Optimum forward scattering zone for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Pardeep; Kharab, Rajesh
2015-08-01
Here we present a comparative study of various schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter, which decides the maximum value of forward laboratory scattering angle, in intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments. We have found that these are special cases of the recently proposed parameterization scheme in Kumar Rajiv et al., Phys. Rev. C, 81 (2010) 037602. The scheme may be used to demarcate the absorption-free as well as no-flux loss zone for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielińska, M.; Gaffney, L. P.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Clément, E.; Grahn, T.; Kesteloot, N.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.
2016-04-01
With the recent advances in radioactive ion beam technology, Coulomb excitation at safe energies becomes an important experimental tool in nuclear-structure physics. The usefulness of the technique to extract key information on the electromagnetic properties of nuclei has been demonstrated since the 1960s with stable beam and target combinations. New challenges present themselves when studying exotic nuclei with this technique, including dealing with low statistics or number of data points, absolute and relative normalisation of the measured cross-sections and a lack of complementary experimental data, such as excited-state lifetimes and branching ratios. This paper addresses some of these common issues and presents analysis techniques to extract transition strengths and quadrupole moments utilising the least-squares fit code, GOSIA.
Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb
Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N.
1995-08-01
The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of 88Kr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moschner, K.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.; Boutachkov, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Algora, A.; Ameil, F.; Bentley, M. A.; Brambilla, S.; Braun, N.; Camera, F.; Cederkäll, J.; Corsi, A.; Danchev, M.; DiJulio, D.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Giaz, A.; Golubev, P.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Hoischen, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Mǎrginean, N.; Merchán, E.; Möller, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Nociforo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Prochazka, A.; Reese, M.; Reiter, P.; Rudigier, M.; Rudolph, D.; Sava, T.; Schaffner, H.; Scruton, L.; Taprogge, J.; Thomas, T.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.
2016-11-01
To investigate the systematics of mixed-symmetry states in N =52 isotones, a relativistic Coulomb excitation experiment was performed during the PreSPEC campaign at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung to determine E 2 transition strengths to 2+ states of the radioactive nucleus 88Kr. Absolute transition rates could be measured towards the first and third 2+ states. For the latter a mixed-symmetry character is suggested on the basis of the indication for a strong M 1 transition to the fully symmetric 21+ state, extending the knowledge of the N =52 isotones below Z =40 . A comparison with the proton-neutron interacting boson model and shell-model predictions is made and supports the assignment.
Coulomb excitations of monolayer germanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Yu-Huang; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Shyu, Feng-Lin; Lin, Ming-Fa
2017-01-01
The feature-rich electronic excitations of monolayer germanene lie in the significant spin-orbit coupling and the buckled structure. The collective and single-particle excitations are diversified by the magnitude and direction of transferred momentum, the Fermi energy and the gate voltage. There are four kinds of plasmon modes, according to the unique frequency- and momentum-dependent phase diagrams. They behave as two-dimensional acoustic modes at long wavelength. However, for the larger momenta, they might change into another kind of undamped plasmons, become the seriously suppressed modes in the heavy intraband e–h excitations, keep the same undamped plasmons, or decline and then vanish in the strong interband e–h excitations. Germanene, silicene and graphene are quite different from one another in the main features of the diverse plasmon modes.
Coulomb excitations of monolayer germanene
Shih, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Yu-Huang; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Shyu, Feng-Lin; Lin, Ming-Fa
2017-01-01
The feature-rich electronic excitations of monolayer germanene lie in the significant spin-orbit coupling and the buckled structure. The collective and single-particle excitations are diversified by the magnitude and direction of transferred momentum, the Fermi energy and the gate voltage. There are four kinds of plasmon modes, according to the unique frequency- and momentum-dependent phase diagrams. They behave as two-dimensional acoustic modes at long wavelength. However, for the larger momenta, they might change into another kind of undamped plasmons, become the seriously suppressed modes in the heavy intraband e–h excitations, keep the same undamped plasmons, or decline and then vanish in the strong interband e–h excitations. Germanene, silicene and graphene are quite different from one another in the main features of the diverse plasmon modes. PMID:28091555
Coulomb excitation of states in 238U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGowan, F. K.; Milner, W. T.
1994-05-01
Twenty-two states in 238U have been observed with 18 MeV 4He ions on a thick target. Eight 2 + states between 966 and 1782 keV and three 3 - states are populated by direct E2 and E3, respectively. The remaining states are either weakly excited by multiple Coulomb excitation and /or populated by the γ-ray decay of the directly excited states. Spin assignments are based on γ-ray angular distributions. Reduced transition probabilities have been deduced from the γ-ray yields. The B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + states range from 0.10 to 3.0 W.u. (281 W.u. for the first 2 + state). For the 3 states, the B(E3, 0 → 3 -) values are 7.1, 7.8, and 24.2 W.u. Several of the 2 + states have decay branches to the one-phonon states with B(E2) values between 27 and 56 W.u. which are an order of magnitude larger than the B(E2) values between the one- and zero-phonon states. This disagrees with our present understanding of collectivity in nuclei if these 2 + states are considered to be collective two-phonon excitations. However, the excitation energies of these 2 + states with respect to the one-phonon states are only 1.3 to 1.6. The B(E1) values for 17 transitions between the positive- and negative-parity states range between 10 -3 and 10 -7 W.u. The B(E1) branching ratios for many of these transitions have large deviations from the Alaga-rule predictions. These deviations can be understood by the strong Coriolis coupling between the states of the one-phonon octupole quadruplet in deformed nuclei. The general features of the experimental results for the B(E3) values are reproduced by the microscopic calculations of Neergård and Vogel when the Coriolis coupling between the states of the octupole quadruplet is included.
Coulomb excitation of states in 232Th
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGowan, F. K.; Milner, W. T.
1993-09-01
Twenty-five states in 232Th have been observed with 18 MeV 4He ions on a thick target. Eleven 2 + states between 774 and 1554 keV and three 3 - states are populated by direct E2 and E3, respectively. The remaining states are either weakly excited by multiple Coulomb excitation and/or populated by the decay of the directly excited states. Spin assignments are based on γ-ray angular distributions. Reduced transition probabilities have been deduced from the γ-ray yields. The B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + states range from 0.024 to 3.5 W.u. (222 W.u. for the first 2 + state). For the 3 - states, the B(E3,0 → 3 -) values are 1.7, 11, and 24 W.u. A possible two-phonon state at 1554 keV, which is nearly harmonic, decays to four members of the one-phonon states, to the ground-state band, and to the K = 0 - octupole band. The B(E2) value for excitation of this state is 0.66 ± 0.05 W.u. and the B(E1) values for decay of this state are (2 and 6)×10 -4 W.u. The B(E2) values between two- and one-phonon vibrational states range between 16 and 53 W.u. which are an order of magnitude larger than the B(E2) values between the one- and zero-phonon states. This disagrees with our present understanding of collectivity in nuclei if this 2 + state is considered to be a collective two-phonon excitation. The 2 + states at 1477 and 1387 keV, which are also nearly harmonic, are possible candidates with two-phonon structure. The agreement between the experimental results and the microscopic calculations by Neergård and Vogel of the B(E3,0 → 3) for the 3 - members of the one-phonon octupole quadruplet is satisfactory when the Coriolis coupling between the states with K and K ± 1 is included. The B(E1) branching ratios for transitions from the 3 - and 1 - states to the ground-state band have large deviations from the Alaga-rule predictions. These deviations can be understood by the strong Coriolis coupling between the states of the octupole quadruplet in deformed nuclei.
Coulomb excitation of radioactive nuclear beams in inverse kinematics
Zamfir, N.V. |||; Barton, C.J.; Brenner, D.S.; Casten, R.F. |; Gill, R.L.; Zilges, A. |
1996-12-31
Techniques for the measurement of B (E2:0{sub 1}{sup +} {r_arrow} 2{sub 1}{sup +}) values by Coulomb excitation of Radioactive Nuclear Beams in inverse kinematics are described. Using a thin, low Z target, the Coulomb excited beam nuclei will decay in flight downstream of the target. For long lifetimes (nanosecond range) these nuclei decay centimeters downstream of the target and for shorter lifetimes (picoseconds or less) they decay near the target. Corresponding to these two lifetime regimes two methods have been developed to measure {gamma} rays from the Coulomb excited nuclei: the lifetime method in which the lifetime of the excited state is deduced from the decay curve and the integral method in which the B(E2) value is extracted from the measured total Coulomb excitation cross section.
Coulomb excitation of levels in 143Nd and 145Nd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drǎgulescu, E.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mihu, R.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Paar, V.; Vretenar, D.
1984-04-01
The low-lying states of 143Nd and 154Nd have been studied by means of Coulomb excitation with 16O and α-particles. Angular distribution measurements were carried out for some transitions in 145Nd with 11.2 MeV α-particles. Level energy decay schemes and B(E2)↑ values were measured for two states in 143Nd and for six states in 145Nd. Some spin assignments have been established for the 145Nd nucleus. 143Nd and 145Nd have been theoretically described by coupling one and three particles, respectively, to quadrupole vibrations, and rather good agreement with experiment was achieved.
Generalized oscillator strength and Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidichimo, Marita C.; Thorsley, Michael D.
2003-02-01
Coulomb interaction is characterized by two nondimensional fundamental quantities: the Sommerfeld parameter η and the adiabaticity parameter ξ=ηf-ηi. In this different approach, we choose these variables to describe the behavior of the generalized oscillator strength (GOS). The expression we obtain is valid for scattering of electrons, positrons, and nuclei by arbitrary targets. We present asymptotic expansions, in the quantal and semiclassical approximation, of the electric dipole GOS.
Coulomb excitation of C{sub 60} molecules
Esbensen, H.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.
1995-08-01
The ionization and dissociation of C{sub 60} molecules in the Coulomb field from fast, highly-charged xenon ions was measured recently at ATLAS. The Coulomb excitation was modeled as a coherent excitation of the giant plasmon resonance. Guided by photo-absorption measurements, single-plasmon excitations were identified with the production of single-charged C{sub 60}{sup +} molecular ions. The calculated cross sections do indeed reproduce the beam energy-dependence of the measured C{sub 60}{sup +} yield. The calculations show that single-plasmon excitations are responsible for about half of the total reaction cross section. The other half, i.e., multiplasmon excitations, leads to multiple ionization and dissociation of the molecule.
Slow Interatomic Coulombic Decay of Multiply Excited Neon Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iablonskyi, D.; Nagaya, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Kumagai, Y.; Mondal, S.; Tachibana, T.; Takanashi, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Matsunami, K.; Johnsson, P.; Piseri, P.; Sansone, G.; Dubrouil, A.; Reduzzi, M.; Carpeggiani, P.; Vozzi, C.; Devetta, M.; Negro, M.; Calegari, F.; Trabattoni, A.; Castrovilli, M. C.; Faccialà, D.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Möller, T.; Mudrich, M.; Stienkemeier, F.; Coreno, M.; Alagia, M.; Schütte, B.; Berrah, N.; Kuleff, A. I.; Jabbari, G.; Callegari, C.; Plekan, O.; Finetti, P.; Spezzani, C.; Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Penco, G.; Serpico, C.; De Ninno, G.; Nikolov, I.; Diviacco, B.; Di Mitri, S.; Giannessi, L.; Prince, K. C.; Ueda, K.
2016-12-01
Ne clusters (˜5000 atoms ) were resonantly excited (2 p →3 s ) by intense free electron laser (FEL) radiation at FERMI. Such multiply excited clusters can decay nonradiatively via energy exchange between at least two neighboring excited atoms. Benefiting from the precise tunability and narrow bandwidth of seeded FEL radiation, specific sites of the Ne clusters were probed. We found that the relaxation of cluster surface atoms proceeds via a sequence of interatomic or intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) processes while ICD of bulk atoms is additionally affected by the surrounding excited medium via inelastic electron scattering. For both cases, cluster excitations relax to atomic states prior to ICD, showing that this kind of ICD is rather slow (picosecond range). Controlling the average number of excitations per cluster via the FEL intensity allows a coarse tuning of the ICD rate.
Cold chemistry with electronically excited Ca{sup +} Coulomb crystals
Gingell, Alexander D.; Bell, Martin T.; Oldham, James M.; Softley, Timothy P.; Harvey, Jeremy N.
2010-11-21
Rate constants for chemical reactions of laser-cooled Ca{sup +} ions and neutral polar molecules (CH{sub 3}F, CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, or CH{sub 3}Cl) have been measured at low collision energies (
Coulomb Excitation of Radioactive Mo-Ru Isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allmond, J. M.; Gretina-Chico2 Collaboration
2016-09-01
The study of shapes in atomic nuclei has been a major focus of nuclear structure ever since the observation of large electric quadrupole moments in the first half of the 20th century. A leading challenge has been to experimentally establish regions of oblate deformation, which are very limited, and triaxial deformation. The neutron-rich Mo-Ru region is expected to exhibit triaxial deformation in the low-lying states, mediated by a relatively rare instance of prolate-to-oblate shape evolution. A survey of equipment, techniques, and preliminary results from recent Coulomb-excitation and beta-decay experiments in the neutron-rich Mo-Ru region will be presented. These experiments were conducted at the CARIBU-ANL facility using GRETINA-CHICO2. An emphasis will be placed on unique opportunities with 3-MeV/u beams. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.
Low-energy Coulomb excitation of Sr,9896 beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clément, E.; Zielińska, M.; Péru, S.; Goutte, H.; Hilaire, S.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Doherty, D. T.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Butterworth, J.; Cederkäll, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dijon, A.; Ekström, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fransen, C.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Larsen, A. C.; Ljungvall, J.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Reiter, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Sotty, C.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.; De Witte, H.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.
2016-11-01
The structure of neutron-rich Sr,9896 nuclei was investigated by low-energy safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN, with the MINIBALL spectrometer. A rich set of transitional and diagonal E 2 matrix elements, including those for non-yrast structures, has been extracted from the differential Coulomb-excitation cross sections. The results support the scenario of a shape transition at N =60 , giving rise to the coexistence of a highly deformed prolate and a spherical configuration in 98Sr, and are compared to predictions from several theoretical calculations. The experimental data suggest a significant contribution of the triaxal degree of freedom in the ground state of both isotopes. In addition, experimental information on low-lying states in 98Rb has been obtained.
Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters
Nagaya, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Golubev, N. V.; Matsunami, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Sakai, T.; Tachibana, T.; Mondal, S.; Wada, S.; Prince, K. C.; Callegari, C.; Miron, C.; Saito, N.; Yabashi, M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.
2016-01-01
In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation. PMID:27917867
Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaya, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Golubev, N. V.; Matsunami, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Sakai, T.; Tachibana, T.; Mondal, S.; Wada, S.; Prince, K. C.; Callegari, C.; Miron, C.; Saito, N.; Yabashi, M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.
2016-12-01
In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation.
Coulomb excitations for a short linear chain of metallic shells
Zhemchuzhna, Liubov; Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Gao, Bo
2015-03-15
A self-consistent-field theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a chain containing a finite number, N, of Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases arranged with their centers along a straight line, for simulating electromagnetic response of a narrow-ribbon of metallic shells. The separation between nearest-neighbor shells is arbitrary and because of the quantization of the electron energy levels due to their confinement to the spherical surface, all angular momenta L of the Coulomb excitations, as well as their projections M on the quantization axis, are coupled. However, for incoming light with a given polarization, only one angular momentum quantum number is usually required. Therefore, the electromagnetic response of the narrow-ribbon of metallic shells is expected to be controlled externally by selecting different polarizations for incident light. We show that, when N = 3, the next-nearest-neighbor Coulomb coupling is larger than its value if they are located at opposite ends of a right-angle triangle forming the triad. Additionally, the frequencies of the plasma excitations are found to depend on the orientation of the line joining them with respect to the axis of quantization since the magnetic field generated from the induced oscillating electric dipole moment on one sphere can couple to the induced magnetic dipole moment on another. Although the transverse inter-shell electromagnetic coupling can be modeled by an effective dynamic medium, the longitudinal inter-shell Coulomb coupling, on the other hand, can still significantly modify the electromagnetic property of this effective medium between shells.
Coulomb Excitation of the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Walle, J.; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Behrens, T.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cederkäll, J.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Delahaye, P.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Gernhauser, R.; Georgiev, G.; Habs, D.; Heyde, K.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Ivanov, O.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Kester, O.; Köster, U.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Lauer, M.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mayet, P.; Niedermaier, O.; Nilsson, T.; Pantea, M.; Perru, O.; Raabe, R.; Reiter, P.; Sawicka, M.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sieber, T.; Sletten, G.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Thomas, J.-C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; van Duppen, P.; Verney, D.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Wenander, F.; Wolf, B. H.; Zielińska, M.
2008-05-01
Neutron rich Zinc isotopes, including the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn, were produced and post-accelerated at the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN). Low-energy Coulomb excitation was induced on these isotopes after post-acceleration, yielding B(E2) strengths to the first excited 2+ states. For the first time, an excited state in 80Zn was observed and the 21+ state in 78Zn was established. The measured B(E2,21+-->01+) values are compared to two sets of large scale shell model calculations. Both calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics for the full Zinc isotopic chain. The results for N = 50 isotones indicate a good N = 50 shell closure and a strong Z = 28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus 78Ni.
Triaxiality near the 110Ru ground state from Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doherty, D. T.; Allmond, J. M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Korten, W.; Zhu, S.; Zielińska, M.; Radford, D. C.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bucher, B.; Batchelder, J. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Campbell, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cline, D.; Crawford, H. L.; David, H. M.; Delaroche, J. P.; Dickerson, C.; Fallon, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Harker, J. L.; Hayes, A. B.; Hendricks, M.; Humby, P.; Girod, M.; Gross, C. J.; Klintefjord, M.; Kolos, K.; Lane, G. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Libert, J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pardo, R. C.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Srebrny, J.; Varner, R.; Vondrasek, R.; Wiens, A.; Wilson, E.; Wood, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.
2017-03-01
A multi-step Coulomb excitation measurement with the GRETINA and CHICO2 detector arrays was carried out with a 430-MeV beam of the neutron-rich 110Ru (t1/2 = 12 s) isotope produced at the CARIBU facility. This represents the first successful measurement following the post-acceleration of an unstable isotope of a refractory element. The reduced transition probabilities obtained for levels near the ground state provide strong evidence for a triaxial shape; a conclusion confirmed by comparisons with the results of beyond-mean-field and triaxial rotor model calculations.
Do nuclei go pear-shaped? Coulomb excitation of 220Rn and 224Ra at REX-ISOLDE (CERN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheck, M.; Gaffney, L. P.; Butler, P. A.; Hayes, A. B.; Wenander, F.; Albers, M.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Boenig, S.; Bree, N.; Cederkall, J.; Chupp, T.; Cline, D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Grahn, T.; Herzan, A.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D. G.; Joss, D. T.; Kesteloot, N.; Konki, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kroell, Th.; Kwan, E.; Lutter, R.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radeck, D.; Reiter, P.; Reynders, K.; Rigby, S. V.; Robledo, L. M.; Rudigier, M.; Sambi, S.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Stora, T.; Thoele, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M. J.; von Schmid, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wimmer, K.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Wu, C. Y.; Zielinska, M.
2015-05-01
The IS475 collaboration conducted Coulomb-excitation experiments with post-accelerated radioactive 220Rn and 224Ra beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. The beam particles (Ebeam: 2.83 MeV/u) were Coulomb excited using 60Ni, 114Cd, and 120Sn scattering targets. De-excitation γ-rays were detected employing the Miniball array and scattered particles were detected in a silicon detector. Exploiting the Coulomb-excitation code GOSIA for each nucleus several matrix elements could be obtained from the measured γ-ray yields. The extracted ‹3-||E3||0+› matrix element allows for the conclusion that, while 220Rn represents an octupole vibrational system, 224Ra has already substantial octupole correlations in its ground state. This finding has implications for the search of CP-violating Schiff moments in the atomic systems of the adjacent odd-mass nuclei.
Effects of Coulomb quadrupole excitation in heavy-ion reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Choi, K. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, T. H.; So, W. Y.
2016-09-01
For 12C + 184W, 18O + 184W, and 20Ne + 208Pb systems, we investigate the suppression of the ratios P E = σ el/ σ RU by using the Coulomb quadrupole excitation (CQE) potentials. In order to explain the effect of the CQE potentials, we first use a well-known Love's CQE potential, and reproduce the experimental P E data well by using this potential. We also introduce a simple CQE potential written as W CQE( r) = - W P / r n , which is much simpler than the conventional Love's potential, to investigate the suppression of the P E ratios. Using this potential, we perform a χ2 analysis to find the adjustable parameter n, then, we find that the best fit parameters n ≈ 5 is close to the lowest order term, 1/ r 5. Consequently, we find that using the simple CQE potential explains the experimental P E data and that the ratio P E depends on the n values sensitively.
Development of a new Recoil Distance Technique using Coulomb Excitation in Inverse Kinematics
Rother, Wolfram; Dewald, Alfred; Ilie, Gabriela; Pissulla, Thomas; Melon, Barbara; Jolie, Jan; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Iwasaki, Hironori; Hackstein, Matthias; Zell, Karl-Oskar; Julin, Rauno; Jones, Peter; Greenlees, Paul; Rahkila, Panu; Uusitalo, Juha; Scholey, Cath; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Konstantinopoulos, Theodore; Grahn, Tuomas
2009-01-28
We report on an experiment using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics in combination with the plunger technique for measuring lifetimes of excited states of the projectiles. Aside from the investigation of E(5) features in {sup 128}Xe, the aim was to explore the special features of such experiments which are also suited to be used with radioactive beams. The measurement was performed at the JYFL with the Koeln coincidence plunger device and the JUROGAM spectrometer using a {sup 128}Xe beam impinging on a {sup nat}Fe target at a beam energy of 525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of 32 solar cells placed at extreme forward angles. Particle-gated {gamma}-singles and {gamma}{gamma}-coincidences were measured at different target-degrader distances. Details of the experiment and first results are presented.
Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Walle, J.; Aksouh, F.; Behrens, T.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cederkäll, J.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Delahaye, P.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Gernhauser, R.; Georgiev, G.; Habs, D.; Heyde, K.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Ivanov, O.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Kester, O.; Köster, U.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Lauer, M.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mayet, P.; Niedermaier, O.; Pantea, M.; Raabe, R.; Reiter, P.; Sawicka, M.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sieber, T.; Sletten, G.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Thomas, J.-C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Duppen, P. Van; Verney, D.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Wenander, F.; Wolf, B. H.; Zielińska, M.
2009-01-01
At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,21+→01+) values in Zn74-80, B(E2,41+→21+) values in Zn74,76 and the determination of the energy of the first excited 21+ states in Zn78,80. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of U238, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondary target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, including a recent empirical residual interaction constructed to describe the present experimental data up to 2004 in this region of the nuclear chart.
Quadrupole collectivity beyond N = 28: intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation of (47,48)Ar.
Winkler, R; Gade, A; Baugher, T; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Glasmacher, T; Grinyer, G F; Meharchand, R; McDaniel, S; Ratkiewicz, A; Weisshaar, D
2012-05-04
We report on the first experimental study of quadrupole collectivity in the very neutron-rich nuclei (47,48)Ar using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. These nuclei are located along the path from doubly magic Ca to collective S and Si isotopes, a critical region of shell evolution and structural change. The deduced B(E2) transition strengths are confronted with large-scale shell-model calculations in the sdpf shell using the state-of-the-art SDPF-Uand EPQQM effective interactions. The comparison between experiment and theory indicates that a shell-model description of Ar isotopes around N=28 remains a challenge.
Quadrupole Collectivity beyond N=28: Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation of Ar47,48
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, R.; Gade, A.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Glasmacher, T.; Grinyer, G. F.; Meharchand, R.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Weisshaar, D.
2012-05-01
We report on the first experimental study of quadrupole collectivity in the very neutron-rich nuclei Ar47,48 using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. These nuclei are located along the path from doubly magic Ca to collective S and Si isotopes, a critical region of shell evolution and structural change. The deduced B(E2) transition strengths are confronted with large-scale shell-model calculations in the sdpf shell using the state-of-the-art SDPF-Uand EPQQM effective interactions. The comparison between experiment and theory indicates that a shell-model description of Ar isotopes around N=28 remains a challenge.
Coulomb Excitation of 78,80Se and the radioactive 84Se (N = 50) isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Garcia-Ruiz, R. F.; Allmond, J. M.; Batchelder, J. C.; Beene, J. R.; Lagergren, K. B.; Mueller, P. E.; Radford, D. C.; Stracener, D. W.; Urrego-Blanco, J. P.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, C.-H.
2011-10-01
Coulomb excitation is a purely electromagnetic excitation process of nuclear states due to the Coulomb field of two colliding nuclei. It is a very precise tool to measure excitation probabilities and provide insight on the collectivity of nuclear excitations and in particular on nuclear shapes. We have measured the B(E2) value of various nuclei in the mass A ~ 80 region using particle-gamma coincidences with the HyBall and Clarion arrays at HRIBF. The Coulomb excitation of various projectile-target combinations (ASe on 12C, 24Mg, 27Al and 50Ti) allow the use of consistency cross checks and the systematic study of isotopic and isotonic chains using both stable and radioactive nuclei under almost identical experimental conditions.We present new results for 78Se, 80Se and the radioactive nucleus 84Se (N = 50). Research sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy and CONACyT Grant 103366.
Coulomb Interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss Experiments with Electrons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shen, Kan
2009-01-01
This dissertation examines the effect of Coulomb interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) type experiments with electrons. HBT experiments deal with intensity interference, which is related to the second-order correlation function of the particle field. This is an extension of the usual amplitude interference experiment, such as Young's…
Nonlinear SU(2,1) Model of Multiple Giant Dipole Resonance Coulomb Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, Mahir; de Toledo Piza, Antonio; Vorov, Oleg
2000-10-01
We construct a three-dimensional analytically soluble model of the nonlinear effects in Coulomb excitation of multiphonon Giant Dipole Resonances (GDR) based on the SU(2,1) algebra^1. Analytical expressions for the multi-phonon transition probabilities are derived. For reasonably small magnitude of nonlinearity x~= 0.15-0.3, the enhancement factor for the Double Giant Resonance excitation probabilities and the cross sections reaches values 1.3-2 compatible^1,2 with experimental data from relativistic ion collision experiments^3. The full 3-dimensional model predicts enhancement of the multiple GDR cross sections at low and high bombarding energies (with the minimum at ~= 1.3 GeV for the Pb+Pb colliding system). Enhancement factors for Double GDR measured in thirteen different processes with various projectiles and targets at different bombarding energies are well reproduced with the same value of the nonlinearity parameter with the exception of the anomalous case of ^136Xe which requires a larger value. The work has been supported by the FAPESP and by the CNPq. References ^1 M. S. Hussein, A. F. R. de Toledo Piza and O. K.Vorov, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.), 2000, to appear. ^2 M. S. Hussein, A. F. R. de Toledo Piza and O. K.Vorov, Phys. Rev. C59,R1242 (1999). ^3 T. Aumann, P.F. Bortignon, and H. Emling, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 48, 351 (1998).
Experiments on excitation waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, S. C.
Recent trends in the experimentation on chemical and biochemical excitation waves are presented. In the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, which is the most suitable chemical laboratory system for the study of wave propagation in excitable medium, the efficient control of wave dynamics by electrical fields and by light illumination is illustrated. In particular, the effects of a feedback control are shown. Further new experiments in this system are concerned with three-dimensional topologies and boundary effects. Important biological applications are found in the aggregation of slime mould amoebae, in proton waves during oscillatory glycolysis, and in waves of spreading depression in neuronal tissue as studied by experiments in chicken retina. Numerical simulations with appropriate reaction-diffusion models complement a large number of these experimental findings.
Interatomic Coulombic Decay of HeNe dimers after ionization and excitation of He and Ne
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sann, H.; Havermeier, T.; Kim, H.-K.; Sturm, F.; Trinter, F.; Waitz, M.; Zeller, S.; Ulrich, B.; Meckel, M.; Voss, S.; Bauer, T.; Schneider, D.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Wallauer, R.; Schöffler, M.; Williams, J. B.; Dörner, R.; Jahnke, T.
2017-01-01
We study the decay of a helium/neon dimer after ionization and simultaneous excitation of either the neon or the helium atom using Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). We find that, depending on the decaying state, either direct Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD) (i.e. mediated by a virtual photon exchange), exchange ICD (mediated by electron exchange) or radiative charge transfer occurs. The corresponding channels are identified.
Coulomb excitation of ground band rotational states in /sup 249/Bk
Bemis, C.E. Jr.; McGowan, F.K.; Ford, J.L.C. Jr.; Milner, W.T.; Robinson, R.L.; Stelson, P.H.
1982-03-01
Coulomb-excitation probabilities for the first few members of the 7/2/sup +/(633up-arrow) ground-state rotational band in /sup 249/Bk have been determined with 17.06-MeV /sup 4/He ions. These previously know excited states include the 9/2/sup +/ (41.8-keV), 11/2/sup +/ (93.7-keV), and 13/2/sup +/ (155.8-keV) members of the 7/2/sup +/(633up-arrow) band. Within experimental uncertainties, the Coulomb-excitation probabilities for these rotational states are reproduced by calculated values when only E2 excitations are considered with an intrinsic quadrupole moment, Q/sub 20/, of 12.70 +- 0.24 eb in the rigid rotor limit. The deduced ground-state spectroscopic quadrupole moment is 5.93 +- 0.11 eb. Intraband M1 transition rates have been deduced by combining the Q/sub 20/ result with other experimental data. Within the rotational model, a ground-state magnetic moment of +3.45 +- 0.10 ..mu../sub N/ is indicated.
B(E1) Strengths from Coulomb excitation of 11Be
Summers, N C; Pain, S D; Orr, N A; Catford, W N; Angelique, J C; Ashwood, N I; Bouchat, V; Clarke, N M; Curtis, N; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; Hanappe, F; Labiche, M; Loucey, J L; Lemmon, R C; Mahboub, D; Ninane, A; Normand, G; Nunes, F M; Soic, N; Stuttge, L; Timis, C N; Thompson, I; Winfield, J S; Ziman, V
2007-03-06
The B(E1;1/2{sup +}{yields} 1/2{sup -}) strength for {sup 11}Be has been extracted from intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements, over a range of beam energies using a new reaction model, the extended continuum discretized coupled channels (XCDCC) method. In addition, a measurement of the excitation cross section for {sup 11}Be+{sup 208}Pb at 38.6 MeV/nucleon is reported. The B(E1) strength of 0.105(12) e{sup 2}fm{sup 2} derived from this measurement is consistent with those made previously at 60 and 64 MeV/nucleon, in contrast to an anomalously low result obtained at 43 MeV/nucleon. By coupling a multi-configuration description of the projectile structure with realistic reaction theory, the XCDCC model provides for the first time a fully quantum mechanical description of Coulomb excitation. The XCDCC calculations reveal that the excitation process involves significant contributions from nuclear, continuum, and higher-order effects. An analysis of the present and two earlier intermediate energy measurements yields a combined B(E1) strength of 0.105(7) e{sup 2}fm{sup 2}. This value is in good agreement with the value deduced independently from the lifetime of the 1/2{sup -} state in {sup 11}Be, and has a comparable precision.
Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M
2014-04-25
Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85 MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Y. P.; Wang, Y.; Jin, X. L.; Huang, Z. L.
2014-09-01
A nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvester directly powering a load resistance is considered in this manuscript. The nonlinearity includes the cubic stiffness and the unavoidable Coulomb friction, and the base excitation is confined to Gaussian white noise. Directly starting from the coupled equations, a novel procedure to evaluate the random responses and the mean output power is developed through the generalized harmonic transformation and the equivalent non-linearization technique. The dependence of the optimal ratio of the load resistance to the internal resistance and the associated optimal mean output power on the internal resistance of the coil is established. The principle of impedance matching is correct only when the internal resistance is infinity, and the optimal mean output power approaches an upper limit as the internal resistance is close to zero. The influence of the Coulomb friction on the optimal resistance ratio and the optimal mean output power is also investigated. It is proved that the Coulomb friction almost does not change the optimal resistance ratio although it prominently reduces the optimal mean output power.
Coulomb excitation of radioactive Na21 and its stable mirror Ne21
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2008-10-01
The low-energy structures of the mirror nuclei Ne21 and radioactive Na21 have been examined by using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ~5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7 MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5 mg/cm2 natTi target. Scattered beam and target particles were detected by the segmented Si detector BAMBINO, while γ rays were observed by using two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis. For each isobar, Coulomb excitation from the (3)/(2)+ ground state to the first excited (5)/(2)+ state was observed and B(E2) values were determined by using the 2+→0+ de-excitation in Ti48 as a reference. The ϕ segmentation of BAMBINO was used to deduce tentative assignments for the signs of the mixing ratios between the E2 and M1 components of the transitions. The resulting B(E2)↑ values are 131±9e2 fm4 (25.4±1.7 W.u.) for Ne21 and 205±14e2 fm4 (39.7±2.7 W.u.) for Na21. The fit to the present data and the known lifetimes determined E2/M1 mixing ratios and B(M1)↓ values of δ=(-)0.0767±0.0027 and 0.1274±0.0025μN2 and δ=(+)0.0832±0.0028 and 0.1513±0.0017μN2 for Ne21 and Na21, respectively (with Krane and Steffen sign convention). By using the effective charges ep=1.5e and en=0.5e, the B(E2) values produced by the p-sd shell model are 30.7 and 36.4 W.u. for Ne21 and Na21, respectively. This analysis resolves a significant discrepancy between a previous experimental result for Na21 and shell-model calculations.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation within the time dependent superfluid local density approximation
Stetcu, I.; Bertulani, C. A.; Bulgac, A.; Magierski, P.; Roche, K. J.
2015-01-06
Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus ^{238}U. The approach is based on the superfluid local density approximation formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We compute the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, the dipole pygmy resonance, and giant quadrupole modes are excited during the process. As a result, the one-body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width Γ↓≈0.4 MeV and the number of preequilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.
Coulomb Enhancement of Superfluorescence Bursts from the Fermi Edge in Highly-Excited Quantum Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ji-Hee; Noe, Tim; McGill, Stephen A.; Wang, Yongrui; Wójcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey A.; Kono, Junichiro
2013-03-01
Superfluorescence (SF) is a many-body process in which an ensemble of excited dipoles spontaneously develops macroscopic coherence and abruptly decays by producing a burst of coherent radiation. We have recently reported the first observation of SF from semiconductor quantum wells in the presence of a strong perpendicular magnetic field. Here, we report on results of our systematic magnetic field dependent studies of light emission from high-density electron-hole systems with gain. We observed SF pulses even at 0 Tesla when the excitation power is high and the temperature is low. The SF radiation at 0 Tesla shows a continuous band of emission in time-resolved photoluminescence images, i.e., the photon energy of the emitted light changes continuously with time. We interpret this phenomenon in terms of Coulomb enhancement of gain near the Fermi energy in a high-density electron-hole system. In addition, we demonstrate that the delay between the pump pulse and the SF pulses is tunable through the magnetic field and excitation pump power. Finally, the delay is longer for a lower-energy Landau level at a given magnetic field, i.e., the SF bursts proceed in a sequential manner from higher to lower Landau levels.
Allmond, James M
2016-01-01
The synthesis of Coulomb excitation and decay offers very practical advantages in the study of nuclear shapes and collectivity. For instance, Coulomb excitation is unique in its ability to measure the electric quadrupole moments, i.e., I2 ||M(E2)||I1 matrix elements, of excited, non-isomeric states in atomic nuclei, providing information on the intrinsic shape. However, the Coulomb excitation analysis and structural inter- pretation can be strongly dependent upon weak transitions or decay branches, which are often obscured by the Compton background. Transitions of particular interest are those low in energy and weak in intensity due to the E 5 attenuation factor. These weak decay branches can often be determined with high precision from -decay studies. Recently, 106Mo and 110Cd were studied by both Coulomb excitation and decay. Preliminary results of new weak decay branches following decay of 110mAg to 110Cd are presented; these results will challenge competing interpretations based on vibrations and configuration mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allmond, J. M.
2016-09-01
The synthesis of Coulomb excitation and β decay offers very practical advantages in the study of nuclear shapes and collectivity. For instance, Coulomb excitation is unique in its ability to measure the electric quadrupole moments, i.e., < I_2^π allel M(E2)allel I_1^π > matrix elements, of excited, non-isomeric states in atomic nuclei, providing information on the intrinsic shape. However, the Coulomb excitation analysis and structural interpretation can be strongly dependent upon weak transitions or decay branches, which are often obscured by the Compton background. Transitions of particular interest are those low in energy and weak in intensity due to the Eγ5 attenuation factor. These weak decay branches can often be determined with high precision from β-decay studies. Recently, 106Mo and 110Cd were studied by both Coulomb excitation and β decay. Preliminary results of new weak decay branches following β decay of 110mAg to 110Cd are presented; these results will challenge competing interpretations based on vibrations and configuration mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaman, C.; Andreoiu, C.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Chester, A.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D. C.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Glasmacher, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Miller, D.; Moeller, V.; Mueller, W. F.; Schiller, A.; Starosta, K.; Stolz, A.; Terry, J. R.; Volya, A.; Zelevinsky, V.; Zwahlen, H.
2007-10-01
Rare isotope beams of neutron-deficient Sn106,108,110 from the fragmentation of Xe124 were employed in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment. The measured B(E2,01+→21+) values for Sn108 and Sn110 and the results obtained for the Sn106 show that the transition strengths for these nuclei are larger than predicted by current state-of-the-art shell-model calculations. This discrepancy might be explained by contributions of the protons from within the Z=50 shell to the structure of low-energy excited states in this region.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation within the time dependent superfluid local density approximation
Stetcu, I.; Bertulani, C. A.; Bulgac, A.; ...
2015-01-06
Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus 238U. The approach is based on the superfluid local density approximation formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We compute the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, themore » dipole pygmy resonance, and giant quadrupole modes are excited during the process. As a result, the one-body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width Γ↓≈0.4 MeV and the number of preequilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.« less
Magnetic moment and lifetime measurements of Coulomb-excited states in Cd106
Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G. J.; Speidel, K. -H.; ...
2016-09-06
The Cd isotopes are well studied, but experimental data for the rare isotopes are sparse. At energies above the Coulomb barrier, higher states become accessible. Remeasure and supplement existing lifetimes and magnetic moments of low-lying states in 106Cd. Methods: In an inverse kinematics reaction, a 106Cd beam impinging on a 12C target was used to Coulomb excite the projectiles. The high recoil velocities provide a unique opportunity to measure g factors with the transient-field technique and to determine lifetimes from lineshapes by using the Doppler-shift-attenuation method. Large-scale shell-model calculations were carried out for 106Cd. As a result, the g factorsmore » of the 2+1 and 4+1 states in 106Cd were measured to be g(2+1) = +0.398(22) and g(4+1) = +0.23(5). A lineshape analysis yielded lifetimes in disagreement with published values. The new results are τ(106Cd; 2+1) = 7.0(3) ps and τ(106Cd; 4+1) = 2.5(2) ps. The mean life τ(106Cd; 2+2) = 0.28(2) ps was determined from the fully-Doppler-shifted γ line. Mean lives of τ(106Cd; 4+3) = 1.1(1) ps and τ(106Cd; 3–1) = 0.16(1) ps were determined for the first time. In conclusion, the newly measured g(4+1) of 106Cd is found to be only 59% of the g(2+1). This difference cannot be explained by either shell-model or collective-model calculations.« less
Magnetic moment and lifetime measurements of Coulomb-excited states in 106Cd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G. J.; Speidel, K.-H.; Torres, D. A.; Robinson, S. J. Q.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Allmond, J. M.; Fallon, P.; Abramovic, I.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bevins, J. E.; Crawford, H. L.; Guevara, Z. E.; Hurst, A. M.; Kirsch, L.; Laplace, T. A.; Lo, A.; Matthews, E. F.; Mayers, I.; Phair, L. W.; Ramirez, F.; Wiens, A.
2016-09-01
Background: The Cd isotopes are well studied, but experimental data for the rare isotopes are sparse. At energies above the Coulomb barrier, higher states become accessible. Purpose: Remeasure and supplement existing lifetimes and magnetic moments of low-lying states in 106Cd. Methods: In an inverse kinematics reaction, a 106Cd beam impinging on a 12C target was used to Coulomb excite the projectiles. The high recoil velocities provide a unique opportunity to measure g factors with the transient-field technique and to determine lifetimes from lineshapes by using the Doppler-shift-attenuation method. Large-scale shell-model calculations were carried out for 106Cd. Results: The g factors of the 21+ and 41+ states in 106Cd were measured to be g (21+)=+0.398 (22 ) and g (41+)=+0.23 (5 ) . A lineshape analysis yielded lifetimes in disagreement with published values. The new results are τ (106Cd;21+)=7.0 (3 )ps and τ (106Cd;41+)=2.5 (2 )ps . The mean life τ (106Cd;22+)=0.28 (2 )ps was determined from the fully-Doppler-shifted γ line. Mean lives of τ (106Cd;43+)=1.1 (1 )ps and τ (106Cd;31-)=0.16 (1 )ps were determined for the first time. Conclusions: The newly measured g (41+) of 106Cd is found to be only 59% of the g (21+) . This difference cannot be explained by either shell-model or collective-model calculations.
Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for Coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS.
Greene, J. P.
1998-11-18
Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the target it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation of such targets. At Argonne, {approximately}200 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) Studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm{sup 2} Au backing and were covered with 150 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} Au foil. Targets of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 244}Pu and {sup 248}Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 volts. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed.
Coulomb Excitation of n-rich nuclei along the N = 50 shell closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla-Rodal, E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Batchelder, J. C.; Beene, J. R.; Bingham, C.; Brown, B. A.; Lagergren, K. B.; Mueller, P. E.; Radford, D. C.; Stracener, D. W.; Urrego-Blanco, J. P.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, C.-H.
2008-04-01
Recently, we have been investigating characteristics of nuclear states around the neutron-rich mass A=80 region [1]. Using the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) produced at HRIBF, we have successfully measured the B(E2) values for ^78,80,82Ge , using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics. For the germanium isotopes, these data allow a study of the systematic trend between the subshell N= 40 and the N=50 shell. Using the same technique, we have measured the B(E2) value of various nuclei along the N=50 shell including the radioactive nucleus ^84Se. This value together with our previously measured ^82Ge, and the recent result on ^80Zn from ISOLDE [2] are providing basic experimental information needed for a better understanding of the neutron-rich nuclei around A˜80. We report the new results and compare with shell model calculations. [1] E. Padilla-Rodal et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 122501. [2] J. Van de Walle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 142501.
Zhang Songbin; Wang Jianguo; Janev, R. K.
2010-01-15
The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on electron-hydrogen atom excitation in the n=2 threshold region are investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The interaction screening lifts the l degeneracy of n=2 Coulomb energy level, producing two distinct thresholds for 2s and 2p states. The phenomenon of transformation of {sup 1,3}P and {sup 1}D Feshbach resonances into shape-type resonances is observed when they pass across the 2s and 2p threshold, respectively, as the interaction screening increases. It is shown that this resonance transformation leads to dramatic effects in the 1s->2s and 1s->2p excitation collision strengths in the n=2 threshold collision energy region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galindo-Uribarri, A.
2012-09-01
Coulomb excitation is a very precise tool to measure excitation probabilities and provide insight on the collectivity of nuclear excitations and in particular on nuclear shapes. In the last few years radioactive ion beam facilities such as HRIBF opened unique opportunities to explore the structure of nuclei in the regions near the doubly magic nuclei 78Ni (Z=28 and N=50) and 132Sn (Z=50 and N=82). For this purpose we have developed specialized methods and instrumentation to measure various observables. There is also the opportunity to perform precision experiments with stable beams using exactly the same state-of-the-art instrumentation and techniques as with their radioactive ion beam counterpart. I describe some of the recent efforts at HRIBF to do more precise measurements using particle-gamma techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, A. B.; Cline, D.; Moody, K. J.; Ragnarsson, I.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Carroll, J. J.; Gohlke, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Karamian, S. A.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macri, R. A.; Propri, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Wang, X.; Wheeler, R.; Zhu, S.
2010-10-01
A 98% pure 242mAm (K=5-, t1/2=141 years) isomeric target was Coulomb excited with a 170.5-MeV Ar40 beam. The selectivity of Coulomb excitation, coupled with the sensitivity of Gammasphere plus CHICO, was sufficient to identify 46 new states up to spin 18ℏ in at least four rotational bands; 11 of these new states lie in the isomer band, 13 in a previously unknown yrast Kπ=6- rotational band, and 13 in a band tentatively identified as the predicted yrast Kπ=5+ band. The rotational bands based on the Kπ=5- isomer and the 6- bandhead were populated by Coulomb excitation with unexpectedly equal cross sections. The γ-ray yields are reproduced by Coulomb excitation calculations using a two-particle plus rotor model (PRM), implying nearly complete ΔK=1 mixing of the two almost-degenerate rotational bands, but recovering the Alaga rule for the unperturbed states. The degeneracy of the 5- and 6- bands allows for precise determination of the mixing interaction strength V, which approaches the strong-mixing limit; this agrees with the 50% attenuation of the Coriolis matrix element assumed in the model calculations. The fractional admixture of the IKπ=66- state in the nominal 65- isomer band state is measured within the PRM as 45.6-1.1+0.3%. The E2 and M1 strengths coupling the 5- and 6- bands are enhanced significantly by the mixing, while E1 and E2 couplings to other low-K bands are not measurably enhanced. The yields of the 5+ band are reproduced by an E3 strength of ≈15 W.u., competitive with the interband E2 strength. Alignments of the identified two-particle Nilsson states in Am242 are compared with the single-particle alignments in Am241.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bree, N.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Grahn, T.; Huyse, M.; Kesteloot, N.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.
