou, M B

    2015-10-02

    Spontaneous leaf color variation in bamboo provides the opportunity to study the mechanisms of leaf color formation and the breeding of ornamental bamboos. Despite the fact that many genes are known to be involved in leaf color variation in model plants, molecular mechanisms governing natural leaf color variation in bamboo have remained obscure. This study aimed to identify the genes responsible for the occurrence of such phenomena in bamboo using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method between green and albino leaves in Pseudosasa japonica f. A total of 1062 and 1004 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. Subsequently, 59 differentially expressed unigenes with potential roles in leaf color formation, predicted via computational analysis of their functional relevance, were selected for further analysis using qPCR. Ten genes, involved in photosynthesis, plastid development, and cation signal transduction, showed 2-fold changes in expression levels between green and albino leaves. Further expression pattern analyses of these genes at three developmental stages revealed much lower expression abundance of Lhca1-encoded chlorophyll a/b binding protein in the albino leaves than in the green leaves. Our results suggest that, together with the concatenated negative pressure for subsequent photosynthetic processes, the albino phenotype is at least partly attributable to chloroplast inner membrane damage or to the impairment of photosynthetic pigment accumulation, which results from low Lhca1 expression.

  2. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica’s fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze–thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  3. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  4. Impact of long-term habitat loss on the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Ze; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Han, Yu-San

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the loss of temperate-zone anguillid eels, particularly Anguilla anguilla, Anguilla rostrata, and Anguilla japonica, has exceeded 90% based on estimates of glass eel recruitment. The cause of this decline has not been conclusively determined, although many factors have been proposed. In East Asia, the consequences of long-term habitat loss and deterioration of habitat quality on the sustainability of Japanese eel resources are important. Impacts have already occurred and are expected to increase because hundreds of millions of people live near estuaries and rivers that have undergone, and further, are expected to continue to undergo, substantial changes in land use. Driven by economic growth, these landscape changes have resulted in, and may continue to produce, the large-scale destruction of eel habitats. We used chronological Landsat imagery to measure Japanese eel habitat reduction from human activities in 16 rivers in East Asia, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. On average, 76.8% of the effective habitat area (Ae) was lost in these 16 rivers from the 1970s-2010s. Taiwan and China had the highest percentages of Ae loss, with declines of 49.3% and 81.5%, respectively. Extensive habitat loss may play an important role, together with regional climate phenomena such as the ENSO and overfishing, in the decline of the Japanese eel in East Asia. Measures targeting habitat restoration and protection may need to be integrated into management planning for Japanese eel resources in an international rather than regional context.

  5. The social environment affects mate guarding behavior in Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Yoriko; Kruse, Kipp C.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the social environment on post-copulatory mate guarding duration in Japanese beetles, (Popillia japonica Newman), was examined in a laboratory experiment. The mate guarding durations of beetles in different sex ratios and densities were observed for 10 hours. Guarding duration was longer when females were larger, suggesting the presence of ‘cryptic’ male mate choice. Densities, but not sex ratio, affected the duration of guarding bouts, with males guarding for longer at higher densities. This result implies that males increase their guarding duration under conditions in which their female may be likely to be encountered by other males. The lack of a sex ratio effect on the duration of guarding bouts is consistent with other studies on this species that indicate males have difficulty distinguishing females from males. Consequently, because the sex ratio on food plants is typically male-biased, a paired male may react just to density, treating surrounding individuals as if they were mostly males. The total amount of time males spent guarding was lower at lower densities and at male-biased sex ratios; this suggests that after ceasing to guard one female, males were less able to find a subsequent mate under these conditions. PMID:16341250

  6. Hox genes of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and Hox cluster evolution in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2010-03-15

    Compared with other diploid teleosts (2n=48), anguilloid fish have a specialized karyotype (2n=38) and remarkable morphological variation, and represent one basal group species of teleosts. To investigate the Hox gene/cluster inventory in basal teleosts, a PCR-based survey of Hox genes in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was conducted with both gene-specific and homeobox-targeted degenerate primers. Our data provide evidence that at least 34 distinct Hox genes exist in the Japanese eel genome and that they represent eight Hox clusters. Duplication of Hox genes in the Japanese eel appears to be the result of the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) event. The Japanese eel shared the FSGD event with other teleosts such as zebrafish and pufferfish. A member of Hox paralog group one (HoxA1b) was preserved in the Japanese eel but was lost in other teleosts. Available Hox data revealed that the Hox cluster evolved distinctly in different teleost lineages. All duplicated Hox clusters were retained after the FSGD event in basal teleosts like in the Japanese eel, whereas crown teleosts lost one cluster (HoxCb or HoxDb). Based on current teleostean phylogeny, the HoxDb cluster was lost independently in the teleost lineages Otocephala and Euteleostei.