2015-10-01
Characteristic K X-rays have been observed in Coulomb-excitation experiments with heavy radioactive-ion beams in the lead region (Z = 82), produced at the REX-ISOLDE facility, and were used to identify the decay of strongly converted transitions as well as monopole 02+ → 01+ transitions. Different targets were used, and the X-rays were detected by the Miniball γ-ray spectrometer surrounding the target position. A stable mercury isotope, as well as neutron-deficient mercury, lead, polonium, and radon isotopes were studied, and a detailed description of the analysis using the radioactive 182,184,186,188Hg isotopes is presented. Apart from strongly converted transitions originating from the decay of excited states, the heavy-ion induced K-vacancy creation process has been identified as an extra source for K X-ray production. Isolating the atomic component of the observed K X-rays is essential for a correct analysis of the Coulomb-excitation experiment. Cross sections for the atomic reaction have been estimated and are compared to a theoretical approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takanashi, T.; Golubev, N. V.; Callegari, C.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Kumagai, Y.; Mondal, S.; Tachibana, T.; Nagaya, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Matsunami, K.; Johnsson, P.; Piseri, P.; Sansone, G.; Dubrouil, A.; Reduzzi, M.; Carpeggiani, P.; Vozzi, C.; Devetta, M.; Negro, M.; Faccialà, D.; Calegari, F.; Trabattoni, A.; Castrovilli, M. C.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Mudrich, M.; Stienkemeier, F.; Coreno, M.; Alagia, M.; Schütte, B.; Berrah, N.; Plekan, O.; Finetti, P.; Spezzani, C.; Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Penco, G.; Serpico, C.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Di Mitri, S.; Giannessi, L.; Jabbari, G.; Prince, K. C.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Kuleff, A. I.; Ueda, K.
2017-01-01
The hitherto unexplored two-photon doubly excited states [Ne*(2 p-13 s )]2 were experimentally identified using the seeded, fully coherent, intense extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser FERMI. These states undergo ultrafast interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), which predominantly produces singly ionized dimers. In order to obtain the rate of ICD, the resulting yield of Ne2+ ions was recorded as a function of delay between the extreme ultraviolet pump and UV probe laser pulses. The extracted lifetimes of the long-lived doubly excited states, 390 (-130 /+450 ) fs , and of the short-lived ones, less than 150 fs, are in good agreement with ab initio quantum mechanical calculations.
Coulomb Excitation and One-Neutron Transfer Studies of Stable and Radioactive Nuclei at HRIBF-ORNL
Allmond, James M
2015-01-01
Several stable and radioactive nuclei ranging from $A=58$ to 208 were recently studied in inverse kinematics by Coulomb excitation and heavy-ion induced one-neutron transfer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These studies used a CsI-HPGe detector array to detect scattered charged particles and emitted $\\gamma$ rays from the in-beam reactions. A Bragg-curve detector was used to measure the energy loss of the various beams through the targets and to measure the radioactive beam compositions. Stable nickel, strontium, zirconium, molybdenum, tin, tellurium, and lead isotopes and neutron-rich radioactive tin and tellurium isotopes were among the nuclei recently studied. Coulomb excitation was used to measure the electromagnetic moments of the first excited states and heavy-ion induced one-neutron transfer was used to measure the absolute cross sections and lifetimes of the excited single-particle states. A sample of these results are presented here with an emphasis on the tin isotopes. In particular, a survey of the Bragg-curve measurements, Doppler corrections, and inconclusive $i_{13/2}$ candidate in $^{133}$\\textrm{Sn} are presented.
Zhang Songbin; Wang Jianguo; Janev, R. K.
2010-03-15
The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on electron-hydrogen-atom elastic and excitation scattering around the n=2 threshold have been investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The elastic and excitation collision strengths show dramatic changes when the interaction screening length D varies from {infinity} to 3.8 a.u., as a result of the convergence of {sup 1,3}S Feshbach resonances to the varying 2s threshold and of the transformation of {sup 1,3}P and {sup 1}D Feshbach resonances into shape-type resonances when they pass across the 2s and 2p threshold at certain critical value of D, respectively [S. B. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 023203 (2010)]. The resonance parameters for a large number of D in the range D={infinity}-3.8 a.u. are presented. It is observed that the {sup 1,3}P and {sup 1}D resonance contributions to the elastic and excitation collision strengths decrease rapidly with decreasing D after the resonance passes the critical D value. The contribution of a {sup 1}S{sup e} Feshbach resonance to the elastic or excitation collision strength changes into a cusp after the resonance merges into its parent 2s state and immerses into the background with the further decrease of D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, J. F.; Simon, M. W.; Ibbotson, R. W.; Butler, P. A.; Aprahamian, A.; Bruce, A. M.; Cline, D.; Devlin, M.; Jones, G. D.; Jones, P. M.; Wu, C. Y.
1998-12-01
The lifetimes of 12 states in the opposite-parity bands of 153Eu have been measured using a recoil-distance technique following Coulomb excitation with a 220-MeV 58Ni beam. Electric-quadrupole (Q0) and -dipole (D0) moments, and intrinsic g factors (gK) have been extracted from the lifetimes. The Q0 and D0 values show very little dependence on spin and parity, and have the values of approximately 6.6 e b and 0.077 e fm, respectively. The gK values are found to differ for the positive- and negative-parity states. Although the large D0 values suggest a reflection-asymmetric octupole-deformed nuclear shape, the different gK values contradict this interpretation. A discussion of the nuclear structure of 153Eu in terms of potential parity-doublet bands and octupole deformation is given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, C.; Guastalla, G.; Leske, J.; Möller, O.; Möller, T.; Pakarinen, J.; Pietralla, N.; Rainovski, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Seweryniak, D.; Stahl, C.; Stegmann, R.; Wiederhold, J.; Zhu, S.
2012-12-01
The chain of Barium isotopes enables us to study experimentally the evolution of nuclear quadrupole collectivity from the shell closure at N = 82 towards neutron-deficient or neutron-rich deformed nuclei. The TU Darmstadt group has investigated several nuclei from stable 130,132Ba up to radioactive 140,142Ba with the projectile-Coulomb excitation technique including the use of the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). Lifetimes of quadrupole-collective states of 132Ba and 140Ba were obtained for the first time as well as the static electric quadrupole moments Q(21+) for 130,132Ba and 140,142Ba. The results are compared to Monte Carlo shell model and Beyond-Mean-Field calculations. The phenomenon of shell stabilization in the N = 80 isotones is further investigated by measurements of the B(E2;21+ → 01+) values of 140Nd and 142Sm and comparison to the quasi-particle phonon model and shell-model calculations.
Coulomb Excitation of Neutron-Rich Zn Isotopes: First Observation of the 21+ State in Zn80
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Walle, J.; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Behrens, T.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cederkäll, J.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Delahaye, P.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Gernhauser, R.; Georgiev, G.; Habs, D.; Heyde, K.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Ivanov, O.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Kester, O.; Köster, U.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Lauer, M.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mayet, P.; Niedermaier, O.; Nilsson, T.; Pantea, M.; Perru, O.; Raabe, R.; Reiter, P.; Sawicka, M.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sieber, T.; Sletten, G.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Thomas, J.-C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; van Duppen, P.; Verney, D.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Wenander, F.; Wolf, B. H.; Zielińska, M.
2007-10-01
Neutron-rich, radioactive Zn isotopes were investigated at the Radioactive Ion Beam facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN) using low-energy Coulomb excitation. The energy of the 21+ state in Zn78 could be firmly established and for the first time the 2+→01+ transition in Zn80 was observed at 1492(1) keV. B(E2,21+→01+) values were extracted for Zn74,76,78,80 and compared to large scale shell model calculations. With only two protons outside the Z=28 proton core, Zn80 is the lightest N=50 isotone for which spectroscopic information has been obtained to date. Two sets of advanced shell model calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics. The results for N=50 isotones indicate a good N=50 shell closure and a strong Z=28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus Ni78.
Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.
1984-01-01
The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.
Muon Momentum Determination with Multiple Coulomb Scattering for the MicroBooNE Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abratenko, Polina; MicroBooNE Collaboration
2017-01-01
MicroBooNE is an experiment based at Fermilab that uses a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) to investigate the excess of low energy events observed by the MiniBooNE experiment, study neutrino-argon cross-sections, and perform R&D for future LArTPC devices. MicroBooNE relies on the reconstruction of neutrino-induced muons for neutrino energy determination. However, a significant fraction of muons escape the detector. This talk describes a method for determining the momenta of escaping muons in LArTPC-based detectors. The technique uses information from multiple coulomb scattering to compute a muon's momentum through the maximization of a likelihood algorithm. This method was applied to both simulation and data, with momentum resolutions for both measured to be around 20% at typical MicroBooNE energies. Given this, multiple coulomb scattering provides a promising route towards energy determination for muons that escape the detector, and allows MicroBooNE to fully reconstruct and study uncontained, often high energy, events from both the Booster and NuMI neutrino beams. I will present the status and performance of the algorithm applied to simulation and data.
Tone-excited jet: Theory and experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahuja, K. K.; Lepicovsky, J.; Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.; Burrin, R. H.
1982-01-01
A detailed study to understand the phenomenon of broadband jet-noise amplification produced by upstream discrete-tone sound excitation has been carried out. This has been achieved by simultaneous acquisition of the acoustic, mean velocity, turbulence intensities, and instability-wave pressure data. A 5.08 cm diameter jet has been tested for this purpose under static and also flight-simulation conditions. An open-jet wind tunnel has been used to simulate the flight effects. Limited data on heated jets have also been obtained. To improve the physical understanding of the flow modifications brought about by the upstream discrete-tone excitation, ensemble-averaged schlieren photographs of the jets have also been taken. Parallel to the experimental study, a mathematical model of the processes that lead to broadband-noise amplification by upstream tones has been developed. Excitation of large-scale turbulence by upstream tones is first calculated. A model to predict the changes in small-scale turbulence is then developed. By numerically integrating the resultant set of equations, the enhanced small-scale turbulence distribution in a jet under various excitation conditions is obtained. The resulting changes in small-scale turbulence have been attributed to broadband amplification of jet noise. Excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiments. It has also shown that the relative velocity effects are the same for the excited and the unexcited jets.
Analysis of Coulomb breakup experiments of {sup 8}B with a dynamical eikonal approximation
Goldstein, G.; Capel, P.; Baye, D.
2007-08-15
Various measurements of the Coulomb breakup of {sup 8}B are analyzed within the dynamical eikonal approximation using a single description of {sup 8}B. We obtain a good agreement with experiment for different observables measured between 40 and 80 MeV/nucleon. A simple {sup 7}Be-p potential model description of {sup 8}B seems sufficient to describe all observables. In particular, the asymmetry in parallel-momentum distributions due to E1-E2 interferences is well reproduced without any scaling. The projectile-target nuclear interactions seem negligible if data are selected at forward angles. On the contrary, like in previous analyses we observe a significant influence of higher-order effects. The accuracy of astrophysical S factors for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B reaction at stellar energies extracted from breakup measurements therefore seems difficult to evaluate.
Analysis of Coulomb breakup experiments of B8 with a dynamical eikonal approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldstein, G.; Capel, P.; Baye, D.
2007-08-01
Various measurements of the Coulomb breakup of B8 are analyzed within the dynamical eikonal approximation using a single description of B8. We obtain a good agreement with experiment for different observables measured between 40 and 80 MeV/nucleon. A simple Be7-p potential model description of B8 seems sufficient to describe all observables. In particular, the asymmetry in parallel-momentum distributions due to E1-E2 interferences is well reproduced without any scaling. The projectile-target nuclear interactions seem negligible if data are selected at forward angles. On the contrary, like in previous analyses we observe a significant influence of higher-order effects. The accuracy of astrophysical S factors for the Be7(p,γ)B8 reaction at stellar energies extracted from breakup measurements therefore seems difficult to evaluate.
Chen, Xiaojing; Bichoutskaia, Elena; Stace, Anthony J
2013-05-16
A series of five molecular dication clusters, (H2O)n(2+), (NH3)n(2+), (CH3CN)n(2+), (C5H5N)n(2+), and (C6H6)n(2+), have been studied for the purpose of identifying patterns of behavior close to the Rayleigh instability limit where the clusters might be expected to exhibit Coulomb fission. Experiments show that the instability limit for each dication covers a range of sizes and that on a time scale of 10(-4) s ions close to the limit can undergo either Coulomb fission or neutral evaporation. The observed fission pathways exhibit considerable asymmetry in the sizes of the charged fragments, and are associated with kinetic (ejection) energies of ~0.9 eV. Coulomb fission has been modeled using a theory recently formulated to describe how charged particles of dielectric materials interact with one another (Bichoutskaia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 133, 024105). The calculated electrostatic interaction energy between separating fragments accounts for the observed asymmetric fragmentation and for the magnitudes of the measured ejection energies. The close match between theory and experiment suggests that a significant fraction of excess charge resides on the surfaces of the fragment ions. The experiments provided support for a fundamental step in the electrospray ionization (ESI) mechanism, namely the ejection from droplets of small solvated charge carriers. At the same time, the theory shows how water and acetonitrile may behave slightly differently as ESI solvents. However, the theory also reveals deficiencies in the point-charge image-charge model that has previously been used to quantify Coulomb fission in the electrospray process.
High-precision B(E2) measurements of semi-magic 58,60,62,64Ni by Coulomb excitation
Allmond, James M; Brown, Alex; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth; Radford, David C; Batchelder, J. C.; Howard, Meredith E; Liang, J Felix; Manning, Brett M; Varner Jr, Robert L; Yu, Chang-Hong
2014-01-01
High-precision reduced electric-quadrupole transition probabilities B(E2) have been measured from single-step Coulomb excitation of semi-magic 58,60,62,64 Ni (Z = 28) beams at 1.8 MeV per nucleon on a natural carbon target. The energy loss of the nickel beams through the carbon target were directly measured with a zero-degree Bragg detector and the absolute B(E2) values were normalized by Rutherford scattering. The B(E2) values disagree with recent lifetime studies that employed the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The present high-precision B(E2) values reveal an asymmetry about 62 Ni, midshell between N = 28 and 40, with larger values towards 56 Ni (Z = N = 28). The experimental B(E2) values are compared with shell-model calculations in the full pf model space and the results indicate a soft 56 Ni core.
Gomes, L.C.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Duarte, J.L.; Hirata, J.H.; Salem-Vasconcelos, S.; Dietzsch, O.
1996-11-01
Coulomb-nuclear interference data for incident energies between 9 and 17 MeV were obtained in the form of elastic and inelastic (to the 2{sup +}{sub 1} states) excitation functions of backscattered ({theta}{approx_equal}172.8{degree}) alpha particles on {sup 100,102,104}Ru. The analysis was done in a distorted-wave Born approximation within a deformed optical model approach. {ital B}({ital E}2) values, obtained from the charge deformation lengths {delta}{sup {ital C}} extracted from the low energy data, are compatible for the three isotopes within {approximately} 2{sigma} with published values. The nuclear quadrupolar deformation lengths {delta}{sup {ital N}}, obtained from the analysis of the interference region of the excitation functions, and also of one angular distribution at 22 MeV measured for {sup 100}Ru are generally lower than the corresponding charge deformation lengths, the difference increasing with increasing {ital A} of the isotope, {delta}{sup {ital N}} being 18{percent} lower than {delta}{sup {ital C}} for {sup 104}Ru (2{sup +}{sub 1}). Nuclear deformation lengths associated with the 3{sub 1}{sup {minus}} states of {sup 100,102,104}Ru and with the 4{sup +}{sub 2} state of {sup 100}Ru at 2.367 MeV were also obtained as a by-product of the present work. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Zhang Songbin; Chen Xiangjun; Wang Jianguo; Janev, R. K.
2011-03-15
The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on electron-hydrogen atom 1S {yields} 2S and 1S {yields} 2p excitation scattering between the n = 2 and n = 3 excitation thresholds have been investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The excitation collision strengths show dramatic changes when the interaction screening length D varies from {infinity} to 9 a.u., as a result of the convergence of S-type and some p- and D-type Feshbach resonances to the varying 3S or 3p thresholds, and due to the crossover of some other p-, D- and all F-type Feshbach resonances into shape-type resonances when they pass across the 3S or 3p threshold at certain critical values of D. The noncrossover of some p- and D-type Feshbach resonances into shape-type resonances at the 3S (or 3p for those of D-type) threshold is at variance with the behavior of these types of resonances at the 2S (2p for those of D-type) threshold, which results from the threefold splitting of the n = 3 hydrogenic level and, consequently, the more complex nature of the configuration mixing in the n = 3 threshold region. The evolution of the total 1S {yields} 2S, 1S {yields} 2p, and 2S {yields} 2p excitation collision strengths, when the screening strength varies, is presented and discussed.
Experiments on shells under base excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellicano, Francesco; Barbieri, Marco; Zippo, Antonio; Strozzi, Matteo
2016-05-01
The aim of the present paper is a deep experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of circular cylindrical shells. The specific problem regards the response of circular cylindrical shells subjected to base excitation. The shells are mounted on a shaking table that furnishes a vertical vibration parallel to the cylinder axis; a heavy rigid disk is mounted on the top of the shells. The base vibration induces a rigid body motion, which mainly causes huge inertia forces exerted by the top disk to the shell. In-plane stresses due to the aforementioned inertias give rise to impressively large vibration on the shell. An extremely violent dynamic phenomenon suddenly appears as the excitation frequency varies up and down close to the linear resonant frequency of the first axisymmetric mode. The dynamics are deeply investigated by varying excitation level and frequency. Moreover, in order to generalise the investigation, two different geometries are analysed. The paper furnishes a complete dynamic scenario by means of: (i) amplitude frequency diagrams, (ii) bifurcation diagrams, (iii) time histories and spectra, (iv) phase portraits and Poincaré maps. It is to be stressed that all the results presented here are experimental.
Barbosa, M.D.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Ukita, G.M.
2005-02-01
Ratios of B(E2) to B(IS2), that is, of the reduced quadrupole transition probabilities related, respectively, to charge and mass were extracted through Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) for the excitation of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 70,72,74}Ge, with a relative accuracy of less than 4%. For this purpose, the CNI angular distributions associated with the inelastic scattering of 28-MeV incident {sup 6}Li ions accelerated by the Sao Paulo Pelletron, and momentum analyzed by the Enge magnetic spectrograph were interpreted within the DWBA-DOMP approach (distorted wave approximation for the scattering process and deformed optical model for the structure representation) with global {sup 6}Li optical parameters. The present CNI results demonstrate an abrupt change in the B(E2)/B(IS2) ratio for {sup 74}Ge: although for {sup 70,72}Ge, values of the order of 1.0 or slightly higher were obtained, this ratio is 0.66 (7) for {sup 74}Ge. The heavier Ge isotope is thus one of the few nuclei that, so far, have been shown to present clear mixed symmetry components in their ground-state band.
Magnetic moment and lifetime measurements of Coulomb-excited states in ${}^{106}\mathrm{Cd}$
Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G. J.; Speidel, K. -H.; Torres, D. A.; Robinson, S. J. Q.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Allmond, J. M.; Fallon, P.; Abramovic, I.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bevins, J. E.; Crawford, H. L.; Guevara, Z. E.; Hurst, A. M.; Kirsch, L.; Laplace, T. A.; Lo, A.; Matthews, E. F.; Mayers, I.; Phair, L. W.; Ramirez, F.; Wiens, A.
2016-09-06
The Cd isotopes are well studied, but experimental data for the rare isotopes are sparse. At energies above the Coulomb barrier, higher states become accessible. Remeasure and supplement existing lifetimes and magnetic moments of low-lying states in ^{106}Cd. Methods: In an inverse kinematics reaction, a ^{106}Cd beam impinging on a ^{12}C target was used to Coulomb excite the projectiles. The high recoil velocities provide a unique opportunity to measure g factors with the transient-field technique and to determine lifetimes from lineshapes by using the Doppler-shift-attenuation method. Large-scale shell-model calculations were carried out for ^{106}Cd. As a result, the g factors of the 2^{+}_{1} and 4^{+}_{1} states in ^{106}Cd were measured to be g(2^{+}_{1}) = +0.398(22) and g(4^{+}_{1}) = +0.23(5). A lineshape analysis yielded lifetimes in disagreement with published values. The new results are τ(^{106}Cd; 2^{+}_{1}) = 7.0(3) ps and τ(^{106}Cd; 4^{+}_{1}) = 2.5(2) ps. The mean life τ(^{106}Cd; 2^{+}_{2}) = 0.28(2) ps was determined from the fully-Doppler-shifted γ line. Mean lives of τ(^{106}Cd; 4^{+}_{3}) = 1.1(1) ps and τ(^{106}Cd; 3^{–}_{1}) = 0.16(1) ps were determined for the first time. In conclusion, the newly measured g(4^{+}_{1}) of ^{106}Cd is found to be only 59% of the g(2^{+}_{1}). This difference cannot be explained by either shell-model or collective-model calculations.
19C in halo EFT: Effective-range parameters from Coulomb dissociation experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acharya, B.; Phillips, Daniel R.
2013-09-01
We study the Coulomb dissociation of the 19C nucleus in an effective field theory that uses the 18C core and the neutron as effective degrees of freedom and exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We extract the effective-range parameters and the separation energy of the halo neutron from the experimental data reported in Refs. [31,35], taken at RIKEN by Nakamura et al. (1999, 2003). We obtain a value of (575±55(stat.)±20(EFT)) keV for the one-neutron separation energy of 19C, and (7.75±0.35(stat.)±0.3(EFT)) fm for the 18C-neutron scattering length. The width of the longitudinal momentum distribution predicted by EFT using this separation energy agrees well with the experimental data taken at NSCL by Bazin et al. (1998) [9], reaffirming the dominance of the s-wave configuration of the valence neutron.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase behavior observed at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uky Vivitasari, Pipit; Azuma, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka
2017-02-01
A single-electron transistor (SET) consists of source, drain, Coulomb island, and gate to modulate the number of electrons and control the current. For practical applications, it is important to operate a SET at room temperature. One proposal towards the ability to operate at room temperature is to decrease Coulomb island size down to a few nanometres. We investigate a SET using Sn-porphyrin (Sn-por) protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 1.4 nm in core diameter as a Coulomb island. The fabrication method of nanogap electrodes uses the combination of a top-down technique by electron beam lithography (EBL) and a bottom-up process through electroless gold plating (ELGP) as our group have described before. The electrical measurement was conducted at room temperature (300 K). From current–voltage (I d–V d) characteristics, we obtained clear Coulomb blockade phenomena together with a Coulomb staircase due to a Sn-por protected gold NP as a Coulomb island. Experimental results of I d–V d characteristics agree with a theoretical curve based on using the orthodox model. Clear dI d/dV d peaks are observed in the Coulomb staircase at 9 K which suggest the electron transports through excited energy levels of Au NPs. These results are a big step for obtaining SETs that can operate at room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Castello, M.; Cooke, M.
2006-12-01
Fold and thrust belts have been successfully modelled using either physical or numerical methods in recent years. The two methods have well-known advantages and drawbacks for investigating contractional processes. In this work we have applied the Boundary Element Method code in order to closely reproduce successive snapshots of deformation accumulated within a sand-box experiment. Our numerical models provide a quantitative mechanical analysis of the deformation observed in analogue models of non-cohesive Coulomb wedges during an underthrusting/accretion transition. Model results show that the total work done by the contracting wedge increases during the underthrusting stage up to a critical value when the propagation of a frontal thrust significantly reduces the work required for further deformation. This transition occurs when the energetic cost of developing a new forethrust is less than the benefit of growing this new fault. The elastic numerical model predicts the location of the maximum shear stress on the basal dècollement just prior to the propagation of the sole thrust as well as the energetically most viable position for the nucleation of new forethrust ramp. These positions do not coincide. Furthermore, the forethrust within the sandbox experiment develops at the energetically favoured position rather than the location of greatest shear stress suggesting that the new thrust ramps develop first ahead and then link down and backward to the propagating basal dècollement. As a result, the most efficient location for a new thrust ramp is where gravitational, frictional, internal and propagation work terms are optimally combined. The trade-off between the dominant frictional and internal work terms is fuelled by overburden weight, which reduces slip on thrust ramps until the internal work stored in the surrounding deforming material reaches a critical value. The correlation of our numerical results with analogue experiments validates use of the principle of
Electronic excitations in molecular solids: bridging theory and experiment.
Skelton, Jonathan M; da Silva, E Lora; Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Hatcher, Lauren E; Raithby, Paul R; Parker, Stephen C; Walsh, Aron
2015-01-01
As the spatial and temporal resolution accessible to experiment and theory converge, computational chemistry is an increasingly powerful tool for modelling and interpreting spectroscopic data. However, the study of molecular processes, in particular those related to electronic excitations (e.g. photochemistry), frequently pushes quantum-chemical techniques to their limit. The disparity in the level of theory accessible to periodic and molecular calculations presents a significant challenge when modelling molecular crystals, since accurate calculations require a high level of theory to describe the molecular species, but must also take into account the influence of the crystalline environment on their properties. In this article, we briefly review the different classes of quantum-chemical techniques, and present an overview of methods that account for environmental influences with varying levels of approximation. Using a combination of solid-state and molecular calculations, we quantitatively evaluate the performance of implicit-solvent models for the [Ni(Et4dien)(η2-O,ON)(η1-NO2)] linkage-isomer system as a test case. We focus particularly on the accurate reproduction of the energetics of the isomerisation, and on predicting spectroscopic properties to compare with experimental results. This work illustrates how the synergy between periodic and molecular calculations can be exploited for the study of molecular crystals, and forms a basis for the investigation of more challenging phenomena, such as excited-state dynamics, and for further methodological developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.; Lin, Jian
2011-08-01
We report on a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity rate following the M=9.0 Tohoku mainshock for M ≥ 2 earthquakes over inland Japan, parts of the Japan Sea and Izu islands, at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high (≥15 m) seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ˜80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common.
Toda, S.; Stein, R.S.; Lin, J.
2011-01-01
We report on a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity rate following the M=9.0 Tohoku mainshock for M ≥ 2 earthquakes over inland Japan, parts of the Japan Sea and Izu islands, at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high (≥15 m) seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ~80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common.
Coulomb Energy Differences in T = 1 Mirror Rotational Bands in 50Fe and 50Cr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenzi, S. M.; Mărginean, N.; Napoli, D. R.; Ur, C. A.; Zuker, A. P.; de Angelis, G.; Algora, A.; Axiotis, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Belcari, N.; Bentley, M. A.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A.; Brandolini, F.; von Brentano, P.; Bucurescu, D.; Cameron, J. A.; Chandler, C.; de Poli, M.; Dewald, A.; Eberth, H.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Garces-Narro, J.; Gelletly, W.; Grawe, H.; Isocrate, R.; Joss, D. T.; Kalfas, C. A.; Klug, T.; Lampman, T.; Lunardi, S.; Martínez, T.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Nyberg, J.; Podolyak, Zs.; Poves, A.; Ribas, R. V.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Rubio, B.; Sánchez-Solano, J.; Spolaore, P.; Steinhardt, T.; Thelen, O.; Tonev, D.; Vitturi, A.; von Oertzen, W.; Weiszflog, M.
2001-09-01
Gamma rays from the N = Z-2 nucleus 50Fe have been observed, establishing the rotational ground state band up to the state Jπ = 11+ at 6.994 MeV excitation energy. The experimental Coulomb energy differences, obtained by comparison with the isobaric analog states in its mirror 50Cr, confirm the qualitative interpretation of the backbending patterns in terms of successive alignments of proton and neutron pairs. A quantitative agreement with experiment has been achieved by exact shell model calculations, incorporating the differences in radii along the yrast bands, and properly renormalizing the Coulomb matrix elements in the pf model space.
Recent experiments in novel nuclear excitations at the BNL AGS
Chrien, R.E.
1988-01-01
Recent experimental work at the AGS dealing with unusual nuclear excitations is summarized. Three examples are given: the deexcitation of ..lambda.. hypernuclei by ..gamma.. transitions, the production of ..lambda.. hypernuclei by the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction, and the search for /eta/-nuclear excitations. The status of each field and the implications of the research for nuclear theory are discussed. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Electric-hexadecapole (24-pole) Coulomb integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidichimo, Marita C.; Stastna, Marek
1996-03-01
We obtain the quantal zero-energy-loss limit of the radial integrals arising in the nonrelativistic atomic excitation of electric-hexadecapole transitions. We compare these results to the classical limit and the WKB approximation. We show the different behavior of the Coulomb integrals in the WKB approximation in the cases of repulsive and attractive potentials as functions of the Sommerfeld number η.
Hughto, J.; Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.
2011-07-15
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions ''hop'' in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter {Gamma}=175 to Coulomb parameters up to {Gamma}=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.
Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K
2011-07-01
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.
Chimeric behavior of excited thioxanthone in protic solvents: I. Experiments.
Villnow, T; Ryseck, G; Rai-Constapel, V; Marian, C M; Gilch, P
2014-12-18
The photophysics of thioxanthone (TX) dissolved in methanol (MeOH) and 2,2,2,-trifluoroethanol (TFE) was studied by time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The spectrally integrated stimulated emission is seen to lose amplitude within ∼5-10 ps. This is much shorter than the fluorescence lifetimes of the compound (2.7 ns for MeOH and 7.6 ns for TFE). The initial reduction in amplitude is attributed to reversible intersystem crossing between the primarily excited (1)ππ* and a triplet (3)nπ* state. The latter one is energetically slightly (∼0.02 eV) above the former one. Addition of the quencher 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) reduces the fluorescence lifetime and yields triplet excited 1-MN, giving further evidence for the equilibrium of singlet and triplet excitations. The depopulation of these two states on the nanosecond time scale results in the rise of the lowest triplet state, a (3)ππ* state. Temperature dependencies attribute this to an activated internal conversion process between the two triplet states. Kinetic and energetic parameters derived from the experimental data will be compared with quantum chemical results in the accompanying paper [Rai-Constapel , V. , Villnow , T. , Ryseck , G. , Gilch , P. , and Marian , C. M. J. Phys. Chem. A 2014 , DOI: 10.1021/jp5099415].
Observations of Coulomb explosion in doubly charged atomic and molecular clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gotts, N. G.; Lethbridge, P. G.; Stace, A. J.
1992-01-01
Coulomb explosion has been promoted in a range of doubly charged atomic and molecular clusters. In these new experiments, mass selected clusters of Ar2+n, (CO2)2+n, (H2O)2+n, (H2O)nH2+2, (CH3CN)nH2+2, and (C6H6)2+n have been subjected to collisional activation with a background gas. For species close to the Coulomb cutoff, each collision removes sufficient atoms or molecules (approximately six) as to render the clusters unstable. As a result, charge separation occurs and part (≂30%) of the Coulomb repulsion energy is released in the form of center of mass kinetic energy in the fragments. The remaining Coulomb energy appears as internal excitation in the fragments and subsequently leads to extensive evaporation. It is shown that the latter process is continuing even 10-6 s after Coulomb explosion. All the molecular systems studied show evidence of asymmetric charge separation, with some singly charged fragments containing up to 65% of the initial cluster mass. A detailed quantitative analysis of the results is made difficult by the very broad range of fragment ion sizes.
Intrinsic Neuronal Excitability Is Reversibly Altered by a Single Experience in Fear Conditioning
Matthews, Elizabeth A.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Disterhoft, John F.
2009-01-01
Learning is known to cause alterations in intrinsic cellular excitability but, to date, these changes have been seen only after multiple training trials. A powerful learning task that can be quickly acquired and extinguished with a single trial is fear conditioning. Rats were trained and extinguished on a hippocampus-dependent form of fear conditioning to determine whether learning-related changes in intrinsic excitability could be observed after a few training trials and a single extinction trial. Following fear training, hippocampal slices were made and intrinsic excitability was assayed via whole cell recordings from CA1 neurons. Alterations in intrinsic excitability, assayed by the postburst afterhyperpolarization and firing frequency accommodation, were observed after only three trials of contextual or trace-cued fear conditioning. Animals that had been trained in contextual and trace-cued fear were then extinguished. Context fear-conditioned animals extinguished in a single trial and the changes in intrinsic excitability were reversed. Trace-cue conditioned animals only partially extinguished in a single trial and reductions in excitability remained. Thus a single learning experience is sufficient to alter intrinsic excitability. This dramatically extends observations of learning-specific changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability previously observed in paradigms requiring many training trials, suggesting the excitability changes have a basic role in acquiring new information. PMID:19726729
Apprehensive and Excited: Music Education Students' Experience Vernacular Musicianship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isbell, Daniel S.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine music education students' experiences (N = 64) in courses designed to develop vernacular musicianship and expand understandings of informal music making. Students participated in one of two classes (undergraduate/graduate), formed their own small ensembles, chose their own music and instruments, led their…
Ordering in classical Coulombic systems.
Schiffer, J. P.
1998-01-22
The author discusses the properties of classical Coulombic matter at low temperatures. It has been well known for some time [1,2] that infinite Coulombic matter will crystallize in body-centered cubic form when the quantity {Lambda} (the dimensionless ratio of the average two-particle Coulomb energy to the kinetic energy per particle) is larger than {approximately}175. But the systems of such particles that have been produced in the laboratory in ion traps, or ion beams, are finite with surfaces defined by the boundary conditions that have to be satisfied. This results in ion clouds with sharply defined curved surfaces, and interior structures that show up as a set of concentric layers that are parallel to the outer surface. The ordering does not appear to be cubic, but the charges on each shell exhibit a ''hexatic'' pattern of equilateral triangles that is the characteristic of liquid crystals. The curvature of the surfaces prevents the structures on successive shells from interlocking in any simple fashion. This class of structures was first found in simulations [3] and later in experiments [4].
Excitation spectra of unconventional FQHE states in the SLL from Light Scattering Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurstbauer, Ursula; Levy, Antonio; Pinczuk, Aron; Watson, John; Gardner, Geoff; Manfra, Michael; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren
The fascinating interaction physics in the second Landau level (SLL) supports the emergence of exotic quantum phases and unconventional possibly FQHE states such as e.g. at ν = 5/2 and 2 +1/3 and the weaker state at ν = 2 +3/8 and 2 +2/5. We observe clear signatures for gapped collective excitations in inelastic light scattering experiments just for these `magic' filling factors and only for low temperatures substantiating access to the physics of the incompressible quantum fluids. The lowest excitation feature in the spectrum at 2 +1/3 occurs at around 70 μeV. The analysis of spectral lineshapes suggests magnetoroton features that are characteristic of 2D neutral excitations in a perpendicular magnetic field. The striking polarization dependence observable in light scattering experiments in the SLL are consistent with nematic FQHE states. Supported by award NSF-DMR-1306976.
From simple to complex reactions: Nuclear collisions near the Coulomb barrier
Rehm, K.E.
1992-12-01
Collisions between two heavy nuclei produce a diverse spectrum of reaction modes which is much wider than that observed in light ion studies. For the latter case, two processes are observed: direct reactions and compound nucleus formation. Heavy ion reaction studies on the other hand have identified additional processes such as deep-inelastic scattering, incomplete fusion and quasi-fission reactions. While the boundaries between the various processes are usually not well defined, it is generally accepted that with increasing overlap of the two nuclei the interaction evolves from distant collisions where only elastic scattering and Coulomb excitation processes occur, through grazing-type collisions associated with quasi-elastic reactions to deep-inelastic and fusion-fission processes requiring a substantial nuclear overlap. Varying the bombarding energy is a convenient way to change the overlap of the two nuclei. Measurements of excitation functions can thus probe the onset and the interplay of the various reaction modes. Experiments at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier are particularly suited for comparisons with theoretical predictions since the small number of degrees of freedom involved in the interaction greatly simplifies the calculations. In the first part of this contribution a short overview is given on the status of heavy ion reaction studies at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In the second part two experiments, one involving simple and the other studying complex reactions, are discussed in more detail.
From simple to complex reactions: Nuclear collisions near the Coulomb barrier
Rehm, K.E.
1992-01-01
Collisions between two heavy nuclei produce a diverse spectrum of reaction modes which is much wider than that observed in light ion studies. For the latter case, two processes are observed: direct reactions and compound nucleus formation. Heavy ion reaction studies on the other hand have identified additional processes such as deep-inelastic scattering, incomplete fusion and quasi-fission reactions. While the boundaries between the various processes are usually not well defined, it is generally accepted that with increasing overlap of the two nuclei the interaction evolves from distant collisions where only elastic scattering and Coulomb excitation processes occur, through grazing-type collisions associated with quasi-elastic reactions to deep-inelastic and fusion-fission processes requiring a substantial nuclear overlap. Varying the bombarding energy is a convenient way to change the overlap of the two nuclei. Measurements of excitation functions can thus probe the onset and the interplay of the various reaction modes. Experiments at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier are particularly suited for comparisons with theoretical predictions since the small number of degrees of freedom involved in the interaction greatly simplifies the calculations. In the first part of this contribution a short overview is given on the status of heavy ion reaction studies at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In the second part two experiments, one involving simple and the other studying complex reactions, are discussed in more detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramazanov, T. S.; D'yachkov, L. G.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Ussenov, Y. A.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.; Petrov, O. F.; Vasiliev, M. M.; Myasnikov, M. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Savin, S. F.; Musabayev, T. A.; Zhantayev, Zh. Sh.; Aimbetov, A. A.
2016-11-01
A series of experiments on the modernized “Coulomb crystals” setup on board of the International Space Station (ISS) was performed. Formation of a cluster of charged and uncharged particles was observed. Excitation and damping of cluster oscillations, as well as its destruction in the high electric field were investigated. Charges of the particles were evaluated on the basis of their rate of expansion from the cluster. Some conclusions about the cluster structure have been presented.
Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quandt, M.; Burgio, G.; Chimchinda, S.; Reinhardt, H.
The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0 -propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0 -propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.
Known-to-Unknown Approach to Teach about Coulomb's Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thamburaj, P. K.
2007-01-01
Analogies from life experiences help students understand various relationships presented in an introductory chemistry course. Coulomb's law is a complex relationship encountered in introductory general chemistry. A proper understanding of the relationships between the quantities involved in Coulomb's law is necessary in order for students to…
Nature of the many-body excitations in a quantum wire: Theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsyplyatyev, O.; Schofield, A. J.; Jin, Y.; Moreno, M.; Tan, W. K.; Anirban, A. S.; Ford, C. J. B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.
2016-02-01
The natural excitations of an interacting one-dimensional system at low energy are the hydrodynamic modes of a Luttinger liquid, protected by the Lorentz invariance of the linear dispersion. We show that beyond low energies, where the quadratic dispersion reduces the symmetry to Galilean, the main character of the many-body excitations changes into a hierarchy: calculations of dynamic correlation functions for fermions (without spin) show that the spectral weights of the excitations are proportional to powers of R2/L2 , where R is a length-scale related to interactions and L is the system length. Thus only small numbers of excitations carry the principal spectral power in representative regions on the energy-momentum planes. We have analyzed the spectral function in detail and have shown that the first-level (strongest) excitations form a mode with parabolic dispersion, like that of a renormalized single particle. The second-level excitations produce a singular power-law line shape to the first-level mode and multiple power laws at the spectral edge. We have illustrated a crossover to a Luttinger liquid at low energy by calculating the local density of states through all energy scales: from linear to nonlinear, and to above the chemical potential energies. In order to test this model, we have carried out experiments to measure the momentum-resolved tunneling of electrons (fermions with spin) from/to a wire formed within a GaAs heterostructure. We observe a well-resolved spin-charge separation at low energy with appreciable interaction strength and only a parabolic dispersion of the first-level mode at higher energies. We find a structure resembling the second-level excitations, which dies away rapidly at high momentum in line with the theoretical predictions here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helsen, Jan; Marrant, Ben; Vanhollebeke, Frederik; De Coninck, Filip; Berckmans, Dries; Vandepitte, Dirk; Desmet, Wim
2013-10-01
Reliable gearbox design calculations require sufficient insight in gearbox dynamics, which is determined by the interaction between the different excitation mechanisms and the gearbox modal behavior. Both external gearbox excitation originating from the wind turbine drive train and internal gearbox excitation are important. Moreover with regard to the modal behavior the different gearbox structural components: planet carrier, shafts and housing are of influence. The main objective of this article is the experimental investigation of the interaction between the different excitation mechanisms and the gearbox modal behavior. The insights gathered are used to prove the need for accurate gear mesh representation and structural flexibility within the corresponding flexible multibody gearbox simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a dynamic 13.2 MW test facility on which two multi-megawatt wind turbine gearboxes are placed back to back and subjected to a speed run-up. Measurement sensors consist of bearing displacement sensors, torque sensors, encoders and accelerometers distributed over the gearbox. Excitation order amplitudes on different locations in the gearbox are determined by means of a Time Varying Discrete Fourier Transform (TVDFT) order tracking on the measured sensor signals. Moreover the propagation of this excitation throughout the gearbox is assessed. Relating the orders to the corresponding excitation source allows the definition of order influence regions within the gearbox. The interaction between the gear mesh order excitation and structural flexibility is shown.
Polonyi, J.
2008-06-15
The contribution of different modes of the Coulomb field to decoherence and to the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance is calculated in the one-loop approximation for nonrelativistic electron gas. The dominant contribution was found to come from the usual collective modes in the plasma, namely, the zero-sound and the plasmon oscillations. The length scale of the quantum-classical transition is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi screening length. It is argued that the extension of these modes to the whole Fock space yields optimal pointer states.
1987-03-31
2.2.2 Dissociative Excitation of Carbon Dioxide .. ..... .. 15 2.2.3 Vibrational Exchange with N2(v). .... ....... .. 18 2.2.4 Quenching of Metastable...Excitation of Carbon Dioxide As shown in Figures 1-2 and 2-2 the ambient CO2 concentration exceeds that of CO by about a factor of 3 at 100 kin, equals the...ASSESSEMENT OF EXCITATION MECHANSIMS AND TEMPORAL DEPENDENCIES OF INFRAREO RADIATION FROM VIBbRATIONALLY EXCITEO CARBON MONOXIDE AND OZONE IN EXCEDE
Collective excitations of 96Ru by means of (p ,p'γ ) experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, A.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Goddard, P.; Heinz, A.; Hughes, R. O.; Ilie, G.; Mineva, M. N.; Petkov, P.; Pickstone, S. G.; Pietralla, N.; Radeck, D.; Ross, T. J.; Savran, D.; Spieker, M.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.
2015-12-01
Background: One-phonon mixed-symmetry quadrupole excitations are a well-known feature of near-spherical, vibrational nuclei. Their interpretation as a fundamental building block of vibrational structures is supported by the identification of multiphonon states resulting from a coupling of fully-symmetric and mixed-symmetric quadrupole phonons. In addition, the observation of strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states has been interpreted as an evidence for one-phonon mixed-symmetry excitations of octupole and hexadecapole character. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to identify collective one- and two-phonon excitations in the heaviest stable N =52 isotone 96Ru based on a measurement of absolute M 1 , E 1 , and E 2 transition strengths. Methods: Inelastic proton-scattering experiments have been performed at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, and the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), University of Cologne. From the acquired proton-γ and γ γ coincidence data we deduced spins of excited states, γ -decay branching ratios, and multipole mixing ratios, as well as lifetimes of excited states via the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). Results: Based on the new experimental data on absolute transition strengths, we identified the 2+ and 3+ members of the two-phonon mixed-symmetry quintuplet (21,ms +⊗21,s +) . Furthermore, we observed strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states suggesting one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric octupole and hexadecapole components in their wave functions, respectively. The experimental results are compared to s d g -IBM-2 and shell-model calculations. Conclusions: Both the s d g -IBM-2 and the shell-model calculations are able to describe key features of mixed-symmetry excitations of 96Ru. Moreover, they support the one-phonon mixed-symmetry hexadecapole assignment of the experimental 42+ state.
Experiments and theory on parametric instabilities excited in HF heating experiments at HAARP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Lee, M. C.
2014-06-01
Parametric instabilities excited by O-mode HF heater and the induced ionospheric modification were explored via HAARP digisonde operated in a fast mode. The impact of excited Langmuir waves and upper hybrid waves on the ionosphere are manifested by bumps in the virtual spread, which expand the ionogram echoes upward as much as 140 km and the downward range spread of the sounding echoes, which exceeds 50 km over a significant frequency range. The theory of parametric instabilities is presented. The theory identifies the ionogram bump located between the 3.2 MHz heater frequency and the upper hybrid resonance frequency and the bump below the upper hybrid resonance frequency to be associated with the Langmuir and upper hybrid instabilities, respectively. The Langmuir bump is located close to the upper hybrid resonance frequency, rather than to the heater frequency, consistent with the theory. Each bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the E-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile similar to E-F2 layer transitions. The experimental results also show that the strong impact of the upper hybrid instability on the ionosphere can suppress the Langmuir instability.
Experiments and theory on parametric instabilities excited in HF heating experiments at HAARP
Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Lee, M. C.