  7. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1b during oocyte development in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b) that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes. PMID:21615964

  8. Laminaria japonica as a food for the prevention of obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Various seaweeds have traditionally been used as flavoring materials, food additives, and foodstuffs in many countries, especially those in Asia. The seaweed Laminaria japonica (LJ) is popular as "kombu" in Japanese cuisine. Laminaria sp. is one of the most important marine medicinal foodstuffs, as its biological functions have been widely investigated in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This chapter introduces recent reports on the ability of Laminaria to prevent obesity and diabetes, and some approaches for effectively using the bioactivities found in Laminaria. The inhibitory effects of Laminaria sp. on triglyceride absorption were investigated in triglyceride-loaded mice and in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Shaved Laminaria, known as "tororokombu," showed more effective activities in these experiments. The active component was considered to be alginic acid in the water-soluble fraction. On the other hand, the antihyperglycemic effects of a hot water extract of immature Laminaria were investigated in carbohydrate-loaded mice and in in vitro experiments using Caco-2 cells. The potential usefulness of Laminaria sp. as marine medicinal foods may be increased through the use of different processing methods and/or growth stages. These reports suggest that LJ may be useful for preventing lifestyle-related diseases.

  9. A new approach for rhenium(VII) recovery by using modified brown algae Laminaria japonica adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Xu, Jia; Shan, Weijun; Lou, Zhenning; Fang, Dawei; Zang, Shuliang; Han, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Brown algae Laminaria japonica was chemically modified with sulfuric acid to obtain a crosslinked brown algae gel (CAS). The CAS gel showed a high affinity for Re(VII) comparing with other biomass gels, and the maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated as 37.20 mg g(-1) in case of pH 6, which could be explained by their different adsorption mechanisms. The adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic study for Re(VII) on the CAS gel was discussed in detail by the several models, such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich model for kinetics analysis, the pseudo first, the second-order, the Elovich and intraparticle diffusion equation for equilibrium analysis. Reutilization of the CAS gel was confirmed up to three adsorption-elution cycles in column-mode operation with no damage of gel, packed in the column. The result also provides a new approach for the recovery of Re(VII) from Re-containing wastewater by using the modified brown algae gel.

  10. Unusually Large Number of Mutations in Asexually Reproducing Clonal Planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We established a laboratory clonal strain of freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica) that was derived from a single individual and that continued to undergo autotomous asexual reproduction for more than 20 years, and we performed large-scale genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis on it. Despite the fact that a completely clonal strain of the planarian was used, an unusually large number of mutations were detected. To enable quantitative genetic analysis of such a unique organism, we developed a new model called the Reference Gene Model, and used it to conduct large-scale transcriptome analysis. The results revealed large numbers of mutations not only outside but also inside gene-coding regions. Non-synonymous SNPs were detected in 74% of the genes for which valid ORFs were predicted. Interestingly, the high-mutation genes, such as metabolism- and defense-related genes, were correlated with genes that were previously identified as diverse genes among different planarian species. Although a large number of amino acid substitutions were apparently accumulated during asexual reproduction over this long period of time, the planarian maintained normal body-shape, behaviors, and physiological functions. The results of the present study reveal a unique aspect of asexual reproduction.

  11. Molecular characterization of the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) gene in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Xue; Chen, Guang-Wen; Shi, Chang-Ying; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Dou, He; Feng, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, De-Zeng

    2014-05-01

    GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) has ubiquitously existed in nearly all organisms from yeast to humans, reflecting the central roles it plays in cell survival. In this report, we isolated and sequenced the full-length cDNA of GRP78 (designated DjGRP78) from the planarian Dugesia japonica. The cDNA is 2121 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1983 bp encoding a polypeptide of 660 amino acids with three HSP70 family signatures. DjGRP78 contains signal peptides at the N-terminus and a KTEL peptide motif at the C-terminus, which suggests that it localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fluorescent real time RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression pattern of Djgrp78 in response to different stressors. Our results show that heat shock and heavy metals (Hg(2+) and Pb(2+)) induce Djgrp78 expression, but starvation does not. Interestingly, we found that Djgrp78 was up-regulated in planarians with septic tissues, and also verified that it was up-regulated in response to bacterial challenge. Our data indicate that Djgrp78 may be a multifunctional gene, and play important roles in physiological and pathological stress in planarians.

  12. Heterogeneity of chromatoid bodies in adult pluripotent stem cells of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Makoto; Kumagai, Nobuyoshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito

    2016-02-01

    The robust regenerative ability of planarians is known to be dependent on adult pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts. One of the morphological features of neoblasts is cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granules (chromatoid bodies: CBs), which resemble germ granules present in germline cells in other animals. Previously, we showed by immuno-electron microscopic analysis that DjCBC-1, a planarian Me31B/Dhh1/DDX6 homologue, which is a component of ribonucleoprotein granules, was localized in CBs in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Also, recently it was reported using another planarian species that Y12 antibody recognizing symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) specifically binds to CBs in which histone mRNA is co-localized. Here, we showed by double immunostaining and RNA interference (RNAi) that DjCBC-1-containing CBs and Y12-immunoreactive CBs are distinct structures, suggesting that CBs are composed of heterogeneous populations. We also found that the Y12-immunoreactive CBs specifically contained a cytoplasmic type of planarian PIWI protein (DjPiwiC). We revealed by RNAi experiments that Y12-immunoreactive CBs may have anti-transposable element activity involving the DjPiwiC protein in the neoblasts.

  13. Extraction and separation of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with chitosan as extractant.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution : sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4 mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30 : 1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6 h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan.

  14. Effectiveness of the combinational treatment of Laminaria japonica and Cistanche tubulosa extracts in hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Park, Dongsun; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Yang, Woong-Suk; Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Since scalp hair loss has increased recently even in young people, seriously affecting individual's quality of life, the hair growth-stimulating effects of Laminaria japonica extract (LJE) and Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) were investigated. After confirming anagen phase of follicles under shaving, male C57BL/6 mice were dermally applied with 3% Minoxidil or orally administered with the combinations of LJE and CTE for 21 days. Minoxidil promoted the hair regrowth and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. In addition, Minoxidil up-regulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Co-administration of LJE and CTE at 54 mg/kg LJE plus 162 mg/kg CTE exerted synergistic promoting effects on the hair regrowth, comparable to 3% Minoxidil. LJE preferentially enhanced ALP activity, while CTE increased both γ-GTP and ALP activities as well as EGF and VEGF expressions. In vivo air pouch inflammation model, carrageenan-induced vascular exudation and increased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 concentrations in the exudates were synergistically suppressed by co-administration of LJE and CTE. In addition, inflammatory cell infiltration was substantially inhibited by the combinational treatment. The results suggest that combinational oral treatment with LJE and CTE in appropriate doses and ratios prevent hair loss and improve alopecia, which might be in part mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:25806080

  15. A neural analysis of avoidance conditioning with the feeding attractant glycine in Pleurobranchaea japonica.

    PubMed

    Chiken, Satomi; Kuwasawa, Kiyoaki; Kurokawa, Makoto

    2009-11-01

    Glycine (Gly) is one of the amino acids that most strongly provoke feeding behavior in the carnivorous opisthobranch sea slug Pleurobranchaea japonica. Placing of an aliquot of a Gly solution in front of the anterior end of this animal induced feeding responses such as orientation to the origin of the stimulus and extrusion of the proboscis. In contrast, light stimulation of the body of the animal with a glass-fiber light guide evoked aversive responses involving the gill withdrawal response. Animals were trained by pairing a Gly solution stimulus (conditioned) and a light stimulus (unconditioned). After training with repetitive paired stimuli, we found that animals exhibited aversive responses to the Gly solution. We confirmed achievement of a conditioned Gly-aversive reflex in intact animals by recording of motor impulses with an electrode implanted on the branchial nerve responsible for the gill withdrawal response, the most reliable index of the reflex. Motor discharge of the branchial nerve associated with the conditioned Gly-aversive reflex persisted even in a preparation isolated from an animal which had previously acquired the reflex. This study provides an experimental model for neural analysis with in vivo long-term nerve recording using an electrode implanted in a nerve of an intact animal for neuroethological training.

  16. Invasion of the Red Seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica Spans Biogeographic Provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic. PMID:23638018

  17. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides. PMID:26754912

  18. Study on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue

    2012-06-01

    The antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica were compared in order to examine the influence of chemical character on their antithrombotic activity and the possible mechanism. Both LMW fucoidan fractions exhibited favorable antithrombotic activity in an Fecl3-induced arterial thrombosis. The antithrombotic activity of LMW fucoidan was related with decrease of TXB2 and whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. LMW fucoidan showed a correlation between anticoagulant, antiaggregant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. For LMW fucoidan, antithrombotic activity required high dose of 5-10 nmol kg-1, concomitantly with increase in anticoagulant activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Administration of LMW fucoidan significantly promoted the 6-keto-PGF1α content and decreased the TXB2 content, indicating its inhibition of tissue factor pathway and regulation of metabolism of arachidonic acid. By comparison, highly sulfated fucoidan LF2 with Mw 3900 seemed to be a more suitable choice for antithrombotic drug for its antithrombotic activity accompanied with specific inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation, low anticoagulant activity and low hemorrhagic risk in vivo.