2014-06-15
Parametric instabilities excited by O-mode HF heater and the induced ionospheric modification were explored via HAARP digisonde operated in a fast mode. The impact of excited Langmuir waves and upper hybrid waves on the ionosphere are manifested by bumps in the virtual spread, which expand the ionogram echoes upward as much as 140 km and the downward range spread of the sounding echoes, which exceeds 50 km over a significant frequency range. The theory of parametric instabilities is presented. The theory identifies the ionogram bump located between the 3.2 MHz heater frequency and the upper hybrid resonance frequency and the bump below the upper hybrid resonance frequency to be associated with the Langmuir and upper hybrid instabilities, respectively. The Langmuir bump is located close to the upper hybrid resonance frequency, rather than to the heater frequency, consistent with the theory. Each bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the E-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile similar to E-F2 layer transitions. The experimental results also show that the strong impact of the upper hybrid instability on the ionosphere can suppress the Langmuir instability.
Laisk, A.; Oja, V.; Rasulov, B.; Eichelmann, H.; Sumberg, A.
1997-01-01
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.), amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and CO2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]C. Quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (YP and YN) and the corresponding relative rate constants for excitation capture from the antenna-primary radical pair equilibrium system (k[prime]P and k[prime]N) were calculated from measured fluorescence parameters. The above treatments resulted in decreases in YP and K[prime]P and in approximately complementary increases in YN and K[prime]N under normal and inhibitory conditions. The results were reproduced by a mathematical model of electron/proton transport and O2 evolution/CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis based on budget equations for the intermediates of photosynthesis. Quantitative differences between model predictions and experiments are explainable, assuming that electron transport is organized into domains that contain relatively complete electron and proton transport chains (e.g. thylakoids). With the complementation that occurs between the photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching, the regulatory system can constantly maintain the shortest lifetime of excitation necessary to avoid the formation of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen. PMID:12223845
Heavy-Ion Fusion near and below the Coulomb Barrier: New Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanini, A. M.
2009-03-01
Fusion hindrance well below the Coulomb barrier has been observed in several systems in recent years showing systematic but also unsystematic behaviours. Our understanding of this phenomenon has greatly advanced in the last 2-3 years. Coupled-channel effects leading to barrier distributions, influence the threshold energy for hindrance. Very recent measurements on 36S+48Ca, 64Ni, performed at LNL, are presented. The two excitation functions are very different below the barrier, possibly due to the Q-value for CN formation. A few other systems, for which previous experiments were done, show interesting features, suggesting measurements at still lower energies.
Ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated excitons in GaAs quantum wells
Mycek, M.A. |
1995-12-01
The author measures the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. She characterizes this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time- and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. She contributes three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, she temporally resolves the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, she also investigates the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, she characterizes the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. The author finds that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}, the saturation density. These signatures of Coulomb correlation are investigated for increasing excitation density to gradually screen the interactions and test the validity of the model for dense media. The results are found to be qualitatively consistent with both the predictions of the model and with numerical solutions to the semiconductor Bloch equations. Importantly, the results also indicate current experimental and theoretical limitations, which should be addressed in future research.
Yan, Liang; Li, Wei; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, I-Ming
2015-12-01
The space utilization of linear switched reluctance machine is relatively low, which unavoidably constrains the improvement of system output performance. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings. The employment of double excitation helps to increase the electromagnetic force of the system. Furthermore, the installation of windings on both stator and mover can make the structure more compact and increase the system force density. The design concept and operating principle are presented. Following that, the major structure parameters of the system are determined. Subsequently, electromagnetic force and reluctance are formulated analytically based on equivalent magnetic circuits, and the result is validated with numerical computation. Then, a research prototype is developed, and experiments are conducted on the system output performance. It shows that the proposed design of electric linear machine can achieve higher thrust force compared with conventional linear switched reluctance machines.
Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.
2017-02-01
We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k = 1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.
Energies of Screened Coulomb Potentials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, C. S.
1979-01-01
This article shows that, by applying the Hellman-Feynman theorem alone to screened Coulomb potentials, the first four coefficients in the energy series in powers of the perturbation parameter can be obtained from the unperturbed Coulomb system. (Author/HM)
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.
2006-04-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within
Verification of Coulomb order in a storage ring
Hasse, Rainer W.
1999-12-10
We verify theoretically that the anomalous longitudinal temperature reduction of strongly electron cooled heavy ions in the ESR at very low density is explained by the fact that there is no intrabeam scattering and that the particles by their Coulomb repulsion cannot pass each other any more. At the achievable momentum spreads Coulomb order is reached at particle distances of the order of centimeters. It is also shown that under the given experimental conditions in the proton NAP-M experiment of 1980 intrabeam heating counteracts Coulomb order.
Verification of Coulomb Order in a Storage Ring
Rainer W. Hasse
1999-12-31
We verify theoretically that the anomalous longitudinal temperature reduction of strongly electron cooled heavy ions in the ESR at very low density is explained by the fact that there is no intrabeam scattering and that the particles by their Coulomb repulsion cannot pass each other any more. At the achievable momentum spreads Coulomb order is reached at particle distances of the order of centimeters. It is also shown that under the given experimental conditions in the proton NAP-M experiment of 1980 intrabeam heating counteracts Coulomb order.
SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation.
Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar
2016-02-01
Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations.
SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar
2016-02-01
Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations.
Thermoelectrics with Coulomb-coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thierschmann, Holger; Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.
2016-12-01
In this article we review the thermoelectric properties of three terminal devices with Coulomb-coupled quantum dots (QDs) as observed in recent experiments [1,2]. The system we consider consists of two Coulomb-blockade QDs, one of which can exchange electrons with only a single reservoir (heat reservoir), while the other dot is tunnel coupled with two reservoirs at a lower temperature (conductor). The heat reservoir and the conductor interact only via the Coulomb coupling of the quantum dots. It has been found that two regimes have to be considered. In the first one, the heat flow between the two systems is small. In this regime, thermally driven occupation fluctuations of the hot QD modify the transport properties of the conductor system. This leads to an effect called thermal gating. Experiments have shown how this can be used to control charge flow in the conductor by means of temperature in a remote reservoir. We further substantiate the observations with model calculations, and implications for the realisation of an all-thermal transistor are discussed. In the second regime, the heat flow between the two systems is relevant. Here the system works as a nanoscale heat engine, as proposed recently (Sánchez and Büttiker [3]). We review the conceptual idea, its experimental realisation and the novel features arising in this new kind of thermoelectric device such as decoupling of heat and charge flow. xml:lang="fr"
Fusion Cross Section in the {sup 4,6}He+{sup 64}Zn Collisions Around the Coulomb Barrier
Fisichella, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Marchetta, C.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Milin, M.; Skukan, N.; Zadro, M.
2011-10-28
New fusion data for the {sup 4}He+{sup 64}Zn system at sub-barrier energies are measured to cover the same energy region of previous measurements for {sup 6}He+{sup 64}Zn. Aim of the experiment was to compare the fusion excitation functions for the two system to investigate on the effects of the {sup 6}He neutron-halo structure on the fusion reaction mechanism at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The fusion cross section was measured by using an activation technique. Comparing the two systems, we observe an enhancement of the fusion cross section in the reaction induced by {sup 6}He, at and below the Coulomb barrier.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koroloff, Sophie N.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.
2017-01-01
Spectroscopic assignment of NMR spectra for oriented uniformly labeled membrane proteins embedded in their native-like bilayer environment is essential for their structure determination. However, sequence-specific assignment in oriented-sample (OS) NMR is often complicated by insufficient resolution and spectral crowding. Therefore, the assignment process is usually done by a laborious and expensive "shotgun" method involving multiple selective labeling of amino acid residues. Presented here is a strategy to overcome poor spectral resolution in crowded regions of 2D spectra by selecting resolved "seed" residues via soft Gaussian pulses inserted into spin-exchange separated local-field experiments. The Gaussian pulse places the selected polarization along the z-axis while dephasing the other signals before the evolution of the 1H-15N dipolar couplings. The transfer of magnetization is accomplished via mismatched Hartmann-Hahn conditions to the nearest-neighbor peaks via the proton bath. By optimizing the length and amplitude of the Gaussian pulse, one can also achieve a phase inversion of the closest peaks, thus providing an additional phase contrast. From the superposition of the selective spin-exchanged SAMPI4 onto the fully excited SAMPI4 spectrum, the 15N sites that are directly adjacent to the selectively excited residues can be easily identified, thereby providing a straightforward method for initiating the assignment process in oriented membrane proteins.
Livermore experience: contributions of J. H. Eberly to laser excitation theory
Shore, B W; Kulander, K; Davis, J I
2000-10-12
This article summarizes the developing understanding of coherent atomic excitation, as gained through a collaboration of J. H. Eberly with the Laser Isotope Separation Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, particularly aspects of coherence, population trapping, multilevel multiphoton excitation sequences, analytic solutions to multistate excitation chains, the quasicontinuum, pulse propagation, and noise. In addition to the discovery of several curious and unexpected properties of coherent excitation, mentioned here, the collaboration provided an excellent example of unexpected benefits from investment into basic research.
Excitation of whistler waves from inductive sources: Experiment and computer modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousculp, Christopher Lee
1997-09-01
Low frequency whistler waves are studied in the context of electron-magnetohydro-dynamics (EMHD) with experiments and computer modeling. Experiments show that an oblique whistler wave packet is excited from a single current pulse applied to a magnetic loop antenna. The magnetic field is mapped in three dimensions and time. The angle of dominant radiation is determined by the antenna dimensions, not by the constraints of the resonance cone. Topological properties of the inductive and space charge electric fields and space charge density confirm EMHD physics. Transverse currents are dominated by Hall currents, while no net current flows in the parallel direction. Electron-ion collisions damp both the energy and the helicity of the wave packet. Landau damping is negligible. The radiation resistance of the loop is a few tenths of an Ohm for the observed frequency range. The loop injects zero net helicity. Rather, oppositely traveling wave packets carry equal amounts of opposite signed helicity. Modeling confirms the experimental results for a single turn antenna. Linked or knotted antennas are shown to be directional whistler sources that inject helicity into an EMHD plasma. Electron inertial effects are included in the modeling and an antenna radiating predominantly at Gendrin's constant velocity mode is designed. Experiments currently underway show preliminary results that support the conclusions of the modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohr, Peter
2016-05-01
In their recent study Neelam, Shubhchintak, and Chatterjee have claimed that "it would certainly be useful to perform a Coulomb dissociation experiment to find the low-energy capture cross section for the reaction" 15N(n ,γ )16N. However, it is obvious that a Coulomb dissociation experiment cannot constrain this capture cross section because the dominating branchings of the capture reaction lead to excited states in 16N, which do not contribute in a Coulomb dissociation experiment. An estimate of the total 15N(n ,γ )16N cross section from Coulomb dissociation of 16N requires a precise knowledge of the γ -ray branchings in the capture reaction. Surprisingly, the calculation of Neelam, Shubhchintak, and Chatterjee predicts a strongly energy-dependent ground-state branching of the order of 0.05% to 0.6% at energies between 100 and 500 keV, which is almost 2 orders of magnitude below calculations in the direct capture model. Additionally, this calculation of Neelam, Shubhchintak, and Chatterjee deviates significantly from the expected energy dependence for p -wave capture.
Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation.
Esbensen, H.; Physics
2006-01-01
Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on {sup 7}Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed.
Role of the Permanent Dipole Moment in Coulomb Explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cai-Ping; Miao, Xiang-Yang
2013-10-01
By numerically solving the non-Born—Oppenheimer time-dependent Schrödinger equation in a few-cycle chirped laser field (5-fs, 800-nm), the effect of the permanent dipole moment on the Coulomb explosion is studied by the kinetic-energy-release spectra with the “virtual detector" method. The results indicate that with the effect of the permanent dipole moment, different multiphoton processes for heteronuclear and homonuclear diatomic molecular ions may take place when the wave packets transit from the ground state (1sσg) to the first excited state (2pσu), and then move along the excited potential curve, and finally charge-resonant enhanced ionization occurs at critical internuclear distance. As a result, despite the similar ionization probabilities for these two systems at higher vibrational level with larger chirp parameter β, the structure of the Coulomb explosion spectrum for the former is prominently different from that for the latter.
Experiments concerning the laser-enhanced reaction between vibrationally excited O3 and NO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, K.-K.; Cool, T. A.
1978-01-01
The enhancement in reaction rate between O3 and NO is studied for the case of O3 vibrationally excited by a CO2 laser. Chemiluminescence observations of a vibrationally excited and an electronically excited nitrogen dioxide reaction product provide information on the separate contributions to the overall reaction rate of these two reactive channels. The contribution of the stretching and bending modes of O3 to the reaction rate enhancement is also discussed. In addition, consideration is given to the nonreactive vibrational deactivation of vibrationally excited O3.
Stanciu, Stefan G.; Xu, Shuoyu; Peng, Qiwen; Yan, Jie; Stanciu, George A.; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Csucs, Gabor; Yu, Hanry
2014-01-01
The accurate staging of liver fibrosis is of paramount importance to determine the state of disease progression, therapy responses, and to optimize disease treatment strategies. Non-linear optical microscopy techniques such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) can image the endogenous signals of tissue structures and can be used for fibrosis assessment on non-stained tissue samples. While image analysis of collagen in SHG images was consistently addressed until now, cellular and tissue information included in TPEF images, such as inflammatory and hepatic cell damage, equally important as collagen deposition imaged by SHG, remain poorly exploited to date. We address this situation by experimenting liver fibrosis quantification and scoring using a combined approach based on TPEF liver surface imaging on a Thioacetamide-induced rat model and a gradient based Bag-of-Features (BoF) image classification strategy. We report the assessed performance results and discuss the influence of specific BoF parameters to the performance of the fibrosis scoring framework. PMID:24717650
Investigators using models to determine the phototoxic effects of sunlight on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) have invoked the excited states of the molecule as important in elucidating the mechanism of these reactions. Energies of actual excited states were calcu...
Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction
Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi
2010-06-15
The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.
Analytical expressions for partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices at ground-state energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharchenko, V. F.
2016-11-01
Leaning upon the Fock method of the stereographic projection of the three-dimensional momentum space onto the four-dimensional unit sphere the possibility of the analytical solving of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation for the partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrix at the ground bound state energy has been studied. In this case new expressions for the partial p-, d- and f-wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices have been obtained in the simple analytical form. The developed approach can also be extended to determine analytically the partial wave Coulomb transition matrices at the energies of excited bound states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drewsen, Michael
2009-11-01
Cavity Quantum ElectroDynamics (CQED) is a research field which focuses on understanding the interactions between matter and the electromagnetic field in cavities at the quantum level. Currently, CQED is a very active research field due to the prospect of creating efficient light-matter quantum interfaces at the single photon level for quantum information science. Ion Coulomb crystals have a series of properties of particular interest for CQED studies, as demonstrated in recent CQED experiments [1]. The coupling strength between ions in the crystals and photons in the cavity strongly depend on the motion of the ions due to the Doppler-effect. Consequently, the CQED signals can be exploited to learn about excitations of plasma modes in ion Coulomb crystals. Since the method relies on having one or less photons in the cavity at any time, it constitutes a noninvasive alternative to the Doppler-fluorescence method previous demonstrated in Penning trap experiments [2]. So far, CQED signal has been used to characterize how several normal mode frequencies depend on the aspect ratio of Coulomb crystals, and how the so-called micromotion of ions confined in rf traps influences the damping of the mode [3]. The observed mode frequencies are in remarkable agreement with theoretical prediction based on uniformly charged fluids [4]. [4pt] [1] P. F. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, to appear in Nature Physics (2009). [0pt] [2] T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, and W. M. Itano, Opt. Express 2, 314 (1998). [0pt] [3] J. P. Marler, M. Albert, D. Guenot, P. F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, manuscript in preparation. [0pt] [4] D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2076 (1991).
Betowski, Leon D; Enlow, Mark; Riddick, Lee
2002-06-01
Investigators using models to determine the phototoxic effects of sunlight on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have invoked the excited states of the molecule as important in elucidating the mechanism of these reactions. Energies of actual excited states were calculated for ten PAHs by several ab initio methods. The main method used for these calculations was the Configuration Interaction approach, modeling excited states as combinations of single substitutions out of the Hartree-Fock ground state. These calculations correlate well with both experimentally measured singlet and triplet state energies and also previous HOMO-LUMO gap energies that approximate the singlet state energies. The excited state calculations then correlate well with general models of photo-induced toxicity based for the PAHs.
Effect of Coulombic friction on spatial displacement statistics.
Menzel, Andreas M; Goldenfeld, Nigel
2011-07-01
The phenomenon of Coulombic friction enters the stochastic description of dry friction between two solids and the statistic characterization of vibrating granular media. Here we analyze the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation including both velocity and spatial components, exhibiting a formal connection to a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator in the presence of a delta potential. Numerical solutions for the resulting spatial displacement statistics show a crossover from exponential to Gaussian displacement statistics. We identify a transient intermediate regime that exhibits multiscaling properties arising from the contribution of Coulombic friction. The possible role of these effects during observations in diffusion experiments is briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Benjamin; Dzuba, Vladimir; Flambaum, Victor; Gribakin, Gleb; Pospelov, Maxim; Stadnik, Yevgeny
2017-01-01
Atoms can become ionised during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic WIMP dark matter is a potential explanation for the anomalous 9 sigma annual modulation in the DAMA direct detection experiment. We show that due to non-analytic, cusp-like behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus leads to an effective atomic structure enhancement. Crucially, we also show that electron relativistic effects are important. With this in mind, we perform high-accuracy relativistic calculations of atomic ionisation. We scan the parameter space: the DM mass, the mediator mass, and the effective coupling strength, to determine if there is any region that could potentially explain the DAMA signal. While we find that the modulation fraction of all events with energy deposition above 2 keV in NaI can be quite significant, reaching 50%, the relevant parts of the parameter space are excluded by the XENON10 and XENON100 experiments.
Coulomb explosion of the hot spot of micropinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.
2017-01-01
It has been shown that the generation of hard X-ray radiation, electron beam, and high energy ions that have been detected in experiments on compressing pinches can be related to the Coulomb explosion of a micropinch hot spot, which is formed due to the outflow of the material. In the outflow process, the plasma temperature in the hot spot increases and conditions appear for the transition of electrons to the regime of continuous acceleration. The exit of runaway electrons from the hot spot region leads to the creation of a positive bulk charge, then to a Coulomb explosion. Conditions under which electrons pass to the continuous acceleration regime have been determined and estimates of the ion kinetic energy upon a Coulomb explosion have been obtained.
Isotope shifts and coulomb displacement energies in calcium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caurier, E.; Poves, A.; Zuker, A.
1980-10-01
Isotope shifts, neutron-proton radii differences and Coulomb displacement energies are calculated for calcium isotopes A = 41 to 48. A simple parametrization of the core polarization terms of the effective force in the framework of the Isospin Projected Hartree-Fock (IPHF) method leads to good agreement between theory and experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godunov, I. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Maslov, D. V.; Yakovlev, N. N.
2016-12-01
The structure of conformational non-rigid molecules in the excited electronic states are investigated by joint theoretical and experimental methods. The theoretical part of work consist of two stages. In first stage the ab initio quantum-chemical calculations are carried out using high level methods. In second stage the vibrational problems of the various dimensions are solved by variational method for vibrations of large amplitude. In experimental part of work the vibronic spectra are investigated: gas-phase absorption and also, fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules. Some examples are considered.
Excited state absorption in glasses activated with rare earth ions: Experiment and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piatkowski, Dawid; Mackowski, Sebastian
2012-10-01
We present semiempirical approach based on the Judd-Ofelt theory and apply it for modeling the spectral properties of fluoride glasses activated with the rare earth (RE) ions. This method provide a powerful tool for simulating both ground state absorption (GSA) and excited state absorption (ESA) spectra of RE ions, e.g. Nd3+, Ho3+, Er3+ and Tm3+ in the ZBLAN glass matrix. The results of theoretical calculations correspond to the experimentally measured data. We also demonstrate that the spectra obtained using the presented approach are applicable in the analysis of up-conversion excitation schemes in these optoelectronically relevant materials.
Isla, M.; Alonso, J.A.
2005-08-15
Experiments of Zweiback et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2634 (2000)] on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with a dense molecular beam of large deuterium clusters have shown that these clusters can lose most of their electrons and explode, in a process known as Coulomb explosion. The collisions between the fast deuterium (D) nuclei give rise to D-D fusion. This has motivated us to carry out computer simulations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory in order to understand the ultrafast processes occurring under these high excitations. In particular we have studied the laser irradiation of the singly charged cluster D{sub 13}{sup +}. The simulations show the occurrence of two different cluster fragmentation behaviors, depending on the intensity of the laser pulse: For not too large intensities, the cluster becomes disassembled in a slow way, whereas for large laser intensities substantial ionization takes place and a violent explosion occurs due to the electrostatic repulsion between the nuclei following the loss of the electrons by the cluster. The fast fragmentation mode fits well into the idea of the Coulomb explosion.
Coulomb chronometry to probe the decay mechanism of hot nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruyer, D.; Frankland, J. D.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Ademard, G.; Boisjoli, M.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Galichet, E.; Gauthier, J.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Le Neindre, N.; Legouée, E.; Lombardo, I.; Lopez, O.; Manduci, L.; Marini, P.; Mazurek, K.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Pârlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Roy, R.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Verde, G.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Indra Collaboration
2015-12-01
In 129Xe+natSn central collisions from 8 to 25 MeV/nucleon, the three-fragment exit channel occurs with a significant cross section. We show that these fragments arise from two successive binary splittings of a heavy composite system. The sequence of fragment production is determined. Strong Coulomb proximity effects are observed in the three-fragment final state. A comparison with Coulomb trajectory calculations shows that the time scale between the consecutive breakups decreases with increasing bombarding energy, becoming quasisimultaneous above excitation energy E*=4.0 ±0.5 MeV /nucleon . This transition from sequential to simultaneous breakup was interpreted as the signature of the onset of multifragmentation for the three-fragment exit channel in this system.
Computational Analysis of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay Effects in DNA nucleotide Photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, E. L.; Robertson, J.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.
2016-03-01
Intermolecular Coulombic Decay (ICD) is the process of how electrons return to their original state after excitation and how this affects their immediate environment. In a previous research presentationwe had considered the hypothetical applications of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay on the adhesiveness of coding proteins within DNA molecules. This presentation is a continuation of the previous in that the results of our DFT-based computational calculations of the ionization potentials of nucleotides and their excitation energies will be presented, as well as how they influence their surroundings. Author would like to acknowledge the PUC Student Senate for financial assistance.
Experiments on self-excited oscillation in a thin-walled collapsible tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hai-Jun; Jia, Lai-Bing; Yin, Xie-Zhen
2015-12-01
Self-excited oscillation in a collapsible tube is an important phenomenon in physiology. An experimental approach on self-excited oscillation in a thin-walled collapsible tube is developed by using a high transmittance and low Young's modulus silicone rubber tube. The elastic tube is manufactured by the method of centrifugal casting in our laboratory. An optical method for recording the evolution of the cross-sectional areas at a certain position along the longitudinal direction of the tube is developed based on the technology of refractive index matching. With the transparent tube, the tube law is measured under the static no-flow condition. The cross section at the middle position of the tube transfers from a quasi-circular configuration to an ellipse, and then to a dumbell-shape as the chamber pressure is increased. During the self-excited oscillation, two periodic self-excited oscillating states and one transitional oscillating state are identified. They all belong to the LU mode. These different oscillating states are related to the initial cross-sectional shape of the tube caused by the difference of the downstream transmural pressure.
2009-06-30
34High amplitude vortex-induced pulsations in a gas transport system", Journal of Sound and Vibration 184, 343 (1995). 7 W. W. Martin, M. Padmanabhan...and E. Naudascher, "Fluid-dynamic excitation involving flow instability", Journal of the Hydraulics Division 101, 681 (1975). 8 D. Rockwell and E
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano
2009-05-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfannmöller, J. P.; Lechte, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.
2012-10-01
Experimental investigations and simulations of loop antenna excited whistler waves in a cylindrical low temperature plasma are presented. Experiments are performed in the VINETA [Franck et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 226 (2005)] device and simulations are generated using IPF-FD3D [C. Lechte, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37, 1099 (2009)], an implementation of the Yee-algorithm. A good agreement of the experiment and the simulation is found. The simulation is used to predict the spatial structure of the wave, the dominant source of the electric field, the relative contribution of electron, and displacement current as well as parallel and perpendicular currents to the magnetic field of the wave.
Pfannmoeller, J. P.; Lechte, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.
2012-10-15
Experimental investigations and simulations of loop antenna excited whistler waves in a cylindrical low temperature plasma are presented. Experiments are performed in the VINETA [Franck et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 226 (2005)] device and simulations are generated using IPF-FD3D [C. Lechte, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37, 1099 (2009)], an implementation of the Yee-algorithm. A good agreement of the experiment and the simulation is found. The simulation is used to predict the spatial structure of the wave, the dominant source of the electric field, the relative contribution of electron, and displacement current as well as parallel and perpendicular currents to the magnetic field of the wave.
Atomic excitation and acceleration in strong laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmermann, H.; Eichmann, U.
2016-10-01
Atomic excitation in the tunneling regime of a strong-field laser-matter interaction has been recently observed. It is conveniently explained by the concept of frustrated tunneling ionization (FTI), which naturally evolves from the well-established tunneling picture followed by classical dynamics of the electron in the combined laser field and Coulomb field of the ionic core. Important predictions of the FTI model such as the n distribution of Rydberg states after strong-field excitation and the dependence on the laser polarization have been confirmed in experiments. The model also establishes a sound basis to understand strong-field acceleration of neutral atoms in strong laser fields. The experimental observation has become possible recently and initiated a variety of experiments such as atomic acceleration in an intense standing wave and the survival of Rydberg states in strong laser fields. Furthermore, the experimental investigations on strong-field dissociation of molecules, where neutral excited fragments after the Coulomb explosion of simple molecules have been observed, can be explained. In this review, we introduce the subject and give an overview over relevant experiments supplemented by new results.
Experiments on Helicon Excitation and Off-Axis Current Drive on DIII-D: Status and Plans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Moeller, C. P.; Degrassie, J. S.; Tooker, J. F.; Anderson, J. P.; Torreblanca, H.; Hansink, M.; Nagy, A.; Porkolab, M.
2015-11-01
Fast waves in the LHRF, also called ``whistlers'' or ``helicons,'' will be studied in experiments on the DIII-D tokamak beginning in autumn 2015. In the first stage, a 12-element traveling wave antenna (``comb-line'') is installed in the DIII-D vessel for operation at very low power (~ 0.1 kW) at 476 MHz, with a well-defined launched n| | spectrum peaked at 3.0. The goals of the low-power experiment include: (1) determining the efficiency with which the desired fast waves can be excited under a variety of plasma conditions in discharges relevant to the subsequent high-power current drive experiments and (2) proving that the radial and poloidal location at which the antenna will be mounted does not cause deleterious effects in the DIII-D discharges with high neutral beam power, and that the antenna is not damaged by fast ion losses, etc. Plans for 1 MW-level experiments with a single klystron beginning in FY17 are discussed. In addition to demonstrating off-axis current drive at an efficiency of ~ 60 kA/MW in high-performance plasmas, these experiments will explore non-linear aspects of wave excitation, propagation and absorption such as ponderomotive effects and parametric decay instabilities. Supported by US DOE DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-94ER54084.
Electron-impact excitation of the n 1P levels of helium - Theory and experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cartwright, David C.; Csanak, George; Trajmar, Sandor; Register, D. F.
1992-01-01
New experimental electron-energy-loss data have been used to extract differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the 2 1P level, and for the overlapping (3 1P, 3 1D, 3 3D) levels of helium, at 30-, 50-, and 100-eV incident electron energies. First-order many-body theory (FOMBT) has been used to calculate the differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the n 1P (n = 2,...,6) levels of helium by electron impact, for incident electron energies from threshold to 500 eV. Detailed comparisons between these two new sets of data are made as well as comparisons with appropriate published experimental and theoretical results. A simple scaling relationship is derived from the FOMBT results for n = 2,...,6 that provides differential and integral cross sections for all symmetry final levels of helium with n = 6 or greater.
High-resolution Valence and Core Excitation Spectra via First-Principles Calculations and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirley, Eric; Fossard, F.; Gilmore, K.; Hug, G.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F.
We calculate the optical and C K-edge near edge spectra of crystalline and molecular C60 measured with high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The calculations are carried out using at least three different methods: Bethe-Salpeter calculations using the NIST Bethe-Salpeter Equation solver (NBSE) in the valence and OCEAN (Obtaining Core Excitation with Ab initio methods and NBSE) suite [Gilmore et al., Comp. Phys. Comm., (2015)]; excited-core-hole calculations using XCH [D. Prendergast and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215502 (2006)]; and constrained occupancy using StoBe (Stockholm-Berlin core-excitation code) [StoBe-deMon version 3.0, K. Hermann et al. (2009)]. They include self-energy effects, lifetime-damping, and Debye-Waller effects. A comparison of spectral features to those observed illustrates the sensitivity of certain features to computation details (e.g., self-energy corrections and core-hole screening). This may point to limitations of various approximations, e.g. in conventional BSE paradigm and/or the incomplete treatment of vibrational effects. Supported in part by DOE BES Grant DE-FG03-97ER45623 (JJR, JJK, FV).
Spano, Frank C; Meskers, Stefan C J; Hennebicq, Emanuelle; Beljonne, David
2007-06-06
Photoexcitations in helical aggregates of a functionalized, chiral oligophenylenevinylene (MOPV) are described going beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the form of dressed (polaronic) Frenkel excitons. This allows for accurate modeling of the experimentally observed wavelength dependence of the circular polarization in fluorescence, which directly probes the non-adiabatic nature of the electron-vibration (EV) coupling in this system. The fluorescence photon is emitted from a nuclear geometry in which one MOPV and its two nearest neighbors have a nuclear equilibrium that differs appreciably from the ground state due to the presence of the excited state. The absorption and emission band shape and the circular dichroism are consistent with a coherence range of the emitting excitation of approximately two neighboring molecules. Random fluctuations in the zero-order excited-state energy of the MOPVs (disorder) limit the exciton delocalization and can be described by a Gaussian distribution of energies with a width sigma=0.12 eV and a spatial correlation length l0 approximately 5 molecules. We find that disorder and EV coupling act synergistically in localizing the emitting exciton to a single MOPV in the aggregate with 95% probability.
Coulomb breakup of neutron-rich 29,30Na isotopes near the island of inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, A.; Datta, Ushasi; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Boretzky, K.; Caesar, C.; Carlson, B. V.; Catford, W. N.; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; De Angelis, G.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Geissel, H.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Leifels, Y.; Marganiec, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Najafi, M. A.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Rigollet, C.; Rossi, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Taylor, J. T.; Togano, Y.; Typel, S.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Weigand, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Yakorev, D.; Zoric, M.
2017-04-01
First results are reported on the ground state configurations of the neutron-rich 29,30Na isotopes, obtained via Coulomb dissociation (CD) measurements. The invariant mass spectra of these nuclei have been obtained through measurement of the four-momenta of all decay products after Coulomb excitation of those nuclei on a 208Pb target at energies of 400–430 MeV/nucleon using the FRS-ALADIN-LAND setup at GSI, Darmstadt. Integrated inclusive CD cross-sections (CD) of 89 (7) mb and 167 (13) mb for one neutron removal from 29Na and 30Na, respectively, have been extracted up to an excitation energy of 10 MeV. The major part of one neutron removal, CD cross-sections of those nuclei populate the core, in its ground state. A comparison with the direct breakup model, suggests the predominant occupation of the valence neutron in the ground state of 29Na (3/{2}+) and 30Na ({2}+) is the d-orbital with a small contribution from the s-orbital, which are coupled with the ground state of the core. One of the major components of the ground state configurations of these nuclei are 28Na{}{gs}({1}+)\\otimes {ν }s,d and 29Na{}{gs}(3/{2}+)\\otimes {ν }s,d, respectively. The ground state spin and parity of these nuclei obtained from this experiment are in agreement with earlier reported values. The spectroscopic factors for the valence neutron occupying the s and d orbitals for these nuclei in the ground state have been extracted and reported for the first time. A comparison of the experimental findings with shell model calculation using the MCSM suggests a lower limit of around 4.3 MeV of the sd–pf shell gap in 30Na.
Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, Michael
2007-11-01
Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these ``Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or α-particle crystals in dense matter
Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.
2016-08-01
Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our
Polarization effects in ionization-excitation of helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartschat, Klaus; Andersen, Nils
2004-05-01
We present a parameterization of experiments for simultaneous ionization-excitation of helium, leaving the He^+ ion in the excited n=2 states. In addition to the wellknown observables for coherent excitation of an atomic or ionic P-state [1], we explore the additional opportunities provided by the degeneracy of the 2s and 2p states in a purely Coulombic system. Results from model calculations for some of the new observables are presented, together with the corresponding polarized charge clouds. These observables should be measurable using, e.g., the COLTRIMS technique [2]. [1] N. Andersen and K. Bartschat, Polarization, Alignment, and Orientation in Atomic Collisions (Springer, New York 2001) [2] J. Ullrich et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 66 (2003) 1463
The GlueX experiment: Search for gluonic excitations via photoproduction at Jefferson Lab
Eugenio, Paul
2013-07-01
Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by an overview of the progress at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.
Implosive Interatomic Coulombic decay in the simplest molecular anion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Chris H.; Perez-Rios, Jesus; Slipchenko, Lyudmila
2016-05-01
Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) has been extensively studied in different systems: from diatomic systems such as He2 up to more complex chemical systems with interest in biochemistry. Independently of the size and complexity of the system, the ICD process proposed involves the emission of an electron through exchange of a virtual photon. The present theoretical study investigates the ICD process in the helium hydride anion, which involves two final product states that can be produced through a Coulomb implosion following high energy ejection of a He 1s electron accompanied by excitation to He+(n = 2) . One of the subsequent decay channels is associated with the usual emission of a single electron, to produce a stable molecule: HeH+, which can compete with the usual dissociated final state of the system. The second channel involves the emission of two electrons, leading to the usual Coulomb explosion of the final product ions He+(1 s) + H + . In addition, the process of formation of the helium hydride anion is analyzed in terms of the existing technology of ionic molecular beams and buffer gas cooling techniques. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1306905.
Dynamical Coulomb blockade of tunnel junctions driven by alternating voltages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabert, Hermann
2015-12-01
The theory of the dynamical Coulomb blockade is extended to tunneling elements driven by a time-dependent voltage. It is shown that, for standard setups where an external voltage is applied to a tunnel junction via an impedance, time-dependent driving entails an excitation of the modes of the electromagnetic environment by the applied voltage. Previous approaches for ac driven circuits need to be extended to account for the driven bath modes. A unitary transformation involving also the variables of the electromagnetic environment is introduced which allows us to split off the time dependence from the Hamiltonian in the absence of tunneling. This greatly simplifies perturbation-theoretical calculations based on treating the tunneling Hamiltonian as a perturbation. In particular, the average current flowing in the leads of the tunnel junction is studied. Explicit results are given for the case of an applied voltage with a constant dc part and a sinusoidal ac part. The connection with standard dynamical Coulomb blockade theory for constant applied voltage is established. It is shown that an alternating voltage source reveals significant additional effects caused by the electromagnetic environment. The hallmark of the dynamical Coulomb blockade in ac driven devices is a suppression of higher harmonics of the current by the electromagnetic environment. The theory presented basically applies to all tunneling devices driven by alternating voltages.
Doubly-excited pulse-waves on flowing liquid films: experiments and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adebayo, Idris; Xie, Zhihua; Che, Zhizhao; Wray, Alex; Matar, Omar
2016-11-01
The interaction patterns between doubly-excited pulse waves on a flowing liquid film are studied both experimentally and numerically. The flowing film is constituted on an inclined glass substrate while pulse-waves are excited on the film surface by means of a solenoid valve connected to a relay which receives signals from customised Matlab routines. The effect of varying the system parameters i.e. film flow rate, inter-pulse interval and substrate inclination angle on the pulse interaction patterns are then studied. Results show that different interaction patterns exist for these binary pulses; which include a singular behaviour, complete merger, partial merger and total non-coalescence. A regime map of these patterns is then plotted for each inclination angles examined, based on the film Re and the inter-pulse interval. Finally, the individual effect of the system parameters on the merging distance of these binary pulses in the merger mode is then studied and the results validated using both numerical simulations and mathematical modelling. Funding from the Nigerian Government (for Idris Adebayo), and the EPSRC through a programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1) gratefully acknowledged.
Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh
2007-02-27
The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, K.-N.
1977-01-01
A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, Naoya
2016-06-01
Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and spin Hall effect (SHE) are fundamental phenomena, and their potential for application is great. However, we understand the interaction effects unsatisfactorily, and should have clarified issues about the roles of the Fermi sea term and Fermi surface term of the conductivity of the intrinsic AHE or SHE of an interacting multiorbital metal and about the effects of spin-Coulomb drag on the intrinsic SHE. Here, we resolve the first issue and provide the first step about the second issue by developing a general formalism in the linear response theory with appropriate approximations and using analytic arguments. The most striking result is that even without impurities, the Fermi surface term, a non-Berry-curvature term, plays dominant roles at high or slightly low temperatures. In particular, this Fermi surface term causes the temperature dependence of the dc anomalous Hall or spin Hall conductivity due to the interaction-induced quasiparticle damping and the correction of the dc spin Hall conductivity due to the spin-Coulomb drag. Those results revise our understanding of the intrinsic AHE and SHE. We also find that the differences between the dc anomalous Hall and longitudinal conductivities arise from the difference in the dominant multiband excitations. This not only explains why the Fermi sea term such as the Berry-curvature term becomes important in clean and low-temperature case only for interband transports, but also provides the useful principles on treating the electron-electron interaction in an interacting multiorbital metal for general formalism of transport coefficients. Several correspondences between our results and experiments are finally discussed.
Inhomogeneous free-electron distribution in InN nanowires: Photoluminescence excitation experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segura-Ruiz, J.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; Garro, N.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Iikawa, F.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.
2010-09-01
Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra have been measured for a set of self-assembled InN nanowires (NWs) and a high-crystalline quality InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The PLE experimental lineshapes have been reproduced by a self-consistent calculation of the absorption in a cylindrical InN NW. The differences in the PLE spectra can be accounted for the inhomogeneous electron distribution within the NWs caused by a bulk donor concentration (ND+) and a two-dimensional density of ionized surface states (Nss+) . For NW radii larger than 30 nm, ND+ and Nss+ modify the absorption edge and the lineshape, respectively, and can be determined from the comparison with the experimental data.
Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong Sun, Xiaofeng
2015-05-15
The acoustic resonance in a Helmholtz resonator excited by a low Mach number grazing flow is studied theoretically. The nonlinear numerical model is established by coupling the vortical motion at the cavity opening with the cavity acoustic mode through an explicit force balancing relation between the two sides of the opening. The vortical motion is modeled in the potential flow framework, in which the oscillating motion of the thin shear layer is described by an array of convected point vortices, and the unsteady vortex shedding is determined by the Kutta condition. The cavity acoustic mode is obtained from the one-dimensional acoustic propagation model, the time-domain equivalent of which is given by means of a broadband time-domain impedance model. The acoustic resistances due to radiation and viscous loss at the opening are also taken into account. The physical processes of the self-excited oscillations, at both resonance and off-resonance states, are simulated directly in the time domain. Results show that the shear layer exhibits a weak flapping motion at the off-resonance state, whereas it rolls up into large-scale vortex cores when resonances occur. Single and dual-vortex patterns are observed corresponding to the first and second hydrodynamic modes. The simulation also reveals different trajectories of the two vortices across the opening when the first and second hydrodynamic modes co-exist. The strong modulation of the shed vorticity by the acoustic feedback at the resonance state is demonstrated. The model overestimates the pressure pulsation amplitude by a factor 2, which is expected to be due to the turbulence of the flow which is not taken into account. The model neglects vortex shedding at the downstream and side edges of the cavity. This will also result in an overestimation of the pulsation amplitude.
Gutmann, Matthias J.; Graziano, Gabriella; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Refson, Keith; von Zimmerman, Martin
2015-01-01
Direct phonon excitation in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment has been observed in a single crystal of NaCl. At room temperature both phonon emission and excitation leave characteristic features in the diffuse scattering and these are well reproduced using ab initio phonons from density functional theory (DFT). A measurement at 20 K illustrates the effect of thermal population of the phonons, leaving the features corresponding to phonon excitation and strongly suppressing the phonon annihilation. A recipe is given to compute these effects combining DFT results with the geometry of the neutron experiment. PMID:26306090
The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francisco, E.; And Others
1988-01-01
Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)
Miller, R.J.D.; Pierre, M.; Fayer, M.D.
1983-04-15
A detailed experimental examination of the dynamics of energy transport and trapping in two component systems, using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the donor and malachite green (MG) as the trap in both glycerol and ethanol solvents, is presented. The experiments were performed using fluorescence mixing and ground state recovery techniques providing temporal resolution of approx.50 ps. Samples ranging from high trap-low donor concentrations (the Foerster limit) to the opposite regime of high donor and low trap concentrations, were studied. These results were compared with no adjustable parameters to the recent theoretical work of Loring, Andersen, and Fayer (LAF). The excellent agreement between theory and experiment over the entire donor-trap concentration range confirms the theoretical results of LAF and yields a comprehensive description of excited-state dynamics in solution. A variety of dynamic properties are calculated using the LAF theory and the measured parameters associated with R6G-MG system.
Nomura, Ryota; Hino, Kojun; Shimazu, Makoto; Liang, Yingzong; Okada, Takeshi
2015-01-01
Collective spectator communications such as oral presentations, movies, and storytelling performances are ubiquitous in human culture. This study investigated the effects of past viewing experiences and differences in expressive performance on an audience’s transportive experience into a created world of a storytelling performance. In the experiment, 60 participants (mean age = 34.12 years, SD = 13.18 years, range 18–63 years) were assigned to watch one of two videotaped performances that were played (1) in an orthodox way for frequent viewers and (2) in a modified way aimed at easier comprehension for first-time viewers. Eyeblink synchronization among participants was quantified by employing distance-based measurements of spike trains, Dspike and Dinterval (Victor and Purpura, 1997). The results indicated that even non-familiar participants’ eyeblinks were synchronized as the story progressed and that the effect of the viewing experience on transportation was weak. Rather, the results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the degrees of transportation could be predicted by a retrospectively reported humor experience and higher real-time variability (i.e., logarithmic transformed SD) of inter blink intervals during a performance viewing. The results are discussed from the viewpoint in which the extent of eyeblink synchronization and eyeblink-rate variability acts as an index of the inner experience of audience members. PMID:26029123
Simulations of beam excited minor species gyroharmonics in the Porcupine experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, I.; Carlson, C. W.; Hudson, M. K.; Lysak, R. L.
1983-10-01
An active experiment for the study of wave particle interaction in the presence of a perpendicular beam type distribution is considered. The experiment involves the injection of a beam perpendicular to the magnetic field. Beam parameters can then be varied while local plasma parameters and associated wave phenomena are measured. Such an experiment was conducted as part of the Porcupine project. The present investigation has the objective to explain theoretically and by means of plasma particle simulations, some of the wave observations obtained. In the experiment, a main rocket payload and four subpayloads were employed. The subpayloads were ejected radially in different directions at an altitude of 240 km. One of the spinning subpayloads contained a plasma gun which emitted a beam of 200 eV xenon ions toward the main payload. The data recorded on the main payload revealed the existence of electrostatic waves with peaks at hydrogen gyroharmonics. A series of computer simulations approximating the xenon experiment was performed. The interpretation of the data is discussed.
Simulations of beam excited minor species gyroharmonics in the Porcupine experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, I.; Carlson, C. W.; Hudson, M. K.; Lysak, R. L.
1983-01-01
An active experiment for the study of wave particle interaction in the presence of a perpendicular beam type distribution is considered. The experiment involves the injection of a beam perpendicular to the magnetic field. Beam parameters can then be varied while local plasma parameters and associated wave phenomena are measured. Such an experiment was conducted as part of the Porcupine project. The present investigation has the objective to explain theoretically and by means of plasma particle simulations, some of the wave observations obtained. In the experiment, a main rocket payload and four subpayloads were employed. The subpayloads were ejected radially in different directions at an altitude of 240 km. One of the spinning subpayloads contained a plasma gun which emitted a beam of 200 eV xenon ions toward the main payload. The data recorded on the main payload revealed the existence of electrostatic waves with peaks at hydrogen gyroharmonics. A series of computer simulations approximating the xenon experiment was performed. The interpretation of the data is discussed.
Numerical approach to Coulomb gauge QCD
Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Bowman, Patrick O.
2008-07-01
We calculate the ghost two-point function in Coulomb gauge QCD with a simple model vacuum gluon wave function using Monte Carlo integration. This approach extends the previous analytic studies of the ghost propagator with this ansatz, where a ladder-rainbow expansion was unavoidable for calculating the path integral over gluon field configurations. The new approach allows us to study the possible critical behavior of the coupling constant, as well as the Coulomb potential derived from the ghost dressing function. We demonstrate that IR enhancement of the ghost correlator or Coulomb form factor fails to quantitatively reproduce confinement using Gaussian vacuum wave functional.
Excited-State Processes in Slow Motion: An Experiment in the Undergraduate Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galley, William C.; Tanchak, Oleh M.; Yager, Kevin G.; Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna
2010-01-01
Lasers have transformed chemistry and the everyday world. Therefore, it is not surprising that undergraduate chemistry students are frequently exposed to fairly advanced laser techniques. The usual topics studied with lasers are molecular spectroscopy and chemical kinetics. Static and dynamic fluorescence experiments seem to be particularly…
Laboratory experiment on the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Xin; van Compernolle, Bart; Bortnik, Jacob; Decyk, Viktor; Thorne, Richard
2016-10-01
Whistler-mode chorus waves play an important role in accelerating electrons to relativistic energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt, as well as in precipitating electrons to the atmosphere. An experiment in the Large Plasma Device at UCLA generates both broadband and discrete chirping whistler-mode emissions using a gyrating electron beam injected into a cold background plasma. The mode structure of these emissions is identified using a phase-correlation technique. The emission forms of the whistler waves depend on plasma density, beam density and magnetic field profiles. A kinetic simulation in accordance with the experiment shows an initial relaxation of the electron beam by Langmuir waves and subsequently growing whistler waves through cyclotron resonance and Landau resonance. The research was funded by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation by Grant DE-SC0010578 and was also funded by NASA Grant NNX16AG21G.