  19. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  20. Expression patterns of the STAG gene in intact and regenerating planarians (Dugesia japonica).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z Q; Zhao, B S; Zhang, J Y

    2011-03-09

    We examined the spatial and temporal expression of the planarian Dugesia japonica STAG-related gene (DjStag), in both intact and regenerating planarians, by whole-mount in situ hybridization and relative quantitative real-time PCR. The first localized transcripts of DjStag were detected in the blastemas three days after amputation, in all regenerates including those from head, tail and trunk pieces. The maximum level of expression of DjStag transcripts occurred at five days after cutting. After regeneration for seven days, DjStag was weakly expressed. A similar decrease occurs regardless of the orientation of the cut. The expression pattern did not differ significantly in the different types of regeneration. Relative quantitative real-time PCR analysis of DjStag mRNA indicated that the expression of DjStag mRNA was increased after amputation compared to that in normal intact planarians, and the maximum level of expression of DjStag transcripts occurred at five days after amputation. All results suggest that DjStag, implicated in planarian regeneration, plays a role in maintaining the ability of pluripotent stem cells to regenerate lost tissue in planarians.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of a Spsb gene in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zimei; Cheng, Fangfang; Yuwen, Yanqing; Chen, Jing; Li, Xiaoyan; Dou, He; Zhang, Haixia; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Dezeng

    2015-06-15

    The SPSB family is comprised of four highly conserved proteins, each containing a C-terminal SOCS box motif and a central SPRY domain. Presently, Spsb genes have been found in mammals and in a few invertebrates, however, the specific functions of these genes are still unknown. In this study, we identified a Spsb gene from the planarian Dugesia japonica and termed it DjSpsb. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of DjSpsb were examined in both intact and regenerative animals, and expression levels were also quantified in response to various stressors. The results show that (1) DjSpsb is highly conserved in evolutionary history in metazoans and is at closer relationship to Spsb1, Spsb2 and Spsb4; (2) DjSpsb mRNA is mainly expressed in the head and also throughout head regeneration processes, particularly, its expression up-regulated observably on day 5 after amputation; (3) DjSpsb is also expressed in the testes and yolk glands; (4) DjSpsb expression is induced by high temperature and ethanol but inhibited by high doses of ionic liquids. The date suggests that the DjSpsb gene might be active in central nervous system (CNS) formation and functional recovery during head regeneration, and it is also involved in the development of germ cells and stress responses in the planarians.

  2. Application of restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) to genetic diversity in Saccharina japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui; Liu, Cui; Li, Wei; Chi, Shan; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) was used, for the first time, to analyze the genetic structure and diversity of four, mainly cultivated, varieties of the brown alga, Saccharina japonica. Eighty-eight samples from varieties " Rongfu ", " Fujian ", " Ailunwan " and " Shengchanzhong " were used for the genetic analyses. One hundred and ninety-eight bands were obtained using eight combinations of primers. One hundred and ninety-one (96.46%) were polymorphic bands. Nei's genetic diversity was 0.360, and the coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.357. No inbreeding-type recession was found in the four brown alga varieties and the results of the " Ailunwan " variety using samples from 2 years showed that the variety was becoming less diverse during the selection inherent in the breeding program. Genetic diversity and cluster analyses results were consistent with these genetic relationships. The results show the RSAP method is suitable for genetic analysis. Continuous inbreeding and selection could reduce the genetic diversity effectively; therefore periodical supervision is required.

  3. Hypoglycemic property of acidic polysaccharide extracted from Saccharina japonica and its potential mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-06-05

    In the present study, a sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan extracted from Saccharina japonica was administered to normal and alloxan-diabetic rats/mice, and its effects on glycemia, insulin and serum lipid levels were evaluated. Fucoidan administered at 200 or 1200 mg/kg body weight/day could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 22% and 34%, respectively, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Serum insulin levels in diabetic mice were increased by the administration of fucoidan (P<0.05). The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that fucoidan treatment had some effect on glucose disposal after 15 days of treatment. Furthermore, fucoidan altered plasma lipid levels by lowering cholesterol, triglyceride and plasma low-density lipoprotein concentrations, while elevating plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 100 or 300 mg/kg body weight/day. The results suggested that fucoidan exhibited a considerable hypoglycemic effect, possibly by stimulating pancreatic release of insulin and/or by reducing insulin metabolism. Our results indicated that fucoidan could be developed as a potential oral hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of diabetes.

  4. Removal of off-flavors from sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) extract by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong-Soo; Bae, Hyang-Nam; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Keun-Sick; Yun, In-Hye; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Myung-Suk; Lee, Yang-Bong; Kim, Young-Mog

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to reduce off-flavors from sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) extract since the typical odor of seaweed is an impediment to consumption of seaweed products. Fifty-six odor compounds emitted from the extract were identified using a thermal desorbor and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On the basis of expected odor intensity (EOI), isovaleric acid (41.2%), allyl isothiocyanate (22.6%), octanal (11.1%) and acetaldehyde (10.6%) were responsible for about 85.5% of total odor strength in the extract, suggesting that the odor of the extract might mainly be attributed to these compounds. The EOIs of odor compounds were dramatically reduced or disappeared during fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae. Total EOI of the odor compounds decreased about four-fold, compared with that of the raw extract (control) after the four days of fermentation at 30°C with agitation at 120 rpm. These results indicate that microbial fermentation may be a good strategy to reduce off-flavors of seaweeds.

  5. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides.

  6. Uptake and elimination of cadmium by Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica, at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.N.; Chen, H.C.

    1996-04-01

    There is no evidence that cadmium is biologically essential, but its toxicity to organisms is well known. The so-called Itai-Itai disease in Japan, characterized by osteomalacia and renal tubular malfunction, has been attributed to cadmium poisoning in irrigation water. The degree of contamination in aquatic environments is frequently assessed by comparing contaminant concentrations in associated biota. Bioaccumulation, however, is influenced by environmental factors other than the degree of contamination, environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and pH. The use of cadmium in the electroplating industry in Taiwan is intensive, but the wastewater used in this industry is seldom treated and has been a serious problem. The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) is an important freshwater aquacultural fish in Taiwan; thus, it is important to know the accumulation and elimination of cadmium in the Japanese eel due to cadmium-polluted water at various temperatures in order to protect eel resources as well as human health. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Characterization of thyroid hormone receptors during early development of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Ohta, Hiromi; Tanaka, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    We studied the profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) during development from hatched larvae to juveniles. Two TRαs (TRαA and TRαB) and one TRβ (TRβA) cDNA clones were generated by RACE. The TRαA, TRαB and TRβA cDNAs encoded 416, 407 and 397 amino acid proteins with much higher homologies to the Japanese conger eel (Conger myriaster) TRs than to other fish TRs. In a transiently transfected Japanese eel cell line, Hepa-E1, the TRs showed thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent activation of transcription from the TH-responsive promoter. Four TR cDNA clones, including TRβB reported in a previous study, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The TR mRNA levels in hatched larvae were determined. The two TRβ mRNAs were present at low levels but there was a peak in the TRαs during the larval stage before metamorphosis. During metamorphosis, the two TRαs both exhibited peaks and expression of the two TRβs was higher than during the early growth stage. This expression pattern is similar to that of the Japanese conger eel. It is possible that thyroid hormones control the early development of Japanese eels and Japanese conger eels through TRs. This is the first analysis of the expression sequence of TRs during early larval stages of Anguilliformes.

  8. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1b during oocyte development in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Kishi, Takafumi; Gen, Koichiro; Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Matsubara, Takahiro; Sawaguchi, Sayumi

    2011-05-27

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b) that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes.

  9. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  10. Anti-proliferative activity of phlorotannin extracts from brown algae Laminaria japonica Aresch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huicheng; Zeng, Mingyong; Dong, Shiyuan; Liu, Zunying; Li, Ruixue

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of phlorotannins derived from brown algae Laminaria japonica Aresch extracts on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell (BEL-7402) and on murine leukemic cells (P388) by MTT assay. Cells were incubated with 100 μg/mL of the phlorotannin extract (PE) for 48 h. The inhibitory rate of PE on BEL-7402 and P388 cells was 30.20±1.16% and 43.44±1.86%, respectively, and the half-inhibitory concentration of PE (IC50) on P388 and BEL-7402 cells was 120 μg/mL and >200 μg/mL, respectively. Microscopic observation shows that the morphologic features of tumor cells treated with PE and 5-fluorouracil are markedly different from the normal control group. The inhibitory rate of fraction A2 isolated from PE by sephadex LH-20 for BEL-7402 and P388 cells at the sample concentration of 70.42 μg/mL was 61.96±7.02% and 40.47±8.70%, respectively. The apoptosis peak for fraction A2 was the most profound of all fractions used in the flow cytometry assay. The results indicate that the anti-proliferative of this algal extract is associated with the total phlorotannin content.