Observations and Measurements of Orbitally Excited L=1 B Mesons at the D0 Experiment
Williams, Mark Richard James
2008-09-01
This thesis describes investigations of the first set of orbitally excited (L = 1) states for both the B_{d}^{0} and B_{s}^{0} meson systems (B**_{d} and B**_{s}). The data sample corresponds to 1.35 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity, collected in 2002-2006 by the D0 detector, during the Run IIa operation of the Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ colliding beam accelerator. The B**_{d} states are fully reconstructed in decays to B^{(*)+} π^{-}, with B^{(*)+} → γ J/ΨK^{+}, J/Ψ → μ^{+}μ^{-}, yielding 662 ± 91 events, and providing the first strong evidence for the resolution of two narrow resonances, B_{1} and B*_{2}. The masses are extracted from a binned Χ^{2} fit to the invariant mass distribution, giving M(B_{1}) = 5720.7 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 1.3(syst.) ± 0.5 (PDG) MeV/c^{2} and M(B*_{2}) = 5746.9 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 1.0(syst.) ± 0.5(PDG) MeV/c^{2}. The production rate of narrow B**_{d} → Bπ resonances relative to the B^{+} meson is determined to be [13.9 ± 1.9(stat.) ± 3.2(syst.)]%. The same B^{+} sample is also used to reconstruct the analogous states in the B_{s}^{0} system, in decays B**_{s} → B^{(*)+} K^{-}. A single resonance in the invariant mass distribution is found with a statistical significance of 5σ, interpreted as the B*_{s2} state. The mass is determined to be M(B*_{s2}) = 5839.6 ± 1.1(stat.) ± 0.4(syst.) ± 0.5(PDG) MeV/c ^{2}, and the production rate of B*_{s2} → BK resonances is measured to be a fraction (2.14 ± 0.43 ± 0.24)% of the corresponding rate for B^{+} mesons. Alternative fitting hypotheses give inconclusive evidence for the presence of the lighter B_{s1} meson.
A mechanical connector design for high-current, high-coulomb pulsed power systems
Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Leighton, K.S.
1992-02-25
A technique to make reliable high-current, high-coulomb electrical contact was developed for transmitting power into railguns. The method uses spring loaded removable connectors that are installed independently from the launcher. The simple rod-type design and absence of fastener holes allow maximum utilization of material mechanical properties. Repeated experiments with 9.5-mm diameter connectors demonstrated reliable pulsed charge transfer of 200 coulombs at currents of over 400kA. 20 refs.
Crystallization in two-component Coulomb systems.
Bonitz, M; Filinov, V S; Fortov, V E; Levashov, P R; Fehske, H
2005-12-02
The analysis of Coulomb crystallization is extended from one-component to two-component plasmas. Critical parameters for the existence of Coulomb crystals are derived for both classical and quantum crystals. In the latter case, a critical mass ratio of the two charged components is found, which is of the order of 80. Thus, holes in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands are predicted to spontaneously order into a regular lattice. Such hole crystals are intimately related to ion Coulomb crystals in white dwarf and neutron stars as well as to ion crystals produced in the laboratory. A unified phase diagram of two-component Coulomb crystals is presented and is verified by first-principles computer simulations.
Few-body collective excitations beyond Kohn's theorem in quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wooten, R. E.; Yan, B.; Greene, Chris H.
2017-01-01
A relative coordinate breathing mode in the quantum Hall system is predicted to exist with different behavior under either Coulomb or dipole-dipole interactions. While Kohn's theorem [W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. 123, 1242 (1961), 10.1103/PhysRev.123.1242] predicts that any relative coordinate interaction will fail to alter the center-of-mass energy spectrum, it can affect excitations in the relative coordinates. One such collective excitation, which we call the hyperradial breathing mode, emerges naturally from a few-body, hyperspherical representation of the problem and depends on the interparticle interactions, the ground state wave function, and the number of particles participating in the excitation. Possible observations of this excitation will be discussed in the context of both conventional quantum Hall experiments and cold, rotating atomic simulations.
Conductance of a proximitized nanowire in the Coulomb blockade regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Heck, B.; Lutchyn, R. M.; Glazman, L. I.
2016-06-01
We identify the leading processes of electron transport across finite-length segments of proximitized nanowires and build a quantitative theory of their two-terminal conductance. In the presence of spin-orbit interaction, a nanowire can be tuned across the topological transition point by an applied magnetic field. Due to a finite segment length, electron transport is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. Upon increasing of the field, the shape and magnitude of the Coulomb blockade peaks in the linear conductance are defined, respectively, by Andreev reflection, single-electron tunneling, and resonant tunneling through the Majorana modes emerging after the topological transition. Our theory provides the framework for the analysis of experiments with proximitized nanowires [such as reported in S. M. Albrecht et al., Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] and identifies the signatures of the topological transition in the two-terminal conductance.
Coulomb effects in low-energy nuclear fragmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Francis F.; John, Sarah
1993-01-01
Early versions of the Langley nuclear fragmentation code NUCFRAG (and a publicly released version called HZEFRG1) assumed straight-line trajectories throughout the interaction. As a consequence, NUCFRAG and HZEFRG1 give unrealistic cross sections for large mass removal from the projectile and target at low energies. A correction for the distortion of the trajectory by the nuclear Coulomb fields is used to derive fragmentation cross sections. A simple energy-loss term is applied to estimate the energy downshifts that greatly alter the Coulomb trajectory at low energy. The results, which are far more realistic than prior versions of the code, should provide the data base for future transport calculations. The systematic behavior of charge-removal cross sections compares favorably with results from low-energy experiments.
Elastic scattering of Beryllium isotopes near the Coulomb barrier
Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Papa, M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.
2011-10-28
In this contribution, results of experiments performed with the three Beryllium isotopes {sup 9,10,11}Be on a medium mass {sup 64}Zn target, at a center of mass energy of {approx_equal}1.4 the Coulomb barrier, will be discussed. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 9,10}Be reactions. In the {sup 11}Be case the quasielastic scattering angular distribution was obtained. In the halo nucleus case, the angular distribution exhibit a non-Fresnel-type pattern with a strong damping of the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. Moreover, it is found that the total reaction cross-section for the halo nucleus induced collision is more than double the ones extracted in the collisions induced by the non-halo Beryllium isotopes. A large contribution to the total-reaction cross-section in the {sup 11}Be case could be attributed to transfer and/or break-up events.
Renormalization group analysis of graphene with a supercritical Coulomb impurity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishida, Yusuke
2016-08-01
We develop a field-theoretic approach to massless Dirac fermions in a supercritical Coulomb potential. By introducing an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid at the potential center, the critical Coulomb charge can be made arbitrarily small for one partial-wave sector, where a perturbative renormalization group analysis becomes possible. We show that a scattering amplitude for reflection of particle at the potential center exhibits the renormalization group limit cycle, i.e., log-periodic revolutions as a function of the scattering energy, revealing the emergence of discrete scale invariance. This outcome is further incorporated in computing the induced charge and current densities, which turn out to have power-law tails with coefficients log-periodic with respect to the distance from the potential center. Our findings are consistent with the previous prediction obtained by directly solving the Dirac equation and can in principle be realized by graphene experiments with charged impurities.
Recent developments in Coulomb breakup calculations
Capel, P.
2008-05-12
The theory of reactions applied to Coulomb breakup of loosely-bound projectiles is reviewed. Both the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) and time-dependent models are described. Recent results about sensitivity of breakup calculations to the projectile wave function are reviewed. Analyses of the extraction of radiative-capture cross section from Coulomb breakup measurements are presented. Current developments in breakup theory are also mentioned.
Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves
Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.
2013-01-15
By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.
Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B
2014-07-01
This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese.
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.
2016-07-01
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.
Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S
2016-07-21
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.
Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Charles
Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.
Interatomic and intermolecular Coulombic decay: the coming of age story
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jahnke, T.
2015-04-01
In pioneering work by Cederbaum et al an excitation mechanism was proposed that occurs only in loosely bound matter (Cederbaum et al 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4778): it turned out, that (in particular) in cases where a local Auger decay is energetically forbidden, an excited atom or molecule is able to decay in a scheme which was termed ‘interatomic Coulombic decay’ (or ‘intermolecular Coulombic decay’) (ICD). As ICD occurs, the excitation energy is released by transferring it to an atomic or molecular neighbor of the initially excited particle. As a consequence the neighboring atom or molecule is ionized as it receives the energy. A few years later the existence of ICD was confirmed experimentally (Marburger et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 203401; Jahnke et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 163401; Öhrwall et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 173401) by different techniques. Since this time it has been found that ICD is not (as initially suspected) an exotic feature of van der Waals or hydrogen bonded systems, but that ICD is a very general and common feature occurring after a manifold of excitation schemes and in numerous weakly bound systems, as revealed by more than 200 publications. It was even demonstrated, that ICD can become more efficient than a local Auger decay in some system. This review will concentrate on recent experimental investigations on ICD. It will briefly introduce the phenomenon and give a short summary of the ‘early years’ of ICD (a detailed view on this episode of investigations can be found in the review article by U Hergenhahn with the same title (Hergenhahn 2011 J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184 78)). More recent articles will be presented that investigate the relevance of ICD in biological systems and possible radiation damage of such systems due to ICD. The occurrence of ICD and ICD-like processes after different excitation schemes and in different systems is covered in the middle section: in that context the helium dimer (He2
New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments.
Eckert, Martina; Gómez-Martinho, Ignacio; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán
2017-02-12
The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players' immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive) purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu). The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise.
Excitation and inhibition in anterior cingulate predict use of past experiences
Nelissen, Natalie; Stagg, Charlotte J
2017-01-01
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) mediates updating and maintenance of cognitive models of the world used to drive adaptive reward-guided behavior. We investigated the neurochemical underpinnings of this process. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in humans, to measure levels of glutamate and GABA in dACC. We examined their relationship to neural signals in dACC, measured with fMRI, and cognitive task performance. Both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in dACC were predictive of the strength of neural signals in dACC and behavioral adaptation. Glutamate levels were correlated, first, with stronger neural activity representing information to be learnt about the tasks’ costs and benefits and, second, greater use of this information in the guidance of behavior. GABA levels were negatively correlated with the same neural signals and the same indices of behavioral influence. Our results suggest that glutamate and GABA in dACC affect the encoding and use of past experiences to guide behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20365.001 PMID:28055824
New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments
Eckert, Martina; Gómez-Martinho, Ignacio; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán
2017-01-01
The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players’ immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive) purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu). The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise. PMID:28208682
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hundt, P. Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E.; Beck, Rainer D.; Guo, Han; Jackson, Bret
2017-02-01
Quantum state resolved reactivity measurements probe the role of vibrational symmetry on the vibrational activation of the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on Ni(111). IR-IR double resonance excitation in a molecular beam was used to prepare CH4 in three different vibrational symmetry components, A1, E, and F2, of the 2ν3 antisymmetric stretch overtone vibration as well as in the ν1+ν3 symmetric plus antisymmetric C-H stretch combination band of F2 symmetry. The quantum state specific dissociation probability S0 (sticking coefficient) was measured for each of the four vibrational states by detecting chemisorbed carbon on Ni(111) as the product of CH4 dissociation by Auger electron spectroscopy. We observe strong mode specificity, where S0 for the most reactive state ν1+ν3 is an order of magnitude higher than for the least reactive, more energetic 2ν3-E state. Our first principles quantum scattering calculations show that as molecules in the ν1 state approach the surface, the vibrational amplitude becomes localized on the reacting C-H bond, making them very reactive. This behavior results from the weakening of the reacting C-H bond as the molecule approaches the surface, decoupling its motion from the three non-reacting C-H stretches. Similarly, we find that overtone normal mode states with more ν1 character are more reactive: S0(2ν1) > S0(ν1 + ν3) > S0(2ν3). The 2ν3 eigenstates excited in the experiment can be written as linear combinations of these normal mode states. The highly reactive 2ν1 and ν1 + ν3 normal modes, being of A1 and F2 symmetry, can contribute to the 2ν3-A1 and 2ν3-F2 eigenstates, respectively, boosting their reactivity over the E component, which contains no ν1 character due to symmetry.
Hundt, P Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E; Beck, Rainer D; Guo, Han; Jackson, Bret
2017-02-07
Quantum state resolved reactivity measurements probe the role of vibrational symmetry on the vibrational activation of the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on Ni(111). IR-IR double resonance excitation in a molecular beam was used to prepare CH4 in three different vibrational symmetry components, A1, E, and F2, of the 2ν3 antisymmetric stretch overtone vibration as well as in the ν1+ν3 symmetric plus antisymmetric C-H stretch combination band of F2 symmetry. The quantum state specific dissociation probability S0 (sticking coefficient) was measured for each of the four vibrational states by detecting chemisorbed carbon on Ni(111) as the product of CH4 dissociation by Auger electron spectroscopy. We observe strong mode specificity, where S0 for the most reactive state ν1+ν3 is an order of magnitude higher than for the least reactive, more energetic 2ν3-E state. Our first principles quantum scattering calculations show that as molecules in the ν1 state approach the surface, the vibrational amplitude becomes localized on the reacting C-H bond, making them very reactive. This behavior results from the weakening of the reacting C-H bond as the molecule approaches the surface, decoupling its motion from the three non-reacting C-H stretches. Similarly, we find that overtone normal mode states with more ν1 character are more reactive: S0(2ν1) > S0(ν1 + ν3) > S0(2ν3). The 2ν3 eigenstates excited in the experiment can be written as linear combinations of these normal mode states. The highly reactive 2ν1 and ν1 + ν3 normal modes, being of A1 and F2 symmetry, can contribute to the 2ν3-A1 and 2ν3-F2 eigenstates, respectively, boosting their reactivity over the E component, which contains no ν1 character due to symmetry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1989-01-01
An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; ...
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.« less
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; Elster, Ch.; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, G.; Escher, J. E.; Hlophe, L.
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10^{-1} to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.
Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations
Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas
2015-12-14
We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.
Anomalous Coulomb drag in bilayer graphene double layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaomeng; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip
Bilayer graphene double-layer structure consists of two layers of bilayer graphene separated by atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). With a perfect Fermi surface nesting and strong electron-electron interaction (ECoulomb > Ekinetic), such systems offer exciting platforms to study interaction driven phenomena, such as Coulomb drag and exciton condensation. We fabricate ultra-clean encapsulated bilayer graphene double layers with dry pick-up method. Room temperature drag measurement on our devices shows the sign of drag agree with the typical Fermi liquid behavior. However, at lower temperatures, the sign of drag reversed, indicating a new drag mechanism emerges and dominates. We measure this with different geometry, temperature, bias and gating to investigate the origin of such effect and discuss the implication of the drag sign changes.
Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra
2016-08-01
Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.
Three-body Coulomb continuum problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berakdar, J.; Briggs, J. S.
1994-06-01
A symmetric representation of the three-body Coulomb continuum wave function as a product of three two-body Coulomb wave functions is modified to allow for three-body effects whereby the Sommerfeld parameter describing the strength of interaction of any two particles is affected by the presence of the third particle. This approach gives excellent agreement with near-threshold absolute (e,2e) ionization cross sections. In particular a recently observed deep minimum in noncoplanar geometry is reproduced for the first time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiguo; Wu, Chengyin; Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Wang, Peng; Deng, Yongkai; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yunquan; Gong, Qihuang
2015-08-01
We have experimentally and theoretically studied the fragmentation dynamics of argon trimer (A r3) in intense laser fields. By coincidently measuring the momentum vectors, we obtained the emission geometry of the three fragmental ions produced in the three-body fragmentation process. In addition to the direct Coulomb explosion channels, we observed the indirect Coulomb explosion channels with Rydberg excitation. We have further developed a classical polyatomic molecular ensemble model, in which all interactions among electrons and nuclei are fully included, to simulate the fragmentation dynamics of argon trimer in intense laser fields. The experimental observations have been reproduced by the model calculation. The simulations show that the Rydberg excitation modifies the kinetic energy release as well as the emission geometry of fragmental ions during the explosion process. The study provides insight into the correlation dynamics of electrons and nuclei of many-body physics driven by intense laser fields.
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-02-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Marciniak, A.; Despré, V.; Barillot, T.; Rouzée, A.; Galbraith, M.C.E.; Klei, J.; Yang, C.-H.; Smeenk, C.T.L.; Loriot, V.; Reddy, S. Nagaprasad; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Mahapatra, S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Lépine, F.
2015-01-01
Highly excited molecular species are at play in the chemistry of interstellar media and are involved in the creation of radiation damage in a biological tissue. Recently developed ultrashort extreme ultraviolet light sources offer the high excitation energies and ultrafast time-resolution required for probing the dynamics of highly excited molecular states on femtosecond (fs) (1 fs=10−15s) and even attosecond (as) (1 as=10−18 s) timescales. Here we show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) undergo ultrafast relaxation on a few tens of femtoseconds timescales, involving an interplay between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. Our work reveals a general property of excited radical PAHs that can help to elucidate the assignment of diffuse interstellar absorption bands in astrochemistry, and provides a benchmark for the manner in which coupled electronic and nuclear dynamics determines reaction pathways in large molecules following extreme ultraviolet excitation. PMID:26268456
Hundt, P. Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E.; Beck, Rainer D.; ...
2017-02-07
Quantum state resolved reactivity measurements probe the role of vibrational symmetry on the vibrational activation of the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on Ni(111). IR-IR double resonance excitation in a molecular beam was used to prepare CH4 in three different vibrational symmetry components A1, E, and F2 of the 2ν32 antisymmetric stretch overtone vibration as well as in the ν1+ν3 symmetric plus antisymmetric C-H stretch combination band of F2 symmetry. We measured the quantum state specific dissociation probability S0 (sticking coefficient) for each of the four vibrational states by detecting chemisorbed carbon on Ni(111) as the product of CH4 dissociation bymore » Auger electron spectroscopy. We also observe strong mode specificity, where S0 for the most reactive state ν1+ν3 is an order of magnitude higher than for the least reactive, more energetic 2ν3-E state. Our first principles quantum scattering calculations show that as molecules in the ν1 state approach the surface, the vibrational amplitude becomes localized on the reacting C-H bond, making them very reactive. We found that this behavior results from the weakening of the reacting C-H bond as the molecule approaches the surface, decoupling its motion from the three non-reacting C-H stretches. Similarly, we find that overtone normal mode states with more ν1 character are more reactive: S0(2ν1) > S0(ν1+ν3) > S0(2ν3). The 2ν3 eigenstates excited in the experiment can be written as linear combinations of these normal mode states. The highly reactive 2ν1 and ν1+ν3 normal modes, being of A1 and F2 symmetry, can contribute to the 2ν3-A1 and 2ν3-F2 eigenstates, respectively, boosting their reactivity over the E component, which contains no ν1 character due to symmetry.« less
A Coulomb-Like Off-Shell T-Matrix with the Correct Coulomb Phase Shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oryu, Shinsho; Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Togawa, Yoshio
2017-03-01
We confirm the reliability of the well-known Coulomb renormalization method (CRM). It is found that the CRM is only available for a very-long-range screened Coulomb potential (SCP). However, such an SCP calculation in momentum space is considerably difficult because of the cancelation of significant digits. In contrast to the CRM, we propose a new method by using an on-shell equivalent SCP and the rest term. The two-potential theory with r-space is introduced, which defines fully the off-shell Coulomb amplitude.
Coulomb drag between helical Luttinger liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kainaris, N.; Gornyi, I. V.; Levchenko, A.; Polyakov, D. G.
2017-01-01
We theoretically study Coulomb drag between two helical edges with broken spin-rotational symmetry, such as would occur in two capacitively coupled quantum spin Hall insulators. For the helical edges, Coulomb drag is particularly interesting because it specifically probes the inelastic interactions that break the conductance quantization for a single edge. Using the kinetic equation formalism, supplemented by bosonization, we find that the drag resistivity ρD exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the temperature T . In the limit of low T ,ρD vanishes with decreasing T as a power law if intraedge interactions are not too strong. This is in stark contrast to Coulomb drag in conventional quantum wires, where ρD diverges at T →0 irrespective of the strength of repulsive interactions. Another unusual property of Coulomb drag between the helical edges concerns higher T for which, unlike in the Luttinger liquid model, drag is mediated by plasmons. The special type of plasmon-mediated drag can be viewed as a distinguishing feature of the helical liquid—because it requires peculiar umklapp scattering only available in the presence of a Dirac point in the electron spectrum.
Solution of Coulomb system in momentum space
Lin, D.-H.
2008-02-15
The solution of D-dimensional Coulomb system is solved in momentum space by path integral. From which the topological effect of a magnetic flux in the system is given. It is revealed that the flux effect represented by the two-dimensional field of Aharonov-Bohm covers any space-dimensions.
Coulomb Logarithm, Version 1.0
Singleton, Robert
2016-11-23
Clog is a library of charged particle stopping powers and related Coulomb logarithm processes in a plasma. The stopping power is a particularly useful quantity for plasma physics, as it measures the energy loss of per unit length of charged particle as it traverses a plasma. Clog's primary stopping power is the BPS (Brown-Preston-Singleton) theory.
Coulomb breakup of 22C in a four-body model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinilla, E. C.; Descouvemont, P.
2016-08-01
Breakup cross sections are determined for the Borromean nucleus 22C by using a four-body eikonal model, including Coulomb corrections. Bound and continuum states are constructed within a 20C+n +n three-body model in hyperspherical coordinates. We compute continuum states with the correct asymptotic behavior through the R -matrix method. For the n +n potential, we use the Minnesota interaction. As there is no precise experimental information on 21C, we define different parameter sets for the 20C+n potentials. These parameter sets provide different scattering lengths, and resonance energies of an expected 3 /2+ excited state. Then we analyze the 22C ground-state energy and rms radius, as well as E 1 strength distributions and breakup cross sections. The E 1 strength distribution presents an enhancement at low energies. Its amplitude is associated with the low binding energy, rather than with a three-body resonance. We show that the shape of the cross section at low energies is sensitive to the ground-state properties. In addition, we suggest the existence of a low-energy 2+ resonance, which should be observable in breakup experiments.
Cotunneling Drag Effect in Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, A. J.; Lim, J. S.; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Amasha, S.; Katine, J. A.; Shtrikman, Hadas; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2016-08-01
In Coulomb drag, a current flowing in one conductor can induce a voltage across an adjacent conductor via the Coulomb interaction. The mechanisms yielding drag effects are not always understood, even though drag effects are sufficiently general to be seen in many low-dimensional systems. In this Letter, we observe Coulomb drag in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot and, through both experimental and theoretical arguments, identify cotunneling as essential to obtaining a correct qualitative understanding of the drag behavior.
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. R.
1999-01-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
Double excitations in finite systems.
Romaniello, P; Sangalli, D; Berger, J A; Sottile, F; Molinari, L G; Reining, L; Onida, G
2009-01-28
Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is widely used in the study of linear response properties of finite systems. However, there are difficulties in properly describing excited states, which have double- and higher-excitation characters, which are particularly important in molecules with an open-shell ground state. These states would be described if the exact TDDFT kernel were used; however, within the adiabatic approximation to the exchange-correlation (xc) kernel, the calculated excitation energies have a strict single-excitation character and are fewer than the real ones. A frequency-dependent xc kernel could create extra poles in the response function, which would describe states with a multiple-excitation character. We introduce a frequency-dependent xc kernel, which can reproduce, within TDDFT, double excitations in finite systems. In order to achieve this, we use the Bethe-Salpeter equation with a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W(omega), which can describe these excitations, and from this we obtain the xc kernel. Using a two-electron model system, we show that the frequency dependence of W does indeed introduce the double excitations that are instead absent in any static approximation of the electron-hole screening.
Search for intrinsic collective excitations in Sm152
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Garrett, P. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Allmond, J. M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Dashdorj, D.; Choudry, S. N.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Mynk, M. G.; McEllistrem, M. T.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N.; Teng, R.; Yates, S. W.
2008-06-01
The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0+ state in Sm152 makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of Sm152 are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0+ states in this “soft” nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon Kπ=0+quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2+,K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited Kπ=0+ band and a probable 3+ band member are established.
Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Feynman rules for Coulomb gauge QCD
Andrasi, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2012-10-15
The Coulomb gauge in nonabelian gauge theories is attractive in principle, but beset with technical difficulties in perturbation theory. In addition to ordinary Feynman integrals, there are, at 2-loop order, Christ-Lee (CL) terms, derived either by correctly ordering the operators in the Hamiltonian, or by resolving ambiguous Feynman integrals. Renormalization theory depends on the sub-graph structure of ordinary Feynman graphs. The CL terms do not have a sub-graph structure. We show how to carry out renormalization in the presence of CL terms, by re-expressing these as 'pseudo-Feynman' integrals. We also explain how energy divergences cancel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Coulomb gauge QCD, we re-express Christ-Lee terms in the Hamiltonian as pseudo-Feynman integrals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This gives a subgraph structure, and allows the ordinary renormalization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It also leads to cancellation of energy-divergences.
Coulomb edge effects in graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaskolski, W.; Ayuela, A.
2014-10-01
Coulomb effects in graphene nanoribbons with arbitrary edges are investigated with the use of a mean-field Hubbard model. It was recently shown that chiral ribbons with minimal edges, characterized by the translation vector (n,m), have a similar structure of bands localized around the Fermi energy as pure zigzag ribbons (n-m,0). Here we show that these flat bands in both ribbon cases differ in detail due to the perturbation induced by armchair edge nodes. For chiral ribbons the edge bands split at the zone boundary, where the corresponding bands of (n-m,0) zigzag ribbons are degenerate. Coulomb interactions enhance strongly this splitting and at the same time they bring spin into play. We modify each edge keeping global sublattice balance to find that spin degeneracy can be partially lifted. The breaking of spin-degeneracy depends on the asymmetry between the edges and in some cases leads to spin-polarized currents.
Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.
Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo
2015-03-13
Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy.
Coulomb impurities in two-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jia-Lin; Li, Guo; Yang, Ning
2017-03-01
Introducing a powerful method, we obtain the exact solutions for a Coulomb impurity in two-dimensional infinite and finite topological insulators. The level order and zero-energy degeneracy of the spectra are found to be quite different between topological trivial and nontrivial phases. For quantum dots of topological insulator, the variation of the edge and Coulomb states with dot size, Coulomb potential, and magnetic field are clearly shown. It is found that for small dots the edge states can be strongly coupled with the Coulomb states and for large dots the edge states are insensitive to the Coulomb fields but sensitive to the magnetic fields.
Coulomb interaction on spin-1 particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owen, D. A.; Barrett, R. C.
2003-11-01
Using the electro-weak theory, we find the lowest order perturbative correction to a spin-1 particle in an external Coulomb field. We show this leads to a correction of order (Zα)4 and is independent of the mass of the external field. Previous work with Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (see Nedjadi and Barrett [J. Math. Phys. 35 (1994) 4517]) and the Proca equation has failed to produce this correction.
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. R.
1999-01-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier
Cubero, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Buchmann, L.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P.; Diget, D. G.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Mukha, I.
2011-10-28
We have studied the dynamical effects of the halo structure of {sup 11}Li on the scattering on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. This experiment was performed at ISAC-II at TRIUMF with a world record in production of the post-accelerated {sup 11}Li beam. As part of this study we report here on the first measurement of the elastic cross section of the core nucleus, i.e. {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. A preliminary optical model analysis has been performed in order to extract a global optical potential to describe the measured angular distributions.
Scattering of Halo Nuclei at Energies below and around the Coulomb Barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borge, M. J. G.; Cubero, M.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Moro, A. M.; Pesudo, V.; Acosta, L.; Alcorta, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Bender, P.; Buchmann, L.; Diget, C. A.; Di Pietro, A.; Escrig, D.; Falou, H. A.; Figuera, P. P.; Fulton, B. R.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Garnsworthy, A.; Gómez-Camacho, J.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Lay, J. A.; Madurga, M.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Rajabali, M.; Sarazin, F.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Unsworth, C.; Walden, P.
The loosely bound structure of halo nuclei is predicted to affect the collisions with heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. We report here on the results on a series of experiments done at different facilities to study the behaviour of the scattering of the archetype of the halo nuclei: 6He, 11Li, and 11Be on heavy targets at energies below and around the Coulomb barrier. The results are interpreted in the framework of Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channel calculations (CDCC). The departure from Rutherford scattering is larger than expected. In first approximation the effect certainly scales with the loosely bound character of the projectile.
Measurement of the 92,93,94,100Mo(γ,n) reactions by Coulomb Dissociation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Göbel, K.; Adrich, P.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aksouh, F.; Aumann, T.; Babilon, M.; Behr, K.-H.; Benlliure, J.; Berg, T.; Böhmer, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brünle, A.; Beyer, R.; Casarejos, E.; Chartier, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Chatillon, A.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Deveaux, L.; Elvers, M.; Elze, T. W.; Emling, H.; Erhard, M.; Ershova; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Geissel, H.; Górska, M.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Hellstroem, M.; Ickert, G.; Johansson, H.; Junghans, A. R.; Käppeler, F.; Kiselev, O.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindenberg, K.; Litvinov, Y. A.; Maierbeck, P.; Movsesyan, A.; Müller, S.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Paar, N.; Palit, R.; Paschalis, S.; Plag, R.; Prokopowicz, W.; Reifarth, R.; Rossi, D. M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Simon, H.; Sonnabend, K.; Sümmerer, K.; Surówka, G.; Vretenar, D.; Wagner, A.; Walter, S.; Waluś, W.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Weigand, M.; Winckler, N.; Winkler, M.; Zilges, A.
2016-01-01
The Coulomb Dissociation (CD) cross sections of the stable isotopes 92,94,100Mo and of the unstable isotope 93Mo were measured at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Experimental data on these isotopes may help to explain the problem of the underproduction of 92,94Mo and 96,98Ru in the models of p-process nucleosynthesis. The CD cross sections obtained for the stable Mo isotopes are in good agreement with experiments performed with real photons, thus validating the method of Coulomb Dissociation. The result for the reaction 93Mo(γ,n) is especially important since the corresponding cross section has not been measured before. A preliminary integral Coulomb Dissociation cross section of the 94Mo(γ,n) reaction is presented. Further analysis will complete the experimental database for the (γ,n) production chain of the p-isotopes of molybdenum.
Influence of the Coulomb Force on Spray Cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhlman, John M.; Kreitzer, Paul J.; Mehra, Deepak; Gray, Donald D.; Yerkes, Kirk L.
2007-01-01
Effects of the Coulomb electrical body force on heat transfer performance of an instrumented spray cooling experiment are reported. Heat transfer performance is documented for a range of spray volume flow rates and heater power levels using the dielectric liquids, FC-72 and HFE-7000, sprayed onto a Thick Film Resistor (TFR) heater; along with flow visualization results using a transparent Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) heater. Two Coulomb force electrode geometries show modest but consistent improvements in heat transfer (order of 5-15%), but only at heat fluxes where boiling of the liquid film occurs. Flow visualization shows a highly contorted liquid film forming on the heater surface. These flow visualization results are used to aid in the estimation of characteristic time scales governing the effects of surface tension, gravity, heating of the liquid film, and vaporization of the film. For the present dense liquid sprays, it is concluded that none of these time scales are as short as the average time between droplet impacts into a heater surface area equal to the estimated size of the thin, crater-like liquid films formed by a previous droplet impact.
Stoller, R J
1976-08-01
Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chutjian, A.; Msezane, A. Z.; Henry, R. J. W.
1983-01-01
Differential electron-scattering cross sections for inelastic excitation of an ion have been measured for the first time. Experiments were carried out in a cross electron-ion beam geometry for the 4(2)S yields 4(2)P transition in Zn II at 75 eV. In addition, differential cross sections were calculated at energies between 15 and 100 eV in a five-state close-coupling approximation in which 4s, 4p, 3d(9)4s(2), 5s, and 4 d states were included. Agreement in shape between theory and experiment at 75 eV is excellent.
Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY
2012-03-13
The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satoh, Kazuhiro
1989-08-01
Numerical studies are made out the behavior of a random neural network in which each neuron is coupled to a certain number of randomly chosen neurons. Such a random-net serves as a simple model for an elemental sub-network of the cortex. Neurons are regarded as binary decision elements, and they synchronously update their values in discrete time steps according to a deterministic equation (the McCulloch-Pitts model). It is found that each random-net containing one hundred neurons has only a few kinds of characteristic modes of excitation. Periods of these modes are usually less than ten steps when the number of connections per neuron is two to five. For the random-net containing one thousand neurons, an excited mode is practically aperiodic. When the refractory period is introduced, however, a nearly periodic oscillation takes place in the activity of the network.
France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Green, James C.; Burgh, Eric B.
2013-07-20
We present the first science results from the Sub-orbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE): moderate resolution 1020-1070 A spectroscopy of four sightlines through the local interstellar medium. High signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of {eta} Uma, {alpha} Vir, {delta} Sco, and {zeta} Oph were obtained during a 2013 April 21 rocket flight. The SLICE observations constrain the density, molecular photoexcitation rates, and physical conditions present in the interstellar material toward {delta} Sco and {zeta} Oph. Our spectra indicate a factor of two lower total N(H{sub 2}) than previously reported for {delta} Sco, which we attribute to higher S/N and better scattered light control in the new SLICE observations. We find N(H{sub 2}) = 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} on the {delta} Sco sightline, with kinetic and excitation temperatures of 67 and 529 K, respectively, and a cloud density of n{sub H} = 56 cm{sup -3}. Our observations of the bulk of the molecular sightline toward {zeta} Oph are consistent with previous measurements (N(H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} at T{sub 01}(H{sub 2}) = 66 K and T{sub exc} = 350 K). However, we detect significantly more rotationally excited H{sub 2} toward {zeta} Oph than previously observed. We infer a cloud density in the rotationally excited component of n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7600 cm{sup -3} and suggest that the increased column densities of excited H{sub 2} are a result of the ongoing interaction between {zeta} Oph and its environment; also manifest as the prominent mid-IR bowshock observed by WISE and the presence of vibrationally excited H{sub 2} molecules observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergienko, T.; Gustavsson, B.; Steen, Å.; Brändström, U.; Rietveld, M.; Leyser, T. B.; Honary, F.
During an ionospheric heating experiment in Tromsø during February 1999, artificial 630.0 nm airglow enhancements have been observed by the auroral large imaging system (ALIS). The airglow enhancements took place in the F region of the ionosphere near the heating wave reflection point. Two possible mechanisms are proposed for the explanation of this phenomenon. The first is the excitation of the O(1D) state by the energetic electrons from the tail of the artificially heated thermal electron gas, and the second is the excitation of this state by the plasma instability accelerated electrons. The detailed spatial and temporal characteristics of the red line airglow are obtained from the ALIS measurements. An analysis of these characteristics based on the models of thermal response of the ionosphere and the atmospheric optical emissions allows us to draw conclusions about the mechanism of the interaction between the heating radio wave and the ionospheric plasma.
Particle Diffusion Due to Coulomb Scattering
V. Lebedev and S. Nagaitsev
2002-06-03
Conventionally, the multiple and single particle scattering in a storage ring are considered to be independent. Such an approach is simple and often yields sufficiently accurate results. Nevertheless, there is a class of problems where such an approach is not adequate and the single and multiple scattering need to be considered together. This can be achieved by solving an integro-differential equation for the particle distribution function, which correctly treats particle Coulomb scattering in the presence of betatron motion. A derivation of the equation is presented in the article. A numerical solution for one practical case is also considered.
Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia; Klimov, Victor I.; Stockman, Mark I.
2008-08-01
In this paper we propose a general and powerful theory of the plasmonic enhancement of the many-body phenomena resulting in a closed expression for the surface plasmon-dressed Coulomb interaction. We illustrate this theory by computing dressed interaction explicitly for an important example of metal-dielectric nanoshells which exhibits a rich resonant behavior in magnitude and phase. This interaction is used to describe the nanoplasmonic-enhanced FÂ¨orster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between nanocrystal quantum dots near a nanoshell.
Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durach, M.; Rusina, A.; Klimov, V. I.; Stockman, M. I.
2008-10-01
In this paper, we propose a general and powerful theory of the plasmonic enhancement of the many-body phenomena resulting in a closed expression for the surface plasmon-dressed Coulomb interaction. We illustrate this theory by computing the dressed interaction explicitly for an important example of metal-dielectric nanoshells which exhibits a rich resonant behavior in magnitude and phase. This interaction is used to describe the nanoplasmonic-enhanced Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between nanocrystal quantum dots near a nanoshell.
Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas
Hirvijoki, Eero
2016-09-14
In this study, an action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas is proposed. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd potentials. Conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles.
The use of Coulomb-attenuated methods for the calculation of electronic circular dichroism spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbin, Dmitry; Ruud, Kenneth
2008-06-01
We explore different parametrizations of the Coulomb-attenuated method B3LYP functional (CAM-B3LYP) for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra. In order to assess the performance of the different parametrizations, the calculated results are compared with high-level coupled-cluster calculations at the CC2 and CCSD levels of theory. We demonstrate that it is not possible to directly obtain good results both for the excitation energies and the rotational strengths simultaneously for any of the parametrizations of the CAM-B3LYP functional that we have tested. However, using the lowest excited state as a reference instead of the ground state—that is, shifting uniformly all excitation energies—leads to one parametrization which performs better than the others and thus can be recommended for studies of circular dichroism using the CAM-B3LYP functional.
Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields
Fromer, Neil Alan
2002-01-01
Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.
Doping Induced Electronic Phase Separation and Coulomb Bubbles in Layered Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2010-12-01
We study properties of charge fluids with random impurities or heavy polarons using a microscopic Hamiltonian with the full many-body Coulomb interaction. At zero temperature and high enough density the bosonic fluid is superconducting, but when density decreases the Coulomb interaction will be strongly over-screened and impurities or polarons begin to trap charge carriers forming bound quasiparticle like clusters, which we call Coulomb bubbles or clumps. These bubbles are embedded inside the superconductor and form nuclei of a new insulating state. The growth of a bubble is terminated by the Coulomb force. The fluid contains two groups of charge carriers associated with free and localized states. The insulating state arises via a percolation of the insulating islands of bubbles, which cluster and prevent the flow of the electrical supercurrent through the system. Our results are applicable to HTSC. There the Coulomb fluids discussed in the paper correspond to mobile holes located on Cu sites and heavy polarons or charged impurities located on Oxygen sites. As a result of our calculations the following two-componet picture of two competing orders in cuprates arise. The mobile and localized states are competing with each other and their balance is controlled by doping. At high doping a large Fermi surface is open. There the density of real charge carriers is significantly larger than the density of the doped ones. When doping decreases more and more carriers are localized as Coulomb clumps which are creating around heavy polarons localized on Oxygen sites and forming a regular lattice. The picture is consistent with the Gorkov and Teitelbaum (GT) analysis 1,2 of the transport, Hall effect data and the ARPES spectra as well as with nanoscale superstructures observed in Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM) experiments [3-8]. The scenario of the clump formation may be also applicable to pnictides, where two types of clumps may arise even at very high temperatures.
Doping Induced Electronic Phase Separation and Coulomb Bubbles in Layered Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
We study properties of charge fluids with random impurities or heavy polarons using a microscopic Hamiltonian with the full many-body Coulomb interaction. At zero temperature and high enough density the bosonic fluid is superconducting, but when density decreases the Coulomb interaction will be strongly over-screened and impurities or polarons begin to trap charge carriers forming bound quasiparticle like clusters, which we call Coulomb bubbles or clumps. These bubbles are embedded inside the superconductor and form nuclei of a new insulating state. The growth of a bubble is terminated by the Coulomb force. The fluid contains two groups of charge carriers associated with free and localized states. The insulating state arises via a percolation of the insulating islands of bubbles, which cluster and prevent the flow of the electrical supercurrent through the system. Our results are applicable to HTSC. There the Coulomb fluids discussed in the paper correspond to mobile holes located on Cu sites and heavy polarons or charged impurities located on Oxygen sites. As a result of our calculations the following two-componet picture of two competing orders in cuprates arise. The mobile and localized states are competing with each other and their balance is controlled by doping. At high doping a large Fermi surface is open. There the density of real charge carriers is significantly larger than the density of the doped ones. When doping decreases more and more carriers are localized as Coulomb clumps which are creating around heavy polarons localized on Oxygen sites and forming a regular lattice. The picture is consistent with the Gorkov and Teitelbaum (GT) analysis 1,2 of the transport, Hall effect data and the ARPES spectra as well as with nanoscale superstructures observed in Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM) experiments [3-8]. The scenario of the clump formation may be also applicable to pnictides, where two types of clumps may arise even at very high temperatures.
New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function
Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.
2015-05-15
Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.
Acoustically excited heated jets. 1: Internal excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Salikuddin, M.; Morris, P. J.
1988-01-01
The effects of relatively strong upstream acoustic excitation on the mixing of heated jets with the surrounding air are investigated. To determine the extent of the available information on experiments and theories dealing with acoustically excited heated jets, an extensive literature survey was carried out. The experimental program consisted of flow visualization and flowfield velocity and temperature measurements for a broad range of jet operating and flow excitation conditions. A 50.8-mm-diam nozzle was used for this purpose. Parallel to the experimental study, an existing theoretical model of excited jets was refined to include the region downstream of the jet potential core. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment in moderately heated jets. However, the theory has not yet been confirmed for highly heated jets. It was found that the sensitivity of heated jets to upstream acoustic excitation varies strongly with the jet operating conditions and that the threshold excitation level increases with increasing jet temperature. Furthermore, the preferential Strouhal number is found not to change significantly with a change of the jet operating conditions. Finally, the effects of the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness appear to be similar for both heated and unheated jets at low Mach numbers.
Yu, Zhizhou; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jian
2013-12-11
We report an investigation of Coulomb blockade transport through an endohedral N@C60 weakly coupled with aluminum leads, employing the first-principles method combined with the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function derived from the equation of motion beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. The differential conductance characteristics of the molecular device are calculated within the Coulomb blockade regime, which shows the Coulomb diamond as observed experimentally. When the gate voltage is less than that of the degeneracy point, there are two peaks in the differential conductance with an excited state induced by the change of the exchange interaction between the spin of C60 and the encapsulated nitrogen atom due to the transition from N@C(1-)(60) to N@C(2-)(60), while for a gate voltage larger than that of the degeneracy point, no excited state is available due to the quenching of exchange energy. As a result, there is only one Coulomb blockade peak in the differential conductance from the electron tunneling through the highest energy level below the Fermi level. Our first-principles results are in good agreement with experimental data obtained by an endohedral N@C60 molecular device.
Improved Shell models for screened Coulomb balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, M.; Kaehlert, H.; Henning, C.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.
2006-10-01
Spherical Coulomb crystals in dusty plasmas [1] are well described by an isotropic Yukawa-type pair interaction and an external parabolic confinement as was shown by extensive molecular dynamics simulations [2]. A much simpler description is possible with analytical shell models which have been derived for Yukawas plasmas in [3,4]. Here we analyze improved Yukawa shell models which include correlations along the lines proposed for Coulomb crystals in [5]. The shell configurations are efficiently evaluated using a Monte Carlo procedure. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] H. Totsuji, C. Totsuji, T. Ogawa, and K. Tsuruta, Phys. Rev. E 71, 045401 (2005). [4] C. Henning, M. Bonitz, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, V. Golubnichiy, and D. Block, submitted to Phys. Rev. E [5] W.D. Kraeft and M. Bonitz, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 35, 94 (2006).
Thermodynamic properties of screened Coulomb balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, M.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.
2006-10-01
Complex plasmas in parabolic traps [1,2], especially Coulomb balls, can easily reach a strongly coupled state which is of great current interest in many fields, including trapped ions, ultracold plasmas and condensed matter. The advantage of the dust crystals is the direct experimental access to the individual particle positions, allowing for precision comparisons with theoretical models and numerical simulations. In this work the dependence of melting points of mesoscopic spherical crystals on the screening and particle number is analyzed. We present analytical results which are compared with simulation and experimental data [3,4,5]. It is shown that the influence of the screening on structural properties of these mesoscopic systems exhibts also a strong impact on the melting behavior. This analysis is based on Metropolis thermodynamic Monte Carlo simulations to obtain first principle thermodynamic properties of the strongly correlated Coulomb clusters. Finally, our results allow to propose a new non-invasive diagnostic to determine the dust temperature. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004).[2] P. Ludwig, S. Kosse and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. E 71, 046403 (2005).[3] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [4] O.S. Vaulina, S.A. Khrapak and G.E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. E 66, 016404 (2002). [5] J.P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205003 (2002)
Three-body quantum Coulomb problem: Analytic continuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turbiner, A. V.; Lopez Vieyra, J. C.; Olivares Pilón, H.
2016-08-01
The second (unphysical) critical charge in the three-body quantum Coulomb system of a nucleus of positive charge Z and mass mp, and two electrons, predicted by Stillinger has been calculated to be equal to ZB∞ = 0.904854 and ZBmp = 0.905138 for infinite and finite (proton) mass mp, respectively. It is shown that in both cases, the ground state energy E(Z) (analytically continued beyond the first critical charge Zc, for which the ionization energy vanishes, to ReZ
Effect of Coulomb interaction on multi-electronwave packet dynamics
Shiokawa, T.; Takada, Y.; Konabe, S.; Hatsugai, Y.; Muraguchi, M.; Endoh, T.; Shiraishi, K.