  11. Presence of galactosylated core fucose on N-glycans in the planaria Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Paschinger, Katharina; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Wilson, Iain B H

    2011-06-01

    Planarial species are of especial interest to biologists due to the phenomenon of pluripotency and, in comparison to other developmental processes, it can be hypothesised that glycan-lectin interactions may play a role. In order to examine the N-glycans of one of these organisms, Dugesia japonica, peptide:N-glycosidase A was employed and the released glycans were subject to pyridylamination, HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis. A range of oligomannosidic glycans was observed with a trimethylated Man(5) GlcNAc(2) structure being the dominant species. Three glycans were also observed to contain deoxyhexose; in particular, a glycan with the composition Hex(4) HexNAc(2) Fuc(1) Me(2) was revealed by exoglycosidase digestion, in combination with MS/MS, to contain a galactosylated core α1,6-fucose residue, whereas this core modification was found to be capped with a methylhexose residue in the case of a Hex(5) HexNAc(2) Fuc(1) Me(3) structure. This is the first report of these types of structures in a platyhelminth and indicates that the 'GalFuc' modification of N-glycans is not just restricted to molluscs and nematodes.

  12. Unusually Large Number of Mutations in Asexually Reproducing Clonal Planarian Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We established a laboratory clonal strain of freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica) that was derived from a single individual and that continued to undergo autotomous asexual reproduction for more than 20 years, and we performed large-scale genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis on it. Despite the fact that a completely clonal strain of the planarian was used, an unusually large number of mutations were detected. To enable quantitative genetic analysis of such a unique organism, we developed a new model called the Reference Gene Model, and used it to conduct large-scale transcriptome analysis. The results revealed large numbers of mutations not only outside but also inside gene-coding regions. Non-synonymous SNPs were detected in 74% of the genes for which valid ORFs were predicted. Interestingly, the high-mutation genes, such as metabolism- and defense-related genes, were correlated with genes that were previously identified as diverse genes among different planarian species. Although a large number of amino acid substitutions were apparently accumulated during asexual reproduction over this long period of time, the planarian maintained normal body-shape, behaviors, and physiological functions. The results of the present study reveal a unique aspect of asexual reproduction. PMID:26588467

  13. Delayed fertilization and pollen-tube growth in pistils of Fagus japonica (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sogo, Akiko; Tobe, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    In contrast to most angiosperms, in which fertilization occurs 1 or 2 days after pollination, in some plant orders, including the Fagales, fertilization is delayed from 4 days to more than 1 year, raising questions regarding why fertilization is delayed and where and how pollen tubes remain in the pistil during the delay. To answer these questions, we investigated pollen-tube growth in pistils of Fagus japonica (Fagaceae), which are tricarpellate and have six ovules, using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The ovules were immature at the time of pollination and required 5 weeks to become fully developed. During this 5 weeks, pollen tubes grew from the stigma to the embryo sac in association with the development of ovules and intermittently in three steps with two growth-cessation sites, i.e., on the funicle and near the micropyle. The number of pollen tubes was gradually reduced from many to one at the two growth-cessation sites, and fertilization occurred in one ovule that apparently developed earlier than the others in the pistil. Thus, delayed fertilization plays an important role in gametophyte competition and selection leading to nonrandom fertilization. Intermittent pollen-tube growth is also likely widespread in angiosperms because it is known in other Fagales and an unrelated order Garryales.

  14. Oleanane triterpenes from the flowers of Camellia japonica inhibit porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Li; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Dhodary, Basanta; Pyo, Euisun; Nguyen, Ngoc Hieu; Cho, Hyomoon; Kim, Eunhee; Oh, Won Keun

    2015-02-12

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infections have resulted in a severe economic loss in the swine industry in many countries due to no effective treatment approach. Fifteen oleanane triterpenes (1-15), including nine new ones (1-4 and 10-14), were isolated from the flowers of Camellia japonica, and their molecular structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against PEDV replication, and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were discussed. Compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 showed most potent inhibitory effects on PEDV replication. They were found to inhibit PEDV genes encoding GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane protein synthesis based on RT-PCR data. Western blot analysis also demonstrated their inhibitory effects on PEDV GP6 nucleocapsid and GP2 spike protein synthesis during viral replication. The present study suggested the potential of compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 as promising scaffolds for treating PEDV infection via inhibiting viral replication.

  15. Novolak PF resins prepared from phenol liquefied Cryptomeria japonica and used in manufacturing moldings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jau; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was liquefied in phenol with H2SO4 and HCl as catalysts. The liquefied wood was reacted with formalin to prepare the novolak PF resin. The results showed that the reaction of liquefied Japanese cedar with formalin was an exothermic reaction, and formed a solid-like resin without extra heating. Two novolak PF resins were prepared from the liquefied wood which were identified as SF and CF that using the liquefied wood with H2SO4 and HCl as catalyst respectively. The novolak PF powder displayed thermo-melting characteristic. The resins of SF and CF had weight average molecular weight of 3638 and 3941 respectively and melting temperature of 149.4 degrees C and 127.5 degrees C respectively. Both of the novolak resins could be used to make moldings with good performance by mixing the novolak resin with wood powder, hardener and zinc stearate at the weight ratio of 60:30:10:1 and hot-pressed under 200 degrees C for 10min.

  16. Biological Activities of Extracts from Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilong; Zhang, Wenna; Xu, Changjie; Li, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit tree with high medicinal value native to China. Different organs of loquat have been used historically as folk medicines and this has been recorded in Chinese history for thousands of years. Research shows that loquat extracts contain many antioxidants, and different extracts exhibit bioactivity capable of counteracting inflammation, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, aging, pain, allergy and other health issues. Bioactive compounds such as phenolics and terpenoids have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of loquat extracts. As the identification of compounds progresses, studies investigating the in vivo metabolism, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationships, as well as potential toxicity of loquat extracts in animal or cell models are receiving more attention. In addition, genetic studies and breeding of loquat germplasms for high contents of health-benefiting compounds may provide new insight for the loquat industry and research. This review is focused on the main medicinal properties reported and the possible pharmaceutically active compounds identified in different loquat extracts. PMID:27929430

  17. Seed formation in triploid loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) through cross-hybridization with pollen of diploid cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Iwasuna, Miwako; Kobori, Aya; Tsutaki, Yasunori; Yoshida, Akihiro; Murota, Yuri; Nishino, Eisho; Sassa, Hidenori; Koba, Takato

    2014-01-01

    As the fruits of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica, 2n = 2x = 34) carry large seeds, the breeding of seedless loquat has long been a goal. The recent creation of triploid cultivars (2n = 3x = 51) and the application of gibberellins allow commercial production of seedless loquat, but the possibility of seed formation in triploid loquats has not been carefully investigated. Through crossing experiments and cytological observations of meiosis and pollen tube growth, we found that the triploid line 3N-N28 was essentially self-sterile, but developed seeds on pollination with pollen from diploid cultivars at rates of up to 5.5%. Almost half of the seedlings survived to 5 months, and carried diploid (2n = 34), tetraploid (2n = 68), or aneuploid chromosome numbers. Our results suggest that triploid loquat cultivars might retain the risk of seed formation. Protection from pollination by diploid cultivars or the development of new triploid cultivars will be necessary to ensure the production of seedless loquat fruits. PMID:24987304

  18. Ameliorative effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on cellular aging in cultured rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Kazuyo; Quan, Rong-Dan; Namba, Toshiharu; Kyotani, Shojiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Nishioka, Yutaka; Tonosaki, Keiichi; Doi, Yoshinori L; Kaba, Hideto

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract (ESE) on cellular aging, intracellular calcium homeostasis in young and senescent cells was analyzed using a rat fibroblast culture as an in vitro model system and a calcium imaging technique. The application of bradykinin (BK) transiently elicited intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) increased in most of the young fibroblasts, whereas these responses were scarcely observed or were significantly attenuated in senescent cells. However, the long-term treatment of senescent cells with ESE (for 7 days) dose-dependently increased the amplitude of BK-induced responses and the percentage of BK-responding cells. In particular, most senescent cells could respond to BK with long-term treatment with ESE (1.0% or 2.0%), an effect that reinstated the percentage of BK-responding cells to the same level as that in young cells. The effects of ESE on amplitude or percentage of responding cells were not observed in young cells. Moreover, the time to half decay, which was significantly longer in senescent cells than that in young cells, was shortened in senescent cells with long-term treatment with ESE. These results suggest that treatment with an adequate concentration of ESE renders BK-induced Ca(2+) dynamics in senescent cells similar to those in young cells. Therefore, ESE can retard and/or protect against cellular aging and may be useful for elucidating the antiaging processes.