2013-12-04
We have investigated the effect of Coulomb interaction on electron transport in a one-dimensional nanoscale structure using a multi-electron wave packet approach. To study the time evolution, we numerically solve the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation, finding that the electron wave packet dynamics strongly depends on the Coulomb interaction strength. When the Coulomb interaction is large, each electron wave packet moves separately in the presence of an electric field. With weak Coulomb interaction, however, the electron wave packets overlap, forming and moving as one collective wave packet.
Saracini, Claudio; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Zapata Rivera, Jhon E.; Neese, Frank; Meyer, Gerald J.; Karlin, Kenneth D.
2014-01-01
Irradiation of the copper(II)-superoxide synthetic complexes [(TMG3tren)CuII(O2)]+ (1) and [(PV-TMPA)CuII(O2)]+ (2) with visible light resulted in direct photo-generation of O2 gas at low temperature (from −40 °C to −70°C for 1 and from −125 °C to −135 °C for 2) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) solvent. The yield of O2 release was wavelength dependent: λexc = 436 nm, ϕ = 0.29 (for 1), ϕ = 0.11 (for 2), and λexc = 683 nm, ϕ = 0.035 (for 1), ϕ = 0.078 (for 2), which was followed by fast O2-recombination with [(TMG3tren)CuI]+ (3) and [(PV-TMPA)CuI]+ (4). Enthalpic barriers for O2 re-binding to the copper(I) center (~ 10 kJ mol−1) and for O2 dissociation from the superoxide compound 1 (45 kJ mol−1) were determined. TD-DFT studies, carried out for 1, support the experimental results confirming the dissociative character of the excited states formed upon blue or red light laser excitation. PMID:24428309
Saracini, Claudio; Liakos, Dimitrios G; Zapata Rivera, Jhon E; Neese, Frank; Meyer, Gerald J; Karlin, Kenneth D
2014-01-29
Irradiation of the copper(II)-superoxide synthetic complexes [(TMG3tren)Cu(II)(O2)](+) (1) and [(PV-TMPA)Cu(II)(O2)](+) (2) with visible light resulted in direct photogeneration of O2 gas at low temperature (from -40 °C to -70 °C for 1 and from -125 to -135 °C for 2) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) solvent. The yield of O2 release was wavelength dependent: λexc = 436 nm, ϕ = 0.29 (for 1), ϕ = 0.11 (for 2), and λexc = 683 nm, ϕ = 0.035 (for 1), ϕ = 0.078 (for 2), which was followed by fast O2-recombination with [(TMG3tren)Cu(I)](+) (3) and [(PV-TMPA)Cu(I)](+) (4). Enthalpic barriers for O2 rebinding to the copper(I) center (∼10 kJ mol(-1)) and for O2 dissociation from the superoxide compound 1 (45 kJ mol(-1)) were determined. TD-DFT studies, carried out for 1, support the experimental results confirming the dissociative character of the excited states formed upon blue- or red-light laser excitation.
Time-resolved observation of interatomic excitation-energy transfer in argon dimers.
Mizuno, Tomoya; Cörlin, Philipp; Miteva, Tsveta; Gokhberg, Kirill; Kuleff, Alexander; Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Pfeifer, Thomas; Fischer, Andreas; Moshammer, Robert
2017-03-14
The ultrafast transfer of excitation energy from one atom to its neighbor is observed in singly charged argon dimers in a time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (XUV)-pump IR-probe experiment. In the pump step, bound 3s-hole states in the dimer are populated by single XUV-photon ionization. The excitation-energy transfer at avoided crossings of the potential-energy curves leads to dissociation of the dimer, which is experimentally observed by further ionization with a time-delayed IR-probe pulse. From the measured pump-probe delay-dependent kinetic-energy release of coincident Ar(+) + Ar(+) ions, we conclude that the transfer of energy occurs on a time scale of about 800fs. This mechanism represents a fast relaxation process below the energy threshold for interatomic Coulombic decay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horton, Spencer; Liu, Yusong; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas
2016-05-01
Excited state dynamics in polyatomic molecules involve a rich mixture of internal conversion, intersystem crossing, isomerization, and dissociation. Probing these dynamics with ultrafast laser pulses poses a number of challenges, in terms of both the execution of the measurements and their interpretation. We have developed an apparatus for probing excited state dynamics using a 260nm UV-pump pulse and a 156nm Vacuum-UV (VUV) probe pulse. For many systems of interest, an 8eV probe pulse can ionize the molecule from essentially any position along the excited state potential, while not having a background ionization yield from the ground state. Furthermore, given the perturbative interaction of each pulse with the molecule, it is possible interpret and model the experimental results with greater ease and confidence than more complicated probe interactions such as strong field ionization. We compare UV-IR strong-field ionization pump-probe experiments previously conducted directly with our 8eV probing and explore the differences between the two.
Momeni, Mohammad R; Brown, Alex
2015-06-09
The vertical excitation energies of 17 boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core structures with a variety of substituents and ring sizes are benchmarked using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with nine different functionals combined with the cc-pVTZ basis set. When compared to experimental measurements, all functionals provide mean absolute errors (mean AEs) greater than 0.3 eV, larger than the 0.1-0.3 eV differences typically expected from TD-DFT. Due to the high linear correlation of TD-DFT results with experiment, most functionals can be used to predict excitation energies if corrected empirically. Using the CAM-B3LYP functional, 0-0 transition energies are determined, and while the absolute difference is improved (mean AE = 0.478 eV compared to 0.579 eV), the correlation diminishes substantially (R(2) = 0.961 to 0.862). Two very recently introduced charge transfer (CT) indices, q(CT) and d(CT), and electron density difference (EDD) plots demonstrate that CT does not play a significant role for most of the BODIPYs examined and, thus, cannot be the source of error in TD-DFT. To assess TD-DFT methods, vertical excitation energies are determined utilizing TD-HF, configuration interaction CIS and CIS(D), equation of motion EOM-CCSD, SAC-CI, and Laplace-transform based local coupled-cluster singles and approximate doubles LCC2* methods. Moreover, multireference CASSCF and CASPT2 vertical excitation energies were also obtained for all species (except CASPT2 was not feasible for the four largest systems). The SAC-CI/cc-pVDZ, LCC2*/cc-pVDZ, and CASPT2/cc-pVDZ approaches are shown to have the smallest mean AEs of 0.154, 0.109, and 0.100 eV, respectively; the utility of the LCC2* approach is demonstrated for eight extended BODIPYs and aza-BODIPYs. We found that the problems with TD-DFT arise from difficulties in dealing with the differential electron correlation (as assessed by comparing CCS, CC2, LR-CCSD, CCSDR(T), and CCSDR(3) vertical excitation energies for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourgin, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Goasduff, A.; Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Huiming, J.; Scarlassara, F.; Rowley, N.; Szilner, S.; Mijatović, T.
2014-10-01
Background: The nuclear structure of colliding nuclei is known to influence the fusion process. Couplings of the relative motion to nuclear shape deformations and vibrations lead to an enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross section in comparison with the predictions of one-dimensional barrier penetration models. This enhancement is explained by coupled-channels calculations including these couplings. The sub-barrier fusion cross section is also affected by nucleon transfer channels between the colliding nuclei. Purpose: The aim of the present experiment is to investigate the influence of the projectile and target nuclear structures on the fusion cross sections in the Ca40+Ni58 and Ca40+Ni64 systems. Methods: The experimental and theoretical fusion excitation functions as well as the barrier distributions were compared for these two systems. Coupled-channels calculations were performed using the ccfull code. Results: Good agreement was found between the measured and calculated fusion cross sections for the Ca40+Ni58 system. The situation is different for the Ca40+Ni64 system where the coupled-channels calculations with no nucleon transfer clearly underestimate the fusion cross sections below the Coulomb barrier. The fusion excitation function was, however, well reproduced at low and high energies by including the coupling to the neutron pair-transfer channel in the calculations. Conclusions: The nuclear structure of the colliding nuclei influences the fusion cross sections below the Coulomb barrier for both Ca40+Ni58,64 systems. Moreover, we highlighted the effect of the neutron pair-transfer channel on the fusion cross sections in Ca40+Ni64.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcpeak, W. L.
1975-01-01
A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.
Self-Consistent Monte Carlo Study of the Coulomb Interaction under Nano-Scale Device Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sano, Nobuyuki
2011-03-01
It has been pointed that the Coulomb interaction between the electrons is expected to be of crucial importance to predict reliable device characteristics. In particular, the device performance is greatly degraded due to the plasmon excitation represented by dynamical potential fluctuations in high-doped source and drain regions by the channel electrons. We employ the self-consistent 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which could reproduce both the correct mobility under various electron concentrations and the collective plasma waves, to study the physical impact of dynamical potential fluctuations on device performance under the Double-gate MOSFETs. The average force experienced by an electron due to the Coulomb interaction inside the device is evaluated by performing the self-consistent MC simulations and the fixed-potential MC simulations without the Coulomb interaction. Also, the band-tailing associated with the local potential fluctuations in high-doped source region is quantitatively evaluated and it is found that the band-tailing becomes strongly dependent of position in real space even inside the uniform source region. This work was partially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (No. 2160160) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-05-01
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until `forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-05-23
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
Tabletop nucleosynthesis driven by cluster Coulomb explosion.
Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua
2006-10-27
Coulomb explosion of completely ionized (CH4)n, (NH3)n, and (H2O)n clusters will drive tabletop nuclear reactions of protons with 12C6+, 14N7+, and 16O8+ nuclei, extending the realm of nuclear reactions driven by ultraintense laser-heterocluster interaction. The realization for nucleosynthesis in exploding cluster beams requires complete electron stripping from the clusters (at laser intensities I(M) > or = 10(19) W cm(-2)), the utilization of nanodroplets of radius 300-700 A for vertical ionization, and the attainment of the highest energies for the nuclei (i.e., approximately 30 MeV for heavy nuclei and approximately 3 MeV for protons).
Ion Coulomb Crystals and Their Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drewsen, Michael
The following text will give a brief introduction to the physics of the spatially ordered structures, so-called Coulomb crystals, that appear when confined ions are cooled to sufficiently low temperatures. It will as well briefly comment on the very diverse scientific applications of such crystals, which have emerged in the past two decades. While this document lacks figures and many specific references, it is the hope, not the text will stimulate the reader to dig deeper into one or more of the discussed subjects, and inspire her/him to think about new potential applications. A fully referenced journal article of essentially the same text can be found in Physica B 460, 105 (2015) [1].
Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, John H.
We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.
Simulating Coulomb collisions in a magnetized plasma
Hinton, Fred L.
2008-04-15
The problem of simulating ion-ion Coulomb collisions in a plasma in a strong magnetic field is considered. No assumption is made about the ion distribution function except that it is independent of the gyrophase angle, consistent with the assumption that the ion gyrofrequency is much larger than the ion-ion collision frequency. A Langevin method is presented which time-advances the components of a particle's velocity parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, without following the rapidly changing gyrophase. Although the standard Monte Carlo procedure, which uses random sampling, can be used, it is also possible to use a deterministic sampling procedure, where the samples are determined by the points which would be used in a numerical quadrature formula for moments of the Fokker-Planck Green's function. This should reduce the sampling noise compared with the Monte Carlo collision method.
A coulombic hypothesis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Malpress, F H
1984-08-21
A coulombic hypothesis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is presented, founded upon the evidence for negative fixed charge formation during electron transport chain activity. The intermediary force is electrostatic (psi H) and not electrochemical (delta mu H). The electrochemical potential of the chemiosmotic hypothesis is identified as a "phantom" parameter which owes its delusive existence to the procedures by which it is measured. The connection between psi H and the conditional delta mu H values is examined; it entails the use of a variable conversion factor, f, where delta mu H (mV) = f psi H, and the concept of the "protonic status" of the diffuse double layer. A number of problems which beset the chemiosmotic view are reappraised in the light of the new interpretation, and find authentic solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn
2015-03-01
Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).
Dynamical effects in the Coulomb expansion following nuclear fragmentation
Chung, K.C.; Donangelo, R.; Schechter, H.
1987-09-01
The effects of the Coulomb expansion on the fragment kinetic energy spectrum for a fragmentating hot nuclear system is investigated. In particular, /sup 12/C-fragment spectra are calculated and compared with those predicted by the uniform expansion approximation. The results indicate that the energy spectra of fragments are quite sensitive to the details of the Coulomb expansion treatment.
Havermeier, T.; Kreidi, K.; Wallauer, R.; Voss, S.; Schoeffler, M.; Schoessler, S.; Foucar, L.; Neumann, N.; Titze, J.; Sann, H.; Kuehnel, M.; Voigtsberger, J.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Jahnke, T.; Sisourat, N.; Schoellkopf, W.; Grisenti, R. E.
2010-12-15
In the present paper, we show that the absorption of a single photon can singly ionize both atoms of a helium dimer (He{sub 2}): ionization with simultaneous excitation of one atom followed by de-excitation via interatomic Coulombic decay leads to the ejection of an electron from each of the the two atoms of the dimer. Using the Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy technique (COLTRIMS), we obtained angular distributions of these electrons in the laboratory frame and the molecular frame. We observe a pronounced variation of these distributions for different regions of kinetic-energy releases of the ions.
Falcinelli, Stefano; Bartocci, Alessio; Cavalli, Simonetta; Pirani, Fernando; Vecchiocattivi, Franco
2015-10-28
A combined analysis of both new (energy spectra of emitted electrons) and previously published (ionization cross sections) experimental data, measured under the same conditions and concerning electronically excited lighter noble gas -NH3 collisional autoionization processes, is carried out. Such an analysis, performed by exploiting a formulation of the full potential energy surface both in the real and imaginary parts, provides direct information on energetics, structure, and lifetime of the intermediate collision complex over all the configuration space. The marked anisotropy in the attraction of the real part, driving the approach of reagents, and the selective role of the imaginary component, associated to the charge transfer coupling between entrance and exit channels, suggests that reactive events occur almost exclusively in the molecular hemisphere containing the nitrogen lone pair. Crucial details on the stereo-dynamics of elementary collisional autoionization processes are then obtained, in which the open shell nature of the disclosed ionic core of metastable atom plays a crucial role. The same analysis also suggests that the strength of the attraction and the anisotropy of the interaction increases regularly along the series Ne*((3)P), He*((3)S), He*((1)S)-NH3. These findings can be ascribed to the strong rise of the metastable atom electronic polarizability (deformability) along the series. The obtained results can stimulate state of the art ab initio calculations focused on specific features of the transition state (energetics, structure, lifetime, etc.) which can be crucial for a further improvement of the adopted treatment and to better understand the nature of the leading interaction components which are the same responsible for the formation of the intermolecular halogen and hydrogen bond.
Falcinelli, Stefano Vecchiocattivi, Franco; Bartocci, Alessio; Cavalli, Simonetta; Pirani, Fernando
2015-10-28
A combined analysis of both new (energy spectra of emitted electrons) and previously published (ionization cross sections) experimental data, measured under the same conditions and concerning electronically excited lighter noble gas –NH{sub 3} collisional autoionization processes, is carried out. Such an analysis, performed by exploiting a formulation of the full potential energy surface both in the real and imaginary parts, provides direct information on energetics, structure, and lifetime of the intermediate collision complex over all the configuration space. The marked anisotropy in the attraction of the real part, driving the approach of reagents, and the selective role of the imaginary component, associated to the charge transfer coupling between entrance and exit channels, suggests that reactive events occur almost exclusively in the molecular hemisphere containing the nitrogen lone pair. Crucial details on the stereo-dynamics of elementary collisional autoionization processes are then obtained, in which the open shell nature of the disclosed ionic core of metastable atom plays a crucial role. The same analysis also suggests that the strength of the attraction and the anisotropy of the interaction increases regularly along the series Ne{sup *}({sup 3}P), He{sup *}({sup 3}S), He{sup *}({sup 1}S)–NH{sub 3}. These findings can be ascribed to the strong rise of the metastable atom electronic polarizability (deformability) along the series. The obtained results can stimulate state of the art ab initio calculations focused on specific features of the transition state (energetics, structure, lifetime, etc.) which can be crucial for a further improvement of the adopted treatment and to better understand the nature of the leading interaction components which are the same responsible for the formation of the intermolecular halogen and hydrogen bond.
Excited State Mass Spectra of Ω0 c Baryon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Z.; Thakkar, K.; Rai, A. K.; Vinodkumar, P. C.
2016-10-01
We have calculated the radial and orbital excited states of singly charmed baryon Oc using the Hypercentral Constituent Quark Model (hCQM). The confinement potential is assumed as coulomb plus power potential (CPP V ). The ground state and excited state masses are determined with and with out first order correction to the potential. Furthermore, we plot graph between Mass(M) → Potential Index(v). Our calculated results are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical predictions.
Impact of nuclear dynamics on interatomic Coulombic decay in a He dimer
Sisourat, Nicolas; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Kolorenc, Premysl; Scheit, Simona
2010-11-15
After simultaneous ionization and excitation of one helium atom within the giant weakly bound helium dimer, the excited ion can relax via interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) and the excess energy is transferred to ionize the neighboring helium atom. We showed [Sisourat et al. Nature Phys. 6, 508 (2010)] that the distributions of the kinetic energy released by the two ions reflect the nodal structures of the ICD-involved vibrational wave functions. We also demonstrated that energy transfer via ICD between the two helium atoms can take place over more than 14 A. We report here a more detailed analysis of the ICD process and of the impact of the nuclear dynamics on the electronic decay. Nonadiabatic effects during the ICD process and the accuracy of the potential energy curve of helium dimer and of the computed decay rates are also investigated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, Bradford L.
1975-01-01
Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)
Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.; Horen, D.J.
1988-01-01
Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon /sup 17/O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the /sup 208/Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented.
Superallowed fermi beta decay and Coulomb mixing in nuclei
Hardy, J. C.; Towner, I. S.
1999-09-02
Superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay provides a direct measure of the weak vector coupling constant, G{sub v}. We survey current world data on the nine accurately determined transitions of this type, which range from the decay of {sup 10}C to that of {sup 54}Co, and demonstrate that the results confirm conservation of the weak vector current (CVC) but differ at the 98% confidence level from the unitarity condition for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. We examine the reliability of the small calculated corrections that have been applied to the data, and conclude that there are no evident defects although the Coulomb correction, {delta}{sub C}, depends sensitively on nuclear structure and thus needs to be constrained independently. The potential importance of a result in disagreement with unitarity, clearly indicates the need for further work to confirm or deny the discrepancy. We examine the options and recommend priorities for new experiments and improved calculations. Some of the required experiments depend upon the availability of intense radioactive beams. Others are possible with existing facilities. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.
Coulomb gauge ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2010-12-01
A numerical study of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation in Coulomb gauge is performed and solutions for the ghost propagator found. As input, lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used. It is shown that in order to solve completely, the equation must be supplemented by a nonperturbative boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum), which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until forced to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The renormalization is shown to be largely independent of the boundary condition. The boundary condition and the pattern of the solutions can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity. The connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is explored.
Coulomb glass in the random phase approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basylko, S. A.; Onischouk, V. A.; Rosengren, A.
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional model of the electrons localized on randomly distributed donor sites of density n and with the acceptor charge uniformly smeared on these sites, -Ke on each, is considered in the random phase approximation (RPA). For the case K=1/2 the free energy, the density of the one-site energies (DOSE) ɛ, and the pair OSE correlators are found. In the high-temperature region (e2n1/3/T)<1 (T is the temperature) RPA energies and DOSE are in a good agreement with the corresponding data of Monte Carlo simulations. Thermodynamics of the model in this region is similar to the one of an electrolyte in the regime of Debye screening. In the vicinity of the Fermi level μ=0 the OSE correlations, depending on sgn(ɛ1.ɛ2) and with very slow decoupling law, have been found. The main result is that even in the temperature range where the energy of a Coulomb glass is determined by Debye screening effects, the correlations of the long-range nature between the OSE still exist.
Femtosecond Laser-Induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, Reza; Liu, Wing-Ki; Sanderson, Joseph
2016-07-01
We review recent progress in the field of Coulomb imaging using femtosecond laser pulses of variable length, referred to as Femtosecond Multiple Pulse Length Spectroscopy (FEMPULS). This method introduces a multi-dimensional approach to the study of the molecular dynamics of the multiply ionized triatomic molecules: CO2, OCS, and N2O. We describe the experimental setup used and the approaches needed to optimize the multi-particle detection, coincidence technique. The results show the degree of high resolution imaging which can be achieved with few cycle pulses, and how the onset of charge resonance enhanced ionization (CREI) can be observed as pulse length is increased. By coupling pulse length variation with Dalitz and Newton plotting techniques, stepwise processes can be identified for all three molecules, giving insight into the dynamics, particularly on the 3+ state, which has been revealed as the doorway state to CREI. Finally, in the case of OCS, pulse length variation is shown to have the potential as a control mechanism, as it modulates the ratio of stepwise to concerted processes.
Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier
Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.
1995-08-01
Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M.S.; Ricketson, L.F.; Dimits, A.M.; Caflisch, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.
2014-10-01
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε, the computational cost of the method is O(ε{sup −2}) or O(ε{sup −2}(lnε){sup 2}), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε{sup −3}) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10{sup −5}. We discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.
Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerchkovitz, Efrat; Gomis, Jaume; Ishtiaque, Nafiz; Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar; Pufu, Silviu S.
2017-01-01
We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N = 2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one antichiral operator. These extremal correlators are the "minimal" non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt ∗ equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N = 2 SQCD.
Coulomb gauge model for hidden charm tetraquarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, W.; Mo, L. Q.; Wang, Ping; Cotanch, Stephen R.
2013-08-01
The spectrum of tetraquark states with hidden charm is studied within an effective Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian approach. Of the four independent color schemes, two are investigated, the (qcbar)1(cqbar)1 singlet-singlet (molecule) and the (qc)3(qbarcbar)3 triplet-triplet (diquark), for selected JPC states using a variational method. The predicted masses of triplet-triplet tetraquarks are roughly a GeV heavier than the singlet-singlet states. There is also an interesting flavor dependence with (qqbar)1 (ccbar1) states about half a GeV lighter than (qcbar)1(qbarc)1. The lightest 1++ and 1-- predictions are in agreement with the observed X (3872) and Y (4008) masses suggesting they are molecules with ωJ / ψ and ηhc, rather than D*Dbar* and DDbar, type structure, respectively. Similarly, the lightest isovector 1++ molecule, having a ρJ / ψ flavor composition, has mass near the recently observed charged Zc (3900) value. These flavor configurations are consistent with observed X, Y and Zc decays to ππJ / ψ.
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; ...
2014-05-29
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε–2) or (ε–2(lnε)2), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε–3) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods.more » We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10–5. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.« less
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; Caflisch, R. E.; Cohen, B. I.
2014-05-29
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε^{–2}) or (ε^{–2}(lnε)^{2}), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε^{–3}) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10^{–5}. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.
Positron scattering from hydrogen atom with screened Coulomb potentials
Ghoshal, Arijit; Nayek, Sujay; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, K.
2014-03-05
Elastic positron-hydrogen collisions with screened Coulomb potentials have been investigated using a second-order distorted wave Born approximation in the momentum space. Two types of potentials have been considered, namely, static screened Coulomb potential and exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential. Using a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in a closed form. A detailed study has been made on the differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV.
Classical Coulomb blockade of a silicon nanowire dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shaoyun; Fukata, Naoki; Shimizu, Maki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ishibashi, Koji
2008-05-01
Single electron transistors (SETs) have been fabricated with an individual n-type single-crystal silicon nanowire (SiNW) that was grown by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique, and their transport properties have been measured in low temperatures. The SiNW-SET in the present work exhibited well pronounced Coulomb oscillations in a wide gate voltage range from -10to10V, featuring in uniform peak height, uniform full width at half maximum, and equidistant peak spacing. The charging energy turned out to be 64μeV. The temperature dependence of Coulomb oscillations revealed that the dot worked within the classical Coulomb blockade model.
Thermodynamic properties of the magnetized Coulomb crystal lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhberov, A. A.
2016-08-01
It is thought that Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed lattice may form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we are trying to verify this prediction assuming that the direction of the magnetic field corresponds to the minimum of the zero-point energy. We also continue a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that the total Helmholtz free energy of the body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal is always lower than that of the Coulomb crystal with hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic lattice, which casts doubt on the hypothesis above.
Multifragmentation: Surface and Coulomb instabilities of sheets, bubbles, and donuts
Moretto, L.G.; Tso, Kin; Wozniak, G.J.
1993-08-01
Disks, bubbles, and donuts have been observed in dynamical calculations of heavy ion collisions. These shapes are subject to a variety of surface and Coulomb instabilities. These instabilities are identified and analyzed in terms of their relevance to multifragmentation.
Constants of motion in deformed oscillator and Coulomb systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Shmavonyan, Hovhannes
2017-03-01
In this note we propose a unified description for the constants of motion for superintegrable deformations of the oscillator and Coulomb systems on N-dimensional Euclidean space, sphere and hyperboloid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascale-Hamri, A.; Perisanu, S.; Derouet, A.; Journet, C.; Vincent, P.; Ayari, A.; Purcell, S. T.
2014-03-01
We present here well-defined Coulomb staircases using an original field-emission experiment on several individual in situ—grown single-wall carbon nanotubes. A unique in situ process was applied nine times to progressively shorten one single-wall carbon nanotube down to ≃10 nm, which increased the oscillations periods from 5.5 to 80 V, the temperature for observable Coulomb staircase to 1100 K and the currents to 1.8 μA. This process led to the brightest electron source ever reported [9×1011 A/(str m2 V)].
Underwood, Jonathan G; Procino, I; Christiansen, L; Maurer, J; Stapelfeldt, H
2015-07-01
We present a method for inverting charged particle velocity map images which incorporates a non-uniform detection function. This method is applied to the specific case of extracting molecular axis alignment from Coulomb explosion imaging probes in which the probe itself has a dependence on molecular orientation which often removes cylindrical symmetry from the experiment and prevents the use of standard inversion techniques for the recovery of the molecular axis distribution. By incorporating the known detection function, it is possible to remove the angular bias of the Coulomb explosion probe process and invert the image to allow quantitative measurement of the degree of molecular axis alignment.
Dubois, D.F.; Hanssen, A.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.
1993-10-01
The predictions of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) theory are compared with radar observations of HF induced turbulence at Arecibo and Tromso. The altitude distribution of turbulence observed in the cold start experiments of Fejer et al. imply that the ionospheric electron density profile is modified by the induced turbulence. The preconditioned observations at Arecibo and the Tromso observations also appear to require a {open_quotes}disturbed{close_quotes} profile with several percent density fluctuations. With such density modifications postulated the authors conclude the SLT theory is in, at least, qualitative agreement with a large body of observations. Specifically SLT theory predicts, as part of a unified theory, and in distinction to the weak turbulence approximation, at least four unique physical signatures which can be compared to observations: (1) A caviton continuum plus free mode peak in the plasma line power spectrum near reflection altitude for Arecibo conditions. (2) A truncated decay-cascade spectrum at lower altitudes (or densities). (3) A continuous spectrum underlying the decay-cascade spectrum. (4) A zero frequency feature in the ion line power spectrum directly related to caviton dynamics. The authors find that there is sufficient ponderomotive pressure due to the Airy-layered, induced Langmuir turbulence, to modify the electron density profile in a manner consistent with the time behavior of unpreconditioned Arecibo observations. 59 refs., 14 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlank, Carter; James, Royce; Thayer, Nicholas; Sherman, Justin; Nolan, Stephen; Lopez, Michael
2012-10-01
Small helicon plasmas have been employed in various capacities from industry to spacecraft propulsion. At the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Lab (CGAPL), a small Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) is being developed to utilize the reputed high density (10^13 cm-3 and higher) at low pressure (.01 T) [1] Helicon Mode Plasmas. HPX will become a high temperature and density diagnostic development test-bed for future laboratory investigations in addition to becoming a tool for future spacecraft propulsion devices. HPX Plasmas are created by imparting directed energy into a Pyrex tube preloaded with Ar gas with fill pressures on the order of 10^4 mTorr utalizing a power supply and matching box can deliver up 250 W of power in a 20 MHz to 100 MHz frequency range. It has been demonstrated [1] that a uniform magnetic field in lower energy level plasmas can facilitate a decrease in inertial effects, which promotes energy conservation within the plasma and provids the necessary external energy in the plasma's magnetic field to reach the Helicon Mode. HPX employes an electromagnet to establish this uniform field. An acceleration coil, currently under construction, will be used to increase the plasma velocity to facilitate partcle and optical probing within the vacuum chamber for experimental analysis. Initial accuracy and calibration measurements of the relative magnetic fields created by both electromagnets will be reported.[0pt][1] K. Toki, et al., Thin Solid Films 506-507 (2005).
Many-body effects of Coulomb interaction on Landau levels in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolik, A. A.; Zabolotskiy, A. D.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2017-03-01
In strong magnetic fields, massless electrons in graphene populate relativistic Landau levels with the square-root dependence of each level energy on its number and magnetic field. Interaction-induced deviations from this single-particle picture were observed in recent experiments on cyclotron resonance and magneto-Raman scattering. Previous attempts to calculate such deviations theoretically using the unscreened Coulomb interaction resulted in overestimated many-body effects. This work presents many-body calculations of cyclotron and magneto-Raman transitions in single-layer graphene in the presence of Coulomb interaction, which is statically screened in the random-phase approximation. We take into account self-energy and excitonic effects as well as Landau level mixing, and achieve good agreement of our results with the experimental data for graphene on different substrates. The important role of a self-consistent treatment of the screening is found.
Influence of Coulomb effects on the resolving power of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems
Skoblin, M G; Kopaev, I A; Monastyrskiy, M A; Alimpiev, S S; Greenfield, D E; Makarov, A A
2015-12-31
General theoretical approaches to the modelling of Coulomb effects in short ion bunches, developed previously by the authors, are applied in this paper to the calculation of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems. A separate module of the MASIM 3D applied software package is designed. An adaptive computational procedure for calculating the 'mirror potential' induced by an ion bunch on the surface of field-forming electrodes is proposed. The dynamics of ion bunches in a time-of-flight reflectron-type mass analyser is calculated and the limitations on the resolving power, caused by resonant Coulomb effects of self-bunching and coalescence in the groups of particles with close masses, are revealed on the basis of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Aftershock triggering by complete Coulomb stress changes
Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.
2002-01-01
We examine the correlation between seismicity rate change following the 1992, M7.3, Landers, California, earthquake and characteristics of the complete Coulomb failure stress (CFS) changes (??CFS(t)) that this earthquake generated. At close distances the time-varying "dynamic" portion of the stress change depends on how the rupture develops temporally and spatially and arises from radiated seismic waves and from permanent coseismic fault displacement. The permanent "static" portion (??CFS) depends only on the final coseismic displacement. ??CFS diminishes much more rapidly with distance than the transient, dynamic stress changes. A common interpretation of the strong correlation between ??CFS and aftershocks is that load changes can advance or delay failure. Stress changes may also promote failure by physically altering properties of the fault or its environs. Because it is transient, ??CFS(t) can alter the failure rate only by the latter means. We calculate both ??CFS and the maximum positive value of ??CFS(t) (peak ??CFS(t)) using a reflectivity program. Input parameters are constrained by modeling Landers displacement seismograms. We quantify the correlation between maps of seismicity rate changes and maps of modeled ??CFS and peak ??CFS(t) and find agreement for both models. However, rupture directivity, which does not affect ??CFS, creates larger peak ??CFS(t) values northwest of the main shock. This asymmetry is also observed in seismicity rate changes but not in ??CFS. This result implies that dynamic stress changes are as effective as static stress changes in triggering aftershocks and may trigger earthquakes long after the waves have passed.
Uniform derivation of Coulomb collisional transport thanks to Debye shielding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escande, Dominique; Elskens, Yves; Doveil, Fabrice
2016-10-01
The effective potential acting on particles in plasmas being essentially the Debye-shielded Coulomb potential, the particles collisional transport in thermal equilibrium is calculated for all impact parameters b, with a convergent expression reducing to Rutherford scattering for small b, in agreement with both usual expressions holding for large b and small b. No cutoff at the Debye length scale is needed, and the Coulomb logarithm is only slightly modified.
A New Hybrid STEP/Coulomb model for Aftershock Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steacy, S.; Jimenez, A.; Gerstenberger, M.
2014-12-01
Aftershock forecasting models tend to fall into two classes - purely statistical approaches based on clustering, b-value, and the Omori-Utsu law; and Coulomb rate-state models which relate the forecast increase in rate to the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change. Recently, hybrid models combining physical and statistical forecasts have begun to be developed, for example by Bach and Hainzl (2012) and Steacy et al. (2013). The latter approach combined Coulomb stress patterns with the STEP (short-term earthquake probability) model by redistributing expected rate from areas with decreased stress to regions where the stress had increased. The chosen 'Coulomb Redistribution Parameter' (CRP) was 0.93, based on California earthquakes, which meant that 93% of the total rate was expected to occur where the stress had increased. The model was tested against the Canterbury sequence and the main result was that the new model performed at least as well as, and often better than, STEP when tested against retrospective data but that STEP was generally better in pseudo-prospective tests that involved data actually available within the first 10 days of each event of interest. The authors suggested that the major reason for this discrepancy was uncertainty in the slip models and, particularly, in the geometries of the faults involved in each complex major event. Here we develop a variant of the STEP/Coulomb model in which the CRP varies based on the percentage of aftershocks that occur in the positively stressed areas during the forecast learning period. We find that this variant significantly outperforms both STEP and the previous hybrid model in almost all cases, even when the input Coulomb model is quite poor. Our results suggest that this approach might be more useful than Coulomb rate-state when the underlying slip model is not well constrained due to the dependence of that method on the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change.
Jeanne Dit Fouque, Dany; Maroto, Alicia; Memboeuf, Antony
2016-11-15
The differentiation, characterization, and quantification of isomers and/or isobars in mixtures is a recurrent problem in mass spectrometry and more generally in analytical chemistry. Here we present a new strategy to assess the purity of a compound that is susceptible to be contaminated with another isomeric side-product in trace levels. Providing one of the isomers is available as pure sample, this new strategy allows the detection of isomeric contamination. This is done thanks to a "gas-phase collisional purification" inside an ion trap mass spectrometer paving the way for an improved analysis of at least similar samples. This strategy consists in using collision induced dissociation (CID) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(2) and MS(3)) experiments and the survival yield (SY) technique. It has been successfully applied to mixtures of cyclic poly(L-lactide) (PLA) with increasing amounts of its linear topological isomer. Purification in gas phase of PLA mixtures was established based on SY curves obtained in MS(3) mode: all samples gave rise to the same SY curve corresponding then to the pure cyclic component. This new strategy was sensitive enough to detect traces of linear PLA (<3%) in a sample of cyclic PLA that was supposedly pure according to other characterization techniques ((1)H NMR, MALDI-HRMS, and size-exclusion chromatography). Moreover, in this case, the presence of linear isomer was undetectable according to MS/MS or MS/MS/MS analysis only as fragment ions are also of the same m/z values. This type of approach could easily be implemented in hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques to improve the structural and quantitative analysis of complex samples.
Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Canuto, Sylvio; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.
2015-03-15
A detailed investigation of the magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar excitation energies and transition probabilities of helium isoelectronic He, Be{sup 2+}, C{sup 4+}, and O{sup 6+} have been performed under exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential generated in a plasma environment. The low-lying excited states 1s{sup 2}:{sup 1}S{sup e} → 1sns:{sup 3}S{sup e}{sub 0}, and 1snp:{sup 3}P{sup o}{sub 2} (n = 2, 3, 4, and 5) are considered. The variational time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock scheme has been used. The effect of the confinement produced by the potential on the structural properties is investigated for increasing coupling strength of the plasma. It is noted that there is a gradual destabilization of the energy of the system with the reduction of the ionization potential and the number of excited states. The effect of the screening enhancement on the excitation energies and transition probabilities has also been investigated and the results compared with those available for the free systems and under the simple screened Coulomb potential.
The mystery of Coulomb friction in sediment transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio
Nearly all analytical models of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid (e.g., air or water) are based on Bagnold's assumption of a constant Coulomb friction coefficient (particle-shear-pressure-ratio, μ) at the interface (zb) between sediment bed and transport layer. In fact, this assumption is the main reason why these models predict the sediment load (and subsequently the sediment transport rate) to be proportional to the excess shear stress (τ -τt), a scaling which has been confirmed in many wind-tunnel and flume experiments. Attempts to explain why μ (zb) is constant have usually been based on the sliding-friction analogy or rheology arguments. However, here we analytically derive μ (zs) √{ 3} - 1 , where zs is the location at which the production rate of particle fluctuation energy is maximal. Our derivation is based on the assumption that the rate of collisional transfer of horizontal into vertical kinetic energy is typically much larger than the rate of energy dissipation. Using state-of-the-art numerical simulations of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid, we validate all assumptions and approximation involved in our derivation. Interestingly, the location zs can significantly deviate from zb depending on the simulated conditions. We acknowledge support from grants National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 1151101041 and 41376095) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LR16E090001).
A molecular dynamics model for the Coulomb explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Roger; Ramasawmy, D.; Kenny, S. D.
2005-01-01
The impact of positively charged Arn+ ions, n = 1, 4, 8, incident normally on the (1 0 0) surface of NaCl is studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for energies up to 1 keV. The model assumes fixed charges on the ions and the effect of projectile charge is investigated as a function of energy. It is shown that there is a significant enhancement in the sputtering yield at low impact energies due to the attachment of Cl ions to the impacting Ar, which is subsequently ejected from the lattice. The low energy Ar ions can also experience acceleration towards the NaCl crystal due to Coulombic attraction. At energies greater than a few hundred eV the Ar ions implant within the crystal which accommodates the extra charge from these ions. As a result the sputtering yield from the initial impact is reduced but as the dose increases, the yield rises as Na+ ions are preferentially ejected from the lattice. A large proportion of the ejected material is in the form of clusters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yusong; Horton, Spencer; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas
2016-05-01
Probing neutral excited state dynamics in polyatomic molecules with ultrafast laser systems enables us to study phenomena such as internal conversion, isomerization, intersystem crossing, and dissociation. Using the third harmonic (260 nm) and the fifth harmonic (156 nm) of our laser system we have developed an apparatus to perform pump-probe experiments for the study neutral excited state dynamics in various polyatomic molecules. The fifth harmonic of our laser system is generated through the four-wave-mixing process of k5 ω = 2k3 ω -kω performed with a non-collinear geometry in an argon gas cell. In several polyatomic molecular systems of interest a photon with 8 eV of energy gives us the unique ability to ionize from essentially anywhere along the excited state potential, but does not produce any ionization yield from the ground state. This enables us to measure excited state lifetimes without the photon energy becoming too low to ionize while the nuclear wave-packet is traveling on the excited state potential. We also have the advantage of working in the perturbative weak-field ionization regime. These experiments can also be directly compare to strong-field ionization experiments conducted with a UV-pump and an IR-probe conducted on the same molecules.
CNO cycle: ”Soft E1” mode of the 17Ne excitation in the 17Ne+γ → 15O+2p reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parfenova, Yu L.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Egorova, I. A.; Shulgina, N. B.; Zhukov, M. V.
2016-01-01
The 15O(2p, γ)17Ne reaction is studied using the time-reversed reaction of the17Ne E1 Coulomb dissociation on lead target in the context of nuclear astrophysics. Looking for the relation between the data on the Coulomb excitation and the astrophysical 2p-capture rate, one faces problem to extract the Coulomb E1 strength function from the measured Coulex cross section. We use a number of phenomenological approaches to estimate influence of such processes as Coulomb-nuclear interference, populations of states with different Jπ, etc. We calculate the 17Ne+2p astrophysical capture rate and compare the results with different calculations.
Predicting transport regime and local electrostatic environment from Coulomb blockade diamond sizes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Stine T.; Hansen, Thorsten; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.
2017-03-01
Electron transport through a molecule is often described in one of the two regimes: the coherent tunnelling regime or the Coulomb blockade regime. The twilight zone of the two regimes still possesses many unsolved questions. A theoretical analysis of the oligophenylenevinylene OPV3 experiments by Bjørnholm and co-workers is performed. The experiments showed how two OPV3 derivatives performed very differently despite the strong similarity of the molecular structure, hence the experimental data showed two different transport mechanisms. The different transport mechanisms of the two OPV3 derivatives are explained from quantum mechanical calculations of the molecular redox energies and from the experimentally accessible window size.
Stable and Critical Noncohesive Coulomb Wedges: Exact Elastic Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K.; Hu, Y.
2004-12-01
The theory of critically tapered Coulomb wedge has been successfully applied to model active fold-and-thrust belts or submarine accretionary prisms. Brittle mountain building is episodic in nature, controlled by changes in basal friction, erosion and sedimentation, and hydrogeology. Sediment accretion may be modulated by great subduction earthquakes. Between deformation episodes and/or during transition between compressional and extensional tectonics, the Coulomb wedges are stable (i.e., supercritical), to which the critical taper theory does not apply. In this work, we provide an exact elastic solution for stable wedges based on Airy stress functions. The stress equilibrium equation and definition of basal friction and basal and internal pore fluid pressure ratios are exactly the same as those used for Dahlen's [1984] exact solution for critical noncohesive Coulomb wedges, but internal friction μ becomes irrelevant. Given elastic - perfectly Coulomb-plastic rheology, for stresses in a wedge on the verge of Coulomb failure there must co-exist a critical taper solution involving μ and a unique equivalent elastic solution not involving μ . Our elastic solution precisely reduces to Dahlen's critical taper solution for critical conditions. For stable conditions, normal stress perpendicular to the surface slope σ z and shear stress τ xz are identical with those in a critical taper, but the slope-parallel normal stress is different. The elastic solution is also generally applicable to purely elastic wedges and useful for modeling geodetic observations. A stable noncohesive Coulomb wedge differs from a general elastic wedge in that its upper and lower surfaces stay at zero curvature during loading. Dahlen, F.A. (1984), Noncohesive critical Coulomb wedges: An exact solution, JGR, 89, 10,125-10,133.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbarino, M.; Warrens, M.; Bonasera, A.; Lattuada, D.; Bang, W.; Quevedo, H. J.; Consoli, F.; de Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Kimura, S.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Schmidt, K.; Gaul, E.; Donovan, M. E.; Natowitz, J. B.; Ditmire, T.
2016-08-01
In this work, we explore the possibility that the motion of the deuterium ions emitted from Coulomb cluster explosions is highly disordered enough to resemble thermalization. We analyze the process of nuclear fusion reactions driven by laser-cluster interactions in experiments conducted at the Texas Petawatt laser facility using a mixture of D2+3He and CD4+3He cluster targets. When clusters explode by Coulomb repulsion, the emission of the energetic ions is “nearly” isotropic. In the framework of cluster Coulomb explosions, we analyze the energy distributions of the ions using a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution, a shifted MB distribution (sMB), and the energy distribution derived from a log-normal (LN) size distribution of clusters. We show that the first two distributions reproduce well the experimentally measured ion energy distributions and the number of fusions from d-d and d-3He reactions. The LN distribution is a good representation of the ion kinetic energy distribution well up to high momenta where the noise becomes dominant, but overestimates both the neutron and the proton yields. If the parameters of the LN distributions are chosen to reproduce the fusion yields correctly, the experimentally measured high energy ion spectrum is not well represented. We conclude that the ion kinetic energy distribution is highly disordered and practically not distinguishable from a thermalized one.
Ejection of Coulomb Crystals from a Linear Paul Ion Trap for Ion-Molecule Reaction Studies.
Meyer, K A E; Pollum, L L; Petralia, L S; Tauschinsky, A; Rennick, C J; Softley, T P; Heazlewood, B R
2015-12-17
Coulomb crystals are being increasingly employed as a highly localized source of cold ions for the study of ion-molecule chemical reactions. To extend the scope of reactions that can be studied in Coulomb crystals-from simple reactions involving laser-cooled atomic ions, to more complex systems where molecular reactants give rise to multiple product channels-sensitive product detection methodologies are required. The use of a digital ion trap (DIT) and a new damped cosine trap (DCT) are described, which facilitate the ejection of Coulomb-crystallized ions onto an external detector for the recording of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra. This enables the examination of reaction dynamics and kinetics between Coulomb-crystallized ions and neutral molecules: ionic products are typically cotrapped, thus ejecting the crystal onto an external detector reveals the masses, identities, and quantities of all ionic species at a selected point in the reaction. Two reaction systems are examined: the reaction of Ca(+) with deuterated isotopologues of water, and the charge exchange between cotrapped Xe(+) with deuterated isotopologues of ammonia. These reactions are examples of two distinct types of experiment, the first involving direct reaction of the laser-cooled ions, and the second involving reaction of sympathetically-cooled heavy ions to form a mixture of light product ions. Extensive simulations are conducted to interpret experimental results and calculate optimal operating parameters, facilitating a comparison between the DIT and DCT approaches. The simulations also demonstrate a correlation between crystal shape and image shape on the detector, suggesting a possible means for determining crystal geometry for nonfluorescing ions.
Mukhopadhyay, N.C.
1986-01-01
The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)
Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.
2017-01-01
We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.
Nonstationary multistate Coulomb and multistate exponential models for nonadiabatic transitions
Ostrovsky, V. N.
2003-07-01
The nonstationary Schroedinger equation is considered in a finite basis of states. The model Hamiltonian matrix corresponds to a single diabatic potential curve with a Coulombic {approx}1/t time dependence. An arbitrary number of other diabatic potential curves are flat, i.e., time independent and have arbitrary energies. Related states are coupled by constant interactions with the Coulomb state. The resulting nonstationary Schroedinger equation is solved by the method of contour integral. Probabilities of transitions to any other state are obtained as t{yields}{infinity} in a simple analytical form for the case when the Coulomb state is populated initially (at instant of time t{yields}+0). The formulas apply both to the cases when a horizontal diabatic potential curve is crossed by the Coulomb one and to a noncrossing situation. In the limit of weak coupling, the transition probabilities are interpreted in terms of a sequence of pairwise Landau-Zener-type transitions. Mapping of the Coulomb model onto an exactly solvable exponential multistate model is established. For the special two-state case, the well-known Nikitin model is recovered.
Coulomb dissociation of one- and two-neutron halos in halo EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acharya, Bijaya; Phillips, Daniel
2013-10-01
In neutron halo nuclei the neutron distribution extends significantly beyond the region occupied by the nuclear ``core.'' Halo effective field theory (Halo-EFT) exploits the consequent separation of scales in order to predict relationships between low-energy observables in these systems as a systematic expansion in Rcore /Rhalo . This talk will discuss results for the Coulomb dissociation of neutron halo nuclei in this framework. In particular, we consider the Coulomb dissociation of 19C. We compute the reduced transition probability (dB (E 1) / dE) for excitation of the bound-state neutrons to the continuum up to N2LO in the Halo-EFT expansion. By comparing the predcition with data from RIKEN we are able to extract accurate results for 19C's one-neutron separation energy and asymptotic normalization coefficient. Good agreement between data and Halo-EFT is also found for the longitudinal momentum distribution of 19C. Results from ongoing work to extend ths calculation to two-neutron halos will also be presented. Supported by the US Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02- 93ER40756.
Optically excited states in positronium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, R. H.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Magnotta, F.; Dermer, Charles D.; Failor, R. A.; Jones, K. M.
1990-01-01
Optical excitation are reported of the 1 3S-2 3P transition in positronium, and a second excitation from n=2 to higher n states. The experiment used light from two pulsed dye lasers. Changes in the positronium annihilation rate during and after the laser pulse were used to deduce the excited state populations. The n=2 level was found to be saturable and excitable to a substantial fraction of n=2 positronium to higher levels. Preliminary spectroscopic measurements were performed on n=14 and n=15 positronium.
Three-body Coulomb bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.
1987-05-01
The binding energies of three-particle systems containing two electrons and one positive particle of mass M are reexamined in an attempt to understand the approximate proportionality of the 1Se ground-state binding energies of the reduced masses, as pointed out by Botero and Green (1986). The contribution to the energy of the mass-polarization term is evaluated. No fundamental principle is involved, since the mass polarization merely decreases somewhat as the mass of the positive particle is reduced below the proton mass. In the case of the excited 3Pe state, this reduction is not sufficient to allow binding when M approaches the electron mass. Some properties of the recently observed negative muonium ion (e/-/ mu/+/ e/-/) are also computed.
Three-body Coulomb bound states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.
1987-01-01
The binding energies of three-particle systems containing two electrons and one positive particle of mass M are reexamined in an attempt to understand the approximate proportionality of the 1Se ground-state binding energies of the reduced masses, as pointed out by Botero and Green (1986). The contribution to the energy of the mass-polarization term is evaluated. No fundamental principle is involved, since the mass polarization merely decreases somewhat as the mass of the positive particle is reduced below the proton mass. In the case of the excited 3Pe state, this reduction is not sufficient to allow binding when M approaches the electron mass. Some properties of the recently observed negative muonium ion (e/-/ mu/+/ e/-/) are also computed.
Kakoma, Jean Baptiste
2016-01-01
The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.
Kakoma, Jean Baptiste
2016-01-01
The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587
Excited-state charging energies in quantum dots investigated by terahertz photocurrent spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Shibata, K.; Nagai, N.; Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Bastard, G.; Hirakawa, K.
2016-06-01
We have investigated the excited-state (ES) charging energies in quantum dots (QDs) by measuring a terahertz (THz)-induced photocurrent in a single-electron transistor (SET) geometry that contains a single InAs QD between metal nanogap electrodes. A photocurrent is produced in the QD SETs through THz intersublevel transitions and the subsequent resonant tunneling. We have found that the photocurrent exhibits stepwise change even within one Coulomb blockaded region as the electrochemical potential in the QD is swept by the gate voltage. From the threshold for the photocurrent generation, we have determined the charging energies for adding an electron in the photoexcited state in the QD. Furthermore, the charging energies for the ESs with different electron configurations are clearly resolved. The present THz photocurrent measurements are essentially dynamical experiments and allow us to analyze electronic properties in off-equilibrium states in the QD.
Cleland, A.N.
1991-04-01
Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.
Thermodynamic functions of the hcp Coulomb crystal lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhberov, A. A.; Baiko, D. A.
2015-10-01
One-component Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed (hcp) lattice likely form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we present a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of such crystals in a wide range of temperatures at zero magnetic field. In contrast to typically considered lattices, the phonon spectrum of the system exhibits a peculiar crossing of the acoustic modes near the Brillouin zone center in certain directions of the wavevector. It is demonstrated that in the field-free regime the Helmholtz free energy of the hcp Coulomb crystal is always higher than those of the Coulomb crystals with body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic lattices. The results of our numerical calculations are fitted by simple analytic expressions.
Coulomb matrix elements in multi-orbital Hubbard models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian
2017-04-01
Coulomb matrix elements are needed in all studies in solid-state theory that are based on Hubbard-type multi-orbital models. Due to symmetries, the matrix elements are not independent. We determine a set of independent Coulomb parameters for a d-shell and an f-shell and all point groups with up to 16 elements (O h , O, T d , T h , D 6h , and D 4h ). Furthermore, we express all other matrix elements as a function of the independent Coulomb parameters. Apart from the solution of the general point-group problem we investigate in detail the spherical approximation and first-order corrections to the spherical approximation.
Gribov horizon and Gribov copies effect in lattice Coulomb gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgio, Giuseppe; Quandt, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vogt, Hannes
2017-01-01
Following a recent proposal by Cooper and Zwanziger, we investigate via S U (2 ) lattice simulations the effect on the Coulomb gauge propagators and on the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement mechanism of selecting the Gribov copy with the smallest nontrivial eigenvalue of the Faddeev-Popov operator, i.e., the one closest to the Gribov horizon. Although such choice of gauge drives the ghost propagator towards the prediction of continuum calculations, we find that it actually overshoots the goal. With increasing computer time, we observe that Gribov copies with arbitrarily small eigenvalues can be found. For such a method to work, one would therefore need further restrictions on the gauge condition to isolate the physically relevant copies, since, for example, the Coulomb potential VC defined through the Faddeev-Popov operator becomes otherwise physically meaningless. Interestingly, the Coulomb potential alternatively defined through temporal link correlators is only marginally affected by the smallness of the eigenvalues.
Coulomb branch Hilbert series and Hall-Littlewood polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Stefano; Hanany, Amihay; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2014-09-01
There has been a recent progress in understanding the chiral ring of 3d = 4 superconformal gauge theories by explicitly constructing an exact generating function (Hilbert series) counting BPS operators on the Coulomb branch. In this paper we introduce Coulomb branch Hilbert series in the presence of background magnetic charges for flavor symmetries, which are useful for computing the Hilbert series of more general theories through gluing techniques. We find a simple formula of the Hilbert series with background magnetic charges for T ρ ( G) theories in terms of Hall-Littlewood polynomials. Here G is a classical group and ρ is a certain partition related to the dual group of G. The Hilbert series for vanishing background magnetic charges show that Coulomb branches of T ρ ( G) theories are complete intersections. We also demonstrate that mirror symmetry maps background magnetic charges to baryonic charges.
Imaging the impulsive alignment of noble-gas dimers via Coulomb explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veltheim, A. von; Borchers, B.; Steinmeyer, G.; Rottke, H.
2014-02-01
The impulsive alignment of the noble-gas dimers Ne2, Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2 is experimentally investigated by determining the alignment through Coulomb explosion imaging after their double ionization. This approach yields a favorably detailed insight into the temporal evolution of the alignment succeeding the aligning laser pulse. Particular emphasis is put on analyzing higher order coherences induced in the density matrix as these coherences determine the details of the temporal evolution of the aligned molecular ensemble. The recorded data enable an extraction of polarizability anisotropies for the dimers and of their rotational constants in the vibrational ground state. At the elevated level of rotational excitation obtained, centrifugal distortion starts influencing the temporal evolution of the alignment.
Coulomb effect and threshold effect in electronic stopping power for slow protons
Semrad, D.
1986-03-01
We show how the electronic stopping power for slow protons is influenced by the deceleration and deflection of the projectile in the field of the target nucleus (Coulomb effect) and by the fact that in insulators a finite energy is also required for excitation of the outermost electrons (threshold effect). Estimates are derived from the Fermi-Teller description of the stopping process, from a modified local-density approximation, and from measured inner-shell ionization cross sections. It is found that the introduction of an energy threshold reduces at low energies the stopping cross section by a large factor and hence leads to an appreciable deviation from v/sub 1/ proportionality.
Separable wave equation for three Coulomb interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colavecchia, F. D.; Gasaneo, G.; Garibotti, C. R.
1998-02-01
We consider a separable approximation to the Schrödinger equation for the three-body Coulomb problem and found its exact solution above the ionization threshold. This wave function accounts for different possible asymptotic behaviors and reduces to the well-known product of three two-body Coulomb waves (C3) for scattering conditions. The momenta and position-dependent modifications recently proposed for the Sommerfeld parameters, as an improvement to the C3 model, are analyzed. We show how these changes can be included in our model as a suitable physically based variations in the separable approximation for the wave equation.
On rate-state and Coulomb failure models
Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.; Blanpied, M.
2000-01-01
We examine the predictions of Coulomb failure stress and rate-state frictional models. We study the change in failure time (clock advance) Δt due to stress step perturbations (i.e., coseismic static stress increases) added to "background" stressing at a constant rate (i.e., tectonic loading) at time t0. The predictability of Δt implies a predictable change in seismicity rate r(t)/r0, testable using earthquake catalogs, where r0 is the constant rate resulting from tectonic stressing. Models of r(t)/r0, consistent with general properties of aftershock sequences, must predict an Omori law seismicity decay rate, a sequence duration that is less than a few percent of the mainshock cycle time and a return directly to the background rate. A Coulomb model requires that a fault remains locked during loading, that failure occur instantaneously, and that Δt is independent of t0. These characteristics imply an instantaneous infinite seismicity rate increase of zero duration. Numerical calculations of r(t)/r0 for different state evolution laws show that aftershocks occur on faults extremely close to failure at the mainshock origin time, that these faults must be "Coulomb-like," and that the slip evolution law can be precluded. Real aftershock population characteristics also may constrain rate-state constitutive parameters; a may be lower than laboratory values, the stiffness may be high, and/or normal stress may be lower than lithostatic. We also compare Coulomb and rate-state models theoretically. Rate-state model fault behavior becomes more Coulomb-like as constitutive parameter a decreases relative to parameter b. This is because the slip initially decelerates, representing an initial healing of fault contacts. The deceleration is more pronounced for smaller a, more closely simulating a locked fault. Even when the rate-state Δt has Coulomb characteristics, its magnitude may differ by some constant dependent on b. In this case, a rate-state model behaves like a modified
Convergence of Feynman integrals in Coulomb gauge QCD
Andraši, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2014-12-15
At 2-loop order, Feynman integrals in the Coulomb gauge are divergent over the internal energy variables. Nevertheless, it is known how to calculate the effective action, provided that the external gluon fields are all transverse. We show that, for the two-gluon Greens function as an example, the method can be extended to include longitudinal external fields. The longitudinal Greens functions appear in the BRST identities. As an intermediate step, we use a flow gauge, which interpolates between the Feynman and Coulomb gauges.
Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation
Esbensen, H.; Bertsch, G.F.; Bertulani, C.A.
1995-08-01
Coulomb dissociation is a technique commonly used to extract the dipole response of nuclei far from stability. This technique is applicable if the dissociation is dominated by dipole transitions and if first-order perturbation theory is valid. In order to assess the significance of higher-order processes we solve numerically the time evolution of the wave function for a two-body breakup in the Coulomb field from a high Z target. We applied this method to the breakup reactions: {sup 11}Be {yields} {sup 10}Be + n and {sup 11}Li {yields} +2n. The latter is treated as a two-body breakup, using a di-neutron model.
Running Coulomb potential and Lamb shift in QCD
Hoang, Andre H.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Stewart, Iain W.
2001-07-01
The QCD {beta} function and the anomalous dimensions for the Coulomb potential and the static potential first differ at three loop order. We evaluate the three loop ultrasoft anomalous dimension for the Coulomb potential and give the complete three loop running. Using this result, we calculate the leading logarithmic Lamb shift for a heavy-quark{endash}antiquark bound state, which includes all contributions to the binding energies of the form m{alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}({alpha}{sub s}ln{alpha}{sub s}){sup k}, k{ge}0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE 011 cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8 mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ˜60%). The resonator accepts 3 mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor ( Q L) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ( 1H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the
Dantan, A.; Marler, J. P.; Albert, M.; Guenot, D.; Drewsen, M.
2010-09-03
We report on a novel noninvasive method to determine the normal mode frequencies of ion Coulomb crystals in traps based on the resonance enhanced collective coupling between the electronic states of the ions and an optical cavity field at the single photon level. Excitations of the normal modes are observed through a Doppler broadening of the resonance. An excellent agreement with the predictions of a zero-temperature uniformly charged liquid plasma model is found. The technique opens up for investigations of the heating and damping of cold plasma modes, as well as the coupling between them.
Esbensen, H.
1993-01-01
Momentum distributions for the [sup 11]Li [yields] [sup 9]Li+n+n breakup reaction, generated by Coulomb dipole excitations, axe calculated in a 3-body model for [sup 11]Li. The relative momentum distribution of the two neutrons is in good agreement with recent 3-body coincidence measurements but the momentum distribution for the [sup 9]Li recoil and the decay energy spectrum are much narrower than observed. These discrepancies may be due to higher order dynamical effects which have been ignored.
Esbensen, H.
1993-03-01
Momentum distributions for the {sup 11}Li {yields} {sup 9}Li+n+n breakup reaction, generated by Coulomb dipole excitations, axe calculated in a 3-body model for {sup 11}Li. The relative momentum distribution of the two neutrons is in good agreement with recent 3-body coincidence measurements but the momentum distribution for the {sup 9}Li recoil and the decay energy spectrum are much narrower than observed. These discrepancies may be due to higher order dynamical effects which have been ignored.
Coulomb time delays in high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torlina, Lisa; Smirnova, Olga
2017-02-01
Measuring the time it takes to remove an electron from an atom or molecule during photoionization has been the focus of a number of recent experiments using newly developed attosecond spectroscopies. The interpretation of such measurements, however, depends critically on the measurement protocol and the specific observables available in each experiment. One such protocol relies on high harmonic generation. In this paper, we derive rigorous and general expressions for ionisation and recombination times in high harmonic generation experiments. We show that these times are different from, but related to, ionisation times measured in photoelectron spectroscopy: that is, those obtained using the attosecond streak camera, RABBITT and attoclock methods. We then proceed to use the analytical R-matrix theory to calculate these times and compare them with experimental values.
Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Campajola, L.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gialanella, L.; Gulino, M.; Gyürky, G.; Kiss, G.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Ordine, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.
2008-12-01
Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p+d→p+p+n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.
Fusion of 48Ti+58Fe and 58Ni+54Fe below the Coulomb barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Bourgin, D.; Fioretto, E.; Goasduff, A.; Grebosz, J.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M.; Mijatović, T.; Montanari, D.; Pagliaroli, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Scarlassara, F.; Strano, E.; Szilner, S.; Toniolo, N.; Torresi, D.
2015-12-01
Background: No data on the fusion excitation function of 48Ti+58Fe in the energy region near the Coulomb barrier existed prior to the present work, while fusion of 58Ni+54Fe was investigated in detail some years ago, down to very low energies, and clear evidence of fusion hindrance was noticed at relatively high cross sections. 48Ti and 58Fe are soft and have a low-lying quadrupole excitation lying at ≈800 -900 keV only. Instead, 58Ni and 54Fe have a closed shell (protons and neutrons, respectively) and are rather rigid. Purpose: We aim to investigate (1) the possible influence of the different structures of the involved nuclei on the fusion excitation functions far below the barrier and, in particular, (2) whether hindrance is observed in 48Ti+58Fe , and to compare the results with current coupled-channels models. Methods: 48Ti beams from the XTU Tandem accelerator of INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro were used. The experimental setup was based on an electrostatic beam separator, and fusion-evaporation residues (ERs) were detected at very forward angles. Angular distributions of ERs were measured. Results: Fusion cross sections of 48Ti+58Fe have been obtained in a range of nearly six orders of magnitude around the Coulomb barrier, down to σ ≃2 μ b . The sub-barrier cross sections of 48Ti+58Fe are much larger than those of 58Ni+54Fe . Significant differences are also observed in the logarithmic derivatives and astrophysical S factors. No evidence of hindrance is observed, because coupled-channels calculations using a standard Woods-Saxon potential are able to reproduce the data in the whole measured energy range. Analogous calculations for 58Ni+54Fe predict clearly too large cross sections at low energies. The two fusion barrier distributions are wide and display a complex structure that is only qualitatively fit by calculations. Conclusions: It is pointed out that all these different trends originate from the dissimilar low-energy nuclear structures of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shkurenkov, Ivan; Burnette, David; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-12-01
The present kinetic modelling calculation results provide key new insights into the kinetics of vibrational excitation of nitrogen and plasma chemical reactions in nanosecond pulse, ‘diffuse filament’ discharges in nitrogen and dry air at a moderate energy loading per molecule, ˜0.1 eV per molecule. It is shown that it is very important to take into account Coulomb collisions between electrons because they change the electron energy distribution function and, as a result, strongly affect populations of excited states and radical concentrations in the discharge. The results demonstrate that the apparent transient rise of N2 ‘first level’ vibrational temperature after the discharge pulse, as detected in the experiments, is due to the net downward V-V energy transfer in N2-N2 collisions, which increases the N2(X 1Σ, v = 1) population. Finally, a comparison of the model's predictions with the experimental data shows that NO formation in the afterglow occurs via reactive quenching of multiple excited electronic levels of nitrogen molecule, N2\\ast , by O atoms. ) published in this volume, which focuses on the kinetic modelling of the experiments. This paper presents the results of the experiments.
Feature-rich electronic excitations of silicene in external fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jhao-Ying; Chen, Szu-Chao; Gumbs, Godfrey; Lin, Ming-Fa
2016-11-01
We develop a generalized tight-binding model to investigate the Coulomb excitations in monolayer silicene. The atomic interactions, spin-orbit coupling, magnetic and electric fields, as well as the Coulomb interactions are simultaneously included in our calculations. The magnetic field induces interband plasmons with discrete frequency dispersions restricted to quantized energy states. An intraband plasmon, with a higher intensity and continuous dispersion relation, exists in the presence of free carriers. This mode is dramatically transformed into an interband plasma excitation when the magnetic field is increased, leading to abrupt changes in the value of the plasma frequency and its intensity. Specifically, an electric field may separate the spin and valley polarizations and create additional plasmon modes, a unique feature arising from the buckled structure and the existence of noteworthy spin-orbit coupling.
Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto
2012-01-01
The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…
Coulomb repulsion and the electron beam directed energy weapon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retsky, Michael W.
2004-09-01
Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into small spots at large distances from defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Based on estimates, the nonreversible terms should be small - of the order of 0.1 mm. If this is true, it is possible to design a practical electron beam directed weapon not limited by Coulomb repulsion.
Limits to Electron Beam Emittance from Stochastic Coulomb Interactions
Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Wan, Weishi
2008-08-22
Dense electron beams can now be generated on an ultrafast timescale using laser driven photo-cathodes and these are used for a range of applications from ultrafast electron defraction to free electron lasers. Here we determine a lower bound to the emittance of an electron beam limited by fundamental stochastic Coulomb interactions.
Exchange Coulomb interaction in nanotubes: Dispersion of Langmuir waves
Andreev, P. A. Ivanov, A. Yu.
2015-07-15
The microscopic derivation of the Coulomb exchange interaction for electrons located on the nanotubes is presented. The derivation is based on the many-particle quantum hydrodynamic method. We demonstrate the effect of curvature of the nanocylinders on the force of exchange interaction. We calculate corresponding dispersion dependencies for electron oscillations on the nanotubes.
Coulomb gauge approach for charmonium meson and hybrid radiative transitions
Gou, Peng; Yepez-Martínez, Tochtli; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-01-22
We consider the lowest order interaction of the Foldy-Wouthuysen QED and QCD Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge approach, to describe radiative transitions between conventional and hybrids charmonium mesons. The results are compared to potential quark models and lattices calculations.
Accurate Coulomb blockade thermometry up to 60 kelvin.
Meschke, M; Kemppinen, A; Pekola, J P
2016-03-28
We demonstrate experimentally a precise realization of Coulomb blockade thermometry working at temperatures up to 60 K. Advances in nano-fabrication methods using electron beam lithography allow us to fabricate uniform arrays of sufficiently small tunnel junctions to guarantee an overall temperature reading precision of about 1%.
Existence of the thermodynamic limit for disordered quantum Coulomb systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, Xavier; Lewin, Mathieu
2012-09-01
Following a recent method introduced by Hainzl, Solovej, and Lewin, we prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit for a system made of quantum electrons, and classical nuclei whose positions and charges are randomly perturbed in an ergodic fashion. All the particles interact through Coulomb forces.
Interpolating the Coulomb phase of little string theory
Lin, Ying -Hsuan; Shao, Shu -Heng; Wang, Yifan; ...
2015-12-03
We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity onmore » the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. As a result, we also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.« less
Finiteness of the Coulomb gauge QCD perturbative effective action
Andraši, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2015-05-15
At 2-loop order in the Coulomb gauge, individual Feynman graphs contributing to the effective action have energy divergences. It is proved that these cancel in suitable combinations of graphs. This has previously been shown only for transverse external fields. The calculation results in a generalization of the Christ–Lee term which was inserted into the Hamiltonian.
Application of Designer Polynomials to the Soft-Coulomb Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weatherford, Charles; Wynn, Albert, III; Red, Eddie; Mathis, Clausell
2004-05-01
In a recent article [C.A. Weatherford, E. Red, A. Wynn III, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 90, 1289-1294 (2002)], an algorithm was described whereby a synthetic weighted polynomial basis may be constructed which is adapted (designed) to a particular potential. It was applied therein to the Schroedinger equation with a coulomb potential in one dimension (-1/|x| ). A weighted polynomial basis with weight function w(x)=exp(-a|x|) was employed. It was observed that this potential had no even parity solutions - only odd parity solutions. The question arises as to the relationship of the solutions (eigenfunctions and eigenvalues) for this hard coulomb potential to the solutions for the soft coulomb potential (-1/ √x^2+b^2^1/2 ). In particular, since the soft coulomb potential is clearly expected to possess both even and odd parity solutions, how do these solutions behave as b->0 and thus what happens to the even solutions. This problem is deceptively difficult none of the standard basis sets produce a variational minimum as a function of 'a' for nonzero 'b'. This is apparently why this problem has never been done before. A new orthonormal basis was designed with weight function w(x)=exp(-a√x^2+b^2) which did produce a variational minimum for variable a and arbitrary fixed 'b'. The present paper describes these solutions and clearly indicates how they behave as b->0 .
Hamiltonian flow in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Leder, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel
2011-01-15
We derive a new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge. The flow equations for the static gluon and ghost propagators are solved under the assumption of ghost dominance within different diagrammatic approximations. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach and the reliability of the approximations is discussed.
Interpolating the Coulomb phase of little string theory
Lin, Ying -Hsuan; Shao, Shu -Heng; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi
2015-12-03
We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity on the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. As a result, we also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.
Doubly Excited Resonances in the Positronium Negative Ion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Y.K.
2007-01-01
The recent theoretical studies on the doubly excited states of the Ps' ion are described. The results obtained by using the method of complex coordinate rotation show that the three-lepton system behaves very much like an XYX tri-atomic molecule. Furthermore, the recent investigation on the positronium negative ion embedded in Debye plasma environments is discussed. The problem is modeled by the use of a screened Coulomb potential to represent the interaction between the charge particles.
Compact Collision Kernels for Hard Sphere and Coulomb Cross Sections; Fokker-Planck Coefficients
Chang Yongbin; Shizgal, Bernie D.
2008-12-31
A compact collision kernel is derived for both hard sphere and Coulomb cross sections. The difference between hard sphere interaction and Coulomb interaction is characterized by a parameter {eta}. With this compact collision kernel, the calculation of Fokker-Planck coefficients can be done for both the Coulomb and hard sphere interactions. The results for arbitrary order Fokker-Planck coefficients are greatly simplified. An alternate form for the Coulomb logarithm is derived with concern to the temperature relaxation in a binary plasma.
A new class of collective excitations: Exciton strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazumdar, S.; Guo, F.; Meissner, K.; Fluegel, B.; Peyghambarian, N.
1996-06-01
Optical excitation in a strongly neutral quasi-one-dimensional mixed-stack charge-transfer solid results in an exciton state, in which the electron and the hole are bound by electrostatic Coulomb interactions that are large compared to the one-electron hopping. We present a joint theoretical-experimental demonstration of a new class of collective excitations, multiexcitons or exciton strings, consisting of a string of several (more than two) bound excitons, in a prototype neutral charge-transfer solid. The stability of the multiexciton states arise from the combined effects of one dimensionality and strong Coulomb interactions. Theoretically, we show that in narrow band one-dimensional semiconductors with long range Coulomb interactions, the occurrence of stable 2-exciton string (biexciton) necessarily implies stable higher multiexcitons. Experimentally, evidence for the multiexciton strings is demonstrated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of anthracene pyromellitic acid dianhydride. Excellent qualitative agreement is found between the calculated and the measured differential transmission spectra. Photoinduced absorptions to the 2-exciton string at low pump intensity and to the 3-exciton string at high pump intensity are observed, in agreement with the theory of excited state absorption. The 2-exciton string is confirmed also by a direct two-photon absorption measurement. The binding energies of the 2-exciton and the 3-exciton strings are obtained from the experimental data. The larger binding energy of the 3-exciton is in agreement with theory.
Coulomb Crystallization of Charged Microspheres Levitated in a Gas Discharge Plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goree, John
1998-01-01
The technical topic of the project was the experimental observation of Coulomb crystallization of charged microspheres levitated in a gas discharge plasma. This suspension, sometimes termed a dusty plasma, is closely analogous to a colloidal suspension, except that it has a much faster time response, is more optically thin, and has no buoyancy forces to suspend the particles. The particles are levitated by electric fields. Through their collective Coulomb repulsions, the particles arrange themselves in a lattice with a crystalline symmetry, which undergoes an order-disorder phase transition analogous to melting when the effective temperature of the system is increased. Due to gravitational sedimentation, the particles form a thin layer in the laboratory, so that the experimental system is nearly 2D, whereas in future microgravity experiments they are expected to fill a larger volume and behave like a 3D solid or liquid. The particles are imaged using a video camera by illuminating them with a sheet of laser light. Because the suspension is optically thin, this imaging method will work as well in a 3D microgravity experiment as it does in a 2D laboratory system.
Tamii, A.; Adachi, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kaneda, T.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Sasamoto, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von
2007-06-13
Experimental technique for measuring proton inelastic scattering with high-resolution at 295 MeV and at forward angles including zero degrees is described. The method is useful for extracting spin part of the M1 strength via nuclear excitation as well as E1 strength via Coulomb excitation. An excitation energy resolution of 20 keV, good scattering angle resolution, and low background condition have been achieved. The experimental technique was applied for several sd and pf shell nuclei.
Interatomic Coulombic decay in a He dimer: Ab initio potential-energy curves and decay widths
Kolorenc, Premysl; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Sisourat, Nicolas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.
2010-07-15
The energy gained by either of the two helium atoms in a helium dimer through simultaneous ionization and excitation can be efficiently transferred to the other helium atom, which then ionizes. The respective relaxation process called interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) is the subject of the present paper. Specifically, we are interested in ICD of the lowest of the ionized excited states, namely, the He{sup +}(n=2)He states, for which we calculated the relevant potential-energy curves and the interatomic decay widths. The full-configuration interaction method was used to obtain the potential-energy curves. The decay widths were computed by utilizing the Fano ansatz, Green's-function methods, and the Stieltjes imaging technique. The behavior of the decay widths with the interatomic distance is examined and is elucidated, whereby special emphasis is given to the asymptotically large interatomic separations. Our calculations show that the electronic ICD processes dominate over the radiative decay mechanisms over a wide range of interatomic distances. The ICD in the helium dimer has recently been measured by Havermeier et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 133401 (2010)]. The impact of nuclear dynamics on the ICD process is extremely important and is discussed by Sisourat et al. [Nat. Phys. 6, 508 (2010)] based on the ab initio data computed in the present paper.
Sabaeian, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamidreza; Ghalambor-Dezfouli, Abdolmohammad
2017-02-01
Pulsed laser beam excitations are more commonly used in thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) than continuous-wave (CW) ones, because CW excitations limit the measurement to linear absorption processes [J. Opt. A5, 256 (2003)]. In this work, we present a new and full analytical model for a single-pulsed laser excitation dual-beam mode-mismatched TLS for low absorption solid-state and liquid samples. Our model has been based on a new solution of time-dependent heat equation for a finite-radius cylindrical sample exposed to a single-pulsed excitation laser beam. For low absorbent samples, unlike previous models, all aberration terms associated in the thermal lens were taken into account in Fresnel integration. Besides, the model provides a full analytical mathematical expression for the temperature rise, normalized signal intensity, and Z-scan photothermal lens signal. The model was confirmed with experimental data of distilled deionized water with excellent agreement. Therefore, the model allows us to extract thermo-optical properties of samples in an analytical and more accurate way.
The Effects of Static Coulomb Stress Change on Southern California Earthquake Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strader, Anne Elizabeth
I investigate how inclusion of static Coulomb stress changes, caused by tectonic loading and previous seismicity, contributes to the effectiveness and reliability of prospective earthquake forecasts. Several studies have shown that positive static Coulomb stress changes are associated with increased seismicity, relative to stress shadows. However, it is difficult to avoid bias when the learning and testing intervals are chosen retrospectively. I hypothesize that earthquake forecasts based on static Coulomb stress fields may improve upon existing earthquake forecasts based on historical seismicity. Within southern California, I have confirmed the aforementioned relationship between earthquake location and Coulomb stress change, but found no identifiable triggering threshold based on static Coulomb stress history at individual earthquake locations. I have also converted static Coulomb stress changes into spatially-varying earthquake rates by optimizing an index function and calculating probabilities of cells containing at least one earthquake based on Coulomb stress ranges. Inclusion of Coulomb stress effects gives an improvement in earthquake forecasts that is significant with 95% confidence, compared to smoothed seismicity null forecasts. Because of large uncertainties in Coulomb stress calculations near faults (and aftershock distributions), I combine static Coulomb stress and smoothed seismicity into a hybrid earthquake forecast. Evaluating such forecasts against those in which only Coulomb stress or smoothed seismicity determines earthquake rates indicates that Coulomb stress is more effective in the far field, whereas statistical seismology outperforms Coulomb stress near faults. Additionally, I test effects of receiver plane orientation, stress type (normal and shear components), and declustering receiver earthquakes. While static Coulomb stress shows significant potential in a prospective earthquake forecast, simplifying assumptions compromise its
Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions in metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tupitsyn, Igor S.; Mishchenko, Andrey S.; Nagaosa, Naoto; Prokof'ev, Nikolay
2016-10-01
An accurate and consistent theory of phonons in metals requires that all long-range Coulomb interactions between charged particles (electrons and ions) be treated on equal footing. So far, all attempts to deal with this nonperturbative system were relying on uncontrolled approximations in the absence of small parameters. In this paper, we develop the diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for a two-component Coulomb system that obtains the solution to this fundamental problem in an approximation-free way by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton graphs. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by calculating the spectrum of longitudinal acoustic phonons in a simple cubic lattice, determining their sound velocity, and obtaining the phonon spectral densities by analytic continuation of the Matsubara-Green's functions. Final results are checked against the lowest-order fully self-consistent G W approximation in both adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes.
Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene.
Mihnev, Momchil T; Tolsma, John R; Divin, Charles J; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A; MacDonald, Allan H; Norris, Theodore B
2015-09-24
In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron-phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied.
Proton focusing driven by laser triggered Coulomb explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W. Q.; Yin, Y.; Zou, D. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ge, Z. Y.; Xu, H.; Zhuo, H. B.; Shao, F. Q.
2017-03-01
A mechanism of the acceleration and focusing of quasi-monoenergetic proton beams from a thin arched carbon-hydrogen target irradiated by a relativistic-intensity laser pulse is investigated by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. As an intense linearly polarized laser pulse impinges on the thin target, a considerable number of electrons are evacuated, leading to Coulomb explosion in the excess positive charges left behind. Accompanying with the acceleration, the protons are focused ballistically in the Coulomb field, which is mainly contributed by the carbon ions. It is demonstrated that a quasi-monoenergetic proton bunch with the energy-density as high as 1017 J/m3 is produced by using a laser pulse with the intensity of 1021 W/cm2. An analytical model is proposed to predict the proton energy and the focal position, which is fairly consistent with PIC simulations.
Coulomb artifacts and bottomonium hyperfine splitting in lattice NRQCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T.; Penin, A. A.; Rayyan, A.
2017-02-01
We study the role of the lattice artifacts associated with the Coulomb binding effects in the analysis of the heavy quarkonium within lattice NRQCD. We find that a "na¨ıve" perturbative matching generates spurious linear Coulomb artifacts, which result in a large systematic error in the lattice predictions for the heavy quarkonium spectrum. This effect is responsible, in particular, for the discrepancy between the recent determinations of the bottomonium hyperfine splitting in the radiatively improved lattice NRQCD [1, 2]. We show that the correct matching procedure which provides full control over discretization errors is based on the asymptotic expansion of the lattice theory about the continuum limit, which gives M Y(1 S) - M ηb (1 S) = 52.9 ± 5.5 MeV [1].
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Partner, Heather L.; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten; Plenio, Martin B.; Retzker, Alex; Zurek, Wojciech Hubert; del Campo, Adolfo; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E.
2014-11-19
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Orbital ice: An exact Coulomb phase on the diamond lattice
Chern Giawei; Wu Congjun
2011-12-15
We demonstrate the existence of an orbital Coulomb phase as the exact ground state of a p-orbital exchange Hamiltonian on the diamond lattice. The Coulomb phase is an emergent state characterized by algebraic dipolar correlations and a gauge structure resulting from local constraints (ice rules) of the underlying lattice models. For most ice models on the pyrochlore lattice, these local constraints are a direct consequence of minimizing the energy of each individual tetrahedron. On the contrary, the orbital ice rules are emergent phenomena resulting from the quantum orbital dynamics. We show that the orbital ice model exhibits an emergent geometrical frustration by mapping the degenerate quantum orbital ground states to the spin-ice states obeying the 2-in-2-out constraints on the pyrochlore lattice. We also discuss possible realization of the orbital ice model in optical lattices with p-band fermionic cold atoms.
Coulomb path'' interference in low energy He sup + + He collisions
Swenson, J.K. ); Burgdoerfer, J. ); Meyer, F.W.; Havener, C.C.; Gregory, D.C.; Stolterfoht, N. )
1990-01-01
A new interference mechanism, analogous to classic'' double-slit electron scattering, has been identified in low energy ion-atom collisions. This Coulomb path'' interference results from the existence of two trajectories, indistinguishable with respect to laboratory energy and emission angle, along which ejected autoionizing electrons may be scattered by the attractive Coulomb potential of the slowly receding spectator ion. We present a simple semi-classical model for this effect in which we account for the path dependence of the amplitude of the ejected electron following decay of the autoionizing state. Calculated model lineshapes are found to be in excellent agreement with strong angular dependence of the interference structure observed in the He target 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S autoionizing lineshape measured near 0{degree} following 10 keV He{sup +} + He collisions.
Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene
Mihnev, Momchil T.; Tolsma, John R.; Divin, Charles J.; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Norris, Theodore B.
2015-01-01
In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron–phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied. PMID:26399955
Glassy Dynamics in Geometrically Frustrated Coulomb Liquids without Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Rademaker, Louk; Ralko, Arnaud; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir
2015-07-01
We show that introducing long-range Coulomb interactions immediately lifts the massive ground state degeneracy induced by geometric frustration for electrons on quarter-filled triangular lattices in the classical limit. Important consequences include the stabilization of a stripe-ordered crystalline (global) ground state, but also the emergence of very many low-lying metastable states with amorphous "stripe-glass" spatial structures. Melting of the stripe order thus leads to a frustrated Coulomb liquid at intermediate temperatures, showing remarkably slow (viscous) dynamics, with very long relaxation times growing in Arrhenius fashion upon cooling, as typical of strong glass formers. On shorter time scales, the system falls out of equilibrium and displays the aging phenomena characteristic of supercooled liquids above the glass transition. Our results show remarkable similarity with the recent observations of charge-glass behavior in ultraclean triangular organic materials of the θ -(BEDT -TTF )2 family.
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.; Lutz, W.
2008-08-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
Stability of Dirac Liquids with Strong Coulomb Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tupitsyn, Igor S.; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V.
2017-01-01
We develop and apply the diagrammatic Monte Carlo technique to address the problem of the stability of the Dirac liquid state (in a graphene-type system) against the strong long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. So far, all attempts to deal with this problem in the field-theoretical framework were limited either to perturbative or random phase approximation and functional renormalization group treatments, with diametrically opposite conclusions. Our calculations aim at the approximation-free solution with controlled accuracy by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton diagrams and establishing the renormalization group flow of the effective Coulomb coupling constant. We unambiguously show that with increasing the system size L (up to ln (L )˜40 ), the coupling constant always flows towards zero; i.e., the two-dimensional Dirac liquid is an asymptotically free T =0 state with divergent Fermi velocity.
A Coulomb collision algorithm for weighted particle simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Ronald H.; Combi, Michael R.
1994-01-01
A binary Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particle simulations employing Monte Carlo techniques. Charged particles within a given spatial grid cell are pair-wise scattered, explicitly conserving momentum and implicitly conserving energy. A similar algorithm developed by Takizuka and Abe (1977) conserves momentum and energy provided the particles are unweighted (each particle representing equal fractions of the total particle density). If applied as is to simulations incorporating weighted particles, the plasma temperatures equilibrate to an incorrect temperature, as compared to theory. Using the appropriate pairing statistics, a Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particles. The algorithm conserves energy and momentum and produces the appropriate relaxation time scales as compared to theoretical predictions. Such an algorithm is necessary for future work studying self-consistent multi-species kinetic transport.
Coulomb branch Hilbert series and three dimensional Sicilian theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Stefano; Hanany, Amihay; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2014-09-01
We evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of mirrors of three dimensional Sicilian theories, which arise from compactifying the 6 d (2 , 0) theory with symmetry G on a circle times a Riemann surface with punctures. We obtain our result by gluing together the Hilbert series for building blocks T ρ ( G), where ρ is a certain partition related to the dual group of G, which we evaluated in a previous paper. The result is expressed in terms of a class of symmetric functions, the Hall-Littlewood polynomials. As expected from mirror symmetry, our results agree at genus zero with the superconformal index prediction for the Higgs branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theories and extend it to higher genus. In the A 1 case at genus zero, we also evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theory itself, showing that it only depends on the number of external legs.
Quantum solution for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem
Nunez-Yepez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.; Solis, Didier A.
2011-06-15
The one-dimensional hydrogen atom has been a much studied system with a wide range of applications. Since the pioneering work of Loudon [R. Loudon, Am. J. Phys. 27, 649 (1959).], a number of different features related to the nature of the eigenfunctions have been found. However, many of the claims made throughout the years in this regard are not correct--such as the existence of only odd eigenstates or of an infinite binding-energy ground state. We explicitly show that the one-dimensional hydrogen atom does not admit a ground state of infinite binding energy and that the one-dimensional Coulomb potential is not its own supersymmetric partner. Furthermore, we argue that at the root of many such false claims lies the omission of a superselection rule that effectively separates the right side from the left side of the singularity of the Coulomb potential.
Core excitation effects in halo nuclei using a transformed oscillator basis
Lay, J. A.; Arias, J. M.; Moro, A. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.
2013-06-10
A recent generalization of the Transformed Harmonic Oscillator basis, intended to consider core excitations in the structure of one nucleon halo nuclei, is applied to the break up of {sup 11}Be. The reaction studied is {sup 11}Be+{sup 208}Pb at 69 MeV/nucleon. The experimental set up is designed to ensure pure dipole Coulomb excitations. Making use of the Equivalent Photon Method and the electromagnetic transition probabilities obtained with the transformed oscillator basis, a relevant contribution of the quadrupole excitations of the core is found. The inclusion of core excitations is, therefore, necessary for the correct extraction of the dipole electromagnetic transition probability of halo nuclei.
Stability characterizations of fixtured rigid bodies with Coulomb friction
PANG,J.S.; TRINKLE,JEFFREY C.
2000-02-15
This paper formally introduces several stability characterizations of fixtured three-dimensional rigid bodies initially at rest and in unilateral contact with Coulomb friction. These characterizations, weak stability and strong stability, arise naturally from the dynamic model of the system, formulated as a complementarity problem. Using the tools of complementarity theory, these characterizations are studied in detail to understand their properties and to develop techniques to identify the stability classifications of general systems subjected to known external loads.
Coulomb-Gauge Gluon Propagator and the Gribov Formula
Burgio, G.; Quandt, M.; Reinhardt, H.
2009-01-23
We analyze the lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the Coulomb gauge. We show that the static gluon propagator is multiplicative renormalizable and takes the simple form D(|p-vector|){sup -1}={radical}(|p-vector|{sup 2}+M{sup 4}/|p-vector|{sup 2}), proposed by Gribov through heuristic arguments many years ago. We find M=0.88(1) GeV{approx_equal}2{radical}({sigma})
On the Nonlocality of the Coulomb Gauge External Field Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hraskó, Péter
The apparent nonlocality of the Coulomb gauge external field problem in electrodynamics is illustrated with an example in which nonlocality is especially striking. Explanation of this apparent nonlocal behaviour based on a purely local picture is given. A gauge invariant decomposition of the Lorentz-force into two terms with clear physical meanings is pointed out. Based on this decomposition derivation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of field strengths alone is given.
On the nonlocality of the Coulomb gauge external field problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hraskó, Péter
2016-10-01
The apparent nonlocality of the Coulomb gauge external field problem in electrodynamics is illustrated with an example in which nonlocality is especially striking. Explanation of this apparent nonlocal behaviour based on a purely local picture is given. A gauge invariant decomposition of the Lorentz-force into two terms with clear physical meanings is pointed out. Based on this decomposition derivation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of field strengths alone is given.
Coulomb crystallization of sympathetically cooled highly charged ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.
2015-05-01
Wave functions of inner-shell electrons significantly overlap with the nucleus, whereby enormously magnified relativistic, quantum electrodynamic (QED) and nuclear size effects emerge. In highly charged ions (HCI), the relative reduction of electronic correlations contributions improves the visibility of these effects. This well known facts have driven research efforts with HCI, yet the typically high temperatures at which these can be prepared in the laboratory constitutes a serious hindrance for application of laser spectroscopic methods. The solution for this, cooling HCI down to crystallization has remained an elusive target for more than two decades. By applying laser cooling to an ensemble of Be+ ions, we build Coulomb crystals that we use for stopping the motion of HCI and for cooling them. HCI, in this case Ar13+ ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap with an energy spread of a few 100's of eV, due to the ion temperature within the trap. Carefully timed electric pulses in a potential-gradient decelerate and bunch the HCI. We achieve Coulomb crystallization of these HCI by re-trapping them in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap where they are sympathetically cooled through Coulomb interaction with the directly laser-cooled ensemble. Furthermore, we also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar13+ ion by a single Be+ ion, prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with potentially 10-19 relative accuracy. The strongly suppressed thermal motion of the embedded HCI offers novel possibilities for investigation of questions related to the time variation of fundamental constants, parity non-conservation effects, Lorentz invariance and quantum electrodynamics. Achieving a seven orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature, from the starting point at MK values in the ion source down to the mK range within the Coulomb crystal eliminates the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high precision laser spectroscopy and quantum computation schemes.
Can Coulomb repulsion for charged particle beams be overcome?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retsky, Michael W.
2004-01-01
Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into a small spots at large distances from the defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Since the nonreversible terms should be small, it might be possible to construct an electron beam directed energy weapon.
Coulomb crystal mass spectrometry in a digital ion trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Nabanita; Pollum, Laura L.; Smith, Alexander D.; Keller, Matthias; Rennick, Christopher J.; Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Softley, Timothy P.
2015-03-01
We present a mass spectrometric technique for identifying the masses and relative abundances of Coulomb-crystallized ions held in a linear Paul trap. A digital radio-frequency wave form is employed to generate the trapping potential, as this can be cleanly switched off, and static dipolar fields are subsequently applied to the trap electrodes for ion ejection. Close to 100% detection efficiency is demonstrated for Ca+ and CaF+ ions from bicomponent Ca+-CaF+ Coulomb crystals prepared by the reaction of Ca+ with CH3F . A quantitative linear relationship is observed between ion number and the corresponding integrated time-of-flight (TOF) peak, independent of the ionic species. The technique is applicable to a diverse range of multicomponent Coulomb crystals—demonstrated here for Ca+-NH 3+ -NH 4+ and Ca+-CaOH +-CaOD + crystals—and will facilitate the measurement of ion-molecule reaction rates and branching ratios in complicated reaction systems.
Quasi-exactly solvable relativistic soft-core Coulomb models
Agboola, Davids Zhang, Yao-Zhong
2012-09-15
By considering a unified treatment, we present quasi exact polynomial solutions to both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with the family of soft-core Coulomb potentials V{sub q}(r)=-Z/(r{sup q}+{beta}{sup q}){sup 1/q}, Z>0, {beta}>0, q{>=}1. We consider cases q=1 and q=2 and show that both cases are reducible to the same basic ordinary differential equation. A systematic and closed form solution to the basic equation is obtained using the Bethe ansatz method. For each case, the expressions for the energies and the allowed parameters are obtained analytically and the wavefunctions are derived in terms of the roots of a set of Bethe ansatz equations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relativistic bound-state solutions of the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasi-exact treatments of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solutions obtained in terms of the roots to the Bethe ansatz equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hidden Lie algebraic structure discussed for the models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results useful in describing mesonic atoms and interaction of intense laser fields with atom.
Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique
A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.
Cloët, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-22
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|≳0.5 GeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cloët, Ian C.; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W.
2016-01-01
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q |≳0.5 GeV . The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Regularized friction and continuation: Comparison with Coulomb's law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigué, Pierre; Vergez, Christophe; Karkar, Sami; Cochelin, Bruno
2017-02-01
Periodic solutions of systems with friction are difficult to investigate because of the non-smooth nature of friction laws. This paper examines periodic solutions and most notably stick-slip, on a simple one-degree-of-freedom system (mass, spring, damper, and belt), with Coulomb's friction law, and with a regularized friction law (i.e. the friction coefficient becomes a function of relative speed, with a stiffness parameter). With Coulomb's law, the stick-slip solution is constructed step by step, which gives a usable existence condition. With the regularized law, the Asymptotic Numerical Method and the Harmonic Balance Method provide bifurcation diagrams with respect to the belt speed or normal force, and for several values of the regularization parameter. Formulations from the Coulomb case give the means of a comparison between regularized solutions and a standard reference. With an appropriate definition, regularized stick-slip motion exists, its amplitude increases with respect to the belt speed and its pulsation decreases with respect to the normal force.
Coulomb-dominated low-energy deuteron stripping
Austern, N. )
1991-02-01
Analysis of a three-body model shows that Coulomb polarization of the deuteron has very little influence on the branching ratio {ital A}({ital d},{ital p})/{ital A}({ital d},{ital n}) for transfer reactions on target nucleus {ital A} at very low deuteron energies (the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect). We see that polarization effects in transfer reactions are not related to the long range of the Coulomb field, but are caused by the more intense fields near the target nucleus. However, even in that region the induced dipole moment is limited by the deuteron binding, and it is small for low {ital Z} targets. We see in addition that the transfer amplitudes tend to be {ital insensitive} to any polarization admixtures in the entrance channel. On the other hand, the branching ratio can be affected by the Coulomb barrier for the bound final-state wave function of the proton, especially for very weakly bound final states. Brief remarks about the relation of stripping theory to special properties of the {ital d}+{ital d} system are included.
Ionization in an intense field considering Coulomb correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Huo, Yi-Ning; Tang, Zeng-Hua; Ma, Feng-Cai
2017-01-01
We derive a simple ionization rate formula for the ground state of a hydrogen atom in the velocity gauge under the conditions: ω \\ll 1 a.u. (a.u. is short for atomic unit) and γ \\ll 1 (ω is the laser frequency and γ is the Keldysh parameter). Comparisons are made among the different versions of the Keldysh–Faisal–Reiss (KFR) theory. The numerical study shows that with considering the quasi-classical (WKB) Coulomb correction in the final state of the ionized electron, the photoionization rate is enhanced compared with without considering the Coulomb correction, and the Reiss theory with the WKB Coulomb correction gives the correct result in the tunneling regime. Our concise formula of the ionization rate may provide an insight into the ionization mechanism for the ground state of a hydrogen atom. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274149 and 11304185) and the Program of Shenyang Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, China (Grant No. F12-254-1-00).
Instabilities of Coulomb phases and quark confinement in QCD
Asorey, Manuel; Santagata, Alessandro
2009-01-01
The Gribov picture to quark confinement is based on the Coulomb phase instability due to the very large values that the effective α{sub s} coupling constant can reach in the infrared regime. The Gribov instability is driven by a vacuum decay into light quarks beyond a critical value of the coupling constant α{sub s}3π(1-√(2/3))/4 (for SU(3) gauge group). From first principles it has been shown the existence of an instability of the Coulomb phase in pure gauge theories for α≥√(2), much beyond the Gribov critical value. In this paper we analyze the effect of dynamical quarks in the instability of the Coulomb phase. We find a critical value of the coupling α=√(3) where a quark-antiquark pair creation mechanism leads to vacuum instability. However, the new critical value turns out to be larger than the pure gauge critical value α=√(2), unlike it is expected in the standard Gribov scenario. The result is analytically derived from first principles and provides further consistency to the picture where quark confinement is mainly driven by gluonic fluctuation instabilities.
Czakó, Gábor
2014-06-21
Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O((3)P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) → OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.
Decay branching ratios of excited 24Mg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munson, J. M.; Norman, E. B.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Phair, L. W.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Lee, D.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Czeszumska, A.; Chodash, P. A.; Saastamoinen, A. J.; Austin, R. A. E.; Spiridon, A. E.; Dag, M.; Chyzh, R.; Basunia, M. S.; Ressler, J. J.; Ross, T. J.
2017-01-01
The nuclear reactions 12C(12C,α )20Ne , 12C(12C,p )23Na , and 12C(12C,n )23Mg are the primary reactions in carbon burning, which occurs as part of several stellar processes. The Gamow window, which describes the energy range where most of these reactions take place, is typically around 1.5 MeV in the center-of-mass frame. Direct measurements of the cross sections at this energy are difficult due to the large Coulomb barrier present between the carbon nuclei; however, a successful surrogate measurement can provide the branching ratios between these reactions while avoiding the 12C+12C Coulomb barrier. An experiment was performed using inelastic scattering of 40 MeV α particles on 24Mg as a possible surrogate for the 12C+12C compound nucleus.
Bouhafs, Nezha; Lique, François
2015-11-14
We present a new three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the NH(X{sup 3}Σ{sup −})–Ne van der Waals system, which explicitly takes into account the NH vibrational motion. Ab initio calculations of the NH–Ne PES were carried out using the open-shell single- and double-excitation coupled cluster approach with non-iterative perturbational treatment of triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. The augmented correlation-consistent quadruple zeta (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set was employed. Mid-bond functions were also included in order to improve the accuracy in the van der Waals well. Using this new PES, we have studied the collisional excitation of NH(X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}) by Ne. Close-coupling calculations of the collisional excitation cross sections of the fine-structure levels of NH by Ne are performed for energies up to 3000 cm{sup −1}, which yield, after thermal average, rate coefficients up to 350 K. The propensity rules between fine-structure levels are reported, and it is found that F-conserving cross sections are larger than F-changing cross sections even if the propensity rules are not as strong as for the NH–He system. The calculated rate coefficients are compared with available experimental measurements at room temperature and a fairly good agreement is found between experimental and theoretical data, confirming the good quality of the scattering calculations and also the accuracy of the potential energy surface used in this work.
Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R
2011-10-13
In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly.
Structure Effects in Collisions Induced by Halo and Weakly Bound Nuclei around the Coulomb Barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scuderi, V.; di Pietro, A.; Acosta, L.; Amorini, F.; Borge, M. J. G.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Fraile, L. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Jeppesen, H.; Lattuada, M.; Martel, I.; Milin, M.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Sanchez, E. M. R.; Scalia, G.; Tengblad, O.; Torresi, D.; Vidal, A. M.; Zadro, M.
In this contribution, results concerning different reaction channels for the collisions induced by the three Be isotopes, 9,10,11Be, on a 64Zn target at energies around the Coulomb barrier will be presented. The experiments with the radioactive 10,11Be beams were performed at REX-ISOLDE (CERN) whereas the experiment with the stable weakly bound 9Be beam was performed at LNS Catania. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the three systems 9,10,11Be + 64Zn at the same center of mass energy. The angular distributions were analyzed with optical potentials and reaction cross sections were obtained from optical model calculations, performed with the code PTOLEMY. For the 11Be + 64Zn reaction, the break-up angular distribution was also measured.
Coulomb interaction parameters in bcc iron: an LDA+DMFT study.
Belozerov, A S; Anisimov, V I
2014-09-17
We study the influence of Coulomb interaction parameters on electronic structure and magnetic properties of paramagnetic bcc Fe by means of the local density approximation plus dynamical mean-field theory approach. We consider the local Coulomb interaction in the density-density form as well as in the form with spin rotational invariance approximated by averaging over all directions of the quantization axis. Our results indicate that the magnetic properties of bcc Fe are mainly affected by the Hund's rule coupling J rather than by the Hubbard U. By employing the constrained density functional theory approach in the basis of Wannier functions of spd character, we obtain U = 4 eV and J = 0.9 eV. In spite of the widespread belief that U = 4 eV is too large for bcc Fe, our calculations with the obtained values of U and J result in a satisfactory agreement with the experiment. The correlation effects caused by U are found to be weak even for large U = 6 eV. The agreement between the calculated and experimental Curie temperatures is further improved if J is reduced to 0.8 eV. However, with the decrease of J, the effective local magnetic moment moves further away from the experimental value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasen, David; Lee, Shu-Ping; Karzig, Torsten; Alicea, Jason
2016-10-01
Interfacing s -wave superconductors and quantum spin Hall edges produces time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity of a type that can not arise in strictly one-dimensional systems. With the aim of establishing sharp fingerprints of this phase, we use renormalization-group methods to extract universal transport characteristics of superconductor/quantum spin Hall heterostructures where the native edge states serve as leads. We determine scaling forms for the conductance through a grounded superconductor and show that the results depend sensitively on the interaction strength in the leads, the size of the superconducting region, and the presence or absence of time-reversal-breaking perturbations. We also study transport across a floating superconducting island isolated by magnetic barriers. Here, we predict e -periodic Coulomb-blockade peaks, as recently observed in nanowire devices [S. M. Albrecht et al., Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162], with the added feature that the island can support fractional charge tunable via the relative orientation of the barrier magnetizations. As an interesting corollary, when the magnetic barriers arise from strong interactions at the edge that spontaneously break time-reversal symmetry, the Coulomb-blockade periodicity changes from e to e /2 . These findings suggest several future experiments that probe unique characteristics of topological superconductivity at the quantum spin Hall edge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skobelev, N. K.
2016-07-01
Experimental data on the cross sections for channels of fusion and transfer reactions induced by beams of radioactive halo nuclei and clustered and stable loosely bound nuclei were analyzed, and the results of this analysis were summarized. The interplay of the excitation of single-particle states in reaction-product nuclei and direct reaction channels was established for transfer reactions. Respective experiments were performed in stable (6Li) and radioactive (6He) beams of the DRIBs accelerator complex at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, and in deuteron and 3He beams of the U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy Sciences of Czech Republic (Řež and Prague, Czech Republic). Data on subbarrier and near-barrier fusion reactions involving clustered and loosely bound light nuclei (6Li and 3He) can be described quite reliably within simple evaporation models with allowance for different reaction Q-values and couple channels. In reactions involving halo nuclei, their structure manifests itself most strongly in the region of energies below the Coulomb barrier. Neutron transfer occurs with a high probability in the interactions of all loosely bound nuclei with light and heavy stable nuclei at positive Q-values. The cross sections for such reactions and the respective isomeric ratios differ drastically for nucleon stripping and nucleon pickup mechanisms. This is due to the difference in the population probabilities for excited single-particle states.
Large-scale correlated study of excited state absorptions in naphthalene and anthracene.
Sony, Priya; Shukla, Alok
2009-07-07
In this paper, we report theoretical calculations of the photoinduced absorption (PA) spectrum of naphthalene and anthracene, with the aim of understanding those excited states, which are invisible in the linear optical absorption. The excited state absorption spectra are computed from the 1B(2u)(+) and the 1B(3u)(+) states and a detailed analysis of the many-body character of the states contributing to various peaks in the spectra is presented. The calculations are performed using the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) Hamiltonian, along with the full configuration interaction technique. The role of Coulomb parameters used in the PPP Hamiltonian is examined by considering standard Ohno parameters, as well as a screened set of parameters. The results of our calculations are extensively compared with the experimental data where available and very good agreement has been obtained. Moreover, our calculations predict the presence of high intensity features which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been explored earlier. We also present concrete predictions on the polarization properties of the PA spectrum, which can be verified in experiments performed on oriented samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Haberer, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo
2014-05-01
We study the influence of Coulombic effects on transport of charged species in saturated porous media in advection-dominated flow regimes. We focus on transverse hydrodynamic dispersion and we performed quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments in homogeneous and spatially variable flow fields to investigate transport of dilute electrolyte solutions. The experiments were conducted at flow velocities (1.0, 1.5 and 6 m/day) where advection is the dominant mass transfer process. High-resolution measurements at the outlet were performed to determine the concentration of different cations and anions. In order to interpret the laboratory experiments we develop a two-dimensional numerical model. The adopted modeling approach is based on a multicomponent formulation, charge conservation, and the accurate description of local transverse dispersion. The latter entails a non-linear dependence of the transverse dispersion coefficient on the flow velocity as well as a compound-specific dependence on the molecular diffusion of the transported solutes. The model was benchmarked by comparing the results of the 2D steady-state multicomponent simulations with 1D transient results of PHREEQC in homogeneous scenarios, and it was successively used to quantitatively evaluate the experimental results in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. Our experimental and modeling results show that Coulombic cross-coupling of dispersive fluxes of charged species in porous media significantly affects the lateral displacement of charged ions in both homogeneous and heterogeneous flow-through systems. Such effects are remarkable not only in diffusion-dominated but also in advection-dominated flow regimes.
Coulomb Drag and Magnetotransport in Graphene Double Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutuc, Emanuel
2013-03-01
Graphene double layers, a set of two closely spaced graphene monolayers seperated by an ultra-thin dielectric, represent an interesting electron system to explore correlated electron states. We discuss the fabrication of such samples using a layer-by-layer transfer approach, the electron transport in individual layers at zero and in a high magnetic field, and Coulomb drag measurements. Coulomb drag, probed by flowing a drive current in one layer, and measuring the voltage drop in the opposite layer provides a direct measurement of the electron-electron scattering between the two layers, and can be used to probe the electron system ground state. Coulomb drag in graphene, measured as a function of both layer densities and temperature reveals two distinct regimes: (i) diffusive drag at elevated temperatures, above 50 K, and (ii) mesoscopic fluctuations-dominated drag at low temperatures. A second topic discussed here is a technique that allows a direct measurement of the Fermi energy in an electron system with an accuracy independent of the sample size, using a graphene double layer heterostructure. The underlying principle of the technique is that an interlayer bias applied to bring the top layer to the charge neutrality point is equal to the Fermi energy of the bottom layer, which in effect renders the top graphene layer a resistively detected Kelvin probe. We illustrate this method by measuring the Fermi velocity, Landau level spacing, and Landau level broadening in monolayer graphene. Work done in collaboration with S. Kim, I. Jo, J. Nah, D. Dillen, K. Lee, B. Fallahazad, Z. Yao, and S. K. Banerjee. We thank ONR, NRI, and NSF for support.
Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge
Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo
2011-05-23
We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.
A nonlinear Bloch model for Coulomb interaction in quantum dots
Bidegaray-Fesquet, Brigitte Keita, Kole
2014-02-15
In this paper, we first derive a Coulomb Hamiltonian for electron–electron interaction in quantum dots in the Heisenberg picture. Then we use this Hamiltonian to enhance a Bloch model, which happens to be nonlinear in the density matrix. The coupling with Maxwell equations in case of interaction with an electromagnetic field is also considered from the Cauchy problem point of view. The study is completed by numerical results and a discussion about the advisability of neglecting intra-band coherences, as is done in part of the literature.
Coulombic wall slip of concentrated soft-particle suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Michael; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibing; Fryer, Peter
2013-06-01
The coefficients of friction of concentrated soft-particle suspensions (tomato paste and a microgel suspension) were measured as a function of the slip velocity for a number of substrates. The data are interpreted using a micro-elastohydrodynamic model that is consistent with significant bulk frictional dissipation and an increase in the number of particle-wall contacts with increasing normal stress. The origin of the Coulombic slip, which has not been observed previously for pastes, is ascribed to the sensitivity of the lubricating film thickness.
Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering
Sjue, Sky K.
2015-11-04
The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.
Momentum correlation in the three-body Coulomb continuum problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Suimeng
2000-09-01
Following the work of Berakdar (1996 Phys. Rev. A 53 2316), momentum correlation in the three-body Coulomb continuum problem is considered by the introduction of effective Sommerfeld parameters for both the symmetric and the asymmetric geometry. The triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of atomic helium at incident energies of 50 eV in the asymmetric geometry are calculated. Results of this approach are compared with the absolute measurements, the results of the BBK model without modification, the convergent close-coupling calculations and the results of our earlier model.
Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.
Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey
2014-07-16
We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.
The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.
Kats, Daniel
2016-01-28
The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction.
Mean Field Evolution of Fermions with Coulomb Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porta, Marcello; Rademacher, Simone; Saffirio, Chiara; Schlein, Benjamin
2017-03-01
We study the many body Schrödinger evolution of weakly coupled fermions interacting through a Coulomb potential. We are interested in a joint mean field and semiclassical scaling, that emerges naturally for initially confined particles. For initial data describing approximate Slater determinants, we prove convergence of the many-body evolution towards Hartree-Fock dynamics. Our result holds under a condition on the solution of the Hartree-Fock equation, that we can only show in a very special situation (translation invariant data, whose Hartree-Fock evolution is trivial), but that we expect to hold more generally.
Quantum confinement and Coulomb blockade in isolated nanodiamond crystallites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Tordjman, Moshe; Kalish, Rafi
2013-07-01
We present direct experimental evidence of quantum confinement effects in single isolated nanodiamonds by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. For grains smaller than 4.5 nm, the band gap was found to increase with decreasing nanodiamond size and a well-defined, evenly spaced, 12-peak structure was observed on the conduction band side of the conductance curves. We attribute these peaks to the Coulomb blockade effect, reflecting the 12-fold degeneracy of the first electron-energy level in the confined nanodiamond. The present results shed light on the size dependence of the electronic properties of single nanodiamonds and are of major importance for future nanodiamond-based applications.
Analytical approach to quasiperiodic beam Coulomb field modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubtsova, I. D.
2016-09-01
The paper is devoted to modeling of space charge field of quasiperiodic axial- symmetric beam. Particle beam is simulated by charged disks. Two analytical Coulomb field expressions are presented, namely, Fourier-Bessel series and trigonometric polynomial. Both expressions permit the integral representation. It provides the possibility of integro-differential beam dynamics description. Consequently, when beam dynamics optimization problem is considered, it is possible to derive the analytical formula for quality functional gradient and to apply directed optimization methods. In addition, the paper presents the method of testing of space charge simulation code.
Ice limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.
2008-10-01
In this paper we describe gauge invariant multiquark states generalizing the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio, and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is illustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark-antiquark potential.
A solvable model for localized adsorption in a Coulomb system
Rosinberg, M.L.; Blum, L.; Lebowitz, J.L.
1986-07-01
A model for an interface with localized adsorption is presented, in which the surface has a distribution of sticky adhesive sites in contact with a Coulomb fluid. Contrary to the current literature on the electrical double layer the surface charge is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk fluid. The sum rules obeyed by the one- and two-body correlation functions are investigated. Explicit results are obtained for a solvable model, the two-dimensional one-component plasma at reduced temperature 2. The effect of the granularity of the adsorbed charge on the adsorption isotherm is discussed.
Dynamic screening of the three-body coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang-jin, Chen
1998-03-01
The BBK approach is modified by the introduction of effective Sommerfeld parameters for both symmetric and asymmetric geometries, according to the fact that the strength of any particular two-body Coulomb interaction is affected by the presence of the third particle. The triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of atomic helium at incident energies of 40 and 50 eV in asymmetric geometry are calculated. Results of this approach are found to be in good agreement with the absolute measurements and the only existing theoretical results of the convergent close-coupling method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Troise, Claudia; Tramelli, Anna; De Natale, Giuseppe
2013-10-01
Fluid injection in and withdrawal from wells are basic procedures in mining activities and deep resources exploitation, such as oil and gas extraction, permeability enhancement for geothermal exploitation and waste fluid disposal. All of these activities have the potential to induce seismicity, as exemplified by the 2006 Basel earthquake (ML 3.4). Despite several decades of experience, the mechanisms of induced seismicity are not known in detail, which prevents effective risk assessment and/or mitigation. In this study, we provide an interpretation of induced seismicity based on computation of Coulomb stress changes that result from fluid injection/withdrawal at depth, mainly focused on the interpretation of induced seismicity due to stimulation of a geothermal reservoir. Seismicity is, theoretically, more likely where Coulomb stress changes are larger. For modeling purposes, we simulate the thermodynamic evolution of a system after fluid injection/withdrawal. The associated changes in pressure and temperature are subsequently considered as sources of incremental stress changes, which are then converted to Coulomb stress changes on favourably oriented faults, taking into account the background regional stress. Numerical results are applied to the water injection that was performed to create the fractured reservoir at the enhanced-geothermal-system site, Soultz-sous-Forets (France). Our approach describes well the observed seismicity, and provides an explanation for the different behaviors of a system when fluids are injected or withdrawn.
Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hell, Stefan W.; Bahlmann, Karsten; Schrader, Martin; Soini, Aleksi; Malak, Henryk; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Lakowicz, Joseph R.
1996-01-01
We show experiments proving the feasibility of scanning fluorescence microscopy by three-photon excitation. Three-photon excitation fluorescence axial images are shown of polystyrene beads stained with the fluorophore 2,5- bis(4-biphenyl)oxazole (BBO). Three-photon excitation is performed at an excitation wavelength of 900 nm and with pulses of 130 fs duration provided by a mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser. Fluorescence is collected between 350 and 450 nm. The fluorescence image signal features a third-order dependence on the excitation power, also providing intrinsic 3-D imaging. The resolution of a three-photon excitation microscope is increased over that of a comparable two-photon excitation microscope.
RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM
Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.
1959-01-13
An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brogi, Bharat Bhushan; Chand, Shyam; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2015-06-01
Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ɛ + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.
Signatures of subband quantization in the Coulomb blockade regime of a disordered quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; He, Jianhong; Guo, Huazhong; Gao, Jie
2017-01-01
We report experiments on the two-terminal conductance of a long disordered quantum wire in a perpendicular magnetic field. Pronouncedly enhanced magnetoconductance in magnetic fields of intermediate strength is observed in the Coulomb blockade regime, which is well explained using the boundary roughness scattering and the subband quantization of the quantum wire, by modeling the disordered quantum wire as that of a quantum dot defined in a quantum wire. Assuming a parabolic constriction in the disordered quantum wire, we further obtained the magnetic field dependence of high energy levels in the quantum dot and the gate voltage dependence of the effective width of the quantum wire. Our results may provide useful information for further studies on integrated structures in on-chip laboratories.
Simulation study of a new inverse-pinch high Coulomb transfer switch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, S. H.
1984-01-01
A simulation study of a simplified model of a high coulomb transfer switch is performed. The switch operates in an inverse pinch geometry formed by an all metal chamber, which greatly reduces hot spot formations on the electrode surfaces. Advantages of the switch over the conventional switches are longer useful life, higher current capability and lower inductance, which improves the characteristics required for a high repetition rate switch. The simulation determines the design parameters by analytical computations and comparison with the experimentally measured risetime, current handling capability, electrode damage, and hold-off voltages. The parameters of initial switch design can be determined for the anticipated switch performance. Results are in agreement with the experiment results. Although the model is simplified, the switch characteristics such as risetime, current handling capability, electrode damages, and hold-off voltages are accurately determined.
Strength of effective Coulomb interactions and origin of ferromagnetism in hydrogenated graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Şaşıoǧlu, E.; Hadipour, H.; Friedrich, C.; Blügel, S.; Mertig, I.
2017-02-01
Hydrogenation provides a novel way to tune the electronic properties of graphene. Recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have demonstrated that local graphene magnetism can be selectively switched on and off by hydrogen (H) dimers. Employing first-principles calculations in conjunction with the constrained random-phase approximation we determine the strength of the effective Coulomb interaction U in hydrogenated graphene. We find that the calculated U parameters are smaller than the ones in graphene and depend on the H concentration. Moreover, the U parameters are very sensitive to the position of H atoms adsorbed on the graphene lattice. We discuss the instability of the paramagnetic state of the hydrogenated graphene towards the ferromagnetic one on the basis of calculated U parameters within the Stoner model. Spin-polarized calculations reveal that the itinerant ferromagnetism in hydrogenated graphene can be well accounted for by the Stoner model.
Pitzer, Martin; Kastirke, Gregor; Kunitski, Maksim; Jahnke, Till; Bauer, Tobias; Goihl, Christoph; Trinter, Florian; Schober, Carl; Henrichs, Kevin; Becht, Jasper; Zeller, Stefan; Gassert, Helena; Waitz, Markus; Kuhlins, Andreas; Sann, Hendrik; Sturm, Felix; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Johnson, Allan S; Mazenauer, Manuel; Spenger, Benjamin; Marquardt, Sabrina; Marquardt, Sebastian; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Stohner, Jürgen; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus; Berger, Robert
2016-08-18
The absolute configuration of individual small molecules in the gas phase can be determined directly by light-induced Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI). Herein, this approach is demonstrated for ionization with a single X-ray photon from a synchrotron light source, leading to enhanced efficiency and faster fragmentation as compared to previous experiments with a femtosecond laser. In addition, it is shown that even incomplete fragmentation pathways of individual molecules from a racemic CHBrClF sample can give access to the absolute configuration in CEI. This leads to a significant increase of the applicability of the method as compared to the previously reported complete break-up into atomic ions and can pave the way for routine stereochemical analysis of larger chiral molecules by light-induced CEI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Ram R.
The dipolon theory first discovered two high energy kinks in electron energy. It [1-2] has also predicted two superconducting states, symmetric (''s'') and anti-symmetric (''as''). Here we report the prediction of very low energy excitations due to transition from ''as'' state to ''s'' state (''ass'') (or vice versa) which creates (annihilates) the quantum (''asson'') of energy ℏωa (q-->a) =Es (k' -->) -Eas (k'' -->) ; ''a'' is for ''asson'' and Es (k' -->) and Eas (k'' -->) are electron energies in ''s'' and ''as'' states, respectively (Ei (k -->) =Eri (k -->) [1-4]). Our theory [1-4] finds in BISCCO at M point on Fermi level at T=13 K asson energy about 14 +/- 8 meV . We predict that these assons create a new kink in electron energy at this energy. Also, a single pair transitions are possible which involve two assons.
Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve
2013-08-07
We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γ(H) = 2) and eight (γ(1st) = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (αmin (G)=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d(4) with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step-namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve
2013-08-01
We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γH = 2) and eight (γ1st = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (α _min^G=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d4 with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step—namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems
Coulomb-corrected molecular orbital tomography of nitrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Chunyang; He, Lixin; Lan, Pengfei; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Yang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang
2016-03-01
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules has provided a promising way to probe the molecular orbital with an Ångström resolution. This method, usually called molecular orbital tomography (MOT) replies on a simple assumption of the plane-wave approximation (PW), which has long been questioned due to that PW approximation is known to be valid in the keV energy region. However, the photon energy is usually no more than 100 eV in HHG. In this work, we experimentally reconstruct the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of nitrogen (N2) by using a Coulomb-corrected MOT (CCMOT) method. In our scheme, the molecular continuum states are described by a Coulomb wave function instead of the PW approximation. With CCMOT, the reconstructed orbital is demonstrated to agree well with the theoretical prediction and retain the main features of the HOMO of N2. Compared to the PW approximation method, the CCMOT shows a significant improvement in eliminating the artificial structures caused by PW approximation.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-15
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collision operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.
Coulomb interaction effects on the Majorana states in quantum wires.
Manolescu, A; Marinescu, D C; Stanescu, T D
2014-04-30
The stability of the Majorana modes in the presence of a repulsive interaction is studied in the standard semiconductor wire-metallic superconductor configuration. The effects of short-range Coulomb interaction, which is incorporated using a purely repulsive δ-function to model the strong screening effect due to the presence of the superconductor, are determined within a Hartree-Fock approximation of the effective Bogoliubov-De Gennes Hamiltonian that describes the low-energy physics of the wire. Through a numerical diagonalization procedure we obtain interaction corrections to the single particle eigenstates and calculate the extended topological phase diagram in terms of the chemical potential and the Zeeman energy. We find that, for a fixed Zeeman energy, the interaction shifts the phase boundaries to a higher chemical potential, whereas for a fixed chemical potential this shift can occur either at lower or higher Zeeman energies. These effects can be interpreted as a renormalization of the g-factor due to the interaction. The minimum Zeeman energy needed to realize Majorana fermions decreases with the increasing strength of the Coulomb repulsion. Furthermore, we find that in wires with multi-band occupancy this effect can be enhanced by increasing the chemical potential, i.e. by occupying higher energy bands.
Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media.
Cortes, Cristian L; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-25
Dipole-dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media.
Laser-Driven Recollisions under the Coulomb Barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keil, Th.; Popruzhenko, S. V.; Bauer, D.
2016-12-01
Photoelectron spectra obtained from the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be in striking disagreement with predictions by the strong-field approximation (SFA), not only at low energy but also around twice the ponderomotive energy where the transition from the direct to the rescattered electrons is expected. In fact, the relative enhancement of the ionization probability compared to the SFA in this regime can be several orders of magnitude. We show for which laser and target parameters such an enhancement occurs and for which the SFA prediction is qualitatively good. The enhancement is analyzed in terms of the Coulomb-corrected action along analytic quantum orbits in the complex-time plane, taking soft recollisions under the Coulomb barrier into account. These recollisions in complex time and space prevent a separation into sub-barrier motion up to the "tunnel exit" and subsequent classical dynamics. Instead, the entire quantum path up to the detector determines the ionization probability.
Enhancement of the Coulomb collision rate by individual particle wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baalrud, Scott; Scheiner, Brett
2013-09-01
Charged particles moving in a plasma leave a trailing wake in their electric potential profile associated with the response function of the medium. For superthermal particles, these wakes can cause significant departures from the oft-assumed screened Coulomb potential profile. The wakes extend the interaction length scale beyond the Debye screening length for collisions between fast test particles and field particles in their wake. This can increase the Coulomb collision rate for velocities beyond the thermal speed. To demonstrate this effect, we consider the relaxation rate due to electron-electron collisions of an electron distribution function with initially depleted tails, as is common near boundary sheaths or double layers. This problem is related to Langmuir's paradox. We compare the standard Landau (Fokker-Planck) collision operator, which does not account for wakes, with the Lenard-Balescu collision operator, which includes wake effects through the linear dielectric response function. For this distribution, the linear dielectric is described by the incomplete plasma dispersion function. We compare the collision operators directly as well as the relaxation rate determined from a hybrid kinetic-fluid model. S. D. Baalrud, Phys. Plasmas 20, 012118 (2013).
Revision of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma
Mulser, P. Alber, G.; Murakami, M.
2014-04-15
The standard picture of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma is controversial, the arguments for the lower cut off need revision. The two cases of far subthermal and of far superthermal electron drift motions are accessible to a rigorous analytical treatment. We show that the lower cut off b{sub min} is a function of symmetry and shape of the shielding cloud, it is not universal. In the subthermal case, shielding is spherical and b{sub min} is to be identified with the de Broglie wavelength; at superthermal drift the shielding cloud exhibits cylindrical (axial) symmetry and b{sub min} is the classical parameter of perpendicular deflection. In both situations, the cut offs are determined by the electron-ion encounters at large collision parameters. This is in net contrast to the governing standard interpretation that attributes b{sub min} to the Coulomb singularity at vanishing collision parameters b and, consequently, assigns it universal validity. The origin of the contradictions in the traditional picture is analyzed.
Super-Coulombic atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media
Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-01
Dipole–dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole–dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon–polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media. PMID:28120826
Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-01
Dipole-dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media.
Slave rotor approach to dynamically screened Coulomb interactions in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivenko, I. S.; Biermann, S.
2015-04-01
Recent studies of dynamical screening of the electronic Coulomb interactions in solids have revived interest in lattice models of correlated fermions coupled to bosonic degrees of freedom (Hubbard-Holstein-type models). We propose a new dynamical mean-field-based approach to dynamically screened Coulomb interactions. In the effective Anderson-Holstein model, a transformation to slave rotors [S. Florens and A. Georges, Phys. Rev. B 66, 165111 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.165111] is performed to decouple the dynamical part of the interaction. This transformation allows for a systematic derivation and analysis of recently introduced approximate schemes for the solution of dynamical impurity problems, in particular, the Bose factor ansatz within the dynamic atomic limit approximation (DALA) with and without Lang-Firsov correction. More importantly still, it suggests an optimized choice for a Bose factor in the sense of the variational principle of Feynman and Peierls. We demonstrate the accuracy of our scheme and present a comparison to calculations within the DALA.
Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure
Beeler, N.M.; Simpson, R.W.; Hickman, S.H.; Lockner, D.A.
2000-01-01
Many recent studies of stress-triggered seismicity rely on a fault failure model with a single free parameter, the apparent coefficient of friction, presumed to be a material constant with possible values 0 ≤ μ′ ≤ 1. These studies may present a misleading view of fault strength and the role of pore fluid pressure in earthquake failure. The parameter μ′ is intended to incorporate the effects of both friction and pore pressure, but is a material constant only if changes in pore fluid pressure induced by changes in stress are proportional to the normal stress change across the potential failure plane. Although specific models of fault zones permit such a relation, neither is it known that fault zones within the Earth behave this way, nor is this behavior expected in all cases. In contrast, for an isotropic homogeneous poroelastic model the pore pressure changes are proportional to changes in mean stress, μ′ is not a material constant, and −∞ ≤ μ′ ≤ +∞. Analysis of the change in Coulomb failure stress for tectonically loaded reverse and strike-slip faults shows considerable differences between these two pore pressure models, suggesting that such models might be distinguished from one another using observations of triggered seismicity (e.g., aftershocks). We conclude that using the constant apparent friction model exclusively in studies of Coulomb failure stress is unwise and could lead to significant errors in estimated stress change and seismic hazard.
Coulomb-corrected molecular orbital tomography of nitrogen.
Zhai, Chunyang; He, Lixin; Lan, Pengfei; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Yang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang
2016-03-22
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules has provided a promising way to probe the molecular orbital with an Ångström resolution. This method, usually called molecular orbital tomography (MOT) replies on a simple assumption of the plane-wave approximation (PW), which has long been questioned due to that PW approximation is known to be valid in the keV energy region. However, the photon energy is usually no more than 100 eV in HHG. In this work, we experimentally reconstruct the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of nitrogen (N2) by using a Coulomb-corrected MOT (CCMOT) method. In our scheme, the molecular continuum states are described by a Coulomb wave function instead of the PW approximation. With CCMOT, the reconstructed orbital is demonstrated to agree well with the theoretical prediction and retain the main features of the HOMO of N2. Compared to the PW approximation method, the CCMOT shows a significant improvement in eliminating the artificial structures caused by PW approximation.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong -Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-05
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collisionmore » operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Furthermore, useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.« less
Absence of exponential clustering in quantum Coulomb fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alastuey, A.; Martin, Ph. A.
1989-12-01
We show that the quantum corrections to the classical correlations of a Coulomb fluid do not decay exponentially fast for all values of the thermodynamical parameters. Specifically, the ħ4 term in the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion of the equilibrium charge-charge correlations of the quantum one-component plasma is found to decay like ||r||-10. More generally, using functional integration, we present a diagrammatic representation of the ħ expansion of the correlations in a multicomponent fluid with a locally regularized Coulomb potential and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The ħ2n terms are found to decay algebraically for all n>=2. Furthermore, an analysis of the hierarchy equations for the correlations provides upper bounds that are compatible with the findings of the perturbative expansion. Except for the monopole, all higher-order multipole sum rules do not hold, in general, in the quantum system. This violation of the multipole sum rules as well as the related algebraic tails are due to the intrinsic quantum fluctuations that prevent a perfect organization of the screening clouds. This phenomenon is illustrated in a simpler model where the large-distance correlations between two quantum particles embedded in a classical plasma can be exactly computed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, E. L.; Rivas, D. A.; Duot, A. C.; Hovey, R. T.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.
2015-03-01
DNA replication is the basis for all biological reproduction. A strand of DNA will ``unzip'' and bind with a complimentary strand, creating two identical strands. In this study, we are considering how this process is affected by Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD), specifically how ICD affects the individual coding proteins' ability to hold together. ICD mainly deals with how the electron returns to its original state after excitation and how this affects its immediate atomic environment, sometimes affecting the connectivity between interaction sites on proteins involved in the DNA coding process. Biological heredity is fundamentally controlled by DNA and its replication therefore it affects every living thing. The small nature of the proteins (within the range of nanometers) makes it a good candidate for research of this scale. Understanding how ICD affects DNA molecules can give us invaluable insight into the human genetic code and the processes behind cell mutations that can lead to cancer. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.
Understanding {sup 6}He induced reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier
Moro, A. M.; Arias, J. M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Escrig, D.; Tengblad, O.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.
2009-06-03
Recent developments aimed to understand the observed features arising in the scattering of the Borromean nucleus {sup 6}He on heavy targets are discussed and compared with recent data for {sup 6}He+{sup 208}Pb measured at the RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The analysis of the elastic scattering data in terms of the optical model, reveals the presence of a long range absorption mechanism, that manifests in the form of a large value of the imaginary diffuseness parameter. The elastic data have been also compared with three--body CDCC calculations, based on a di-neutron model of {sup 6}He, and four--body CDCC calculations, based on a more realistic three-body model of this nucleus. Finally, the angular and energy distribution of {alpha} particles emitted at backward angles are discussed and compared with different theoretical approaches. We find that these {alpha} particles are produced mainly by a two-neutron transfer mechanism to very excited states in the residual nucleus.
Ground state and resonant states of helium in exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoshal, Arijit; Ho, Y. K.
2009-05-01
We have investigated the ground state and a resonance state of normal helium atom in exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential (ECSCP) with screening parameterλ: V(r),,,1r,^-λr(λr) (in a.u.), where r denotes the inter-particle distance. Within the framework of Ritz's variational principle and making use of a highly correlated wave function, we have determined the ground state energies and wave functions of the helium atom for different values of the screening parameterλ. Furthermore, we have shown that the ground state energy of helium for a particular value of λ does converge with increasing number of terms in the wave function. In addition, using the stabilization method, we have investigated the doubly excited 2s^2 ^1S^e resonance state in helium with ECSCP. Resonance energy and width for various λ values are calculated. Our present work will play a useful role in the investigations of atomic structures in quantum plasmas [1]. [1]. P.K. Shukla and B. Eliasson, Phys. Lett. A 372, 2899 (2008).
Analysis of Periodically Varying Gear Mesh Systems with Coulomb Friction Using Floquet Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VAISHYA, M.; SINGH, R.
2001-06-01
This article presents a new analytical model of a gear pair with time varying mesh stiffness, viscous damping and sliding friction parameters. Unlike previous models, the excitation consists of three separate terms, namely the unloaded transmission error, time-invariant external torque and the periodically varying sliding friction force. A Coulomb friction model is considered using first a quasi-static mean transmitted load that is represented by the Meissner equation. Then, a truly dynamic force between gear teeth is described that leads to a triangular function, and after appropriate substitutions, this assumes the form of the Bessel equation of the one-third order. For the damped Meissner equation, the forced vibration response is found with the application of Floquet theory. Exact integrals are calculated for the state transition matrix in a piecewise manner, instead of using the Fourier series expansion, thus eliminating the mode truncation errors. From the state transition matrix, unstable zones are identified and the actual forced response of the system is found in terms of dynamic transmission error for these zones. With the aid of an example, the significance of sliding friction on system response and stability is examined. Finally, key advantages and the need for analytical methods are demonstrated for such systems.
Room temperature Coulomb blockade mediated field emission via self-assembled gold nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Chang, Shengli; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xueao; Xu, Hui
2017-02-01
Coulomb blockade mediated field-emission current was observed in single-electron tunneling devices based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles at 300 K. According to Raichev's theoretical model, by fixing a proper geometric distribution of source, island and drain, the transfer characteristics can be well explained through a combination of Coulomb blockade and field emission. Coulomb blockade and field emission alternately happen in our self-assembled devices. The Coulomb island size derived from the experimental data is in good agreement with the average size of the gold nanoparticles used in the device. The integrated tunneling can be adjusted via a gate electrode.
A New Feature of the Screened Coulomb Potential in Momentum Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Oryu, Shinsho; Togawa, Yoshio
2017-03-01
A Coulomb equivalent screened Coulomb potential is proposed for solving the Schrödinger equation and/or the Calogero first order differential equation, where some critical range bands are obtained. Phase shifts for "any" two-charged particle system (from electron-electron to heavy ion-heavy ion) are reproduced by using the universal critical range bands and the appropriate Sommerfeld parameter over a very wide energy region. A Coulomb-like off-shell amplitude is introduced using two-potential theory without employing the usual Coulomb renormalization method.
Nuclear excitation by electronic transition of 235U
Chodash, P. A.; Norman, E. B.; Burke, J. T.; ...
2016-03-11
Here, nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) is a rare nuclear excitation that can occur in isotopes containing a low-lying nuclear excited state. Over the past 40 yr, several experiments have attempted to measure NEET of 235U and those experiments have yielded conflicting results.
Ferrimagnetism and single-particle excitations in a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Zhang, Qinfang; Li, Tao; Yunoki, Seiji
2015-04-01
By using the variationalcluster approximation and cluster perturbation theory, we investigate the magnetism and single-particle excitations of a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice as an effective model for the single-side hydrogenated graphene, namely, graphone. We calculate the magnetic moment as a function of U (Coulomb interaction on impurity sites) with showing that the ground state is ferrimagneticfor any U > 0. We then calculate the single-particle excitations and show that the single-particle excitations are gapless and exhibit quadratic dispersion relation near the Fermi energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corradi, Lorenzo
2015-10-01
Excitation functions of one- and two-neutron transfer channels have been measured for the 96Zr+40Ca and 116Sn+60Ni systems at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to ˜25% below. Target-like recoils have been identified in A, Z and velocity with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental transfer probabilities have been compared, in absolute values and in slope, with semiclassical microscopic calculations which incorporate nucleon-nucleon pairing correlations. For the first time in a heavy ion collision, one was able to provide a consistent description of one and two neutron transfer reactions by incorporating, in the reaction mechanism, all known structure information of entrance and exit channels nuclei. In particular, there is no need to introduce any enhancement factor for the description of two neutron transfer, of course very important are the correlations induced by the pairing interaction.
Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization.
Freulon, V; Marguerite, A; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Fève, G
2015-04-21
Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes.
Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization
Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.
2015-01-01
Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes. PMID:25896625
Spatially encoded multiple-quantum excitation.
Ridge, Clark D; Borvayeh, Leila; Walls, Jamie D
2013-05-28
In this work, we present a simple method to spatially encode the transition frequencies of nuclear spin transitions and to read out these frequencies within a single scan. The experiment works by combining pulsed field gradients with an excitation sequence that selectively excites spin transitions within certain sample regions. After the initial excitation, imaging the resulting ẑ-magnetization is used to determine the locations where the excitations occurred, from which the corresponding transition frequencies are determined. Simple experimental demonstrations of this technique on one- and two-spin systems are presented.
Butler, J.N.; Shukla, S.
1995-05-01
The experimental status of excited charmed mesons is reviewed and is compared to theoretical expectations. Six states have been observed and their properties are consistent with those predicted for excited charmed states with orbital angular momentum equal to one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boucerredj, N.; Beggas, K.
2016-10-01
We present our study of high intensity femtosecond laser field interaction with large cluster of Kr and Na (contained 2.103 to 2.107 atoms). When laser intensity is above a critical value, it blows off all of electrons from the cluster and forms a non neutral ion cloud. The irradiation of these clusters by the intense laser field leads to highly excitation energy which can be the source of energetic electrons, electronic emission, highly charge, energetic ions and fragmentation process. During the Coulomb explosion of the resulting highly ionized, high temperature nanoplasma, ions acquire again their energy. It is shown that ultra fast ions are produced. The goal of our study is to investigate in detail a comparative study of the expansion and explosion then the ion energy of metallic and rare gas clusters irradiated by an intense femtosecond laser field. We have found that ions have a kinetic energy up to 105 eV and the Coulomb pressure is little than the hydrodynamic pressure. The Coulomb explosion of a cluster may provide a new high energy ion source.
Coulomb-stable triply charged diatomic: HeY3+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesendrup, Ralf; Pernpointner, Markus; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
1999-11-01
Accurate relativistic coupled-cluster calculations show that the triply charged species HeY3+ is a stable molecule and represents the lightest diatomic trication that does not undergo a Coulomb fragmentation into charged fragments. The diatomic potential-energy curve is approximated by an extended Morse potential, and vibrational-rotational constants for HeY3+ are predicted (Re=224.3 pm, D0=0.394 eV, ωe=437 cm-1, ωexe=15.8 cm-1, Be=0.877 cm-1). It is further shown that the He-Y3+ bond can basically be described as a charge-induced dipole interaction.
Strong nuclear couplings as a source of Coulomb rainbow suppression
Keeley, N.; Alamanos, N.; Rusek, K.
2010-09-15
A recent measurement of the {sup 11}Be+{sup 64}Zn quasielastic scattering angular distribution exhibits a non-Fresnel-type pattern, in contrast to {sup 6}He+{sup 64}Zn elastic scattering but similar to that for the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He from heavy targets. We show by means of continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculations that this unusual behavior of {sup 11}Be is caused by the much greater importance of nuclear coupling to the continuum in {sup 11}Be compared to {sup 6}He, where Coulomb dipole coupling is mainly responsible for the non-Fresnel-like shape, when present. We also show that the dynamic polarization potentials derived from the CDCC calculations seem to follow a universal form as a function of radius.
Coulomb gauge confinement in the heavy quark limit
Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2010-05-15
The relationship between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential is investigated. By rewriting the generating functional of quantum chromodynamics in terms of a heavy quark mass expansion in Coulomb gauge, restricting to leading order in this expansion and considering only the two-point functions of the Yang-Mills sector, the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is shown to be exact in this case and an analytic, nonperturbative solution is presented. It is found that there is a direct connection between the string tension and the temporal gluon propagator. Further, it is shown that for the 4-point quark correlation functions, only confined bound states of color-singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (baryon) pairs exist.
Gribov pendulum in the Coulomb gauge on curved spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio
2011-11-01
In this paper the generalization of the Gribov pendulum equation in the Coulomb gauge for curved space-times is analyzed on static spherically symmetric backgrounds. A rigorous argument for the existence and uniqueness of solution is provided in the asymptotically AdS case. The analysis of the strong and weak boundary conditions is equivalent to analyzing an effective one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. Necessary conditions in order for spherically symmetric backgrounds to admit solutions of the Gribov pendulum equation representing copies of the vacuum satisfying the strong boundary conditions are given. It is shown that asymptotically flat backgrounds do not support solutions of the Gribov pendulum equation of this type, while on asymptotically AdS backgrounds such ambiguities can appear. Some physical consequences are discussed.
Finsler-type modification of the Coulomb law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itin, Yakov; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Perlick, Volker
2014-12-01
Finsler geometry is a natural generalization of pseudo-Riemannian geometry. It can be motivated e.g. by a modified version of the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild axiomatic approach to space-time theory. Also, some scenarios of quantum gravity suggest a modified dispersion relation which could be phrased in terms of Finsler geometry. On a Finslerian space-time, the universality of free fall is still satisfied but local Lorentz invariance is violated in a way not covered by standard Lorentz invariance violation schemes. In this paper we consider a Finslerian modification of Maxwell's equations. The corrections to the Coulomb potential and to the hydrogen energy levels are computed. We find that the Finsler metric corrections yield a splitting of the energy levels. Experimental data provide bounds for the Finsler parameters.
Coulomb-blockade and Pauli-blockade magnetometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András
2017-01-01
Scanning-probe magnetometry is a valuable experimental tool to investigate magnetic phenomena at the micro- and nanoscale. We theoretically analyze the possibility of measuring magnetic fields via the electrical current flowing through quantum dots. We characterize the shot-noise-limited magnetic-field sensitivity of two devices: a single dot in the Coulomb blockade regime, and a double dot in the Pauli blockade regime. Constructing such magnetometers using carbon nanotube quantum dots would benefit from the large, strongly anisotropic and controllable g tensors, the low abundance of nuclear spins, and the small detection volume allowing for nanoscale spatial resolution; we estimate that a sensitivity below 1 μ T/√{Hz} can be achieved with this material. As quantum dots have already proven to be useful as scanning-probe electrometers, our proposal highlights their potential as hybrid sensors having in situ switching capability between electrical and magnetic sensing.
Classical Kepler-Coulomb problem on SO(2, 2) hyperboloid
Petrosyan, D. Pogosyan, G. S.
2013-10-15
In the present work, the problem of the motion of the classical particle in the Kepler-Coulomb field in three-dimensional hyperbolic space H{sub 2}{sup 2}: z{sub 2}{sup 0} + z{sub 2}{sup 1} - z{sub 2}{sup 2} - z{sub 2}{sup 3} = R{sup 2} is solved in the framework of Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The requirements for the existence of bounded motion of particle are formulated. The equation of the trajectory of particle is obtained, and it is shown that all the finite trajectories are closed. It is also demonstrated that under the certain values (zero or negative) of the separation constant A the fall of the particle onto the center takes place.
Quantum mechanics on phase space and the Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, P.; Martins, M. G. R.; Vianna, J. D. M.
2017-04-01
Symplectic quantum mechanics (SMQ) makes possible to derive the Wigner function without the use of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In this formulation of the quantum theory the Galilei Lie algebra is constructed using the Weyl (or star) product with Q ˆ = q ⋆ = q +iħ/2∂p , P ˆ = p ⋆ = p -iħ/2∂q, and the Schrödinger equation is rewritten in phase space; in consequence physical applications involving the Coulomb potential present some specific difficulties. Within this context, in order to treat the Schrödinger equation in phase space, a procedure based on the Levi-Civita (or Bohlin) transformation is presented and applied to two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom. Amplitudes of probability in phase space and the correspondent Wigner quasi-distribution functions are derived and discussed.
Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotkhov, Sergey V.
2013-06-01
In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage-current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ˜ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ˜7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current.
Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices.
Lotkhov, Sergey V
2013-06-14
In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage-current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ~ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ~7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current.
Relativistic Aharonov{endash}Bohm{endash}Coulomb problem
Hagen, C.R.; Park, D.K.
1996-10-01
The ((2+1)-dimensional) Aharonov{endash}Bohm effect is analyzed for a spin-1/2 particle in the case that a 1/{ital r} potential is present. Scalar and vector couplings are each considered. It is found that the approach in which the flux tube is given a finite radius that is taken to zero only after a matching of boundary conditions does not give physically meaningful results. Specifically, the operations of taking the limit of zero flux tube radius and the Galilean limit do not commute. Thus there appears to be no satisfactory solution of the relativistic Aharonov{endash}Bohm{endash}Coulomb problem using the finite radius flux tube method. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel
2017-02-01
We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.
Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems.
Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel
2017-02-01
We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.
Quantum Coulomb systems: some exact results in the atomic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballenegger, V.; Martin, Ph. A.
2002-04-01
We review a number of exact results concerning the recombined electron-proton gas. The recombination problem can be formulated in precise terms in the atomic limit. In this limit one lets the density and the temperature tend to zero in a coupled way so that the resulting energy-entropy balance favors the formation of certain chemical species. This enables to develop a clear understanding of the dielectric versus conducting behavior in the system. In particular, we give a first principle derivation of the dielectric constant of the dilute atomic gas without presupposing the existence of atoms. The analysis relies on the path integral representation of the Coulomb gas together with Mayer diagrammatic techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conrad, Markus
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations have been performed with a commercial distributed explicit FE-solver and the results have been compared with experiments. High explosive was placed in front of different concrete slabs with the dimension 100 × 100 × 16 cm. Some of the results of the simulations, in particular the profile of the craters, are not in agreement with the test results. Therefore the key characteristics of the constitutive equation based on Mohr-Coulomb yield surfaces and a damage evolution linked to the plastic strain has been reviewed.
Dynamic stresses, coulomb failure, and remote triggering: corrected
Hill, David P.
2012-01-01
Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15–30 s periods and peak amplitudes <1 MPa are capable of triggering seismicity at sites remote from the generating mainshock under appropriate conditions. Coulomb failure models based on a frictional strength threshold offer one explanation for instances of rapid‐onset triggered seismicity that develop during the surface‐wave peak dynamic stressing. Evaluation of the triggering potential of surface‐wave dynamic stresses acting on critically stressed faults using a Mohr’s circle representation together with the Coulomb failure criteria indicates that Love waves should have a higher triggering potential than Rayleigh waves for most fault orientations and wave incidence angles. That (1) the onset of triggered seismicity often appears to begin during the Rayleigh wave rather than the earlier arriving Love wave, and (2) Love‐wave amplitudes typically exceed those for Rayleigh waves suggests that the explanation for rapid‐onset dynamic triggering may not reside solely with a simple static‐threshold friction mode. The results also indicate that normal faults should be more susceptible to dynamic triggering by 20‐s Rayleigh‐wave stresses than thrust faults in the shallow seismogenic crust (<10 km) while the advantage tips in favor of reverse faults greater depths. This transition depth scales with wavelength and coincides roughly with the transition from retrograde‐to‐prograde particle motion. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems. The result is consistent with the apparent elevated susceptibility of extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes to remote triggering by Rayleigh‐wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes.
Influence of multiphonon excitations and transfer on the fusion of Ca+Zr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esbensen, H.; Stefanini, A. M.
2014-04-01
Fusion data for 48Ca+90,96Zr are analyzed by coupled-channels calculations that are based on the M3Y +repulsion, double-folding potential. By applying a previously determined nuclear density of Ca48, the neutron densities of the zirconium isotopes are adjusted to optimize the fit to the fusion data, whereas the proton densities are determined by electron-scattering experiments. It is shown that the fusion data can be explained fairly well by including couplings to one- and two-phonon excitations of the reacting nuclei and to one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions but there is also some sensitivity to multiphonon excitations. The neutron skin thicknesses extracted for the two zirconium isotopes are consistent with antiproton measurements. The densities of the zirconium isotopes are used together with the previously determined nuclear density of Ca40 to calculate the M3Y +repulsion potentials and predict the fusion cross sections of 40Ca+90,96Zr. The predicted cross sections for 40Ca+90Zr are in reasonable agreement with the data when the influence of multiphonon excitations and a modest transfer is considered. The prediction of the 40Ca+96Zr fusion cross section, on the other hand, is poor and underpredicts the data by 30% to 40%. Although couplings to transfer channels with positive Q values were expected to play an important role, they are not able to explain the data, primarily because the predicted Coulomb barrier is about 1.5 MeV too high. Possible reasons for this failure are discussed.
Three-body Coulomb systems using generalized angular-momentum S states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitten, R. C.; Sims, J. S.
1974-01-01
An expansion of the three-body Coulomb potential in generalized angular-momentum eigenfunctions developed earlier by one of the authors is used to compute energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of bound S states of three-body Coulomb systems. The results for He, H(-), e(-)e(+)e(-), and pmu(-)p are compared with the results of other computational approaches.
First-principles calculations of shear moduli for Monte Carlo-simulated Coulomb solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1990-01-01
The paper presents a first-principles study of the shear modulus tensor for perfect and imperfect Coulomb solids. Allowance is made for the effects of thermal fluctuations for temperatures up to the melting conditions. The present theory treats the cases of the long-range Coulomb interaction, where volume fluctuations should be avoided in the Ewald sums.
Stereochemical configuration and selective excitation of the chiral molecule halothane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitzer, Martin; Kastirke, Gregor; Burzynski, Phillip; Weller, Miriam; Metz, Daniel; Neff, Jonathan; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H.; Williams, Joshua B.; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Berger, Robert; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus
2016-12-01
X-ray single-photon ionization and fragmentation of the chiral molecule halothane from a racemic mixture have been investigated using the cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy technique. Two important facets related to the core ionization of this species are examined: Firstly, the distinction of enantiomers (mirror isomers) and the determination of absolute configuration on a single-molecule level by four-body Coulomb explosion; secondly, the interplay of site-selective excitation and fragmentation patterns. These results are easily transferable to other molecular species and show the wealth of features that can be investigated by coincidence spectroscopy of chiral molecules.
Coulomb-corrected eikonal description of the breakup of halo nuclei
Capel, P.; Baye, D.
2008-11-15
The eikonal description of breakup reactions diverges because of the Coulomb interaction between the projectile and the target. This divergence is due to the adiabatic, or sudden, approximation usually made, which is incompatible with the infinite range of the Coulomb interaction. A correction for this divergence is analyzed by comparison with the dynamical eikonal approximation, which is derived without the adiabatic approximation. The correction consists in replacing the first-order term of the eikonal Coulomb phase by the first-order of the perturbation theory. This allows taking into account both nuclear and Coulomb interactions on the same footing within the computationally efficient eikonal model. Excellent results are found for the dissociation of {sup 11}Be on lead at 69 MeV/nucleon. This Coulomb-corrected eikonal approximation provides a competitive alternative to more elaborate reaction models for investigating breakup of three-body projectiles at intermediate and high energies.
Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials
Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan
2015-07-14
Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalakulam, Madhu; Pan, Wei; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L.
2012-02-01
Ever since its discovery the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at the even denominator filling fraction v=5/2 has generated immense interests among researchers. 5/2 FQH excitations are believed to obey non-Abelian statistics and posses topological properties making them an ideal candidate for the proposed fault tolerant topological quantum computation. Theoretical proposals to characterize the topological properties of the5/2 state are usually based on confined geometries. In this work we report the characterization of the 5/2 state using quasiparticle tunneling experiments in quantum point contacts (QPC). We have successfully fabricated QPCs on high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures using conventional photolithography followed by etching and evaporation of Cr/Au depletion gates. Our samples show very stable FQH plateaus at v = 7/3, 5/2 and 8/3 filling fractions. Tunneling experiments are performed in the QPCs at various temperatures and also at various pinch-off voltages to characterize the effective charge and Coulomb interaction parameters of the quasiparticles. (Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000).
Excitation, propagation and damping of helicon waves in a high density, low temperature plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caneses, J. F.; Blackwell, B. D.
2015-11-01
The MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE) is a helicon linear plasma device built to study fusion relevant plasma-surface interactions. In this work, we investigate helicon wave propagation in high density (1018-1019 m-3) low temperature (2-4 eV) magnetized (50-200 G) hydrogen plasma produced by a half-helical antenna operated at 7 MHz and 20 kW. Using the cold dielectric tensor with collisional terms (electron-neutral and Coulomb), helicon wave damping is calculated along the length of MAGPIE using a WKB approximation. Comparison with experiment indicates that wave damping, under these conditions, is entirely collisional. Numerical results from a fully electromagnetic wave code and 2D wavefield measurements indicate that helicon waves are excited at the plasma edge by the antenna's transverse current straps while the helical straps play a secondary role. These waves propagate towards the center of the discharge along the whistler wave ray direction (19 degrees to the background magnetic field), interfere on-axis and form the axial interference pattern commonly observed in helicon devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakatsuki, Takuma; Ejiri, Akira; Takase, Yuichi; Furui, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Kato, Kunihiko; Nakanishi, Ayaka; Oosako, Takuya; Shinya, Takahiro; Sonehara, Masateru; Togashi, Hiro; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Saito, Kenji; Seki, Tetsuo; Shimpo, Fujio; Nagashima, Yoshihiko
2012-10-01
Plasma current start-up experiments were performed on the TST-2 spherical tokamak (R= 0.38 m, a = 0.25 m, Bt = 0.3 T, Ip = 0.1 MA) using the lower hybrid wave (LHW) at f = 200 MHz. A waveguide array antenna consisting of four dielectric (alumina, ɛr = 10.0) loaded waveguides was used. The coupling characteristics of this antenna were investigated by low power experiments (PFWD< 5 kW). The measured characteristics were qualitatively consistent with those predicted by calculations using a finite element method solver package (COMSOL). The experimentally observed reflection coefficient is large (greater than 36 % averaged over four waveguides), and there are large differences in reflectivities in neighboring waveguides. It was necessary to take into account of the private limiter surrounding the antenna in order to reproduce these features. Non-inductive plasma current start-up to 6 kA has been demonstrated using 20 kW of LHW power. In this experiment, the reflection coefficient was very high because the initial plasma density was much lower than the predicted optimum plasma density.
Elementary excitations in homogeneous superfluid neutron star matter: Role of the proton component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldo, Marcello; Ducoin, Camille
2011-09-01
The thermal evolution of neutron stars depends on the elementary excitations affecting the stellar matter. In particular, the low-energy excitations, whose energy is proportional to the transferred momentum, can play a major role in the emission and propagation of neutrinos. In this paper, we focus on the density modes associated with the proton component in the homogeneous matter of the outer core of neutron stars (at density between one and three times the nuclear saturation density, where the baryonic constituents are expected to be neutrons and protons). In this region, it is predicted that the protons are superconducting. We study the respective roles of the proton pairing and Coulomb interaction in determining the properties of the modes associated with the proton component. This study is performed in the framework of the random phase approximation, generalized in order to describe the response of a superfluid system. The formalism we use ensures that the generalized Ward’s identities are satisfied. An important conclusion of this work is the presence of a pseudo-Goldstone mode associated with the superconducting protons in neutron-star matter. Indeed, the Goldstone mode, which characterizes a pure superfluid, is suppressed in usual superconductors because of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which allows a plasmon mode. However, for the proton component of stellar matter, the Coulomb field is screened by the electrons and a pseudo-Goldstone mode occurs, with a velocity increased by the Coulomb interaction.
The Effects of Static Coulomb Stress Change on Southern California Earthquake Forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strader, A. E.; Jackson, D. D.
2013-12-01
In previous studies, we confirmed an association between static Coulomb stress change and earthquake location in southern California, when resolving stress tensors onto uniformly oriented northwest right-lateral strike-slip planes (Deng & Sykes, 1997). Using an optimized index function to convert static Coulomb stress change into normalized seismicity rates, we found that the Coulomb stress-based forecasts were not significantly more effective indicators of future earthquake locations than forecasts based on smoothed seismicity (Hiemer et al., 2011). These results were likely due to Coulomb stress uncertainties, particularly near stress singularities at the ends of fault sections where many earthquakes occurred. We evaluate hybrid Coulomb stress/smoothed seismicity earthquake forecasts against those with earthquake rates derived from only one component, within a southern California study area (32°N-37°N latitude, 122°W-114°W longitude). Using a weighted linear combination of earthquake rates derived from static Coulomb stress change and smoothed seismicity, we mitigate the effects of stress uncertainty through increasing the influence of Coulomb stress on earthquake rates with increasing distance from faults. We also evaluate time-dependent Coulomb stress earthquake forecasts based on rate-and-state friction (Toda & Enescu, 2011 and Dieterich, 1996) against a Poissonian null hypothesis, from the 10/16/1999 Hector Mine earthquake to the 4/4/2010 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake. From numerical integration, we establish a normalized seismicity rate for each day, during the target time interval, from Coulomb stress evolution and the times since all preceding source earthquakes. During each day we assume seismicity follows a Poissonian process, with expected rates defined as the rate-and-state seismicity rates. By pseudo-prospectively testing these spatial and spatiotemporal earthquake forecasts, we ascertain the role of static and quasi-static Coulomb stress change in
Double Photon Decay of the Electromagnetically Excited Double Giant Dipole Resonance in LEAD-208
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritman, James Lambrecht
In this work the electromagnetic excitation of high lying collective states has been studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The interaction in peripheral collisions is dominated by the exchange of high energy virtual photons. Heavy systems near 1cdotA GeV produce a virtual photon field that is highly luminous and of sufficiently short duration to enable the multiple excitation of Giant Resonances with high probability. In particular, the double excitation of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) has been studied in this work by measuring the photons emitted in peripheral reactions with the system 1.A GeV ^ {209}Bi on ^{208} Pb. This study concentrated on the photon decay of Coulomb excited collective states. Despite the relatively small ground state gamma-decay branching ratio, investigation of this channel provides several advantages compared to measuring statistical particle decay. The most important advantage is the strong enhancement of E1 transitions with respect to higher multipolarities; therefore, study of gamma-decay provides a highly selective measurement of the GDR. Photons in the Giant Resonance region were measured both as singles and as gamma- gamma pairs. For symmetry reasons the target and projectile nuclei can be mutually Coulomb excited. In order to insure that both photons in the gamma -gamma pairs came from the same nucleus, the large Doppler shift of photons emitted from the moving projectile has been exploited. Appropriate placement of the gamma detectors permitted a complete separation of the GDR photons emitted by either the target or projectile nucleus. This work provides the first experimental evidence of the gamma-gamma decay of the Coulomb excited double GDR (GDR2). The position of the resonance indicates harmonicity of the T_{<} multi-GDR. However, the increase of the GDR2 width over the GDR's width by only about a factor of sqrt{2} is significantly less than expected. Finally, the GDR2 excitation cross section is compared with model
Studies of Highly Excited Atoms.
1986-04-02
collisions with photoions produced by the absorption of two blue laser photons or to an effect varying as the square of the number of excited atoms. Since...Physique Atomique , F-91191. (4). Our calculations indicate values of a = 3x 108 Gif-sur-Yvette. France. ., (d Permanent address: Fakultat fur Physik...collisions with points of particular importance for this experi- photoions produced by the absorption of two blue- -- ment. First, the atomic beam is
Excited-to-excited-state scattering using weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
U, Satya Sainadh; Narayanan, Andal
2015-11-01
Weak measurements are a subset of measurement processes in quantum mechanics wherein the system, which is being measured, interacts very weakly with the measuring apparatus. Measurement values of observables undergoing a weak interaction and their amplification are concepts that have sharpened our understanding of interaction processes in quantum mechanics. Recent experiments show that naturally occurring processes such as resonance fluorescence from excited states of an atom can exhibit weak value amplification effect. In this paper we theoretically analyze the process of elastic resonance fluorescence from a V -type three-level atomic system, using the well-known Weiskopff-Wigner (WW) theory of spontaneous emission. Within this theory we show that a weak interaction regime can be identified and for suitable choices of initial and final excited states the mean scattering time between these states show an amplification effect during interaction with the vacuum bath modes of the electromagnetic field. We thus show that a system-bath interaction can show weak value amplification. Using our theory we reproduce the published experimental results carried out in such a system. More importantly, our theory can calculate scattering time scales in elastic resonance scattering between multiple excited states of a single atom or between common excited state configurations of interacting multiatom systems.
Optical-response properties in levitated optomechanical systems beyond the low-excitation limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Aixi; Lan, Yueheng
2016-02-01
We investigate the optical-response properties of a levitated optomechanical cavity coupled to a higher order excited atomic medium. The cavity field driven through the atom-field interaction is responsible for trapping a dielectric nanosphere, whose steady-state position is biased by the Coulomb force between the nanosphere and the cavity wall. We show that the phenomena of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and amplification can be generated from the output probe field in the presence of an effective optomechanical coupling between the nanosphere and the cavity field. Further, the width of the transparency window increases with increasing strength of the effective optomechanical coupling, which is controlled easily by varying the Coulomb interaction and the radius of the nanosphere. In particular, when the higher order excitation of the atomic medium is included, a large driving of the atomic ensemble but a relatively small atom-field detuning can be applied to help observe the OMIT behavior in the hybrid system.
Plasma-screening effects on the electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions in dense plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, Young-Dae
1993-01-01
Plasma-screening effects are investigated on electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions in dense plasmas. Scaled cross sections Z(exp 4) sigma for 1s yields 2s and 1s yields 2p are obtained for a Debye-Hueckel model of the screened Coulomb interaction. Ground and excited bound wave functions are modified in the screened Coulomb potential (Debye-Hueckel model) using the Ritz variation method. The resulting atomic wave functions and their eigenenergies agree well with the numerical and high-order perturbation theory calculations for the interesting domain of the Debye length not less than 10. The Born approximation is used to describe the continuum states of the projectile electron. Plasma screening effects on the atomic electrons cannot be neglected in the high-density cases. Including these effects, the cross sections are appreciably increased for 1s yields 2s transitions and decreased for 1s yields 2p transitions.
Collective π -electronic excitations in BN double-walled nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.
2008-07-01
We report a systematic theoretical study of the collective π -electronic excitations in boron nitride double-walled nanotubes (BN-DWNTs). For simplicity, it is assumed that both shells (inner and outer) of such tubes have a zigzag achiral structure. Taking into account intershell Coulomb coupling and neglecting intershell electron tunneling, we introduce the effective dynamic-dielectric-response function of the BN-DWNTs, which depends on frequency ω , wave number q , and angular momentum L . An explicit expression for this function is derived within the random-phase approximation using standard many-body techniques based on the Green’s function method. Numerical results are presented for the wave-number dispersion and damping of the π -plasmon modes with different L ’s, demonstrating a unified picture of the π -plasmon-energy variation with q for the BN-DWNTs of different diameters. According to this picture, the spectrum of the π plasmons, which are shown to be long lived and hence well-defined collective electronic excitations in the BN-DWNTs, consists of a set of nonintersecting upward-dispersed branches, which are well separated in their energies at small values of q , but which tend to merge with increasing q . Each of the branches corresponds to one and only one value of the angular momentum L=0,1,2,… and none of the branches starts from q=0 . The present calculations also show that the π plasmons in the BN-DWNTs can exist even at those q values at which the π -plasmon modes are not supported by either of the nanotube shells alone. It is found that the threshold value of the wavelength, at which the L=0 π -plasmon dispersion curve in the BN-DWNTs makes its start, is redshifted as compared to that in the inner and outer nanotube shells if they are considered separately. The most important features of our calculated results seem to be consistent, more or less reasonable, with those derived from the recent electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Bertazzi, Francesco; Garrett, Gregory; Wraback, Michael
2013-03-01
AlGaN narrow quantum wells are important elements of deep-ultraviolet light emitting devices. The electron-hole radiative recombination rates are important characteristics of these nanostructures. In this work we evaluated their dependence on carrier density and lattice temperature and compared our theoretical results with the experimentally determined radiative lifetimes in the c-plane grown AlGaN quantum wells. The bands were determined in the k .p approximation for a strained c-plane wurtzite quantum well and polarization fields were included in the model. In order to account for Coulomb correlations at relatively high densities of photo-excited electron-hole plasma and arbitrary temperature, we employed real-time Green's function formalism with self-energies evaluated in the self-consistent T-matrix approximation. The luminescence spectrum was obtained from the susceptibility by summing over scattering in-plane directions and polarization states. The recombination coefficient was obtained from the integrated photo-luminescence. The density dependence of the radiative recombination rate shows effects of strong screening of the polarization electric field at high photo-excitation density.
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Le probleme quantique bicomplexe du potentiel de Coulomb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathieu, Jeremie
In this master's thesis, is gathered a great part of my work on bicomplex quantum mechanics. Bicomplex numbers are the second order multicomplex generalization of complex numbers. Equipped with the standard addition and multiplication, they form an algebraic structure called a commutative ring with unity and are one of many known generalizations of the real number system. It has been almost eighty years since it's been proposed to use an algebra of a superior dimension than the one of complex numbers to construct the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. However it's only been since less than a decade ago that the idea of using the bicomplex numbers to do so has been seriously considered. In that sense, the complete resolution of the quantum harmonic oscillator in a bicomplex Hilbert space was the first major achievement of this ambitious project. This thesis, by article style, is a continuation of this work of generalization. It presents, by an axiomatic approach, the complete differential solution of the bicomplex quantum Coulomb potential problem and half of its algebraic solution.
Coulomb drag and tunneling studies in quantum Hall bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, Debaleena
The bilayer quantum Hall state at total filling factor νT=1, where the total electron density matches the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level, is a prominent example of Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. A macroscopically ordered state is realized where an electron in one layer is tightly bound to a "hole" in the other layer. If exciton transport were the only bulk transportmechanism, a current driven in one layer would spontaneously generate a current of equal magnitude and opposite sign in the other layer. The Corbino Coulomb drag measurements presented in this thesis demonstrate precisely this phenomenon. Excitonic superfluidity has been long sought in the νT=1 state. The tunneling between the two electron gas layers exihibit a dc Josephson-like effect. A simple model of an over-damped voltage biased Josephson junction is in reasonable agreement with the observed tunneling I -- V. At small tunneling biases, it exhibits a tunneling "supercurrent". The dissipation is carefully studied in this tunneling "supercurrent" and found to remain small but finite.
Synchrotron and Coulomb Boiler in Cygnus X-1
Malzac, Julien; Belmont, Renaud
2009-05-11
We use a new code to simulate the radiation and kinetic processes in the X-ray emitting region around accreting black holes and constrain the magnetic field and temperature of the hot protons in the corona of Cygnus X-1. In the hard state we find a magnetic field below equipartition with radiation, suggesting that the corona is not powered through magnetic field dissipation (as assumed in most accretion disc corona models). On the other hand, our results also point toward proton temperatures that are substantially lower than typical temperatures of the ADAF models. Finally, we show that in both spectral states Comptonising plasma could be powered essentially through power-law acceleration of non-thermal electrons, which are then partly thermalised by the synchrotron and Coulomb boiler. This suggests that, contrary to current beliefs, the corona of the HSS and that of the LHS could be of very similar nature. The differences between the LHS and HSS coronal spectra would then be predominantly caused by the strong disc soft cooling emission which is present in the HSS and absent in the LHS.
The EBIS/T as a Coulomb target for ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver
2004-01-01
A partially neutralised electron beam can be considered as a well defined target of ions. Trapped in the electrostatic 3D-trap of the electron beam in an EBIS, they will—for low loss rates—acquire an energy distribution according to Boltzmanns law. The resulting spatial distribution then is well defined, once the ion temperature and the amount of ions are known. Both are related to each other by a monotone dependence, hence determination of either the ion temperature or the number of ions will give the second quantity. Such a Coulomb target provides friction to the radial movement of newly injected ions, hence can be used to facilitate the trapping of low charged injected ions (external ion source, charge breeder) or of cooling of highly charged ions (created by deceleration). Due to the well known properties of such a target, it also may be used for collision studies between trapped ions and either a beam of atoms or of additionally injected ions.
Dust-Coulomb waves in dense dusty plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, N. N.
1999-12-01
Dusty plasmas can be considered as tenuous, dilute or dense when the dust fugacity parameter f≡4πnd0λD2R˜NDR/λD satisfies f≪1, ˜1, or ≫1, where nd0, λD and R denote, respectively, the dust number density, the plasma Debye length and the dust grain size (radius), and ND=nd0λD3 is the dust plasma parameter. Dense dusty plasmas are shown to support a new kind of ultra low-frequency electrostatic dust mode which may be called the "Dust-Coulomb Wave" (DCW). In contrast to the dust-acoustic wave (DAW) and the dust-lattice wave (DLW) which exist even for constant grain charge, DCWs are accompanied by dust charge as well as number density perturbations which are proportional to each other. For frequencies much smaller than the grain charging frequency, DCWs propagate as normal modes with the phase speed CDC≡qd0/√mdR , where qd0 (md) is the charge (mass) of the dust grains. In the long wavelength limit, the DCW phase speed is much smaller than that of DAW (CDA), and scales as ˜CDA/√f . Thus, for a given wave number, the frequency regime for the existence of DCW is much lower than the DAW regime. A comparison between the three types of dust-modes (DCWs, DAWs, and DLWs) has been carried out.
The onset of coulomb explosions in polyatomic molecules
Smith; Ledingham; Singhal; McCanny; Graham; Kilic; Tzallas; Kosmidis; Langley; Taday
1999-01-01
With the development of high intensity femtosecond lasers, the ionisation and dissociation dynamics of molecules has become an area of considerable interest. Using the technique of femtosecond laser mass spectrometry (FLMS), the molecules carbon disulphide, pyrimidine, toluene, cyclohexanone and benzaldehyde are studied with pulse widths of 50 fs in the near infrared (IR) wavelength region (790 nm). Results are presented and contrasted for laser beam intensities around 10(15) and 10(16) W cm(-2). For the lower intensities, the mass spectra yield dominant singly charged parent ions. Additionally, the appearance of doubly charged parent ions is evident for carbon disulphide, toluene and benzaldehyde with envelopes of doubly charged satellite species existing in these local regions. Carbon disulphide also reveals a small triply charged component. Such atomic-like features are thought to be a strong fingerprint of FLMS at these intensities. However, upon increasing the laser intensity to approximately 10(16) W cm(-2), parent ion dominance decreases and the appearance of multiply charged atomic species occurs, particularly carbon. This phenomenon has been attributed to Coulomb explosions in which the fast absorption of many photons may produce transient highly ionised parent species which can subsequently blow apart. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of fourth family
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N.
2015-11-01
Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of fourth generation with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of fourth generation possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the “neutrinium” atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable fourth generation assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive Ū antiquarks, forming (ŪŪŪ)-- charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies generation of the same excess of fourth generation neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of fourth neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints.
A new graphene composite with a high coulombic efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protich, Z.; Wong, P.; Santhanam, K. S. V.
2016-11-01
Zinc-graphene composite has been electrolytically produced for the first time using a graphene quantum dot (GQD) electrode. The electrochemical reduction of zinc ion at a GQD electrode is shifted to a lesser negative potential with the complimentary anodic peak due to the oxidation of the composite shifted towards a positive potential as compared to zinc ion reduction in the GQD bath. The coulombic efficiency of the composite represents a gain of nearly 10% over the conventional Zn/Zn2+ in the energy storage systems. In galvanostatic electrolysis, the deposition of zinc-graphene composite is carried out under neutral and acidic conditions. The X-ray diffraction of the electrolytically prepared composite shows distinct features of 2 theta reflection at 8° due to (001) plane of graphene, in addition to the characteristic reflections at 38.9°,43.2°, 54.3°, 70.1° and 90° arising from Zn at (002), (100), (101), (102) and (110). A large scale preparation of the zinc-graphene composite has been achieved at a zinc plate as the working electrode in the GQD bath. The composite is stable up to 250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX) shows a string like structure with peaks for carbon and zinc in EDAX.
Liquid-gas phase transitions in a multicomponent nuclear system with Coulomb and surface effects
Lee, S. J.; Mekjian, A. Z.
2001-04-01
The liquid-gas phase transition is studied in a multicomponent nuclear system using a local Skyrme interaction with Coulomb and surface effects. Some features are qualitatively the same as the results of Mu''ller and Serot where a relativistic mean field was used without Coulomb and surface effects. Surface tension brings the coexistence binodal surface to lower pressure. The Coulomb interaction makes the binodal surface smaller and causes another pair of binodal points at low pressure and large proton fraction with fewer protons in the liquid phase and more protons in the gas phase.
Coulomb impurity effects on the zero-Landau level splitting of graphene on polar substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yao; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu
2017-04-01
We theoretically investigate the effects of the Coulomb impurity on the zero-Landau level splitting of graphene on different polar substrates basing on the Fröhlich polaron model, in which the polaron is formed due to the carriers-surface optical phonon coupling. We discuss the influence of Coulomb impurity on the zero-Landau level splitting in the case of weak and strong coupling limits. We find that the splitting energy can be varied in a large scale due to the Coulomb impurity, which provides the possible theoretical explanation for the experimental measurements regarding the energy gap opened and zero-Landau level splitting in Landau quantized graphene.
Large ion Coulomb crystals: A near-ideal medium for coupling optical cavity modes to matter
Dantan, A.; Albert, M.; Marler, J. P.; Herskind, P. F.; Drewsen, M.
2009-10-15
We present an investigation of the coherent coupling of various transverse field modes of an optical cavity to ion Coulomb crystals. The obtained experimental results, which include the demonstration of identical collective coupling rates for different transverse modes of a cavity field to ions in the same large Coulomb crystal, are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The results furthermore suggest that Coulomb crystals in the future may serve as near-ideal media for high-fidelity multimode quantum information processing and communication purposes, including the generation and storage of single-photon qubits encoded in different transverse modes.
Coulomb-nuclear interference in 56 MeV deuteron breakup at extreme forward angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, C.; Kanungo, Rituparna; Mukherjee, Sanjukta; Basu, D. N.
1995-02-01
Recently measured 12C(d,pn) 12C breakup data show a dip in the energy integrated cross section below a momentum transfer ∼ 117 MeV/ c. We analyse these data by the prior form distorted-wave Born approximation theory. Although the double humped structure of the θp = θn = 0° data exhibit the dominance of Coulomb-breakup, the pronounced asymmetry of the energy sharing data cannot be explained through Coulomb breakup only. A closer agreement to the data is obtained through Coulomb-nuclear interference and an unusual optical potential of longer range in the exit channel.
Effects of core turbulence on jet excitability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, Reda R.; Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.
1989-01-01
The effects of varying freestream core turbulence on the evolution of a circular jet with and without tonal excitation are examined. Measurements are made on an 8.8 cm diameter jet at a Mach number of 0.3. The jet is excitated by plane waves at Strouhal number 0.5. For the excited and unexcited cases the turbulence level is varied by screens and grids placed upstream of the nozzle exit. The experiment results are compared with a theoretical model which incorporates a variable core turbulence and considers the energy interactions between the mean flow, the turbulence and the forced component. Both data and theory indicate that increasing the freestream turbulence diminishes the excitability of the jet and reduces the effect of excitation on the spreading rate of the jet.
Time evolution of excitations in normal Fermi liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlyukh, Y.; Rubio, A.; Berakdar, J.
2013-05-01
We inspect the initial and the long-time evolution of excitations in Fermi liquids by analyzing the time structure of the electron spectral function. Focusing on the short-time limit we study the electron-boson model for the homogeneous electron gas and apply the first-order (in boson propagator) cumulant expansion of the electron Green's function. In addition to a quadratic decay in time upon triggering the excitation, we identify nonanalytic terms in the time expansion similar to those found in the Fermi edge singularity phenomenon. We also demonstrate that the exponential decay in time in the long-time limit is inconsistent with the GW approximation for the self-energy. The background for this is the Paley-Wiener theorem of complex analysis. To reconcile with the Fermi liquid behavior an inclusion of higher order diagrams (in the screened Coulomb interaction) is required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrer, Diane; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; MacMurray, Andrew
2016-04-01
The InSIGHT mission to Mars (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) supported by NASA, IPGP and CNES, is a great opportunity for teachers and pupils to study the Red planet, but also to study other fields of geology at school, such as seismology. With our pupils, we are following the InSight mission and we look forward to analyze seismic data registered by the SEIS seismometer , once it will be available (the InSight mission will launch in 2018 from California, and will land to Mars in 2018 or 2019). As this mission needs meteorite impacts to generate seismic waves ( to discover the Martian interior structure) , we've decided to model those meteorite strikes in the classroom. With our pupils, we've modeled meteorite impact craters with different impactors , such as tennis balls, baseballs, or pingpong balls, and used an analogue substratum made by flour and cocoa. Then, we kept on going our geophysical investigation , studying several parameters. For instance, we've studied the link between size of impactor and size of crater , the link between mass of impactor and Crater Formation, and the link between velocity of impactor and crater formation. In this geophysical approach , potential energy and kinetic energy can be introduced in terms of energy transfer as the impactor falls ( calculation of the velocity of impact and plotting that against crater diameter using v = (2gh)1/2). For each crater formation made in class by students, we have registered seismological data thanks to Audacity software, and study the seismic signal propagation. This exemple of hands-on activity with pupils, and its wide range of geophysical calculation shows how we can do simple experiment modeling meteorite crater impact and exploit registered seismological data at school. We've finaly focused our work with the very famous example of the astroblema of Rochechouart in the South-west of France ( crater formation : - 214 My) , in which it's easy to
Offner, Franklin F.
1972-01-01
The model of the excitable membrane assumes common channels for Na+ and K+; the two ion species interact within the pores through their electrostatic forces. The electric field varies across the membrane and with time, as a result of ionic redistribution. Ionic flow is primarily controlled by energy barriers at the two interfaces and by Ca++ adsorption at the external interface. When the membrane is polarized, the high electric field at the external interface acting on the membrane fixed charge keeps the effective channel diameter small, so that only dihydrated ions can cross the interface. The higher energy required to partially dehydrate Na+ accounts for its lower permeability when polarized. Depolarized, the channel entrance can expand, permitting quadrihydrated ions to pass; the large initial Na+ flow is the result of the large concentration ratio across the interface. The effect at the internal interface is symmetric; Na+ crosses with greater difficulty when the membrane is depolarized. Na+ inactivation occurs when the ion distribution within the membrane has assumed its new steady-state value. Calculations based on parameters consistent with physicochemical data agree generally with a wide range of experiments. The model does not obey the two fundamental Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) postulates (independence principle, ion flow proportional to thermodynamic potential). In several instances the model predicts experimental results which are not predicted by the HH equations. ImagesFIGURE 12 PMID:4655662
de Souza, R.T.
1992-10-01
Characteristics of multifragment decay in heavy-ion induced reactions at intermediate energies are explored. Evolution of the timescale for emission of intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3[le]Z[le]20) is investigated. Fragments associated with central collisions in the reactions [sup 36]Ar + [sup 197]Au at E/A = 50, 80, and 110 MeV are emitted on an extremely fast timescale, [tau] [le] 75 fm/c, comparable to the transit time of the projectile past the target nucleus. With increasing incident energy, mean fragment emission times decrease, consistent with statistical decay from highly excited systems or fast dynamical processes. To examine the importance of expansion effects in multifragmentation, the transverse kinetic energy of fragments was investigated. Evidence for expansion effects in the system [sup 36]Ar + [sup 197]Au at E/A = 50, 80, and 110 MeV was indicated by the charge dependence of the mean isotropic kinetic energy. At the highest incident energy the data suggest the onset of volume emission. Construction and performance of low-threshold high-resolution detector telescopes is discussed. Three-body Coulomb trajectory calculations are being used to probe kinematical correlations associated with neck emission of IMFs during fission. Initial design and testing of position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters for upcoming ternary fission experiments is discussed.
Solution of two-body relativistic bound state equations with confining plus Coulomb interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maung, Khin Maung; Kahana, David E.; Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
Studies of meson spectroscopy have often employed a nonrelativistic Coulomb plus Linear Confining potential in position space. However, because the quarks in mesons move at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light, it is necessary to use a relativistic treatment of the bound state problem. Such a treatment is most easily carried out in momentum space. However, the position space Linear and Coulomb potentials lead to singular kernels in momentum space. Using a subtraction procedure we show how to remove these singularities exactly and thereby solve the Schroedinger equation in momentum space for all partial waves. Furthermore, we generalize the Linear and Coulomb potentials to relativistic kernels in four dimensional momentum space. Again we use a subtraction procedure to remove the relativistic singularities exactly for all partial waves. This enables us to solve three dimensional reductions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We solve six such equations for Coulomb plus Confining interactions for all partial waves.
Last, Isidore; Levy, Yaakov; Jortner, Joshua
2002-07-09
We address the stability of multicharged finite systems driven by Coulomb forces beyond the Rayleigh instability limit. Our exploration of the nuclear dynamics of heavily charged Morse clusters enabled us to vary the range of the pair potential and of the fissibility parameter, which results in distinct fragmentation patterns and in the angular distributions of the fragments. The Rayleigh instability limit separates between nearly binary (or tertiary) spatially unisotropic fission and spatially isotropic Coulomb explosion into a large number of small, ionic fragments. Implications are addressed for a broad spectrum of dynamics in chemical physics, radiation physics of ultracold gases, and biophysics, involving the fission of clusters and droplets, the realization of Coulomb explosion of molecular clusters, the isotropic expansion of optical molasses, and the Coulomb instability of "isolated" proteins.
Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun; Gao Yuanyi; Xing Yongzhong; Li Xiguo
2004-09-01
We investigate separately the isospin effects of Coulomb interaction and symmetry potential on the dissipation and fragmentation in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions by using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the Coulomb interaction induces the reductions of both isospin fractionation ratio and nuclear stopping (momentum dissipation). However, the Coulomb interaction not only does not change obviously the strong isospin effect of the symmetry potential on the isospin fractionation ratio but also does not change obviously that of in-medium two-body collision on the nuclear stopping. On the contrary, the symmetry potential induces the enhancement of the isospin fractionation ratio but it is insensitive to the nuclear stopping. Finally, the competition between the Coulomb interaction and symmetry potential induces the reductions of both isospin fractionation ratio and nuclear stopping for two forms of symmetry potentials in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Shmavonyan, Hovhannes
2017-01-01
We propose a unified description for the constants of motion for superintegrable deformations of the oscillator and Coulomb systems on N -dimensional Euclidean space, sphere, and hyperboloid. We also consider the duality between these generalized systems and present some examples.
Capri, M.A.L. . E-mail: marcio@dft.if.uerj.br; Sobreiro, R.F. . E-mail: sobreiro@uerj.br; Sorella, S.P. . E-mail: sorella@uerj.br; Thibes, R. . E-mail: thibes@dft.if.uerj.br
2007-08-15
A detailed discussion of the renormalization properties of a class of gauges which interpolates among the Landau, Coulomb and maximal Abelian gauges is provided in the framework of the algebraic renormalization in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Jong Seok; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat; Mkhoyan, K. Andre
2016-04-01
By recording low-noise energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps from crystalline specimens using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to probe core-level electron orbitals in real space. Both the 1 s and 2 p orbitals of Sr and Ti atoms in SrTi O3 are probed, and their projected excitation potentials are determined. This paper also demonstrates experimental measurement of the electronic excitation impact parameter and the delocalization of an excitation due to Coulombic beam-orbital interaction.
Light baryons and their excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.; Sanchis-Alepuz, Hèlios
2016-11-01
We study ground states and excitations of light octet and decuplet baryons within the framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Faddeev equations. We improve upon similar approaches by explicitly taking into account the momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. We perform calculations in both the three-body Faddeev framework and the quark-diquark approximation in order to assess the impact of the latter on the spectrum. Our results indicate that both approaches agree well with each other. The resulting spectra furthermore agree one-to-one with experiment, provided well-known deficiencies of the rainbow-ladder approximation are compensated for. We also discuss the mass evolution of the Roper and the excited Δ with varying pion mass and analyze the internal structure in terms of their partial wave decompositions.