  19. Oleanane triterpenes as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors from Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Sharma, Govinda; Yang, Jun-Li; Choi, Hong Seok; Lim, Seong-Il; Kang, Keon Wook; Oh, Won Keun

    2014-07-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role in metabolic signaling, thereby making it an exciting drug target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Besides, there is substantial evidence that shows its overexpression is involved in breast cancer, which suggests that selective PTP1B inhibition might be effective in breast cancer treatment. As part of our continuous research on PTP1B inhibitors from medicinal plants, four oleanane-type triterpenes were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of fruit peels of Camellia japonica (Theaceae), together with 6 previously known compounds of this class. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis (UV, IR, (1)H and (13)CNMR, HMBC, HSQC, NOESY, and MS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on PTP1B, as well as their cytotoxic effects against human breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MCF7/ADR, and MDA-MB-231. Several compounds with OH-3 or/and COOH-28 functionalities showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activity (IC50 values ranging from 3.77±0.11 to 6.40±0.81 μM) as well as significant cytotoxicity (IC50 values ranging from 0.51±0.05 to 13.55±1.44 μM).

  20. Enhanced antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles-Lonicera Japonica Thunb combo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Qu, Feng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Hengyi; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Silver metals have long been known to possess antimicrobial properties. Recently, even the nanoparticle version of silver (AgNPs) has also been established as antimicrobials. In this study AgNPs were combined with extracts of the medicinal plant Chinese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica Thunb. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs-herb was tested against pathogenic Escherichia coli CMCC44113. Using different AgNPs or herb (honeysuckle water extract or HWE) ratios in the presence of a fixed concentration of E. coli CMCC44113, potencies were found to be proportional with concentrations. The antimicrobial activities of AgNPs-HWE combo were significant enhanced, when compared with solely AgNPs or HWE. Thus, atomic force microscopic and propidium monoazide-PCR were used to probe the damages caused by AgNPs-HWE combo on the cell morphology and cell membrane integrity of E. coli. The mechanism of AgNPs-HWE combo against E. coli may attribute to AgNPs leads to cell wall lysis and damages cell membrane integrity, and thus increases the penetration of HWE into the bacterium, which results in more serious damage to bacterial cells. These findings indicated that AgNPs-herb was more potent than the AgNPs alone and holds promise for the development of nanoparticle enhanced herbal pharmaceuticals.

  1. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-03

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L(-1) K2SiO3 · nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na(+) concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K(+)/Na(+) ratio was obtained after K2SiO3 · nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3 · nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3 · nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  2. A glucan isolated from flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. inhibits aggregation and neurotoxicity of Aβ42.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Liao, Wenfeng; Fang, Jianping; Liu, Qin; Yao, Jian; Hu, Minghua; Ding, Kan

    2014-09-22

    Inhibition of Aβ aggregation and attenuation of its cytotoxicity are considered to valuable therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, a glucan named as LJW0F2 was purified from flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using monosaccharides composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, this polysaccharide was elucidated to be an α-D-(1→4)-glucan with an α-(1→4) linked branch attached to the C-6 position. Its inhibitory effect on Aβ42 aggregation was measured by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavine T (ThT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We showed that polysaccharide LJW0F2 could inhibit Aβ42 aggregation in a dose-dependent-manner. Besides, LJW0F2 could attenuate the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42 aggregation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report that the exogenous plant-derived polysaccharide might block Aβ42 aggregation directly and reduce its toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.

  3. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-12

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides.

  4. [Studies on chemical constituents of aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Song, Wei-xia; Guo, Qing-lan; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Su-juan; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-09-01

    From an aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds, sixteen compounds were isolated by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over macroporous resin, MCI gel, silica gel, and sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis as 6'-O-acetylvogeloside (1), 6'-O-acetylsecoxyloganin (2), dichlorogelignate (3), guanosinyl-(3' --> 5')-adenosine monophosphate(GpA,4) , 5'-O-methyladenosine (5), 2'-O-methyladenosine (6), adenosine (7), syringin (8), methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeate (9), (-)-dihydrophaseic acid 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), ketologanin (11), 7α-morroniside (12), 7β-morroniside (13), kingiside (14), cryptochlorogenic acid methyl ester (15), and 6-hydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol (16). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time, compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds, 3 and 5 are new natural products, and 4 is the first example of dinucleoside monophosphate isolated from a plant extract.

  5. Antimicrobial peptides with atypical structural features from the skin of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica.