Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.
International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…
Daniels, Jeffrey A.
Addresses issues of managed care and ethics and how they relate to counseling. Specifically reviews a recent article published in "The Counseling Psychologist" (2000). Explores implications for counselors and counselor educators. (Author/GCP)
Barringer, Carolyn Fox
Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…
Burke, Mary Thomas, Ed.; Miranti, Judith G., Ed.
This book presents a compilation of articles previously published in the journal "Counseling and Values." The follwing articles are included: (1) "Ethics and Spirituality: The Prevailing Forces Influencing the Counseling Profession" (Judith Miranti, Mary Thomas Burke); (2) "Three Contributions of a Spiritual Perspective to Counseling,…
Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.; Oliver, Marvarene
Codes of ethics typically provide rules and guidelines for best practices in marriage and family counseling. An emerging model for ethical decision making emphasizes the ethics of virtues and aspirations. Exploring fundamental models of helping, as well as contemporary issues in community systems, affords context for examining the professional…
Flach, Frederic, Ed.
Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…
Weld, Chet; Eriksen, Karen
Spirituality has become increasingly important in counseling, with prayer being the spiritual intervention of choice for Christian counselors. The controversial nature of including prayer in counseling requires careful consideration of ethical issues. This article addresses the intersection of spiritual interventions, particularly prayer, with…
Huey, Wayne C.; And Others
This document contains chapter 1 (8 articles) from a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Standards for School Counselors: Test Your Knowledge" (Wayne C. Huey)…
Leong, Frederick T. L.
The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.
Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra
This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…
Sadeghi, Maria; Fischer, Jerome M.; House, Sean G.
In a random survey of counselors working with socioracial minority clients (N=256), multicultural ethical dilemmas were rated according to frequency encountered and significance. Comparisons of counselors' ratings of multicultural ethical dilemmas determined specific dilemmas relevant to counselors in various professional settings. (Contains 33…
Huey, Wayne C.
Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)
Employment counseling is commonly used in companies to assist employees with various personal and professional challenges that are confronted in the workplace. Such guidance could affect the degree to which employees believe a company proactively supports an ethical orientation; the purpose of this study was to explore this issue. A self-report…
Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.
Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…
Schulz, William E.
There are many issues that cannot be handled completely in any code of ethics, and casebooks have been developed to help provide some clarification. The general intent of casebooks is to help educate counselors, counselor educators, and counseling researchers. Some specific objectives of this second edition include promoting the discussion of…
Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel
Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)
Erlen, Judith A
As science and technology in genetics continue to expand, complex ethical questions arise that require difficult decisions for all concerned. Rather than having ready-made answers, there may be only more challenging questions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. These complicated questions may have no straightforward, correct answers, thus creating an ethical quandary. This article discusses some selected ethical issues that occur when patients are considering undergoing genetic testing and counseling, including respecting autonomy and the patient's right to decide, establishing patient-healthcare provider trust, and disclosing private information to others. Several strategies are presented that nurses can use as they assist patients and their families who are facing these challenging ethical dilemmas. PMID:17130767
Erlen, Judith A
As science and technology in genetics continue to expand, complex ethical questions arise that require difficult decisions for all concerned. Rather than having ready-made answers, there may be only more challenging questions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. These complicated questions may have no straightforward, correct answers, thus creating an ethical quandary. This article discusses some selected ethical issues that occur when patients are considering undergoing genetic testing and counseling, including respecting autonomy and the patient's right to decide, establishing patient-healthcare provider trust, and disclosing private information to others. Several strategies are presented that nurses can use as they assist patients and their families who are facing these challenging ethical dilemmas.
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.
Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…
Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta
Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…
Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.
Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…
Lee, D. John
Describes three issues central to the relationship between counseling and culture: the etic-emit distinction (studying culture on its own terms versus how it compares to others), the sociology of knowledge, and modernity. Emphasizes the importance of these concepts in counselor training programs. (LLL)
Warren, Jane; Zavaschi, Guilherme; Covello, Christin; Zakaria, Noor Syamilah
This article includes a description of the bookmark as a creative arts experiential strategy useful in teaching counseling ethics education. Three bookmark examples illustrate how counselors-in-training utilized bookmarks to conceptualize their counseling ethics understanding. Illustrations and written feedback from the counselors-in-training…
Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others
This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…
... rules to reflect that the Commission's Office of the Ethics Counsel is now a stand-alone Office of the... recommendation and made the Office of the Ethics Counsel a stand-alone Office of the Commission. \\1\\ Report of Investigation No. OIG-560, Sept. 16, 2011, pp. 116-117. \\2\\ 15 FR 3175, 64 Stat. 1265 (May 24, 1950)....
Trottier, R.W.; Hodgin, F.C.; Imara, M.; Phoenix, D.; Lybrook, S. . School of Medicine); Crandall, L.A.; Moseley, R.E.; Armotrading, D. . Coll. of Medicine)
Genetic medical services provided by the Georgia Division of Public Health in two northern and two central districts are compared to services provided in a district in which a tertiary care facility is located. Genetics outreach public health nurses play key roles in Georgia's system of Children's Health Services Genetics Program, including significant roles as counselors and information sources on special needs social services and support organizations. Unique features of individual health districts, (e.g., the changing face of some rural communities in ethnocultural diversity and socioeconomic character), present new challenges to current and future genetics services delivery. Preparedness as to educational needs of both health professionals and the lay population is of foremost concern in light of the ever expanding knowledge and technology in medical genetics. Perspectives on genetics and an overview of services offered by a local private sector counselor are included for comparison to state supported services. The nature of the interactions which transpire between private and public genetic services resources in Georgia will be described. A special focus of this research includes issues associated with sickle cell disease newborn screening service delivery process in Georgia, with particular attention paid to patient follow-up and transition to primary care. Of particular interest to this focus is the problem of loss to follow-up in the current system. Critical factors in education and counseling of sickle cell patients and the expectations of expanding roles of primary care physicians are discussed. The Florida approach to the delivery of genetic services contrasts to the Georgia model by placing more emphasis on a consultant-specialist team approach.
Zakaria, Noor Syamilah
Counseling ethics competency is an important part of counselor identity development as required by the counseling profession training standards, and counseling ethics education is one major component of knowledge acquisition in counseling profession. Counselor educators and counselor education training programs have a core responsibility to…
... this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (7) Oversee investigations and refer findings of professional... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Ethics Counsel. 200.21a...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General...
... for matters involving alleged professional misconduct ultimately referable to state professional... Ethics Counsel has referred to that Office, and with state or local authorities on matters that, on... Ethics Program and for interpreting subpart M of this part and 5 CFR part 2635. He or she serves...
Remley, Theodore P., Jr., Ed.; Hermann, Mary A., Ed.; Huey, Wayne C., Ed.
School counselors face ethical and legal challenges every day. This new edition of "Ethical and Legal Issues in School Counseling" provides valuable information and guidelines to help school counselors meet these challenges head-on. Edited and compiled by three experts in the field, including two who are counselor educators as well as attorneys…
Lund, Emily M.; Schultz, Jared C.
Background: The use of technology-mediated distance supervision is a rapidly growing area in rehabilitation counseling and other fields. Distance supervision has both tremendous potential and notable challenges to address, including questions of ethics and evidence. Purpose: This article examines both the ethical and nonethical principles that…
Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; And Others
This document contains chapter 3 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "The Law and Ethical Practices in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Theodore P.…
Pedersen, Paul B., Ed.; Locke, Don C., Ed.
Counseling has been culturally diversified for a long time, but only in recent years have counselors become aware of their clients' cultural diversity. This collection of articles addresses a growing need for specific information on multicultural concerns in counseling. The emphasis here is on the importance of the client and client's special…
Diaz-Lazaro, Carlos M.; Cohen, B. Beth
Reports on the importance of cross-cultural contact in the development of multicultural counseling competencies (MCCs). Results reveal that the greater the prior cross-cultural life experience, the higher were students' MCCs measured at the beginning of a multicultural counseling course. MCCs measured at the end of the course were significantly…
Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569
Pedersen, Paul B.
Eight clusters of culturally biased assumptions are identified for further discussion from Leong and Ponterotto's (2003) article. The presence of cultural bias demonstrates that cultural bias is so robust and pervasive that is permeates the profession of counseling psychology, even including those articles that effectively attack cultural bias…
Hammond, Lynn C.; Gantt, Linda
Various mental-health professionals use drawings and other art in therapy, but relatively little has been written on the ethics surrounding this technique. Should artwork be viewed as equivalent to verbal communication? A variety of ethical issues including confidentiality, documentation, ownership, research, publication, and display of work are…
Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.
Over the past several decades, increased attention has been given to ethics in the preparation of counselors and psychologists. With that increase comes a number of voices calling for exposure to and integration of not only moral philosophy but other areas of philosophy to enhance understanding and provide a foundation for counseling practice. The…
Hummel, Dean L.
Addresses pertinent aspects of law and ethics as they relate to practitioners in counseling and guidance. Identifies major areas and cites cases that involve civil liability litigation. Also discusses the rights of minors in cases dealing with child abuse and abortion. (ML)
Arciniega, Miguel; Newlon, Betty J.
Proposes seven Adlerian axioms of behavior for the cross-cultural pluralistic counselor working with minority families. Defines cross-cultural family counseling and urges counselors to understand minority cultures and the acculturation process. Discusses counseling techniques. (JAC)
Ibrahim, Farah A.; Dykeman, Cass
In this article, the authors identify the cultural and spiritual assessments needed to conduct counseling with Muslim Americans and Muslim immigrants to the United States. Assessment processes are outlined that include cultural identity (which subsumes several variables); worldview; spiritual assessment along with acculturation level and migration…
Anderson, Kim L.
The author brings her counseling expertise, personal experience, and compassionate perspective to this practical resource that cultivates "cultural competence"--essential for work with diverse populations. Expanding the definition of culture, this book addresses how biases have evolved in new and challenging ways, and provides strategies to help…
Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O
Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. PMID:27078198
Weil, J; Mittman, I
The increasing diversity of American society has brought growing recognition of the need to bridge cultures in the delivery of genetic counseling services. New immigrants and members of diverse ethnic groups face multiple barriers to genetic counseling services. The need to train genetic counselors to deal with cultural diversity is especially crucial in the new genetic era, given the rapid expansion of available technology, with the resulting social and ethical ramifications. A framework for teaching cross-cultural issues in genetic counseling training programs is presented that can be implemented in step-wise fashion, consistent with available resources. Cross-cultural issues can be incorporated into existing teaching and training modalities by expanding the orientation from monocultural to multicultural. Relevant clinical experience, exploration of students' preconceptions and biases, reading materials, and lectures by invited speakers can all enhance students' knowledge and sensitivity. It is critically important that training programs furnish students with the basic tools necessary for the ongoing process of learning about cultural diversity. PMID:24242637
Messerschmitt, Dorothy; Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Vandrick, Stephanie
Discusses gift-giving patterns in different cultures, particularly in relation to teacher-student interactions in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. Situations in which gift-giving can raise ethical questions and how to teach culturally diverse students about this issue are highlighted. Script theory provides a theoretical basis for…
Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom
The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835
Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom
The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts.
Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.
This article addresses the practical aspects of online counseling, including ethics, training, supervision, technology, and competency issues. The authors discuss online counseling's strengths and limitations and present guidelines for what types of clients and counseling psychologists may be appropriate for online counseling. To illustrate the…
Vontress, Clemmont E.
Reviews the personal and intellectual forces that shaped one practitioner's approach to counseling. Reflects on five themes in which culture influences human existence: self-hatred, cultural differences, historical hostility, existential counseling, and traditional healing. (LSR)
Barletta, John; Kobayashi, Yumi
This article explores the issues for counsellors working with international students, particularly Asian international students. As globalisation has expanded people have tended to study overseas in great numbers, hence the increasing importance for professionals to examine counselling in this cultural speciality. In order to understand effective…
Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.
The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…
Presents Ethics Model of Marriage and Family Counseling and its underlying assumptions. Analyzes six basic counseling values in relation to microsystems of counselor and client, mesosystem of counseling process, and societal value context as the macrosystem. Utilizes discussion of suicide to apply these values to the model. Includes 17 references.…
Trottier, R.W.; Hodgin, F.C.; Imara, M.; Phoenix, D.; Lybrook, S.; Crandall, L.A.; Moseley, R.E.; Armotrading, D.
Genetic medical services provided by the Georgia Division of Public Health in two northern and two central districts are compared to services provided in a district in which a tertiary care facility is located. Genetics outreach public health nurses play key roles in Georgia`s system of Children`s Health Services Genetics Program, including significant roles as counselors and information sources on special needs social services and support organizations. Unique features of individual health districts, (e.g., the changing face of some rural communities in ethnocultural diversity and socioeconomic character), present new challenges to current and future genetics services delivery. Preparedness as to educational needs of both health professionals and the lay population is of foremost concern in light of the ever expanding knowledge and technology in medical genetics. Perspectives on genetics and an overview of services offered by a local private sector counselor are included for comparison to state supported services. The nature of the interactions which transpire between private and public genetic services resources in Georgia will be described. A special focus of this research includes issues associated with sickle cell disease newborn screening service delivery process in Georgia, with particular attention paid to patient follow-up and transition to primary care. Of particular interest to this focus is the problem of loss to follow-up in the current system. Critical factors in education and counseling of sickle cell patients and the expectations of expanding roles of primary care physicians are discussed. The Florida approach to the delivery of genetic services contrasts to the Georgia model by placing more emphasis on a consultant-specialist team approach.
Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.
Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…
Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke
For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…
Howell, William S.
Western notions of right and wrong have dominated consideration of ethical issues in various domestic and remote cultural environments. A review of eight generalizations put forth by rhetorician Richard Johannesen on the ethics of rhetoric indicates that many scholars in contemporary speech communication believe that for people in other cultures…
Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas
This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…
Describes an intervention with a distressed Montagnard refugee in a context sensitive to Southeast Asian culture. Discusses relevant interventions in relation to the current available literature on counseling with Southeast Asian refugees in America. (Author)
Dufresne, Peter; McKenzie, Anne S.
Becoming an ethical leader requires a personal journey toward integrity and a public commitment to a common good. This begins with claiming one's core values, finding a personal voice, developing a vision, and consciously aligning one's attitudes and beliefs with one's actions and behaviors. In the process, ethical leaders create spaces where…
Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.
This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…
This manual is designed to aid health care practitioners in providing culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) education, counseling, and care. Cultural competency is defined as the ability to work effectively with culturally diverse clients and communities because the individual agency or…
Cooper, Caren C.; Gottleib, Michael C.
Describes the evolution of managed care and reviews basic biomedical ethics and ethical decision-making models. Examines specific ethical issues and offers suggestions for practice, research, and education and training. Concludes with a research agenda, a review of projected general trends in health care delivery, and a discussion of counseling…
Tveit, Anne Dorthe; Sunde, Annikken Louise
The purpose of this paper is to explore how different insights from a variety of theories might help ethical decision making in educational counselling and highlight the need for reflection. A framework for ethical decision making based on basic features of counselling, namely the interlocutors' practice or "acts", is proposed. There are…
Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J
Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate.
Mcauliffe, Garrett John; Grothaus, Tim; Jensen, Margaret; Michel, Rebecca
Multicultural counseling is often promoted as a core element in counselor development. As such, educational efforts aim to increase counselors' cultural relativism, or their ability to recognize their own enculturation and to appreciate the value of other cultural norms. This mixed qualitative-quantitative study explored the relationship between…
Grothaus, Tim; McAuliffe, Garett; Craigen, Laurie
Strength-based counseling represents a welcome shift from prevailing deficit perspectives. However, the literature often treats enhancing strengths as an acultural concept, minimizing or ignoring the essential role of culture in forming and defining strengths. Integrating cultural competence and advocacy into strength-based practice is examined as…
Herman, Keith C.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Ferdinand, Lisa A.; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Hasan, Nadia T.; Beato, Cristina
This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on counseling psychologists' roles in addressing health disparities through culturally sensitive health care research and interventions. First, the authors provide a rationale for conducting research focused on culturally sensitive health care and then offer definitions of…
Benesch, Kevin F.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.
Examines cross-cultural counseling (especially Western counselor-Eastern client) within a transpersonal psychological framework. Presents meta-model that allows counselors to adopt attitudes that transcend cultural differences. Notes that benefit of such a model to counselors would be superordinate framework in which various, specific counseling…
Rowley, William J.; MacDonald, Don
Discusses how counselors are challenged to both demonstrate ethical standards of the profession and abide by the law, particularly since mental health and legal systems represent two different cultures. Notes overlapping or common elements of each culture, identifies differing elements of each culture, and provides recommendations for the two…
Heinlen, Kathleen T.; Welfel, Elizabeth Reynolds; Richmond, Elizabeth N.; Rak, Carl F.
A survey of 136 Web sites offering counseling through computer chat rooms and e-mail revealed a wide range of credentials of providers, fees for service, and low levels of compliance with the ethical standards for WebCounseling published by the National Board for Certified Counselors. Implications for professional practice and public confidence in…
Li, Lisa C.; Kim, Bryan S. K.
This study investigated the effects of counseling style and client adherence to Asian cultural values on career-focused counseling process with Asian American college students. Fifty-two clients were classified as having either high or low adherence to Asian values and assigned to a counseling session with a European American female counselor, who…
Steward, Robbie J.; Wright, Doris J.; Jackson, James D.; Jo, Han Ik
In this study multicultural counseling training contributed significantly to the variance in ratings of a culturally sensitive counselor. No significant contribution was made to the variance in ratings of the culturally insensitive counselor. Possible explanations and implications of these results in multicultural counseling supervision are…
... Ethics Program and for interpreting subpart M of this part and 5 CFR part 2635. He or she serves as... inquire into alleged violations of subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (b) The Ethics... opinions with respect to subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (7) Draft rules...
... Ethics Program and for interpreting subpart M of this part and 5 CFR part 2635. He or she serves as... inquire into alleged violations of subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (b) The Ethics... respect to subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (7) Oversee investigations and...
Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.
Standards for technology ethics were first introduced into the "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" in 2002. Since that time, the proliferation of technology has enhanced practice, changed the American vernacular, and become infused in the delivery of services to and teaching of individuals, families, and groups. The 2010…
Camblin, Lanthan D., Jr.; And Others
This document contains chapter 4 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "School Counselors and the Reporting of Child Abuse: A Survey of State Laws and…
Hansen, James T.
The author takes the position that the foundational value of the counseling profession is an ethic of appreciation for human differences. The professional tool that is used to actualize this value is language. In this regard, the philosophical distinction between copying and coping conceptualizations of language is overviewed. The author argues…
Stallones, Jared R.
This article delves into the various religious influences on Dr. Felix Adler's spiritual development and the resulting theological and philosophical foundations for the Ethical Culture Society that he created in addition to the Society's schools. The discussion focuses on Dr. Adler's personal struggles with traditional Judaism in the face of…
Mappes, Donald C.; And Others
Discusses the nature, ramifications, and implications of ethical-legal conflicts in the helping professions, particularly with regard to advertising, confidentiality, and clients' rights of access to their own files. (Author/BL)
Hermann, Mary A.; Herlihy, Barbara Richter
In 2001, a federal appeals court upheld the job termination of a counselor who requested being excused from counseling a lesbian client on relationship issues because homosexuality conflicted with the counselor's religious beliefs ("Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.," 2001). This article provides the facts of the case and the legal…
Pauling, Monique L.; Bronson, M. Kristine
Four steps are critical in developing cultural competence in students: (1) a supportive training program; (2) a significant number or "critical mass" of culturally diverse students and allies; (3) opportunities to learn about diversity; and (4) development of racial identity. An appreciation of cultural diversity lies at the heart of any…
Gholami, Khalil; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi
In this study, we investigated the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of teachers' ethical sensitivity in two countries. Our case study involves teachers from Finland (n = 864) representing Western culture, and from Iran (n = 556) representing Eastern culture. Culturally bound elements of ethical sensitivity were studied with the…
Garcia, Frank, Jr.; Ybarra-Garcia, Melva
This manual acquaints non-Chicano school counselors and educators with the difficulty of counseling Mexican American students due to the racist manifestations of cultural and racial stereotypes. Chapter 1, a general introduction, argues that counselors have often failed to effectively reach Chicano students because they have been insensitive to…
Leslie, Robert C.
Counseling across cultures can present many problems for the White American counselor. It is important that the counselor understand the subculture in order to meet the needs of minority clients. In dealing with Black Americans, the counselor must consider issues of racism and religion. When working with Mexican-Americans, the counselor must often…
Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko
With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…
Pope, Mark; Barret, Bob; Szymanski, Dawn M.; Chung, Y. Barry; Singaravelu, Hernia; Mclean, Ron; Sanabria, Samuel
This article details the current knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate career services to gay and lesbian clients. It is divided into 5 parts: (1) history and context for the delivery of career counseling services to gay and lesbian clients; (2) counselor self-preparation for working with gay and lesbian clients; (3)…
Gibson, William T.; Pope, Kenneth S.
Collected national survey data from 579 counselors certified by National Board for Certified Counselors concerning their beliefs about whether each of 88 behaviors was ethical and how confident they were of their judgment. Systematic patterns in responding emerged in regard to age, sex, primary work setting, and degree. Participants indicated…
Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Barratt, Tyler M.; Moyer, Erika L.
Certain cultural customs and practices are viewed as abhorrent by many people, yet contemporary American counselors rarely criticize any specific culture. In this article, the authors explore why counselors abstain from such criticism. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that universalism, often regarded as a politically incorrect and an…
This article examines the discursive production of counsellor identity and practice through the operations of colonising and postcolonial discourse in Aotearoa New Zealand. It argues that constructs of cultural safety, tino rangatiratanga and Maori sovereignty, which arose as part of the postcolonial politics of life in Aotearoa, have achieved…
Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.
The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…
Worldwide, many clinics market stem-cell based interventions often touted as effective for many diseases including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis (MS), and other neurodegenerative diseases. These clinics and their expensive, unproven treatments continue to fuel the practice of stem cell tourism. Given concerns about patient exploitation and safety, how should the physician engage a patient who wants to pursue such treatments? This article presents the case of a patient with neuromyelitis optica interested in pursuing expensive stem cell injections abroad. This article describes stem cell tourism along with some of the ethical issues physicians should consider, while also providing practical resources that physicians may employ to educate and engage patients in making an informed decision.
This paper argues that the globalisation of nursing and the internationalisation of nursing education have lead to Western values being embedded into nursing curricula in nations where the cultural values and beliefs may be based in quite different philosophies. It argues for critical examination of assumptions underpinning ethics education in nursing and proposes that the principles of cultural safety need to be incorporated into ethics education to create a culturally safe ethic for both nurses and patients in a multicultural healthcare environment.
The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress.
The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress. PMID:11186029
Lane, Frank J.; Shaw, Linda R.; Young, Mary Ellen; Bourgeois, Paul J.
It is generally accepted that the environment in which a counselor works influences his or her ethical behavior, but there is little empirical examination of this idea within the rehabilitation counseling professional literature. A survey was conducted with a national sample of practicing certified rehabilitation counselors that elicited…
Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda
The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking. PMID:17562728
Yeatman, Sara E
HIV counseling and testing is broadly considered a critical component of HIV transmission-prevention and treatment efforts. Given the severity of the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the potential societal benefit of testing is invoked to call for its massive expansion and to justify a shift from voluntary to routine testing. Surprisingly little evidence has demonstrated, however, that such a shift will result in the intended benefits to communities, particularly that of reducing the horizontal transmission of HIV. This analysis addresses and critiques the assumptions underlying a serostatus-based approach to behavior change and discusses the ethical consequences of transferring control of the decision to be tested from the individual to the provider. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for HIV counseling and testing policies and proposes alternatives to routine testing that have the potential to be effective while preserving the right to know one's HIV status. PMID:18284041
Wolfgang, Jeff; Frazier, Kimberly; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Barrett, Joe
As counselors turn their attention to child-based counseling, there is a need to apply the core tenets of the discipline of counseling to young children and incorporate cross-cultural issues into clinical competence. Using Multicultural Counseling Theory (MCT), the authors discuss conventional approaches to providing clinical interventions for…
Smith-Augustine, Shirlene; Dowden, Angel; Wiggins, Angel; Hall, LaCheata
International cultural immersion provides an in vivo, authentic, cross-cultural experience that can enhance multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills. This article examines the impact of an international immersion on graduate counseling students' cultural self-awareness using a qualitative approach. Five graduate counseling students…
Schilling, Brenda; And Others
The United States is a land of people with diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. There will be a time when every counselor is called on to serve clients from a culture different from his or her own. This guide promotes awareness of cross-cultural counseling problems, and provides information for counseling clients with different beliefs,…
Mora Cárdenas, Claudia Mercedes; Monteiro, Simone; Moreira, Carlos Otávio Fiúza
Incentives to provide universal access to antiretroviral therapy in order to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic also encouraged the diversification of HIV testing strategies, as demonstrated by the simultaneous existence of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC). This paper analyzes the concepts, principles and implementation of the VCT and PITC models regarding counseling, confidentiality and informed consent in Brazil and other countries, based on a literature review of works in the Lilacs, Medline, Sociological Abstracts and Cochrane databases published between 2000 and 2013. According to the literature, PITC increases rates of testing in comparison with VCT, but reduces sexual and reproductive rights and the autonomy of users. These findings suggest technical challenges and ethical tensions between the paradigm of exceptionalism and the normalization of HIV testing. The necessity to reconcile increased access to HIV tests with the local capacity to offer comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS is highlighted. It is recommended that interdisciplinary studies about the social effects of VCT and PITC be amplified.
Blyth, Eric; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes
Encountering infertility and involuntary childlessness and undergoing infertility treatment are acknowledged as stressful experiences that impact on individuals' psychological and emotional health – and for which access to psychosocial counselling by a skilled mental health professional may be beneficial. Evidence of patients', gamete donors' and surrogates' experiences indicates that utilization of infertility treatment in another country may not only exacerbate these psychosocial adversities, but may also pose additional risks to the psychological or physical health of participants, thus further emphasizing the need for competent psychosocial counselling services in cross-border reproductive care. However, this is a largely neglected topic in recent discussions of both CBRC itself and of infertility counselling practice. This paper extends the previous work undertaken by two of the authors to begin to map out practice issues within an ethical framework for counsellors when working with clients, donors, surrogates, individuals conceived following infertility treatment and existing children in clients', donor's and surrogates' families where cross-border reproductive treatment is considered or undertaken.
Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob
The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and…
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969
This paper examines two topics in Japanese medical ethics: non-disclosure of medical information by Japanese physicians, and the history of human rights abuses by Japanese physicians during World War II. These contrasting issues show how culture shapes our view of ethically appropriate behavior in medicine. An understanding of cultural context reveals that certain practices, such as withholding diagnostic information from patients, may represent ethical behavior in that context. In contrast, nonconsensual human experimentation designed to harm the patient is inherently unethical irrespective of cultural context. Attempts to define moral consensus in bioethics, and to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable variation across different cultural contexts, remain central challenges in articulating international, culturally sensitive norms in medical ethics.
This paper examines two topics in Japanese medical ethics: non-disclosure of medical information by Japanese physicians, and the history of human rights abuses by Japanese physicians during World War II. These contrasting issues show how culture shapes our view of ethically appropriate behavior in medicine. An understanding of cultural context reveals that certain practices, such as withholding diagnostic information from patients, may represent ethical behavior in that context. In contrast, nonconsensual human experimentation designed to harm the patient is inherently unethical irrespective of cultural context. Attempts to define moral consensus in bioethics, and to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable variation across different cultural contexts, remain central challenges in articulating international, culturally sensitive norms in medical ethics. PMID:16759415
Because many student affairs practitioners serve in counseling roles to students, this article examines Pedersen's 10 frequent assumptions of cultural bias in counseling. Also provides appropriate applications and recommendations for increasing the cultural sensitivity of student affairs professionals. Hopes to initiate an impetus for further…
Egalite, Nathalie; Groisman, Iris Jaitovich; Godard, Beatrice
The potential for next generation sequencing research (NGS) to generate individual genetic results could have implications for the informed consent process and the provision of genetic counseling. We undertook a content analysis of informed consent templates and guidelines produced by Canadian institutional review boards, purposively sampling documents used by researchers to obtain consent from participants in genetics studies. Our goal was to examine the extent to which the informed consent documents addressed genetic counseling and the return of individual genetic results. Our analysis reveals that the majority of informed consent documents did not mention genetic counseling while several did not mention the return of results. We found differences in the ways in which documents addressed availability of counseling, eligibility criteria for referral to a genetic counselor, genetic counselor involvement, provision of services to family members of participants and incidental findings. From an ethical standpoint, consent documents should provide appropriate information so that participants may make an informed decision about their participation in research. The need to ensure adequate counseling for study populations in an NGS research context will necessarily involve adapting values that underlie care in genetic counseling practice. If the interests of research participants are to be truly promoted, the drafting and review of informed consent documents should give proper due to genetic counseling.
Egalite, Nathalie; Groisman, Iris Jaitovich; Godard, Beatrice
The potential for next generation sequencing research (NGS) to generate individual genetic results could have implications for the informed consent process and the provision of genetic counseling. We undertook a content analysis of informed consent templates and guidelines produced by Canadian institutional review boards, purposively sampling documents used by researchers to obtain consent from participants in genetics studies. Our goal was to examine the extent to which the informed consent documents addressed genetic counseling and the return of individual genetic results. Our analysis reveals that the majority of informed consent documents did not mention genetic counseling while several did not mention the return of results. We found differences in the ways in which documents addressed availability of counseling, eligibility criteria for referral to a genetic counselor, genetic counselor involvement, provision of services to family members of participants and incidental findings. From an ethical standpoint, consent documents should provide appropriate information so that participants may make an informed decision about their participation in research. The need to ensure adequate counseling for study populations in an NGS research context will necessarily involve adapting values that underlie care in genetic counseling practice. If the interests of research participants are to be truly promoted, the drafting and review of informed consent documents should give proper due to genetic counseling. PMID:24664856
McEldowney, Rose; Connor, Margaret J
New writings broadening the construct of cultural safety, a construct initiated in Aotearoa New Zealand, are beginning to appear in the literature. Therefore, it is considered timely to integrate these writings and advance the construct into a new theoretical model. The new model reconfigures the constructs of cultural safety and cultural competence as an ethic of care informed by a postmodern perspective. Central to the new model are three interwoven, co-occurring components: an ethic of care, which unfolds within a praxiological process shaped by the context. Context is expanded through identifying the three concepts of relationality, generic competence, and collectivity, which are integral to each client-nurse encounter. The competence associated with cultural safety as an ethic of care is always in the process of development. Clients and nurses engage in a dialogue to establish the level of cultural safety achieved at given points in a care trajectory.
Anderson, John W.
Surveyed the preferences of 66 Black, White, and Mexican-American college students for directive and nondirective counseling analogs to determine the impact of culture and social class in counseling. Results showed Blacks generally scored the two methods exactly opposite their White and Mexican-American counterparts. (JAC)
Garcia, Frank, Jr.; Ybarra-Garcia, Melva
This manual, written for counselors and educators at all levels of education, focuses on multicultural awareness and educational equity. It is intended to acquaint the reader with the difficulty of counseling Hispanics due to manifestations of cultural and racial stereotypes. It stresses the need to change the counseling techniques that have…
Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Ali, Saba Rasheed; Ackerman, Sandra R.; Dewey, J. Jane H.
Jews and Muslims represent 2 unique cultural groups that have been relatively under-examined by multicultural counseling scholars. In this article, the authors review the recent literature on Jews and Muslims, synthesize and discuss the commonalities across these 2 groups, provide some recommendations for counseling members of these populations,…
Although all modalities of therapy work equally well, some models are better suited to work with specific populations. This article outlines a rationale for a counselling model used for female college students in the United Arab Emirates where the concept of counselling is not well known, and where the social and cultural organizations demand a…
Byars-Winston, Angela M.
Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process (Swanson & Fouad, in press). One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally-relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This article explicates the Outline for Cultural Formulation in career assessment and career counseling with African Americans integrating the concept of cultural identity into the entire model. The article concludes with an illustration of the Outline for Cultural Formulation model with an African American career client. PMID:20495668
Cook-Masaud, Carema; Wiggins, Marsha I.
In this article, the authors consider strategies for counseling female Muslim clients. First, they review general beliefs and practices of Muslims in the United States. Through the use of a case study, they illustrate a collaborative method of counseling Muslim women that is based on a trusting client-counselor relationship.
The multicultural movement has been and continues to represent a major force that is transforming the mental health professions. The field of counseling psychology has been particularly important in promoting many of these transformative changes. Over the past three decades, multicultural advocates in counseling psychology have expanded our…
Haintz, Greer Lamaro; Graham, Melissa; McKenzie, Hayley
Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC. This poses a challenge for health promotion researchers who must negotiate between meeting both the requirements of the HREC and the needs of the community with whom the research is being conducted. Drawing on two case studies, this paper discusses examples from cross-cultural health promotion research in Australian and international settings where disconnect arose and negotiation was required to appropriately meet the needs of all parties. The examples relate to issues of participant recruitment and informed consent, participants under the Australian legal age of consent, participant withdrawal when this seemingly occurs in an ad hoc rather than a formal manner and reciprocity. Although these approaches are context specific, they highlight issues for consideration to advance more culturally appropriate practice in research ethics and suggest ways a stronger anthropological lens can be applied to research ethics to overcome these challenges.
In this article some new challenges to existing conceptions of local and national identity are examined in the context of higher education. The role of ethics is reaffirmed, particularly in that they may have the requisite tendency to appreciate tolerance, to favour reconciliation, and to lead peoples of different or opposing views to dialogue. As…
The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Benesch, Kevin F.
Proposes a direction for cross-cultural training and research different from the traditional ones which emphasize differences between groups and the need to develop culture-specific techniques. Delineates a conceptual model which provides an integrative framework for understanding the role of culture in counseling. Draws on work in transpersonal…
Choi, Na-Yeun; Miller, Matthew J
This study tested 4 theoretically and empirically derived structural equation models of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders' willingness to seek counseling with a sample of 278 college students. The models represented competing hypotheses regarding the manner in which Asian cultural values, European American cultural values, public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help related to willingness to seek counseling. We found that Asian and European American cultural values differentially related to willingness to seek counseling indirectly through specific indirect pathways (public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help). Our results also showed that the magnitude of model-implied relationships did not vary as a function of generational status. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for counseling are discussed.
Herring, Roger D.; Jespersen, Shirley
Notes that Maori leaders contend that New Zealand's schools have failed to meet needs of Maori students, who experience high drop-out rates and low academic achievement. Reports that many Maoris are demanding separate educational system for their youth. Notes need for adequate and appropriate guidance and counseling services for Maori youth, and…
Andersson, Margareta; Mendes, Isabel Amelia Costa; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora
Our beliefs about morality are culturally embedded in social, religious, and political ideologies that influence individuals and communities. Ethical issues in health and medical care are often discussed in articles and at international conferences without explicit consideration of cultural assumptions that influence our beliefs about the significance and relevance of ethical concepts and principles. Helping people in need of care or denying people this help is dependent on values related to political decisions and organisational matters as well as professional and personal interpretations of moral obligations. In this paper we argue that explicit self-critical attention to the meaning of concepts and their cultural contexts is crucial in fostering mutual respect and understanding for different cultural frames of reference. This is especially important in the rapid development of international co-operation and globalisation.
Li, Sherry F.; Persons, Obeua S.
The authors used a corporate code of ethics to create 18 scenarios for examining cultural effects on ethical decisions of Chinese versus American business students. Four cultural differences were hypothesized to contribute to overall less ethical decisions of Chinese students. The results support the hypothesis and indicate strong cultural effects…
The importance of ethics in helping professions and ethics education in counselor preparation programs have been stressed and discussed greatly. In order to foster helping professionals' ethical behaviors to ensure clients' rights and welfare, professional organizations have developed codes of ethics to serve as guidelines for helping…
Peavy, R. Vance
A constructivist framework for the practice of counseling, especially career counseling, is presented, including an Ethic of Authenticity. New orientations in career counseling (career counseling as a general methodology for life planning) and a new model of the self on which to base the work of counseling is discussed. (LKS)
Heppner, P. Paul
The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…
Kim, Yea Sun Eum
The 3 major topics discussed begin with a recommendation of family counseling as the primary therapeutic modality for Korean Americans. Second, the article recommends various culturally congruent joining strategies, presented in 5 general groups. The 3rd major section of the article offers the cross-cultural counselor strategies for therapeutic…
Flores, Lisa Y.; Ramos, Karina; Kanagui, Marlen
In this article, the authors present two hypothetical cases, one of a Mexican American female college student and one of a Mexican immigrant adult male, and apply a culturally sensitive approach to career assessment and career counseling with each of these clients. Drawing from Leong, Hardin, and Gupta's cultural formulation approach (CFA) to…
Marutani, Miki; Miyazaki, Misako
This study explored the methods that are used by public health nurses to provide culturally sensitive health counseling to elderly Japanese farmers in order to motivate them to adopt healthy behaviors. Fourteen elderly farmers (eight men and six women) from three rural communities underwent health counseling and then changed their habits to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Qualitative and inductive analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the culturally sensitive counseling. Five methods for providing culturally sensitive counseling were identified: (i) showing an interest in, and respect for, the local culture; (ii) stimulating the participants' awareness of the health risks inherited in their local cultural practices through the use of familiar examples; (iii) accepting and understanding the participants' ambivalence about their local culture; (iv) connecting the reasons for the participants to change their lifestyle with their local culture; and (v) adjusting the health-promoting behaviors of the participants to fit their local culture. Public health nurses should consider the pride that elderly farmers have in their background and their resistance to change and use these factors to point out the discrepancies in their lifestyle and promote more quality-of-life-oriented and practical self-care behaviors.
Boehnlein, J K; Parker, R M; Arnold, R M; Bosk, C F; Sparr, L F
Capital punishment by lethal injection has been discussed in the literature, but there has been no consideration of the sociocultural foundations of the ethical issues related to medical aspects of capital punishment. Lethal injection represents the inappropriate medicalization of a complex social issue whereby medical skills and procedures are used in ways that contradict established medical practice. Although physicians are socialized to their healing role during medical education and training, their behavior is influenced by social and cultural values that both precede and coexist with their professional life. Because of this dynamic interplay between professional and sociocultural values, physicians can neither exempt themselves from societal debate by merely invoking professional ethics, nor can they define their professional role exclusively in terms of societal values that potentially diminish personal and collective professional responsibility. It is essential that physicians have a broad historical perspective on the development of the profession's standards and values in order to deal effectively with present and future complex ethical issues.
Barden, Sejal M.; Greene, Jennifer H.
Counseling necessitates clinicians to be culturally competent and self-efficacious in order to ethically and effectively work with diverse client populations. This study investigated the relationship between counselor education students' (N?=?118) levels of self-reported multicultural counseling competence (MCC), multicultural counseling…
Burnett, Judith A.
Infertility creates challenges affecting various aspects of couples' intimate lives. Practices regarding reproduction are often shaped by cultural messages. Culturally sensitive treatment methods help counselors provide effective therapy to couples with fertility problems. This article describes cultural influences, challenges, and counseling…
Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina
Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…
Advances in medical science and technology offer new medical interventions at the end of life. These new medical measures create new ethical issues, which increase in complexity in a multicultural society. This paper discusses three cases, in which cultural value systems play a decisive role. Change in the goals of therapy, truth telling of diagnosis and prognosis and presumed will of the patient are the key ethical points in these cases. Because of growth in minority populations in Germany, it is foreseeable that the number of these issues will increase in the near future. The author of this paper argues that concepts and measurements must be urgently developed in health care systems to help the medical staff in their daily practises. According to him, cultural competence and cultural sensitive advanced directives can be helpful for solving complex ethical problems at the end of life. Other interventions and measurements were also described for improved end-of-life care in multicultural setting.
Rapacki, Tomasz Michal; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
The purpose of this project is to enhance the counselling services offered to diverse clients by supplying counsellors-in-training with a professional development resource that combines the best available outcome evidence and applied clinical wisdom, with the most current cultural adaptation frameworks. A comprehensive literature review was…
Sciarra, Daniel T.
Describes a structural family-therapy (SFT) approach combined with the paradigm of acculturation to increase counselors' sensitivity to immigrant families whose members arrive at different times. The focus is on those families in which parents have preceded children in the immigration experience. Provides culturally sensitive counseling strategies…
This ethnographic study aims to contribute to better counseling services for the Greek American population in the U.S. by providing cultural knowledge and insight into one of the smaller ethnic groups that has been overlooked in the literature. More specifically, it explores the role of the "embodied language" of dance in the formation of Greek…
Wierzba, Joan D.
Cultural awareness enlarges the world view of traditional counseling methodologies that teach that the dominant society's values are the healthy norms to use in assessing and assisting ethnic groups. A dominant society counselor or therapist can be more effective in helping members of other groups by utilizing self-awareness and developing a…
This bibliography for counseling psychologists focuses on differences in nonverbal behavior as an aspect of cross cultural psychotherapy. The introductory section discusses the purpose, scope and limitations of the report. Different theories of emotion (dimensional versus typological) are also discussed and classifications of nonverbal behavior…
Adams, Eve M.
The confluence of prevention, multicultural competence and cultural responsiveness, and social justice is embryonic but holds much promise. The author uses the stages of change model to heighten awareness of how counseling psychologists are situated to provide well-developed system-level interventions and to examine the organizational and…
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Shin, Richard Q.
Counseling faculty serve as gatekeepers to protect the public from trainees who demonstrate significant deficiencies in professional functioning. Two issues that have not been thoroughly examined are how different cultural values may intersect with the assessment of appropriate professional competencies and whether the multicultural environment of…
Evans, Kathy M., Ed.; Rotter, Joseph C., Ed.; Gold, Joshua M., Ed.
Career and work constitute a major portion of most people's lives; families have an impact on people's careers; and their culture determines a great deal about how they approach family and work. The family counseling, career, and multicultural literature has given little attention to these dynamics. This text provides a multifaceted framework for…
Villalba, Jose A., Jr.
Strength-based cultural considerations for counseling Latina/o children and adolescents are not well articulated in the literature. Furthermore, research and demographic data indicate concerns for Latinas/os, such as acculturative stress and discrimination. This article describes treatment applications focused on Latina/o youth's cultural…
Crigger, Nancy J; Holcomb, Lygia
Providing health care in developing nations results in cultural and ethical challenges for health care professionals. The authors' intent is to raise readers' awareness of how to maintain an ethical and culturally sensitive approach to practice in developing nations. Four practical approaches to ethical decision-making, developed from the literature and praxis, in conjunction with traditional moral theory and guidelines from professional and international organizations are discussed. Ethical multiculturalism, a view that combines universalism and multiculturalism undergirds culturally appropriate and ethically responsive decisions.
This article presents a subset of findings from a larger study exploring the lived experiences of 16 former residents of a 90-day emergency family shelter program in Los Angeles County. Interpretative phenomenological analysis serves as a qualitative method for understanding the cultural uniqueness of the "un-homeless homeless." The findings offer implications for culturally competent pastoral care and counseling in the context of family homelessness and attend to both the process and content of caregiving.
Mak, Anita S.; Shaw, Tamara L.
Increasing ethnic and cultural diversity worldwide and especially in Australia requires that psychologists and counsellors cultivate the know-how to interact and work effectively with clients and stakeholders in cross-cultural contexts. This study aimed to identify and compare themes regarding challenging intercultural social scenarios experienced…
Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Moeschberger, Scott L.
Reviews articles in a 2001 special issue of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology (A. Brenes & M. Wessells, 2001b) devoted to building cultures of peace. Counselor educators are offered suggestions on how to prepare counselors to successfully create cultures of peace in a variety of communities. (Contains 21 references.) (GCP)
Beamish, Patricia M.
This paper describes the ethical dilemmas encountered by family counselors using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM). Numerous authors have emphasized that the DSM system does not contribute in an effective or efficient manner in the conduct of family therapy. The ethical issues of misrepresentation; trust; malfeasance;…
Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt
Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…
Well Mind, Well Earth: 97 Environmentally Sensitive Activities for Stress Management, Spirit and Self-Esteem. Continuing Education Training Manual: Environmental Education Ethics and Counseling Psychology.
Cohen, Michael J.
This document presents an environmental/ethics and counseling psychology training manual. An introductory preview for the manual includes "Green in Green: A study of disconnection, its implications and rectification" by Michael J. Cohen. This preview describes a study that helps readers to identify their natural old-brain as well as their…
Wright, F; Cohen, S; Caroselli, C
Even under optimal conditions, assisting patients and families in making ethical decisions is difficult at best. Often these decisions revolve around the end-of-life issues that require acknowledgement that the patient is unlikely to survive, which may be perceived as a failure to both the family and the staff. At the very least, it can be a sad time, fraught with uncertainty and indecision. When these difficulties are coupled with ineffective communication related to cultural insensitivity or unawareness, the effects can be devastating to the decision-making process. All CCNs are expected to master the skills necessary for assisting patients and families through the harrowing experience of life-threatening illness. Whereas much of critical care focuses on managing pathophysiologic disturbances, emotional needs are equally important. It follows then that the CCN must assume responsibility for assisting patients and families in coping with the crisis of critical illness and working through ethical issues, which often include end-of-life decisions and organ donation. Culturally competent care is required when addressing patient needs holistically, but it is so much more. It is an opportunity to enrich and deepen the CCN/patient/family relationship, advocate for the patient, and broaden the opportunities for communication among staff. This article has provided some beginning steps for increasing nursing cultural awareness and has offered some initial strategies to consider when designing a plan of care. Through continuing efforts, CCNs and organizations can do much to decrease the alienation that many patients and families have traditionally encountered in the CCU, an estrangement that is exacerbated when their culture is different from the predominant culture of the unit. The effort to become more culturally aware may appear to require extraordinary effort; however, the rewards of optimizing patient care are unsurpassed.
Shurden, Michael; Shurden, Susan; Cagwin, Douglass
Business schools must prepare students to face the world and yet maintain strong ethical convictions. The question of ethics in the business environment is not exclusive to the United States. Ethical business behavior is a multinational issue, and all business schools world-wide must deal with this issue. However, cultural differences often define…
Adults with dysphagia experience difficulties swallowing food and fluids with potentially harmful health and psychosocial consequences. Speech pathologists who manage patients with dysphagia are frequently required to address ethical issues when patients' food culture and/ or preferences are inconsistent with recommended diets. These issues incorporate complex links between food, identity and social participation. A composite case has been developed to reflect ethical issues identified by practising speech pathologists for the purposes of illustrating ethical concerns in dysphagia management. The case examines a speech pathologist's role in supporting patient autonomy when patients and carers express different goals and values. The case presents a 68-year-old man of Australian/Italian heritage with severe swallowing impairment and strong values attached to food preferences. The case is examined through application of the dysphagia algorithm, a tool for shared decision-making when patients refuse dietary modifications. Case analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of shared decision-making processes in dysphagia management. Four health professional skills and attributes were identified as synonymous with shared decision making: communication, imagination, courage and reflection.
Adults with dysphagia experience difficulties swallowing food and fluids with potentially harmful health and psychosocial consequences. Speech pathologists who manage patients with dysphagia are frequently required to address ethical issues when patients' food culture and/ or preferences are inconsistent with recommended diets. These issues incorporate complex links between food, identity and social participation. A composite case has been developed to reflect ethical issues identified by practising speech pathologists for the purposes of illustrating ethical concerns in dysphagia management. The case examines a speech pathologist's role in supporting patient autonomy when patients and carers express different goals and values. The case presents a 68-year-old man of Australian/Italian heritage with severe swallowing impairment and strong values attached to food preferences. The case is examined through application of the dysphagia algorithm, a tool for shared decision-making when patients refuse dietary modifications. Case analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of shared decision-making processes in dysphagia management. Four health professional skills and attributes were identified as synonymous with shared decision making: communication, imagination, courage and reflection. PMID:26481206
van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens
The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities.
Coker, Angela D.; Majuta, Aaron R.
There is a paucity of research in the area of teaching group counseling within an African context. In this article we describe and reflect on our experiences teaching group counseling at an institution of higher learning in the country of Botswana. We discuss cultural traditions and strengths that support an environment of group work in Botswana,…
Nuttgens, Simon A.; Campbell, Allan J.
Despite evidence that First Nations people experience a disproportionate degree of mental health concerns relative to other Canadians, many within this population do not access Western-based mental health services. In this article we extend a socio-political and historical rationale for attending to key cultural differences when working with First…
Limberg, Dodie; Lambie, Glenn W.
The increase of international business, military placements, and immigration has led to an increase in students attending schools in a country other than where they were born: third culture kids (TCKs). TCKs have unique educational needs, necessitating the support of their school counselors. This article (a) defines and introduces the needs and…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
Brusa, Margherita; Barilan, Y Michael
The paper explores the ethical aspects of introducing cultural circumcision of children into the EU public health system. We reject commonplace arguments against circumcision: considerations of good medical practice, justice, bodily integrity, autonomy and the analogy from female genital mutilation. From the unique structure of patient-medicine interaction, we argue that the incorporation of cultural circumcision into EU public health services is a kind of medicalization, which does not fit the ethos of universal healthcare. However, we support a utilitarian argument that finds hospital based circumcision safer than non-medicalized alternatives. The argument concerning medicalization and the utilitarian argument both rely on preliminary empirical data, which depend on future validation PMID:19076127
van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens
Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525
Goldman, M S
The failure of ethicists to develop an absolute ethical code has led to the consideration of ethics in particular contexts. In the alcohol field, such consideration has resulted in considerable controversy, because this field has been influenced by parallel cultural contexts: a scientific research culture and a layman's spiritual culture (represented by Alcoholics Anonymous). Both cultures can inform ethical decisions, but for scientific decisions to be made the influence of these cultures must be disentangled. This article reviews issues pertaining to this disentangling in connection with the use of alcohol administration in research.
Pan, Peter Jen Der; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Fan, Ai Churn; Yuan, Jenny S S
Although group verbal behaviors have been extensively studied, little research has examined how the types and frequencies of interactions vary across cultures. The purpose of this study was to examine verbal interactions in the Taiwanese group counseling process from a cultural perspective. 58 students were recruited from seven colleges of a comprehensive university in Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to one of the following: the Family Reconstruction group, Transactional Analysis group, or Growth group, as well as three Counseling groups. By using the Hill Interaction Matrix-SS (HIM-SS), participants' verbal interactions in the three groups were coded. Personal and Relationship Content verbal interactions were frequently used and the Confrontative and Assertive Work verbal interactions were least used in the group process. Personal, Relationship, Conventional, and Speculative verbal interactions were ranked high, but those of Group, Topics, Confrontative, and Assertive were much less used by both leaders and members. The differences of the verbal interactions and Silence responses between leaders and members in counseling groups were examined; there were no significant differences between the leaders' and members' verbal interactions and Silence. Specific types of verbal interactions influenced by cultural issues were discussed. PMID:23234082
Upholding ethical standards is part of what it means to be a professional and therefore part of professional education, but to what extent is the development of ethical reasoning universal across cultures, or is it highly dependent on culture? If universal, how can we explain the unique patterns of moral reasoning and behaviour in Asia, which…
This paper discusses the complex issues faced by clinicians providing counseling to chemically dependent individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing and who are from ethnic, racial, or cultural minority groups. It shares specific examples from the Minnesota Chemical Dependency Program for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals, as well as…
Demand among graduate and postdoctoral trainees for international research experience brings together students and investigators from increasingly diverse cultural backgrounds around the world. Educators in research ethics and scientific integrity need to address the cultural aspects of both science and ethics to help all trainees learn ethical practices for effective collaboration with a diverse array of partners. NIH and NSF’s mandates for instruction in the responsible conduct of research do not specifically address the needs of international trainees or U.S. trainees who undertake research projects abroad. Nonetheless, research ethics educators’ typical focus on policy and professional standards can offer trainees and faculty investigators helpful insights into differing ethical values and priorities in research. Examination of linguistic differences can also reveal important conceptual frameworks that shape ethical practice. New resources for teaching research integrity in cross-cultural settings can be a valuable addition to the development of shared understanding of the goals of scientific research. PMID:25574262
Effective counseling across a cultural divide depends on adaptations or changes of technique to suit the particular intercultural circumstances. The concept of mutual creative space provides a guiding principle for therapists who wish to make such changes. This space is 'negotiated' between the therapist/counselor coming from the 'dominant/mainstream' group within society, and the group participants who arrive from another culture. Mutual creative space consists of the negotiation of power and a process of mutual invention, incorporating the creation, by therapist and participants, of something new that did not exist in either of their cultures of origin. A meaningful encounter and effective group counseling can take place following the negotiation of such a creative space. This is illustrated by the example of intercultural group work with Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel, including an analysis of cultural characteristics of the Ethiopian group and specific ways of negotiating mutual creative space in this case. Issues discussed include: establishing trust in the cross cultural context; the use of body language and its interpretation; the psychologist as an authority figure; active participation vs. hidden learning; and working with dreams in such groups. PMID:16893872
Effective counseling across a cultural divide depends on adaptations or changes of technique to suit the particular intercultural circumstances. The concept of mutual creative space provides a guiding principle for therapists who wish to make such changes. This space is 'negotiated' between the therapist/counselor coming from the 'dominant/mainstream' group within society, and the group participants who arrive from another culture. Mutual creative space consists of the negotiation of power and a process of mutual invention, incorporating the creation, by therapist and participants, of something new that did not exist in either of their cultures of origin. A meaningful encounter and effective group counseling can take place following the negotiation of such a creative space. This is illustrated by the example of intercultural group work with Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel, including an analysis of cultural characteristics of the Ethiopian group and specific ways of negotiating mutual creative space in this case. Issues discussed include: establishing trust in the cross cultural context; the use of body language and its interpretation; the psychologist as an authority figure; active participation vs. hidden learning; and working with dreams in such groups.
Kalish, Robin B; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A
The current controversy concerning patient choice cesarean delivery potentially affects all women of child-bearing age and the physicians who care for them. The purpose of this paper is to address three salient issues within the patient choice cesarean delivery controversy. First, is performing patient choice cesarean delivery consistent with good professional medical practice? Second, how should physicians respond to or counsel patients who request patient choice cesarean delivery? And, third, should patient choice cesarean delivery be routinely offered to all pregnant women?
Aldous, Jane L.
Describes theoretical framework and techniques of Morita psychotherapy. Western research indicates that Asian American clients prefer active-directive, logical, rational, and structured approaches. Suggests that ethnocentric counseling approaches may be imposed upon clients of Asian origin because meanings attached to terms describing counseling…
Pacquiao, D F
Believing that healthcare outcomes will be more satisfying if the patients' cultural knowledge and values are understood and integrated appropriately in care planning, the author proposes a culturally competent ethical decision making model based on human rights--the fundamental right of individuals, families, groups, and populations to healthcare that is meaningful, supportive, and beneficial--and a reconceptualization of ethical principles to include the values and assumptions of clients. The ideal result is culturally congruent healthcare in which practitioners learn about their clients' lifeways and work with them to find satisfying ways to resolve clinical and ethical issues.
Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.
Gwandure, Ruth; Ross, Eleanor; Dhai, Ames; Gardner, Jillian
In view of the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, particularly among adolescents, the Departments of Health and Education have proposed a school-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) campaign to reduce HIV infections and sexual risk behaviour. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, our qualitative study explored perceptions of parents regarding the ethico-legal and social implications of the proposed campaign. Despite some concerns, parents were generally in favour of the HCT campaign. However, they were not aware of their parental limitations in terms of the Children's Act. Their views suggest that the HCT campaign has the potential to make a positive contribution to the fight against HIV and AIDS, but needs to be well planned. To ensure the campaign's success, there is a need to enhance awareness of the programme. All stakeholders, including parents, need to engage in the programme as equal partners. PMID:24388086
This article analyses the specific rights of patients with rare diseases from a dual perspective. On the one hand, they concern a new generation of patients' rights that arise once the consolidation of basic rights has occurred, fundamentally after the application of Law 41/2002 (on Regulating Patient Autonomy and Rights and Obligations in the Field of Health Documentation and Information) and its development by the autonomous communities. On the other hand, the fundamental question raises a serious issue related to these patients, which involves the principles of equality, equity, non-discrimination and solidarity. This is aimed at promoting legislative measures to protect patients' equality of access to health and social services, with the ultimate aim of improving their quality of life. The author has given special relevance in his study to the treatment of rare diseases that are genetic in origin, and to the importance of adequate genetic counseling.
Gwandure, Ruth; Ross, Eleanor; Dhai, Ames; Gardner, Jillian
In view of the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, particularly among adolescents, the Departments of Health and Education have proposed a school-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) campaign to reduce HIV infections and sexual risk behaviour. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, our qualitative study explored perceptions of parents regarding the ethico-legal and social implications of the proposed campaign. Despite some concerns, parents were generally in favour of the HCT campaign. However, they were not aware of their parental limitations in terms of the Children's Act. Their views suggest that the HCT campaign has the potential to make a positive contribution to the fight against HIV and AIDS, but needs to be well planned. To ensure the campaign's success, there is a need to enhance awareness of the programme. All stakeholders, including parents, need to engage in the programme as equal partners.
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…
Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David
Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…
Vikan, Arne; Camino, Cleonice; Biaggio, Angela
One hundred and twenty students from both Brazil and Norway were tested with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI), which is a test of Gilligan's hypothesized gender-related ethic of care. Subjects were also tested with Bem's Sex Role Inventory and Triandis's Test of Cultural Orientations. The ECI was shown to be related neither to gender nor to…
Lefebvre, M; Sanlaville, D; Marle, N; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Gautier, E; Chehadeh, S E; Mosca-Boidron, A-L; Thevenon, J; Edery, P; Alex-Cordier, M-P; Till, M; Lyonnet, S; Cormier-Daire, V; Amiel, J; Philippe, A; Romana, S; Malan, V; Afenjar, A; Marlin, S; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Bitoun, P; Heron, B; Piparas, E; Morice-Picard, F; Moutton, S; Chassaing, N; Vigouroux-Castera, A; Lespinasse, J; Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Boute-Benejean, O; Vincent-Delorme, C; Petit, F; Meur, N L; Marti-Dramard, M; Guerrot, A-M; Goldenberg, A; Redon, S; Ferrec, C; Odent, S; Caignec, C L; Mercier, S; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Toutain, A; Arpin, S; Blesson, S; Mortemousque, I; Schaefer, E; Martin, D; Philip, N; Sigaudy, S; Busa, T; Missirian, C; Giuliano, F; Benailly, H K; Kien, P K V; Leheup, B; Benneteau, C; Lambert, L; Caumes, R; Kuentz, P; François, I; Heron, D; Keren, B; Cretin, E; Callier, P; Julia, S; Faivre, L
Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used in diagnosing patients with intellectual disability (ID) with or without congenital malformation. Because aCGH interrogates with the whole genome, there is a risk of being confronted with incidental findings (IF). In order to anticipate the ethical issues of IF with the generalization of new genome-wide analysis technologies, we questioned French clinicians and cytogeneticists about the situations they have faced regarding IF from aCGH. Sixty-five IF were reported. Forty corresponded to autosomal dominant diseases with incomplete penetrance, 7 to autosomal dominant diseases with complete penetrance, 14 to X-linked diseases, and 4 were heterozygotes for autosomal recessive diseases with a high prevalence of heterozygotes in the population. Therapeutic/preventive measures or genetic counselling could be argued for all cases except four. These four IF were intentionally not returned to the patients. Clinicians reported difficulties in returning the results in 29% of the cases, mainly when the question of IF had not been anticipated. Indeed, at the time of the investigation, only 48% of the clinicians used consents mentioning the risk of IF. With the emergence of new technologies, there is a need to report such national experiences; they show the importance of pre-test information on IF. PMID:26582393
Woehr, David J.; Arciniega, Luis M.; Lim, Doo H.
The authors examined the measurement equivalence of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) across the diverse cultures of Korea, Mexico, and the United States. Korean- and Spanish-language versions of the MWEP were developed and evaluated relative to the original English version of the measure. Confirmatory factor analytic results…
Linton, Jeremy M.
Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…
Hamnett, Michael P.
Designed to answer some of the questions concerning the nature of professional ethics in the fields of anthropology, psychology, and sociology, this report outlines the range of ethical concerns of these three disciplines and describes the way in which these concerns have been previously presented. The first of the three sections of the report…
Genova, Gina L.
The passage of the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) spawned a series of compliance and ethics programs --the revised Principles of Federal Prosecution of Business Organizations known as the Thompson Memo (Thompson, 2003), the revised Federal Sentencing Guidelines that included the Effective Compliance and Ethics Program and the corporate…
Varghese, Shainy B
Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of disaster depend on various factors. The impact of a disaster on a particular culture depends on the people in that culture and the strength and resilience of the culture. Disasters may slow cultural development; however, typically the customs, beliefs, and value systems remain the same even if the outward expressions of culture change. Critical to survivors is the implication of aid that is culturally sensitive. Ethical questions and dilemmas associated with disasters and their management are profound. Adhering to ethical principles does not solve all of the issues related to disaster management, but awareness of their utility is important. People affected by a disaster may not be capable of responding to human rights violations, so it is the first responders who must be cognizant of their responsibility to protect the victims’ dignity and rights. Ethical treatment of survivors entails a crucial blend of knowledge about ethnic culture, religious beliefs, and human rights. A strong awareness of ethical principles is merely a beginning step to well-informed decision making in disaster situations. The literature also suggests that during a crisis, spirituality helps victims to cope. Important to any catastrophic event is the understanding that every disaster creates unique circumstances that require relief responses tailored to the specific situation.
As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…
Wallace, B C
This article prepares the clinician delivering chemical dependency treatment for more effective work in therapeutic dyads where there are racial, ethnic, or other "differences" between client and therapist. The objective is to prepare clinicians for service delivery within the present culture of violence and for the receipt of additional training in cross-cultural counseling and trauma-resolution psychotherapy. Social learning and unconscious processes are reviewed in order to explain how this culture of violence operates and impacts treatment. The way in which chemically dependent clients of color--especially African-Americans, Native Americans, and Latinos--have been impacted by both personal and cultural trauma is illustrated by a case example. The resolution of clients' personal trauma by properly trained clinicians is presented as relapse prevention and the clients' best defense against becoming a victim of violence and racism. The article ends with a brief description of the recommended clinical technique for this kind of work, and a statement of needed research.
Keulartz, Jozef; Schermer, Maartje; Korthals, Michiel; Swierstra, Tsjalling
Neither traditional philosophy nor current applied ethics seem able to cope adequately with the highly dynamic character of our modern technological culture. This is because they have insufficient insight into the moral significance of technological artifacts and systems. Here, much can be learned from recent science and technology studies (STS). They have opened up the black box of technological developments and have revealed the intimate intertwinement of technology and society in minute detail. However, while applied ethics is characterized by a certain "technology blindness," the most influential approaches within STS show a "normative deficit" and display on agnostic or even antagonistic attitude toward ethics. To repair the blind spots of both applied ethics and STS, the authors sketch the contours of a pragmatist approach. They will explore the tasks and tools of a pragmatist ethics and pay special attention to the exploration of future worlds disclosed and shaped by technology and the management of deep value conflicts inherent in a pluralistic society.
Montes, Adonay A.; Rodriguez-Valls, Fernando; Schroeder, Laurie
This article presents an interpersonal methodology designed to increase the cultural awareness of counselor candidates. This methodology was implemented through a sequence of activities, which was part of a multicultural course in the counseling credential program in a university located in Southern California. The goal was to enrich future…
Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel
Reports on the differential effects of cultural background and permanence of relocation on the expectations of counseling, the kinds of support sought when approaching a counselor, and the acculturation attitudes among 219 international students from English-speaking countries and the former Soviet Union attending an Israeli university.…
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Ilkilic, Ilhan; Paul, Norbert W
The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better understanding of the history of humankind. An important part of this genome diversity research consists in taking blood and tissue samples from indigenous populations. For various reasons, it has not been possible to execute this project in the planned scope and form to date. Nevertheless, genomic diversity research addresses complex issues which prove to be highly relevant from the perspective of research ethics, transcultural medical ethics, and cultural philosophy. In the article at hand, we discuss these ethical issues as illustrated by the HGDP. This investigation focuses on the confrontation of culturally diverse images of humans and their cosmologies within the framework of genome diversity research and the ethical questions it raises. We argue that in addition to complex questions pertaining to research ethics such as informed consent and autonomy of probands, genome diversity research also has a cultural-philosophical, meta-ethical, and phenomenological dimension which must be taken into account in ethical discourses. Acknowledging this fact, we attempt to show the limits of current guidelines used in international genome diversity studies, following this up by a formulation of theses designed to facilitate an appropriate inquiry and ethical evaluation of intercultural dimensions of genome research. PMID:18592399
Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della
The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…
Janson, Gregory R.; Steigerwald, Fran J.
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) persons and their families present unique ethical challenges for marriage and family counselors. A series of brief case vignettes touch on a range of ethical issues for couples and family counselors, including training, supervision, custody evaluation, ethical decision making, counselor bias,…
Decisions regarding sexual and reproductive behavior involve biomedical, cultural, socioeconomic, and ethical considerations, and have a major impact upon personal and family life over both the long and short terms. Family planning service providers should therefore help their clients assess such issues, especially when permanent or long-term decisions are of issue. Contraceptive counselling is a two-way process of communication characterized by an exchange of information and views, discussion, and deliberation. Research demonstrates that contraceptive use improves when service delivery personnel listen and respond to clients' worries and concerns. Considerations should be given to the following issues when counseling clients on the use of contraception: the technical competence of the counselor and the quality of interaction with clients; tailoring counseling to meet clients' characteristics and needs, with priority given to discussing any issues the clients choose; encouraging useful discussion without overwhelming the client with information; gaining clients' confidence to help them voice personal concerns, yet not infringing upon their privacy; providing counseling in privacy; avoiding misunderstandings and the omission of important information or instructions; and not expecting clients to learn everything in one counseling session. Counseling should instead be supplemented by other means of education and information such as group sessions, posters, leaflets, and videos. Training in counseling, and counseling in special situations such with adolescents, perimenopausal women, postpartum and post abortion women, and women with medical disorders are discussed. A supplement to the statement focuses upon the social and health problems which arise when family planning services and sex education for adolescents are limited or absent.
Babb, Tanner A.
Student use of online social networks has increased exponentially in the past five years. Facebook is one of the largest and most utilized by students. Many counseling students use Facebook on a regular basis to keep in touch with friends, family, and acquaintances. (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Current American Counseling Association (ACA)…
Zoucha, R; Husted, G L
This article discusses the ethical parameters of giving culturally congruent care to individual patients by health care professionals. Leininger's Cultural Care Diversity and Universality theory (Leininger, 1995) is used to demonstrate the importance of culture in a person's life and Husted's and Husted's (1995) bioethical theory is used to create a mind-set of ethical interaction and to direct the analysis of a bioethical dilemma involving cultural differences between persons of the same culture, a depressed Mexican-American woman and her husband. The differences between transculturalism and multiculturalism are explored. We defend the position that a patient's culture is only a useful tool in caring for a patient if the individual person is made the primary focus of care.
Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed
Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer’s V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India. PMID:24826027
Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul
Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…
Responsible and ethical use of the Internet is not something that teenagers, in particular, consider to be important, and serious consequences are beginning to emerge as a result of careless and offensive online behaviour. Teachers and teacher-librarians have a duty of care to make students aware of the potentially devastating effects of…
Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.
Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…
Ypinazar, Valmae A; Margolis, Stephen A
Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice) and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9) and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7) There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third week of their medical school
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Herman, Keith C.
The three reviews of the Major Contribution in this issue of The Counseling Psychologist provide thought-provoking critiques of counseling psychology's role in patient-centered culturally sensitive health care. In this rejoinder, the authors situate these critiques within the historical context of enduring paradoxes and barriers confronting…
Nill, Alexander; Schibrowsky, John A.
An experiment was conducted to study how marketing students' ethical decision making was influenced by their perceived moral intensity (PMI), corporate culture, and the reward system. The findings indicate that levels of awareness of the ethical consequences of a decision, the corporate culture, and the reward system all significantly affect…
Casas, J. Manuel; Thompson, Chalmer E.
Discusses American Psychological Association's (APA, 1990) "Ethical Principles" and American Association for Counseling and Development's (AACD, 1988) "Ethical Standards" as they relate to racial-ethnic minorities. Contends that philosophical premises that underlie these principles and standards reflect solely majority culture values. Suggests…
Anderson, Jane; And Others
Seven articles are presented from a symposium on critical theory, cultural analysis, and the ethical aspects of the use of educational technology. Two papers deal with the educational philosophy of two modern thinkers, and others focus on educational technology in the modern or postmodern era. The following papers are included: (1) "Foucault and…
Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…
Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice.
Della Chiesa, Bruno
For potential consideration by the Mind, Brain, and Education community, here is a modest but provocative hypothesis regarding the relationships between acquisition of languages, awareness of cultures, and development of ethics in human beings. Starting from the basic idea according to which "a fish does not know what water is," and using both…
Zaver, Arzina; DeMartini, Ashley
This article focuses on some of the broader complexities of citizenship in Quebec, paying particular attention to the Quiet Revolution and Bill 60 (Charter of Values) in order to understand how these historical events shape contemporary politics. Using a case study of the Ethics and Religious Culture Program (ERC) in Quebec, we seek to highlight…
In 2008 Quebec introduced a new ethics and religious culture course. This marks a significant development in Canadian education as the mandated curriculum is intended for use in publically funded secular schools. In the past such courses have been in the domain of denominational schools. This new approach is examined in the context of the profound…
Reports on a national study of the extracurricular cultural life and the impact of the mass media on Chinese middle school students. Finds a strong influence of recreational reading, television, music, and videos on middle school students. Presents a four-part course of action designed to strengthen ethical instruction in the schools. (CFR)
Discusses how Felix Adler's Ethical Culture School, through its innovative practices, impacts public education and settlement work, and plays a significant role in shaping the methodologies, practices, and content of educational drama in the United States from the inception of the field. Describes the use of story dramatization/storytelling,…
National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).
This report stems from a meeting of representatives of countries in the Asia Pacific region concerned with the development of strategies for strengthening content relating to humanistic, ethical, and cultural values in formal and non-formal education. The following countries were represented: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,…
Gibeau, A M
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is of growing concern to health care providers in the United States and Canada as more women from countries where the procedure is practiced emigrate to North America. An introduction to the demographics of FGM, including prevalence rates, is a necessary antecedent for understanding the cultural rationales for this widespread practice. Considering the health consequences of this practice promotes questions about legal and ethical aspects of care as North Americans approach FGM from their own individual cultural frameworks.
Howard, C A; Andrade, S J; Byrd, T
Through thematic stories of patient and provider interactions on the U.S.-Mexico border, this article challenges the commonly understood definition of culture. It explores areas of concern related to cultural competency and medical ethics. Stories outline issues related to communication and comprehension, use of interpreters, gender and sexual orientation, traditional health care practices, socioeconomic status, age, health care settings, and involvement of community representatives. Policy recommendations address language, continuity of care, and health care professions education.
Mao, X; Wertz, D C
Attitudes towards ethical, legal and social issues in genetic research and practice were investigated in 402 genetic services providers from 30 provinces and autonomous regions in China. This was done using a Chinese version of an international survey questionnaire on ethics and genetics that has been circulated in 37 nations. In all, 255 study participants completed questionnaires (63%). The majority of the respondents (89%) reported that they agreed with the current Chinese laws and regulations on termination of pregnancy for genetic abnormalities and non-medical indications, on the basis of considerations of population control and family planning. More than half the respondents opposed sex selection by prenatal diagnosis in the absence of an X-linked disorder. However, most of them (86%) would prefer directive counseling. More than half would agree to disclose genetic information to relatives at risk, and would permit third parties such as law enforcement agencies, spouse/partner, blood relatives, employers involving public safety, life and health insurers to access stored DNA without consent. The majority (73%-98%) also thought that DNA fingerprinting should be required for prisoners convicted of or charged with crimes, members of armed forces and all newborns. Although these are only the first part of the results of our international survey, they provide an initial basis for international discussion on ethics and genetics in China.
Stiffman, Arlene; Brown, Eddie; Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Ostmann, Emily; Chowa, Gina
A study of American Indian youths illustrates competing pressures between research and ethics. A stakeholder-researcher team developed three plans to protect participants. The first allowed participants to skip potentially upsetting interview sections. The second called for participants to skip potentially upsetting interview sections. The second called for participants flagged for abuse or suicidality to receive referrals, emergency 24-hr clinical backup, or both. The third, based on the community's desire to promote service access, included giving participants a list of service resources. Interviewers gave referrals to participants flagged as having mild problems, and reported participants with serious problems to supervisors for clinical backup. Participants seldom chose to skip sections, so data integrity was not compromised. However, participants did have more problems than expected (e.g., 1 in 3 had thought about suicide, 1 in 5 had attempted suicide, and 1 in 4 reported abuse), so service agencies were not equipped to respond. Researchers must accept the competing pressures and find ethically appropriate compromises that will not undermine research integrity.
Taylor, Josiah; Plaice, Evie; Perley, Imelda
In this paper, we share phenomena experienced by a multi-cultural research team working collaboratively with Wolastoq (Maliseet) First Nations Elders to document rapidly disappearing Wolastoq language, culture, and knowledge. This knowledge will ultimately be stored in databanks for future educational, community, and heritage use. Embedded within…
Wang, V O
Scholars, educators, and practitioners have argued that racial-cultural issues are obstacles for those seeking genetic counseling. When available, cross-cultural genetic counseling has focused on simplistic knowledge of client health beliefs and cultural customs, professional cultures, and biased theoretical models as reasons for failure to create realistic knowledge of members of racial-cultural groups in the United States. Recognizing the importance of meeting the needs for all who seek genetic counseling services, genetic counselors have been providing direction in cross-cultural genetic counseling research, practice, training, and developing competency, ethical, and professional guidelines. However, emanating from a cultural pluralism perspective, cross-cultural genetic counseling has often resulted in homogenized group stereotypes without attention to intragroup variation and individual differences. A transition from cross-cultural towards multicultural genetics shifts from culture-specific group norms to an integrated social, historical, psychological, and political perspective. By valuing the process of personal and professional racial-cultural identity development, the evolution from cross-cultural to multicultural genetic counseling that has occurred within the past quarter century is discussed. PMID:11778981
Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga
Emerging international research suggests that in multicultural countries, such as Australia and the United States, there are significant disparities in end-of-life care planning and decision making by people of minority ethnic backgrounds compared with members of mainstream English-speaking background populations. Despite a growing interest in the profound influence of culture and ethnicity on patient choices in end-of-life care, and the limited uptake of advance care plans and advance directives by ethnic minority groups in mainstream health care contexts, there has been curiously little attention given to cross-cultural considerations in advance care planning and end-of-life care. Also overlooked are the possible implications of cross-cultural considerations for nurses, policy makers, and others at the forefront of planning and providing end-of-life care to people of diverse cultural and language backgrounds. An important aim of this article is to redress this oversight.
Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung
In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.
Phelan, James E
This report examined ethical violations as grounds for membership expulsions made by the major counseling, psychology, and social work organizations in the United States over a 10-yr. period. Data indicated that the rates of expulsions stayed steady or declined, were disproportional across organizations, and that organizational sanctioning may be even more rigid than that of state boards. In addition, not all organizations followed procedures in a consistent manner when reporting or processing cases. The most common reason for expulsion was for violations under the category of dual relationships, particularly those of a sexual nature. Further research is needed to show how the variations of membership types, the profiles of the offenders, or the potential biases of the committees' judges weigh in on the issued sanctions, particularly those of ambiguous nature (e.g., nonsexual violations). It is also recommended that the expulsion data be easily available to all, and that it be reported systemically for the analysis of trends and for the overall accountability of ethics committees.
Rushton, Cynda Hylton
Undisputedly, the United States' health care system is in the midst of unprecedented complexity and transformation. In 2014 alone there were well over thirty-five million admissions to hospitals in the nation, indicating that there was an extraordinary number of very sick and frail people requiring highly skilled clinicians to manage and coordinate their complex care across multiple care settings. Medical advances give us the ability to send patients home more efficiently than ever before and simultaneously create ethical questions about the balance of benefits and burdens associated with these advances. Every day on every shift, nurses at the bedside feel an intense array of ethical issues. At the same time, administrators, policy-makers, and regulators struggle to balance commitments to patients, families, staff members, and governing boards. Ethical responsibilities and the fiduciary, regulatory, and community service goals of health care institutions are not mutually exclusive; they must go hand in hand. If they do not, our health care system will continue to lose valued professionals to moral distress, risk breaking the public's trust, and potentially undermine patient care. At this critical juncture in health care, we must look to new models, tools, and skills to confront contemporary ethical issues that impact clinical practice. The antidote to the current reality is to create a new health care paradigm grounded in compassion and sustained by a culture of ethical practice. PMID:27649916
Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris
In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks.
Chilton, Janice A.
The population in the United States is increasingly multicultural. So, too, is the U.S. physician workforce. The combination of these diversity dynamics sets up the potential for various types of cultural conflict in the nation’s examining rooms, including the relationship between religion and medicine. To address the changing patient-physician landscape, we argue for a broad scale intervention: interdisciplinary bioethics training for physicians and other health professionals. This approach seeks to promote a common procedural expectation and language which can lead to an improved, patient-centered approach resulting in better patient-physician relationships that contribute to better health outcomes across the U.S. population. The authors illustrate their thesis and solution using a well-known case of cross-cultural dynamics taken from religion and medicine—Anne Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down. PMID:23794754
Cottone, R. R.; And Others
The effect of number and type of consulted relationships on ethical decision making was assessed. Using an instrument developed by the authors, the Decision-Making Questionnaire, change in decision from a neutral condition to reassessment of the decision was measured, under one of six conditions. Significant results were found. (LKS)
McPhee, Sidney A.
This study was designed to survey and compare attitudes and perceptions toward school counseling and student personnel programs as held by educators in the Caribbean. The subjects in the study comprised 275 teachers and administrators employed in public and private junior and senior high schools in Nassau, Bahamas. The statistical tests used to analyze the data were the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Friedman two-way analysis for repeated measures. The findings indicate that administrators at all levels expressed significantly more favorable attitudes and perceptions toward counseling and student personnel programs in the schools than teachers. Teachers in the study expressed the following: (a) serious concern regarding the competency of practicing counselors in their schools; (b) a need for clarification of their role and function in the guidance process and a clarification of the counselor's role; and (c) minimum acceptable standards should be established for school counseling positions.
Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming
Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display.
Betancourt, J R; Green, A R; Carrillo, J E
Difficulties in the provider-patient relationship arise from many sources, and pose various challenges to the integrity of the medical encounter. When these issues are especially sensitive or important to the patient's health and well-being, a complete breakdown in the therapeutic relationship may result. The goal of the emerging field of cross-cultural healthcare is to improve providers' ability to understand, communicate with, and care for patients from diverse backgrounds. We should weave the concepts of cross-cultural care into the ethics of caring if we truly hope to have a positive impact on the health status of diverse patient populations.
Flintoff, Vivianne J.; Rivers, Shirley
This article describes some of the local Aotearoa New Zealand context of a general "mainstream" undergraduate counselling degree. Students' learning is shaped to produce a professional practice for the local context of Aotearoa New Zealand. As counsellor educators informed by social constructionism, we detail our theoretical position and our…
Lee, Richard M.
The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform…
Spokane, Arnold R.; Inman, Arpana G.; Weatherford, Ryan D.; Davidson, Anju Kaduvettoor; Straw, Rebecca
This article reviews the existing theory, research, policy, and practice of disaster mental health and the role of counseling psychology in post-disaster and catastrophic situations, all from a social justice perspective. Specifically, we discuss the phases and stages, social ecology, and individual reactions to disasters. A case study is…
Sommer, Carol A.; Rush, Lee Covington; Ingene, Daphne H.
Pedagogic approaches that draw on reflective practices and experiential activities are valued for their perceived ability to enhance multicultural understanding. The use of food-based assignments is not uncommon in multicultural counseling courses; however, the authors contend that although these activities may be experiential in nature, they are…
Lynch, Martin F.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.
Three commentators (Carter, 2011; Kim, 2011; Scheel, 2011) concurred with a central proposition of the target article (Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, & Deci, 2011): that client motivation for counseling is of critical importance to counselors and therapists. In this Reply, we acknowledge and address a number of issues raised by the commentators,…
Sanchez Lira, Diana
This study sought to address the American Psychological Association's goals of providing a multiculturally safe and nurturing environment for ethnic minorities in psychology (CEMRRAT2, 2007). The current research sought to understand how safe, valued, and nurtured Mexican American women in doctoral counseling psychology programs felt. These…
Skouras, Thomas J.
Native Americans constitute a significant population that is growing and has great need for mental health and counseling services. Social problems in Native communities include high rates of alcoholism, alcohol-related deaths, drug use, youth suicide, and sexually transmitted diseases. Despite their mental health needs, Native Americans are…
Pratt, Bridget; Van, Cassandra; Trevorrow, Emily; Loff, Bebe
In-depth interviews were undertaken with nine principal investigators and 16 former trainees from eight FIC programs recruiting trainees from the Asia-Pacific to assess the impact of training. Incorporation of new knowledge into teaching, research, and medical practice; advanced training; and ethics committee participation were the most common outcomes identified. When attempting to implement ethics activities posttraining, trainees often had to contend with opposition from more senior staff. Approaches that enhanced the cultural relevance of program content were identified as necessary, including comparing/contrasting non-Western principles and religions with Western bioethics, using region-specific case studies, and integrating clinical and research ethics. Best practices associated with program and trainee success included selecting more senior trainees clustered within Asia-Pacific institutions, offering a variety of degree and nondegree options, and post-training mentorship and networking support. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.
Sampson, Deborah A.; Caldwell, Dennis; Taylor, Andre D.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.
In this paper, we examine the implementation and difficulties when conducting genetics research in a rural, traditional West African culture within the frame of the United States’ grounded research ethics. Research challenges are highlighted by Western researchers following U.S. Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines and practices in a non-Western country. IRB concepts are culture bound in Western ideals that may not have synchronicity and compatibility with non-Western cultures. Differences in sociocultural norms, traditions, language, and geography were influencing factors that can affect application of IRB principles. Suggestions for change are offered, which will potentially aid researchers considering application of IRB requirements when conducting research in non-Westernized, non-industrialized countries. PMID:23482512
Aborigo, Raymond A.; Allotey, Pascale; Tindana, Paulina; Azongo, Daniel; Debpuur, Cornelius
Background Due to a paucity of statistics from vital registration systems in developing countries, the verbal autopsy (VA) approach has been used to obtain cause-specific mortality data by interviewing lay respondents on the signs and symptoms experienced by the deceased prior to death. In societies where the culture of mourning is adhered to, the use of VA could clash with traditional norms, thus warranting ethical consideration by researchers. Objective The study was designed to explore the ethics and cultural context of collecting VA information through a demographic and health surveillance system in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND) of Ghana. Study Design Data were collected through qualitative in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four field staff involved in the routine conduct of VAs, four physicians who code VAs, 20 selected respondents to the VA tool, and eight opinion leaders in the KND. The interviews were supplemented with observation by the researchers and with the field notes of field workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, and local language versions transcribed into English. Thematic analysis was performed using QSR NVivo 8 software. Results The data indicate that cultural sensitivities in VA procedures at both the individual and family levels need greater consideration not only for ethical reasons but also to ensure the quality of the data. Discussions of some deaths are culturally prohibited and therefore lead to refusal of interviews. Families were also concerned about the confidentiality of information because of the potential of blame for the death. VA teams do not necessarily engage in culturally appropriate bereavement practices such as the presentation of tokens. The desire by families for feedback on the cause of death, which is currently not provided by researchers, was frequently expressed. Finally, no standard exists on the culturally acceptable time interval between death and VA interviews. Conclusion Ethical issues need to be given greater
Herlitz, Anders; Munthe, Christian; Törner, Marianne; Forsander, Gun
This article argues that standard models of person-centred care (PCC) and shared decision making (SDM) rely on simplistic, often unrealistic assumptions of patient capacities that entail that PCC/SDM might have detrimental effects in many applications. We suggest a complementary PCC/SDM approach to ensure that patients are able to execute rational decisions taken jointly with care professionals when performing self-care. Illustrated by concrete examples from a study of adolescent diabetes care, we suggest a combination of moral and psychological considerations to support the claim that standard PCC/SDM threatens to systematically undermine its own goals. This threat is due to a tension between the ethical requirements of SDM in ideal circumstances and more long-term needs actualized by the context of self-care handled by patients with limited capacities for taking responsibility and adhere to their own rational decisions. To improve this situation, we suggest a counseling, self-care, adherence approach to PCC/SDM, where more attention is given to how treatment goals are internalized by patients, how patients perceive choice situations, and what emotional feedback patients are given. This focus may involve less of a concentration on autonomous and rational clinical decision making otherwise stressed in standard PCC/SDM advocacy.
Herlitz, Anders; Munthe, Christian; Törner, Marianne; Forsander, Gun
This article argues that standard models of person-centred care (PCC) and shared decision making (SDM) rely on simplistic, often unrealistic assumptions of patient capacities that entail that PCC/SDM might have detrimental effects in many applications. We suggest a complementary PCC/SDM approach to ensure that patients are able to execute rational decisions taken jointly with care professionals when performing self-care. Illustrated by concrete examples from a study of adolescent diabetes care, we suggest a combination of moral and psychological considerations to support the claim that standard PCC/SDM threatens to systematically undermine its own goals. This threat is due to a tension between the ethical requirements of SDM in ideal circumstances and more long-term needs actualized by the context of self-care handled by patients with limited capacities for taking responsibility and adhere to their own rational decisions. To improve this situation, we suggest a counseling, self-care, adherence approach to PCC/SDM, where more attention is given to how treatment goals are internalized by patients, how patients perceive choice situations, and what emotional feedback patients are given. This focus may involve less of a concentration on autonomous and rational clinical decision making otherwise stressed in standard PCC/SDM advocacy. PMID:26756477
Piper, Llewellyn E
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture.
Piper, Llewellyn E
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture. PMID:25068882
Crethar, Hugh C.; Winterowd, Carrie L.
The construct of social justice in counseling is defined and operationalized in this article. This is followed by a discussion about the intersection between social justice in counseling and philosophy, ethics, and spirituality. A call to action for counseling professionals is offered. (Contains 1 figure.)
Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem
This paper examines the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture in the contexts of autism and abortion. The traditional Yoruba moral principles of ibikojuibi (equality of humans at birth) and ajowapo (solidarity) have been theoretically developed to establish the personhood of autistic children and provide a justification for not aborting foetuses with autism. Despite these justifications, this paper argues that there is a need for contextual rethinking, which would allow for: (i) prenatal genetic testing, as well as abortion of foetuses with a high risk of the autism mutation, and (ii) early clinical diagnosis and treatment of autistic children in contemporary Yoruba society.
Bain, Linda L.; And Others
Four papers on ethical issues in physical education clinical settings are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Teaching" (L. Bain); (2) "Ethics in Professional Advising and Academic Counseling of Graduate Students" (G. Roberts); (3) "Ethical Issues in Clinical Services" (R. Singer); and (4) a reaction to the three previous papers by Bonnie Berger.…
Prince, Robert H
The use of role-playing ("active learning") as a teaching tool has been reported in areas as diverse as social psychology, history and analytical chemistry. Its use as a tool in the teaching of engineering ethics and professionalism is also not new, but the approach develops new perspectives when used in a college class of exceptionally wide cultural diversity. York University is a large urban university (40,000 undergraduates) that draws its enrolment primarily from the Greater Toronto Area, arguably one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world, embracing the largest percentage of Canada's immigration. Among the area's five million inhabitants, 50% identify themselves as a visible minority born outside Canada, while over 100 languages and dialects are spoken daily. Although students admitted from this international pool have usually been exposed to western attitudes during secondary education and are rapidly assimilated into Canadian culture, responses to specific ethical issues are strongly influenced by their prior culture. Two and three-part scripts for case studies based on NSF or original scenarios were written to illustrate issues such as gifts, attitudes towards women and ethnic minorities, conflict of interest, whistle-blowing, sexual harassment, individual rights, privacy, environment, intellectual property, and others. Following the presentation, the actors lead group discussion based on previously specified questions. Once the initial shyness and reluctance of some cultures has been overcome through the building of rapport, students have written original scripts based on hypothetical or prior personal situations. The method is now being adopted in a short course format to assist the professional integration of foreign trained engineers. PMID:16609718
Prince, Robert H
The use of role-playing ("active learning") as a teaching tool has been reported in areas as diverse as social psychology, history and analytical chemistry. Its use as a tool in the teaching of engineering ethics and professionalism is also not new, but the approach develops new perspectives when used in a college class of exceptionally wide cultural diversity. York University is a large urban university (40,000 undergraduates) that draws its enrolment primarily from the Greater Toronto Area, arguably one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world, embracing the largest percentage of Canada's immigration. Among the area's five million inhabitants, 50% identify themselves as a visible minority born outside Canada, while over 100 languages and dialects are spoken daily. Although students admitted from this international pool have usually been exposed to western attitudes during secondary education and are rapidly assimilated into Canadian culture, responses to specific ethical issues are strongly influenced by their prior culture. Two and three-part scripts for case studies based on NSF or original scenarios were written to illustrate issues such as gifts, attitudes towards women and ethnic minorities, conflict of interest, whistle-blowing, sexual harassment, individual rights, privacy, environment, intellectual property, and others. Following the presentation, the actors lead group discussion based on previously specified questions. Once the initial shyness and reluctance of some cultures has been overcome through the building of rapport, students have written original scripts based on hypothetical or prior personal situations. The method is now being adopted in a short course format to assist the professional integration of foreign trained engineers.
Wertz, D C; Fletcher, J C; Mulvihill, J J
To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential. PMID:2339711
The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.
Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…
Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene
Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…
WATERLOO, GLENN E.
THE NEED FOR COUNSELING IS EMPHASIZED BY THE FACT THAT 875,000 CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL IMPEDIMENTS TO LEARNING. TYPICAL COUNSELING PRACTICES ARE PROBLEM-CENTERED COUNSELING, EXCLUSIVELY "VOCATIONAL" OR "EDUCATIONAL" COUNSELING WITH LITTLE CONCERN FOR THE WHOLE INDIVIDUAL, EXTREME DIRECTIVE OR NONDIRECTIVE COUNSELING,…
Shaw, Susan J; Armin, Julie
Diverse advocacy groups have pushed for the recognition of cultural differences in health care as a means to redress inequalities in the U.S., elaborating a form of biocitizenship that draws on evidence of racial and ethnic health disparities to make claims on both the state and health care providers. These efforts led to federal regulations developed by the U.S. Office of Minority Health requiring health care organizations to provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. Based on ethnographic research at workshops and conferences, in-depth interviews with cultural competence trainers, and an analysis of postings to a moderated listserv with 2,000 members, we explore cultural competence trainings as a new type of social technology in which health care providers and institutions are urged to engage in ethical self-fashioning to eliminate prejudice and embody the values of cultural relativism. Health care providers are called on to re-orient their practice (such as habits of gaze, touch, and decision-making) and to act on their own subjectivities to develop an orientation toward Others that is "culturally competent." We explore the diverse methods that cultural competence trainings use to foster a health care provider's ability to be self-reflexive, including face-to-face workshops and classes and self-guided on-line modules. We argue that the hybrid formation of culturally appropriate health care is becoming detached from its social justice origins as it becomes rationalized by and more firmly embedded in the operations of the health care marketplace.
... Articles Genetic Counseling Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetic Counseling Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... informed decisions about testing and treatment. Reasons for Genetic Counseling There are many reasons that people go ...
Casali, Gian Luca; Day, Gary E
This paper explores the interplay between individual values, espoused organisational values and the values of the organisational culture in practice in light of a recent Royal Commission in Queensland, Australia, which highlighted systematic failures in patient care. The lack of congruence among values at these levels impacts upon the ethical decision making of health managers. The presence of institutional ethics regimes such as the Public Sector Ethics Act 1994 (Qld) and agency codes of conduct are not sufficient to counteract the negative influence of informal codes of practice that undermine espoused organisational values and community standards. The ethical decision-making capacity of health care managers remains at the front line in the battle against unethical and unprofessional practice.
Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores
Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.
Background Female Genital Cutting (FGC) anchored in a complex socio-cultural context becomes significant at the interface of access of health and social services in host countries. The practice of FGC at times, understood as a form of gender-based violence, may result in unjustifiable consequences among girls and women; yet, these practices are culturally engrained traditions with complex meanings calling for ethically and culturally sensitive health and social service provision. Intents and meanings of FGC practice need to be well understood before before any policies that criminalize and condemn are derived and implemented. FGC is addressed as a global public health issue with complex legal and ethical dimensions which impacts ability to access services, far beyond gender sensitivity. The ethics of terminology are addressed, building on the sustained controversial debate in regards to the delicate issue of conceptualization. An overview of international policies is provided, identifying the current trend of condemnation of FGC practices. Socio-cultural and ethical challenges are discussed in light of selected findings from a community-based research project. The illustrative examples provided focus on Western countries, with a specific emphasis on Canada. Discussion The examples provided converge with the literature confirming the utmost necessity to engage with the FGC practicing communities allowing for ethically sensitive strategies, reduction of harm in relation to systems of care, and prevention of the risk of systematic gendered stigmatization. A culturally competent, gender and ethically sensitive approach is argued for to ensure the provision of quality ethical care for migrant families in host countries. We argue that socio-cultural determinants such as ethnicity, migration, sex and gender need to be accounted for as integral to the social construction of FGC. Summary Working partnerships between the public health sector and community based organisations
Recent books, articles and plays about the 'immortal' HeLa cell line have prompted renewed interest in the history of tissue culture methods that were first employed in 1907 and became common experimental tools during the twentieth century. Many of these sources claim tissue cultures like HeLa had a "troubled past" because medical researchers did not seek informed consent before using tissues in research, contravening a long held desire for self-determination on the part of patients and the public. In this article, I argue these claims are unfair and misleading. No professional guidelines required informed consent for tissue culture during the early and mid twentieth century, and popular sources expressed no concern at the widespread use of human tissues in research. When calls for informed consent did emerge in the 1970s and 1980s, moreover, they reflected specific political changes and often emanated from medical researchers themselves. I conclude by arguing that more balanced histories of tissue culture can make a decisive contribution to public debates today: by refuting a false dichotomy between science and its publics, and showing how ethical concepts such as informed consent arise from a historically specific engagement between professional and social groups.
Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.
In an era of increased need and expectation for confidentiality, the counseling record of the deceased client challenges confidentiality. Using ethical codes and legal mandates, the authors explore whether the counseling record of a deceased client should be released when the client's will and the client's counseling records are silent on this…
Background Tuberculosis is a major global public health challenge, and a majority of countries have adopted a version of the global strategy to fight Tuberculosis, Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS). Drawing on results from research in Ethiopia and Norway, the aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss ethical aspects of the practice of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) in a cross-cultural perspective. Discussion Research from Ethiopia and Norway demonstrates that the rigid enforcement of directly observed treatment conflicts with patient autonomy, dignity and integrity. The treatment practices, especially when imposed in its strictest forms, expose those who have Tuberculosis to extra burdens and costs. Socially disadvantaged groups, such as the homeless, those employed as day labourers and those lacking rights as employees, face the highest burdens. Summary From an ethical standpoint, we argue that a rigid practice of directly observed treatment is difficult to justify, and that responsiveness to social determinants of Tuberculosis should become an integral part of the management of Tuberculosis. PMID:23819555
Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei
In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…
Gladding, Samuel T.
Creativity is a crucial component in the advancement of all major cultural entities, including effective counseling. It is through creativity that major theories of counseling and skills in counseling have been developed. Creativity is longitudinal in its impact. If counseling is to progress in the future, it is essential that counselors be…
Heppner, Mary J.; Fu, Chu-Chun
In this article, the authors discuss the Cultural Formulation Approach (CFA) proposed by Leong and his colleagues, and the strong and insightful applications of the approach offered by Leong, Arthur, Juntunen, Byars-Winston, and Flores. They think this model has phenomenal possibilities in providing a methodology for counselors to be able to…
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Ethics is an essential dimension of perinatal genetics. This article introduces perinatologists to the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy and uses these ethical principles to articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. Together these constitute an ethical framework that we apply to risk assessment, in response to which women may be divided into four groups: prenatal genetic counseling, and the responsible management of pregnancies complicated by genetic anomalies of the fetus.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Ethics is an essential dimension of perinatal genetics. This article introduces perinatologists to the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy and uses these ethical principles to articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. Together these constitute an ethical framework that we apply to risk assessment, in response to which women may be divided into four groups: prenatal genetic counseling, and the responsible management of pregnancies complicated by genetic anomalies of the fetus. PMID:21051301
Brislin, Richard W., Ed.; Yoshida, Tomoko, Ed.
This book contains modules for use in cross-cultural training programs. A module differs from a chapter in that it is a collection of materials that guide the reader both on the content of a defined unit of training and the method of delivery of that content. The modules are grouped into four sections, three corresponding to organizations in which…
Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.
A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…
Aegisdottir, Stefania; Gerstein, Lawrence A.; Cinarbas, Deniz Canel
Concerns about the cross-cultural validity of constructs are discussed, including equivalence, bias, and translation procedures. Methods to enhance equivalence are described, as are strategies to evaluate and minimize types of bias. Recommendations for translating instruments are also presented. To illustrate some challenges of cross-cultural…
Smith, Pheny Zhou
The growing number of international students and exchange scholars enrolled in American colleges and universities each year has called attention to the need to provide special mental health services to help international students adjust to the host culture and solve various mental health problems. According to Alderian therapy, people are…
Sandhu, Daya S.; And Others
Examined effects of neurolinguistic mirroring versus nonmirroring of selected nonverbal behaviors on empathy, trustworthiness, and positive interaction in cross-cultural setting among 60 Choctaw adolescents and Caucasian female counselors. Results indicated significant mirroring effects on the empathy scale of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship…
Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma
The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…
This book presents the results of a study entitled "What Counselors, Educators, Psychologists and Others Should Know About the Hispanic Culture in Order to Work More Effectively with Hispanic Students and Their Parents" funded by the California Department of Education in 1982-83. Approximately 500 people (Hispanics and Non-Hispanics) from 19…
The general societal pattern in Malaysia is reflected by the distinct multi-racial composition of the population, comprised of Malays, Chinese, and Indians. In Malaysia, ethnicity determines the varied differences in the socio-cultural and religious diversity of the population. Organized modern medical services have existed in Malaysia since…
in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.
Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B
There is a spectrum of attitudes within the Orthodox Jewish community towards genetic testing and PGD. Increased understanding of the belief systems of the Orthodox Jewish population will enhance the genetic counselors' ability to better serve this unique group of patients. By improving cultural competence, genetic counselors can help patients choose the testing options that they deem appropriate, while simultaneously respecting the patient's belief system. PMID:26174938
Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B
There is a spectrum of attitudes within the Orthodox Jewish community towards genetic testing and PGD. Increased understanding of the belief systems of the Orthodox Jewish population will enhance the genetic counselors' ability to better serve this unique group of patients. By improving cultural competence, genetic counselors can help patients choose the testing options that they deem appropriate, while simultaneously respecting the patient's belief system.
Sandhu, Daya S.; And Others
The quality of the therapeutic relationship is a prime consideration in counseling and psychotherapy. Good rapport in the counseling relationship has consistently been associated with beneficial changes. This study examined the effects of neurolinguistic mirroring versus non-mirroring of selected nonverbal behaviors on empathy, trustworthiness,…
This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the "social sciences versus bioethics" debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of "autonomy") within (rather than in opposition to) a principles-based framework for clinical ethics. This paper introduces the curriculum and provides guidelines for how to teach cross-cultural clinical ethics. The learning points that are introduced emphasize culture in its relation to power and underscore the importance of viewing both biomedicine and bioethics as culturally constructed. PMID:26732399
This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the "social sciences versus bioethics" debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of "autonomy") within (rather than in opposition to) a principles-based framework for clinical ethics. This paper introduces the curriculum and provides guidelines for how to teach cross-cultural clinical ethics. The learning points that are introduced emphasize culture in its relation to power and underscore the importance of viewing both biomedicine and bioethics as culturally constructed.
The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of epidemiological science and knowledge production practices. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and therefore, normatively cultural assumptions within the science of epidemiology specifically regarding the ability of epidemiological surveillance to produce accurate maps of HIV throughout national populations. Specifically, ethical questions around PrEP will focus on who should receive ARVs given the fact that global demand will far exceed supply. Given that sexual transmission is one of the main modes of HIV transmission, these questions of “who” are inextricably linked to knowledge about sex, gender and sexuality. As a result, the ethics of epidemiology, and how the epidemiology of HIV in particular conceives, classifies and constructs sexual populations will become a critical point of reflection and contestation for bioethicists, health activists, physicians, nurses, and researchers in the medical humanities and biomedicine. This paper examines how cultural conundrums within the fields of bio- and public health ethics are directly implicated within the ethics of PrEP, by analyzing the problems of population inaugurated by the construction of the men who have sex with men (MSM) epidemiological category in the specific national context of South Africa. PMID:24373050
Counseling has always been a part of American Indian culture. Only recently has the European American counseling establishment recognized the role of culture in counseling. Developing a historical understanding of American Indians is important to working with American Indian students. It is also important for school counselors to recognize the…
Providing effective career counseling to culturally diverse individuals is not the same as helping those from majority cultures. The Career Counseling With Underserved Populations model aids career counselors in supporting underserved populations as they strive to address their important career counseling issues.
The quality and efficiency in the process of psychological counseling with migrant families depends on the counselor's insight in the constellations of migration and culture. Both have a special influence on the way of coping with problems and the relation between client and counselor during the therapy. It is therefore necessary to adapt the own therapeutical approach to the migrant's experiences and abilities of comprehension. The author presents one example of intercultural family counseling by three short case explorations. PMID:11382173
Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate often cautionary notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".
Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...
The author introduces, through personal narrative, the idea that the experience of counseling another person can create "counseling endorphins" and invites other mental health professionals to enter into a dialogue about the possibility of a counseling "high" and about how to design research to explore this phenomenon. (Author/JPS)
Mahler, Clarence A.
This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)
Binder, Arnold; Binder, Virginia L.
Presents an overview of pscyhological counseling for offenders. The 12 articles of this special issue deal with counseling before trial, in prison, and after release and also crisis intervention for police officers. Other topics include the juvenile justice system, juvenile diversion, ethics, and the economics of service delivery. (JAC)
Morris, Sarah E; Heinssen, Robert K
Research focused on the prodromal period prior to the onset of psychosis is essential for the further development of strategies for early detection, early intervention, and disease pre-emption. Such efforts necessarily require the enrollment of individuals who are at risk of psychosis but have not yet developed a psychotic illness into research and treatment protocols. This work is becoming increasingly internationalized, which warrants special consideration of cultural differences in conceptualization of mental illness and international differences in health care practices and rights regarding research participation. The process of identifying and requesting informed consent from individuals at elevated risk for psychosis requires thoughtful communication about illness risk and often involves the participation of family members. Empirical studies of risk reasoning and decisional capacity in young people and individuals with psychosis suggest that most individuals who are at-risk for psychosis can adequately provide informed consent; however ongoing improvements to tools and procedures are important to ensure that this work proceeds with maximal consideration of relevant ethical issues. This review provides a discussion of these issues in the context of international research efforts. PMID:25403748
Stloukal, Merit E.; Wickman, Scott A.
The authors present a model for creating spiritual and religious safe zones in school counseling programs that implements the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's (ASERVIC; 2009) "Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling" in a school setting. The authors frame the model within the…
O'Halloran, Theresa M.; Fahr, Alicia V.; Keller, Jenny R.
Traveling the "information highway" in the process of career counseling or providing career counseling services via the Internet pose additional challenges for counselors. The authors use current ethical guidelines to guide discussion of, and possible resolutions to, challenges posed by incorporating the Internet into career counseling. (Contains…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
Practical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations regarding Videocounseling in College and University Counseling Centers: A Response to Quarto's "Influencing College Students' Perceptions of Videocounseling"
Menzano, Silvestro; Goodwin, Alan; Rockett, Geraldine; Morris, Kathy
There are numerous factors and concerns to take into consideration when implementing new technology into a counseling center's practice. These factors--informed consent, confidentiality, record-keeping, licensure, technical issues, eligibility, emergencies, and staff perceptions--are legitimate and must be addressed and resolved before…
Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.
Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…
Flores, Lisa Y.; Heppner, Mary J.
Critical areas in which career counselors need training are as follows: demographics, world of work, career and multicultural counseling competence, career counseling process, multicultural counseling theories, career development models, career assessment, barriers to career development, culturally sensitive career centers, and continuing…
Genetic counselling has frequently been described as a disciplinary practice, with the goal of 'risk reduction'. In this article another dimension to genetic counselling is considered through the Foucauldian theorization on the care of the self. Drawing on narrative analysis, I examine how one informant undergoing genetic counselling interprets the technique of imagining alternative futures learned through counselling, and transforms it into an ethical practice of self-care. The findings suggest that what may begin as a medical issue with implications for one's health, becomes a meditation over one's disposition towards life, in a way that is consonant with one's desires and values.
Calvert, Philip James
Joint-use libraries have identified staff integration as a problem. Using focus groups, this project investigated the culture, professional ethics, and attitudes of staff in a public-tertiary joint-use library in Auckland, New Zealand. Findings show some difference in organizational cultures, but more variation at the lower level of roles and…
Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David
Background Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons’ perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. Design and Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Results Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Conclusions Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public health Many people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and
McFadden, John, Ed.
New trends in transcultural theory, expanded cultural paradigms, innovative counseling techniques for working with diverse ethnic groups, and a comprehensive discussion of professional issues are presented in this second edition of a popular text. This edition is designed to support curriculum changes in counselor education programs to maximize…
Boffey, D. Barnes; Boffey, David M.
Describes success counseling, a counseling approach based on the principles of William Glasser's control theory and reality therapy that helps campers examine their wants and needs, evaluate their own behaviors, and see the connections between behavior and the ability to meet basic needs for love, power, fun, and freedom. Provides examples of…
Lee, Courtland C., Ed.; Richardson, Bernard L., Ed.
This book was written to provide counseling and human development professionals with specific guidelines for becoming more culturally responsive. It looks at the evolution of multicultural counseling, addresses ideas and concepts for culturally responsive counseling interventions, and examines the implications of cultural diversity for future…
Malloy, D C; Sevigny, P R; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Bond, K; Fahey McCarthy, E; Murakami, M; Paholpak, S; Shalini, N; Liu, P L; Peng, H
In this study of ethical ideology and religiosity, 1,255 physicians from Canada, China, Ireland, India, Japan and Thailand participated. Forsyth's (1980) Ethical Position Questionnaire and Rohrbaugh and Jessor's (J Pers 43:136-155, 1975) Religiosity Measure were used as the survey instruments. The results demonstrated that physicians from India, Thailand and China reported significantly higher rates of idealism than physicians from Canada and Japan. India, Thailand and China also scored significantly higher than Ireland. Physicians from Japan and India reported significantly higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland, Thailand and China. Physicians from China also reported higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland and Thailand. Overall, religiosity was positively associated with idealism and negatively associated with relativism. This study is the first to explore the differences between ethical ideology and religiosity among physicians in an international setting as well as the relationship between these two constructs. Both religiosity and ethical ideology are extremely generalized, and the extent to which they may impact the actual professional behaviour of physicians is unknown. This paper sets up a point of departure for future research that could investigate the extent to which physicians actually employ their religious and/or ethical orientation to solve ambiguous medical decisions. PMID:22696067
Daud, Nurul Ain Mohd; Bond, Tim
This narrative ethnographic study aims to explore students' attitudes towards guidance and counselling services in one secondary school in Malaysia. Semi-structured individual interviews, group interviews and observations were conducted with school students of different racial backgrounds. They were identified as referred clients,…
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; And Others
Reviews four new instruments designed to assess multicultural counseling competence in trainees and practicing professionals: Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised; Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale-Form B; Multicultural Counseling Inventory; and Multicultural Awareness-Knowledge-and-Skills Survey. Posits specific research suggestions…
Kaplan, David M.
For more than half a decade, the author edited a quarterly ethics column focusing on family work, first in the "International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors Newsletter" and later in "The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families." These columns responded to ethical dilemmas in family work submitted by…
Witt, Kailey; Huntington, Mark K
Preconception counseling is a way to discuss optimizing reproductive age women's health and chronic medical issues to facilitate the healthiest pregnancy possible. Preconception counseling is an important piece of care for reproductive aged women especially as nearly 50 percent of pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned and important fetal development has already taken place prior to the initial obstetrics visit. Many opportunities are missed to provide this counseling; only approximately one-third of women receive it. Visits to primary care are the ideal time for this to occur. In this paper, topics to discuss will be presented along with some guides to optimizing chronic medical problems to improve pregnancy outcomes.
Schwab, Reiko; Neukrug, Edward
To survey their ethical concerns, counselor educators were asked to respond to a series of vignettes. The majority of respondents expressed satisfaction with the current ethical standards of the American Counseling Association, although slightly over half indicated that ethical standards specifically applicable to counselor education would be…
This article is based on a qualitative empirical project about a distinct kinship group who were among the first identified internationally as having a genetic susceptibility to cancer (Lynch Syndrome). 50 were invited to participate (42 were tested; eight declined genetic testing). 15, who had all accepted testing, were interviewed. They form a unique case study. This study aimed to explore interviewees' experiences of genetic testing and how these influenced their family relationships. A key finding was that participants framed the decision to be tested as 'common sense'; the idea of choice around the decision was negated and replaced by a moral imperative to be tested. Those who did not follow 'common sense' were judged to be imprudent. Family members who declined testing were discussed negatively by participants. The article addresses what is ethically problematic about how test decliners were discussed and whether these ethical concerns extend to others who are offered genetic testing. Discussions showed that genetic testing was viewed as both an autonomous choice and a responsibility. Yet the apparent conflict between the right to autonomy and the moral imperative of responsibility allowed participants to defend test decliners' decisions by expressing a preference for or defending choice over responsibility. The 'right not to know' seemed an important moral construct to help ethically manage unpopular decisions made by close family who declined testing. In light of this research, the erosion of the 'right not to know' in the genomic age could have subtle yet profound consequences for family relationships. PMID:27523581
This article is based on a qualitative empirical project about a distinct kinship group who were among the first identified internationally as having a genetic susceptibility to cancer (Lynch Syndrome). 50 were invited to participate (42 were tested; eight declined genetic testing). 15, who had all accepted testing, were interviewed. They form a unique case study. This study aimed to explore interviewees' experiences of genetic testing and how these influenced their family relationships. A key finding was that participants framed the decision to be tested as 'common sense'; the idea of choice around the decision was negated and replaced by a moral imperative to be tested. Those who did not follow 'common sense' were judged to be imprudent. Family members who declined testing were discussed negatively by participants. The article addresses what is ethically problematic about how test decliners were discussed and whether these ethical concerns extend to others who are offered genetic testing. Discussions showed that genetic testing was viewed as both an autonomous choice and a responsibility. Yet the apparent conflict between the right to autonomy and the moral imperative of responsibility allowed participants to defend test decliners' decisions by expressing a preference for or defending choice over responsibility. The 'right not to know' seemed an important moral construct to help ethically manage unpopular decisions made by close family who declined testing. In light of this research, the erosion of the 'right not to know' in the genomic age could have subtle yet profound consequences for family relationships.
Vito Graziano, Gian
The development of a society in economic, cultural and ethical terms is always linked to the growth of the scientific and technical knowledge. It follows that the downsizing of the scientific research brings to a slower growth or even, as it is happening these days in Italy, a real cultural decay. The consequences of the economic crisis are evident to everyone, but it is precisely in times of crisis that the best strategies to restart the economy and give new cultural perspectives to society are studied. The crisis is also contrasted with ideas and ability to put them into practice. This, however, also presupposes a different cultural approach, which has to also include a review of values and beliefs, and a redefinition of the objectives to be pursued. This approach is modeled on the basis of several positive experiences that a country can boast. Among these experiences, there are those arising from the scientific culture: geology, for example, such as chemistry, biology or other sciences, can help to change vision. The research and practice of Earth sciences have important implications on the life and activities of the population and therefore the geoscientists, as active subjects in the society, should question their role and responsibilities. They should be at the service of society, especially in the fields of prevention from natural hazards and valorization of georesources. In this sense they can give important indications for economy and development of their country. The Italian Council of Geologists (Consiglio Nazionale dei Geologi - CNG) acts with the aim of highlighting the social role of geoscientists, hoping for a new cultural Renaissance, which leads to new researches, without obscurantism or prejudices. In an authoritative way, the CNG intends to put this social role before any demand from the professional category. Therefore, it has recently presented its political Manifesto, geared essentially to the good governance of the territory, to all the
Danielson, Elena S.
While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…
Abstract This article is based on a qualitative empirical project about a distinct kinship group who were among the first identified internationally as having a genetic susceptibility to cancer (Lynch Syndrome). 50 were invited to participate (42 were tested; eight declined genetic testing). 15, who had all accepted testing, were interviewed. They form a unique case study. This study aimed to explore interviewees’ experiences of genetic testing and how these influenced their family relationships. A key finding was that participants framed the decision to be tested as ‘common sense’; the idea of choice around the decision was negated and replaced by a moral imperative to be tested. Those who did not follow ‘common sense’ were judged to be imprudent. Family members who declined testing were discussed negatively by participants. The article addresses what is ethically problematic about how test decliners were discussed and whether these ethical concerns extend to others who are offered genetic testing. Discussions showed that genetic testing was viewed as both an autonomous choice and a responsibility. Yet the apparent conflict between the right to autonomy and the moral imperative of responsibility allowed participants to defend test decliners’ decisions by expressing a preference for or defending choice over responsibility. The ‘right not to know’ seemed an important moral construct to help ethically manage unpopular decisions made by close family who declined testing. In light of this research, the erosion of the ‘right not to know’ in the genomic age could have subtle yet profound consequences for family relationships. PMID:27523581
Vontress, Clemmont E.
There are numerous problems involved in counseling minority group members. Rapport is difficult to establish because of the racial and/or cultural attitudes client and counselor have toward one another; consequently the client often finds his own goals in opposition to those of counseling. The existing cultural gap also leads to different patterns…
Scheel, Michael J.; Berman, Margit; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Conoley, Collie W.; Duan, Changming; Whiston, Susan C.
A suspected decline in published counseling-related research in "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP") and the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") was investigated through content analyses of the two journals from 1979 to 2008. A marked decline in counseling-related research may signify a shift in emphasis away from counseling as the most…
Hanna, Fred J.; Green, Alan
In the current practice of school counseling, little consideration is given to the spiritual background of students of Asian cultures. Although there is a body of literature on Asian culture in counseling, the authors could find remarkably few articles pertaining to counseling students in the context of Asian religious and spiritual traditions. In…
... responsibilities as Special Counsel shall take first precedence in their professional lives, and that it may be... appropriate background investigation and a detailed review of ethics and conflicts of interest issues....
Balci, Ali; Ozdemir, Murat; Apaydin, Cigdem; Ozen, Fatmanur
The aim of this study is to analyse organizational corruption and to determine its level of relation to attitude towards work, work ethics and organizational culture. The data in study have been collected from 441 public high school teachers employed in the central districts of Ankara in the school year of 2008-2009. Data have been collected…
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
The present article aims to scrutinize publishing ethics in the fields of paediatrics and paediatric nursing. Full-text readings of all original research articles in paediatrics from a high-income economy, i.e. Sweden, and from all low-income economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, were reviewed as they were indexed and stored in Web of Science for the search period from 1 January 2007 to 7 October 2009. The application of quantitative and qualitative content analysis revealed a marked discrepancy in publishing frequencies between the two contrasting economies. Authors from 16 low-income economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, with at least one article stored, were obviously closely linked to co-authorships and foreign funding sources, predominantly from Europe and the USA. Statements concerning conflicts of interest were frequently missing (both regions), even when multiple financial sources, including companies, were involved. It is necessary to be aware of possible systematic bias when using electronic databases to search for certain topics and regions. Further research regarding publishing ethics in paediatrics and paediatric nursing is emphasized.
McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A
Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth.
McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A
Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth. PMID:26804379
Lambie, Glenn W.; Ieva, Kara P.; Mullen, Patrick R.
The present study investigated 52 graduate counseling students' levels of ethical and legal knowledge (Lambie, Hagedorn, & Ieva, 2010) and social-cognitive development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996) at three points: (a) prior to a counseling ethics course, (b) at the completion of the course, and (c) four months later. Students' ethical…
This is a continuation of the dialogue among Albert Ellis, Jeffrey T. Guterman, Earl Ginter, Sandra A. Rigazio-DiGilio, Allen E. Ivey, and Don C. Locke that has been appearing in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling on ethical issues of counseling in the postmodern era. Specifically addresses the ethical, constructivist, multicultural, and…
McCurdy, Kenneth G.; Murray, Kenneth C.
The literature addressing ethical issues involved in the disclosure of family secrets in counseling has typically focused on secrets disclosed by adults, ignoring the ethical issues surrounding individual disclosure by minor children and confidentiality within the family counseling context. This article explores family secrets, confidentiality…
... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b). ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735... General Provisions § 200.735-103 Counseling service. (a) The Chairman shall appoint a Designated...
... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b). ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735... General Provisions § 200.735-103 Counseling service. (a) The Chairman shall appoint a Designated...
... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b). ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735... General Provisions § 200.735-103 Counseling service. (a) The Chairman shall appoint a Designated...
... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b). ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735... General Provisions § 200.735-103 Counseling service. (a) The Chairman shall appoint a Designated...
... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b). ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735... General Provisions § 200.735-103 Counseling service. (a) The Chairman shall appoint a Designated...
Jencius, Marty; Sager, Denise E.
Reviews the current practice of using the Internet to provide marriage and family counseling services. Discusses how the Internet has developed into a medium that can be used for the provision of marriage and family counseling services. Ethical guidelines developed by other associations have direct implication in how marriage and family therapists…
This document, prepared by the Chief Inspector of Schools in France, is based on work done by UNESCO in enhancing the humanistic, cultural and international dimensions of both formal and non-formal education. The paper consists of a synopsis of the work relating to the various aspects of humanistic education, and a select bibliography. Although…
... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 200 Rules of Organization; Conduct and Ethics; and Information and Requests AGENCY..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shira Pavis Minton, Ethics Counsel, 202-551-7938, Office of the Ethics Counsel, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC...
Brashear, Diane B.
The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)
Peters, Donald L.
This book targeted especially to those who counsel middle-school through high school students, shares experiences, concepts, happenings, and anecdotes of a school counselor. Concepts are presented for those interested in developing functional orientations in the area of helping relationships. The first chapter discusses the concept of help and…
Hoppenbrouwers, Toke; And Others
Six graduate students responsible for the creation of a peer-counseling walk-in clinic discuss the training techniques used for peer counselors at UCLA. A psychology course featuring didactic and informational lectures, small laboratory sessions, and personal growth groups was instrumental in generating three basic attributes in the peer…
Kiselica, Mark S.; Robinson, Michelle
This article accentuates the human experiences at the heart of social justice work in counseling. The history, counselor attributes, skills, costs, pitfalls, rewards, and ethical issues associated with advocacy counseling are highlighted. Article concludes with a discussion of the personal moral imperatives that inspire social activism and the…
Reacts to C. H. Patterson's article (this issue) concerning multicultural counseling. Asserts that there are problems with historical concepts of counseling, the definition of culture, and the practice of counseling in multicultural settings. A cultural-centered approach to counseling recognizes that the client has internalized patterns of…
Lor, Aun; Thomas, James C.; Barrett, Drue H.; Ortmann, Leonard W.; Herrera Guibert, Dionisio J.
Background: Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions. Methods: We reviewed the meeting reports, notes and stories and mapped outcomes to the key ethical challenges for pandemic influenza response described in the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) guidance, Ethical Considerations in Developing a Public Health Response to Pandemic Influenza: transparency and public engagement, allocation of resources, social distancing, obligations to and of healthcare workers, and international collaboration. Results: The important role of transparency and public engagement were widely accepted among participants. However, there was general agreement that no "one size fits all" approach to allocating resources can address the variety of economic, cultural and other contextual factors that must be taken into account. The importance of social distancing as a tool to limit disease transmission was also recognized, but the difficulties associated with this measure were acknowledged. There was agreement that healthcare workers often have competing obligations and that government has a responsibility to assist healthcare workers in doing their job by providing appropriate training and equipment. Finally, there was agreement about the importance of international collaboration for combating global health threats. Conclusion: Although some cultural differences in the values that frame pandemic preparedness and response efforts were observed, participants generally agreed on the key
Foss Durant, Anne; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy
In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California's Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes. PMID:26828076
Foss Durant, Anne; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy
In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California's Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes.
Eliason, Michele J.
Argues that nursing practice and theory cannot be ethical unless cultural factors are taken into consideration and that ethical/transcultural nursing is central to the philosophy and practice of nursing. (Author)
Wahlstrom, Kyla L.; Ponte, Petra
The TRIO Project (Teacher Training & Research for Individuals & Organisations) began with the notion that cross-cultural reflection could be an effective tool by which teachers could examine their personal belief systems about learning, teaching and pupil guidance. University-based teacher educators from four countries, the Netherlands, Russia,…
Cohen, Adam W., Ed.
This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism" (Charles H.…
THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT BY BORROWING IDEAS AND PROCEDURES FROM CONTEMPORARY MOVEMENTS IN EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY INDLUDING--DEFINITION OF EDUCATIONAL GOALS IN BEHAVIORAL TERMS, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, DISCOVERY LEARNING, AND COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY THEORIES, A USABLE COUNSELING MODEL CAN BE CONSTRUCTED. RELEVANT ETHICAL ASSUMPTIONS, INCLUDING THE…
In this personal narrative, I offer reflections about the process of conducting a cross-cultural, cross-linguistic research project with teachers of English in China. Lessons learned from this study address some of the hegemonic perspectives and assumptions that can be dysconsciously held by native English-speakers, the value of crossing borders…
Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong
Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation…
Mason, Terrence C., Ed.; Helfenbein, Robert J., Ed.
The widely cited, though highly contested, idea that "the world is flat" (Friedman, 2004) carries with it a call for education to provide a leveling effect across continents and cultures Students in Skokie or in Skopje, as the theory goes, are expected to experience a school curriculum that shares certain common elements, goals, and purposes. Such…
This article presents a series of reflections based on a study of two schools of secondary level in the city of Buenos Aires. The purpose is to identify reasons why some schools in poorer areas obtain higher levels of success for their pupils. The conceptual basis is one of cultural analysis, permitting a contextual and situational perspective…
Reviews the work of Iris Murdoch, a moral philosopher who maintains that the work of moral education is the recognition of the phenomenology of inner moral experience and the struggle to express it. Shows how important this view of the inner meaning of moral experience, often expressed as metaphor, is to identity, culture, and education.…
McFadden, John, Ed.
Many of the problems of the world find their expression in the microcosm of the counseling profession. Counselors must be able to look beyond the current field of cross-cultural and multicultural counseling and develop skills and knowledge relevant to international interaction of multiple languages, races, ethnicities, and lifestyles. This book…
Gladding, Samuel T.; Wallace, Melanie J. Drake
Stories are an essential part of counseling. Through stories, clients and counselors gain a deeper understanding of concerns brought into counseling sessions and strategies used to address them. Through storytelling, catharsis, power, insight, meaning, cultural awareness, and change take place. This article examines the research on stories in…
The cultural diversity literature largely ignores the effects of religion, and especially Judaism, on counseling and psychotherapy. The author reviews the meager and mostly anecdotal accounts relating to Orthodox Jews in the literature of several related disciplines, including counseling, social work, psychology, and psychiatry. The objective is…
Vera, George Davy
In the worldwide community it is not well known that counseling and guidance professional practices have a long tradition in Venezuela. Therefore, this contribution's main purpose is to inform the international audience about past and contemporary counseling in Venezuela. Geographic, demographic, and cultural facts about Venezuela are provided.…
Turner-Essel, Laura; Waehler, Charles
Previous scholars have made specific suggestions regarding what counseling psychology training programs can do to help future psychologists become more cross-culturally aware. This article addresses the questions of whether and how U.S. counseling psychology training programs are currently employing these suggestions. Forty-seven American…
The anticipated birth of an extremely low gestational age (,25 weeks) infant presents many difficult questions, and variations in practice continue to exist.Decisions regarding care of periviable infants should ideally be well informed,ethically sound, consistent within medical teams, and consonant with the parents' wishes. Each health care institution should consider having policies and procedures for antenatal counseling in these situations. Family counseling may be aided by the use of visual materials, which should take into consideration the intellectual, cultural, and other characteristics of the family members. Although general recommendations can guide practice, each situation is unique; thus, decision-making should be individualized. In most cases, the approach should be shared decision-making with the family, guided by considering both the likelihood of death or morbidity and the parents' desires for their unborn child. If a decision is made not to resuscitate,providing comfort care, encouraging family bonding, and palliative care support are appropriate.
Harrist, Steve; Richardson, Frank C.
A social justice orientation for counseling is appealing to many but appears to some to violate counselor neutrality and respect for client freedom and rights. Confusion about neutrality and advocacy in the counseling field seems to reflect confused assumptions and values in the wider culture. As a result, counseling is guided more by a disguised…
Terry, Linda L.
Describes a one semester-unit course, entitled "Family Counseling in the Schools" to complement other training in family systems counseling for students interested in family-school intervention. Links literature on changes in the cultures of the social institutions of schools, families, and family counseling with the systemic conceptual framework…
Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei
The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…
Guth, Lorraine J.; McAuliffe, Garrett; Michalak, Megan
As the counseling profession continues to build an international community, the need to examine cultural competence training also increases. This quantitative study examined the impact of the Diversity and Counseling Institute in Ireland (DCII) on participants' multicultural counseling competencies. Two instruments were utilized to examine…
Bratt, William Edgar Vernon
The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…
... news/fullstory_161721.html Heart Group Advises Personalized Nutrition Counseling Providers should take ethnic, cultural and individual ... chair. She is a professor of preventive medicine (nutrition) at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in ...
Drier, Harry N.
This monograph deals with normative ethics, or the application of ethical principles in judging the rightness or wrongness of actions. Specifically, the monograph addresses normative ethics in the use of automated systems in the field and practice of counseling and guidance. It is noted that the immense growth planned for computer applications in…
Yost, J. Kelley
This paper discusses ethical considerations involved in breach of confidentiality in counseling dangerous clients, i.e., those who have the potential to inflict bodily harm on others. The ethical basis for confidentiality is presented in a model for decision making in ethical dilemmas which encompasses three evaluative levels or tiers: ethical…
Wester, Kelly L.
To publish ethical research, one must conduct research responsibly, making ethical choices from the inception of the research idea and throughout the research process. Conducting and publishing ethical research is important because of the impact the results will have on the counseling profession. Steps to consider are discussed.
There are basically three stylistic dimensions of counseling blacks: (1) cultural-historical; (2) psycho-social; and, (3) scientific-ideological. The author discusses how these are related and indicates that these areas must be incorporated into counselor training programs. (HMV)
Goksoy, Asli; Alayoglu, Nihat
Ethics in decision making has been an issue for academics, practitioners, and governmental regulators for decades. In the last decade, numerous scandals and consequently many corporate crises in the global business world have added credence to the criticisms of business ethics. Therefore, it is vital to understand the factors affecting employees'…
Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.
As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…
Chuan, Kwek Leong; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Pierron-Bohnes, Veronique; Dawson, Silvina Ponce
Despite the objectivity of science, the local work environment affects the daily activities of scientists. Differences in cultural perception can affect female scientists in the workplace directly. The pressure currently exerted on researchers, on the other hand, is altering how science is practiced and seems to affect women and men differently. In this paper we summarize the discussions that took place on this topic in Workshop V of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. We present some of the results of the 2010 Global Survey of Physicists analyzed by region and data from France and Taiwan. We also include the recommendations that were formulated at the end of the workshop.
Howell, William S.
Ethical concepts, when taught, should be operational and placed in context. Applying the operational criterion is tough enough in a single culture; however, in a course in intercultural communication, difficulties are multiplied. The teacher of an intercultural communication classroom should embrace the position that many ethical principles are…
Davis, Howard V.
This paper discusses the comparative newness of elementary school counseling, and the need to develop theoretical bases which, of course, are psychologically and educationally sound. Various theoretical models which have meaning for elementary counseling are considered. These include: (1) developmental and/or growth counseling theory which…
This article provides a historical, political, and organizational analysis regarding counseling psychology's involvement in professional school counseling. Issues discussed include collaboration, curriculum and training, and professional identity, as well as the commonalities that bind counselor education/professional school counseling and…
Byrne, J. Stephen; Shufelt, Brett
The present study explored the use of counseling among counselor trainees and the characteristics of consumers and nonconsumers. Approximately 61% of those surveyed (n = 85) reported that they had received counseling, with the majority being mental health counseling trainees. Nonconsumers (n = 54) indicated that they coped with problems in other…
Securing and safeguarding the health of citizens are preeminent governmental obligations and cultural as well as ethical responsibilities. Public health needs to be developed, implemented and reviewed in partnership with existing private and public market forces and with health-literate citizens; mission, strategy, tactics and ethics of public health depend on partnership ethics. Traditional sets of principles in bioethics, research ethics, or clinical ethics are not useful to delineate the framework, the mandate, and the specific conflicts and risks in public health. The SEMPER model exemplifies the role of the principles of safety, education, minimax, partnership, efficiency, review and their interactions for public health in securing and promoting health and quality of life.
Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Sand, Jennifer K.
The authors review current literature on issues facing American Indian (AI) women and discuss implications for providing culturally sensitive counseling with these women. A case study of a Dine (Navajo) woman living within mainstream society and holding true to her traditional cultural beliefs illustrates how a culturally responsive approach to…
Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.
The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…
Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David
Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.
Sales, Amos, Ed.
This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…
Ethics Standards (HRPP) and Public Partnership (PARTAKE) to Address Clinical Research Concerns in India: Moving Toward Ethical, Responsible, Culturally Sensitive, and Community-Engaging Clinical Research
Burt, Tal; Gupta, Yogendra K; Mehta, Nalin; Swamy, Nagendra; Sovani, Vishwas; Speers, Marjorie A
Like other emerging economies, India’s quest for independent, evidence-based, and affordable healthcare has led to robust and promising growth in the clinical research sector, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.4% between 2005 and 2010. However, while the fundamental drivers and strengths are still strong, the past few years witnessed a declining trend (CAGR −16.7%) amid regulatory concerns, activist protests, and sponsor departure. And although India accounts for 17.5% of the world’s population, it currently conducts only 1% of clinical trials. Indian and international experts and public stakeholders gathered for a 2-day conference in June 2013 in New Delhi to discuss the challenges facing clinical research in India and to explore solutions. The main themes discussed were ethical standards, regulatory oversight, and partnerships with public stakeholders. The meeting was a collaboration of AAHRPP (Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs)—aimed at establishing responsible and ethical clinical research standards—and PARTAKE (Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment)—aimed at informing and engaging the public in clinical research. The present article covers recent clinical research developments in India as well as associated expectations, challenges, and suggestions for future directions. AAHRPP and PARTAKE provide etiologically based solutions to protect, inform, and engage the public and medical research sponsors. PMID:25558428
Iyer, Gopalkrishnan R.
Identifies major issues in international business ethics (such as cultural relativism and ethical imperialism) that should be addressed when incorporating ethics in international business education. Also discusses instructional approaches, including alternative ways of thinking about morality, philosophy versus practice, the ethical agent, and…
Kocet, Michael M.
Being an effective counselor includes having knowledge of and the ability to integrate a code of ethics into one's professional practice. This article addresses some of the highlights of the changes in the 2005 ACA [American Counseling Association] Code of Ethics such as end-of-life issues, boundaries and relationships, and multicultural and…
Musschenga, Albert W
In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen because of its associations with "descriptive ethics." Unlike descriptive ethics, however, empirical ethics aims to be both descriptive and normative. The first question on which I focus is what kind of empirical research is used by empirical ethics and for which purposes. I argue that the ultimate aim of all empirical ethics is to improve the context-sensitivity of ethics. The second question is whether empirical ethics is essentially connected with specific positions in meta-ethics. I show that in some kinds of meta-ethical theories, which I categorize as broad contextualist theories, there is an intrinsic need for connecting normative ethics with empirical social research. But context-sensitivity is a goal that can be aimed for from any meta-ethical position. PMID:16282140
Smith, Martha Montague
Focuses on information ethics in scholarly and professional literature. Computer ethics, cyberethics, and the philosophies of information and information technology are also discussed. The recent use of the term global information ethics, suggesting the unification of many concerns common to information ethics, computer ethics, and cyberethics, is…
Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Thomas, Tequilla L.; Seymour, Jennifer M.
Multiculturalism and social justice counseling issues influence counselors' ethical thinking and behavior. Counselor educators are responsible for facilitating students' understanding of the relevance of multicultural/social justice counseling issues and ethical standards for professional practices. Added insights in these areas aid students to…
Paneque, Milena; Mendes, Álvaro; Saraiva, Jorge; Sequeiros, Jorge
Portugal is one of the European countries where genetic counseling is emerging as an independent clinical and scientific field, paralleling the international expansion of this profession. Important steps have been consistently made towards establishing safe and ethical genetic counseling, delivered by adequately trained professionals. In 1998, Clinical Genetics was recognized in Portugal as a medical specialty. Eleven years later, the first generation of Portuguese (non MD) genetic counselors started a master level training programme at the University of Porto.
Hansen, James T.
Founding humanists argued that counseling should be ideologically grounded in the humanities. Currently, professional counseling culture is largely structured by scientific assumptions, which, the author maintains, have had a detrimental impact on the profession. Specific recommendations for shifting professional counseling culture to a humanities…
Yoon, Eunju; Langrehr, Kimberly; Ong, Lee Za
The authors conducted a 22-year (1988–2009) content analysis of quantitative empirical research that included acculturation and/or enculturation as a study variable(s). A total of 138 studies in 134 articles were systematically evaluated from 5 major American Psychological Association and American Counseling Association journals in counseling and counseling psychology, including Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling and Development, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, and Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. To guide the analysis, the authors conceptualized acculturation/enculturation as a “bilinear” (i.e., developing cultural orientations to both majority and ethnic cultures) and “multidimensional” (i.e., across multiple areas such as behaviors, values, identity, and knowledge) cultural socialization process that occurs in interaction with “social contexts” (e.g., home, school, work, West Coast, Midwest). Findings include the patterns and trends of acculturation/enculturation research in (a) conceptualization and use of acculturation/enculturation variable(s), (b) research designs (e.g., sample characteristics, instruments, data collection, and analysis methods), (c) content areas, and (d) changes in total publications and trends over time. Additionally, meta-analyses were conducted on the relationship of acculturation/enculturation and a few key variables of mental health, adjustment, and well-being. Major findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others
Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…
Yalung, Florence N.
This research project proposes a counseling framework for Asian parents of children with special needs, based on the dynamics of the Filipino family. As Filipinos are the biggest ethnic minority group in California and the second largest Asian group in Santa Clara County, the Filipino group was selected to represent all Asian groups. The project…
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Genetic Counseling Print ... how can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating ...
Steward, Robbie J.; Borgers, Sherry B.
There is a growing awareness of a sensitivity to ethnic and cultural issues in the helping professions. For the last decade a variety of multicultural concerns have been receiving increased attention. Although there is awareness, the mental health fields have not really addressed the issues involved in the counseling of culturally diverse…
Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung
In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering…
Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Holm, Jessica M.; Daly, Cynthia M.
Graduate students experience mental health distress. The authors investigated the benefits of required counseling services at a training clinic for students enrolled in counseling courses. Results indicated that after receiving services, students ("N" = 55) reported decreases in overall problems, depressive symptoms, and anxiety…
Kain, Craig D.
At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…
Kirk, James J.; Woody, Connie; Burns, Naomi; Howard, Sherrie; Rice, Misty
This publication describes counseling approaches supervisors and human resource professionals can use to help marginal employees become better adjusted and more productive in the workplace. Three case studies are also provided for training purposes. The counseling tools are as follows: (1) Adlerian counseling, involving the belief that humans'…
Layne, Christina Mann; Hohenshil, Thomas H.
This article includes a discussion of technology's use in counseling. It contains reviews and implications of 4 articles that appeared in the Journal of Technology in Counseling (JTC) and provides a discussion of the future of technology in the counseling profession.
Gray, H. L.
One aspect of staff development that has not received much attention is staff counseling. In fact, the general pastoral care of the teaching staff is largely neglected. Since most problems of teachers have a personal nature, what is needed is a specially trained staff within the institution to offer personal counseling. This counseling could focus…
Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S
The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.
Elliott, Glenda R.
Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…
Wambu, Grace W.; Fisher, Teresa A.
Despite the government's emphasis on guidance and counseling program implementation in Kenyan schools and a rapid increase in the number of trained school counselors, lack of standardized training curriculums, ethical standards, counseling models, and role ambiguity persist. This article reviews the historical development of guidance and…
Iarussi, Melanie M.; Shaw, Brian M.
The need to refer students to off-campus mental health providers is common in college counseling. Such referrals can be challenging for college counselors who strive to meet students' counseling needs while adhering to ethical and center policy guidelines. In this article, the authors explore the nature and challenges of referral in college…
Baker, Caroline A.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Butler, J. Yasmine; Shavers, Marjorie C.
Using the Dimensions of Personal Identity Model proposed by Arredondo and Glauner (as cited in Arredondo et al., 1996), the authors reviewed the last 11 years of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling's journal, "Counseling and Values", specifically regarding the "A" dimensions of race and ethnicity. Twenty-five…
Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.
In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…
Nash, Erika R.; Martin, Ian; Rowell, Lonnie; Hetherington, Peggy; Zgliczynski, Susan
This paper examines the internationalization experiences of four school counseling faculty members in a counseling program at a Catholic university. Counseling in general and counseling schools have become a global profession. As a result, it is imperative for training programs to develop graduates who are culturally competent across the globe.…
Cura, Jonathan Diego
Family cohesiveness provides a unique cultural influence in the observance and expression of autonomy in terms of Filipino patients' decision making. With genetic counseling yet in its dawning practice in the Philippines, healthcare professionals (i.e., geneticists, practitioners) practicing genetic counseling and students in the pioneering genetic counseling program face the challenge of how to provide culturally appropriate measures in respecting Filipinos' autonomy. There is much deliberation with respect to identifying autonomous decision making among Filipino patients as counselees in genetic counseling. Cultural values influence how autonomy and bioethical principles are upheld. In a culturally-appropriate manner of identifying who makes health care and genetic counseling decisions, the sole focus on an individualistic perspective may be too western-based and may render genetic counseling less effective. The uniquely important cultural feature of family cohesiveness necessitates its incorporation into the practice of genetic counseling in the Philippines. PMID:25663328
Hemsworth, P H
The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069
Hemsworth, P H
The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions.
Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry
Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior.
Pope, Kenneth S
Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change.
... program, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.201-204. (b) Deputy ethics officials. (1) The Regional Counsel are deputy..., under the DAEO's supervision, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.204. (2) The alternate DAEO, the DAEO's staff, and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agency ethics...
Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…
Riggs, Billy J
Integrating spirituality and religion into clinical practice or psychotherapy has become a significant area of interest in the mental health field today. This article focuses more specifically on integrating spiritual direction into psychotherapy, discusses ethical issues involved, and suggests ethical guidelines for the appropriate and helpful use of spiritual direction in the context of psychotherapy and counseling.
... program, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.201-204. (b) Deputy ethics officials. (1) The Regional Counsel are deputy..., under the DAEO's supervision, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.204. (2) The alternate DAEO, the DAEO's staff, and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency ethics...
Huey, Wayne C.
The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) recently revised its ethical code for professional school counselors, the "Ethical Standards for School Counselors," in 2010. Professional school counselors have a unique challenge in counseling minors in that they provide services in an educational setting. Consequently, school counselors not only…
Wolf, Chelsea T.; Stevens, Patricia
Examined integrating religion and spirituality with marriage and family counseling. Explored potential obstacles and negative consequences for this integration, as well as clinical implications. The positive impact of incorporating a religious or spiritual perspective into clinical practice is discussed. Ethical considerations, techniques, and…
... physical disability or has been engaged in professional or personal misconduct of such a serious nature as to demonstrate that he or she is lacking in integrity or is failing to meet the ethical standards of... counsel is or has been engaged in professional or personal misconduct of such a serious nature as...
Efforts to professionalize counseling practice have yielded extraordinary benefits to counselors. However, professionalization has also caused counselors to adopt strict definitions of their education, practices, and ethics. In order to combat the ideological insularity brought on by professionalization, several marginalized ideas are considered.…
Davis, Keith M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Ieva, Kara P.
This article (a) addresses the importance of familial spirituality on students' holistic development; (b) explores professional ethical codes, standards, and counseling competencies relating to students' familial spirituality; (c) introduces educational activities to assist school counselors in increasing their understanding and appreciation of…
Roessler, Richard T.; Rubin, Stanford E.
"Case Management and Rehabilitation Counseling" discusses procedures that are useful to rehabilitation professionals working in many settings. Specifically, this book reviews the finer points relating to diagnosing, arranging services, monitoring program outcomes, arranging for placement, planning for accommodations, ethical decision making,…
Ethical issues imposed on the United States by the maturing AIDS epidemic are discussed. In the 2 years since the U.S. Public Health Service predicted that 220,000 new cases of AIDS will appear by 1991, 5 times the number reported in the 1st 7 years, the projections appear to be remarkably on target. The sheer burden of these numbers, and their distribution, will affect the nation's social climate. The "ghettoization" of the disease will subject the voluntary education, counseling and testing policy to elements of coercion. A radical transformation of the culture regarding sexual behavior, childbearing and drug use will be required of the AIDS education campaign. The crippling moralism that inhibits education on sexual matters must be confronted. Efforts to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV will affect women's rights, the nature of counseling, the privacy of the abortion decision, and perhaps elements of coercion. Another serious issue is how to institutionalize and hospitalize poor and minority AIDS victims without turning the wards and hospitals into pariah institutions. Anxiety still persists among health care workers about their risk of contracting AIDS from their patients. A final ethical dilemma is how to allocate research, vaccine and drug testing, and treatment between wealthy and developing nations. The history of earlier epidemics teaches us that an objective, asocial response to disease is impossible: controversies between conflicting values will introduce numerous ethical dilemmas.
This article examines the unique ethical considerations for the provision of family therapy as substance abuse treatment. Use of family therapy as substance abuse treatment has grown rapidly, but the ethical codes that guide clinical practice have not kept pace. Ethical pitfalls specific to family counseling within alcohol and drug treatment…
In the past 20 years, counselors have become increasingly aware of the legal and ethical issues related to counseling. This paper addresses the various legal and ethical topics relevant to school counselors. Since counselors need to make informed decisions based on statutes, codes of ethics, professional standards, community expectations, and…
Kurt, Layla J.; Piazza, Nick J.
In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) introduced a new ethical standard for counselors working with clients with terminal illness who are considering hastened death options. The authors' purpose is to inform counselors of the Death With Dignity Act and explore relevant ethical guidelines in the "ACA Code of Ethics" (ACA, 2005).
... Civil Rights. 105-53.130-2 Section 105-53.130-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
... Civil Rights. 105-53.130-2 Section 105-53.130-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
... Civil Rights. 105-53.130-2 Section 105-53.130-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
Christakis, N A
In 1987 in Zaire, a French investigator and a small group of Zairians were immunized with a French investigational AIDS vaccine. This action leads to questioning whether different sociocultural settings should have different research ethics applied, especially on pandemic diseases. Another question is to clarify the valid reasons for conducting an AIDS trial in Africa. The design of an AIDS vaccine trial should vary with the ethical and cultural factors of the research population involved, even if the epidemiological and scientific factors are the same worldwide. In Africa, study subjects meet the requirements for AIDS research: They are free from HIV infection and are at risk for the infection. However, concerns center on how to keep the subjects free from risks during the 6 months between HIV tests and how to ensure laboratory test accuracy. The applicability of the findings to that population are essential, although they may be unique to Africa. Research subjects must consent to participating in the trial and must be advised of their antibody status and of their becoming seropositive. To increase the beneficent treatment of subjects and decrease the risks, the study size should be increased and all participants should be counseled to avoid risky behaviors. A subject's family or social group may need to give consent in addition to the subject, because of cultural views. The explanation of the research must be in culturally relevant terms. Africa should have fair access to the vaccine resulting from the research. PMID:3397278
Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido
It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified.
Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido
It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified. PMID:27116204
Lee, Juliana Mei-Har; Thong, Meow-Keong
Genetic counseling service is urgently required in developing countries. In Malaysia, the first medical genetic service was introduced in 1994 at one of the main teaching hospitals in Kuala Lumpur. Two decades later, the medical genetic services have improved with the availability of genetic counseling, genetic testing and diagnosis, for both paediatric conditions and adult-onset inherited conditions, at four main centers of medical genetic services in Malaysia. Prenatal diagnosis services and assisted reproductive technologies are available at tertiary centres and private medical facilities. Positive developments include governmental recognition of Clinical Genetics as a subspecialty, increased funding for genetics services, development of medical ethics guidelines, and establishment of support groups. However, the country lacked qualified genetic counselors. Proposals were presented to policy-makers to develop genetic counseling courses. Challenges encountered included limited resources and public awareness, ethical dilemmas such as religious and social issues and inadequate genetic health professionals especially genetic counselors.
Reimer, Catherine Swan
Successful counseling interventions and treatment depend on understanding the worldview of the people to whom services are offered. This book provides culturally specific information about the Inupiat worldview of "personal well-being" as a basis for establishing counseling strategies. This perspective is obtained through interviews with 25…
Hansen, James T.
Arguably, the defining feature of the counseling profession is an appreciation for human diversity. Early counseling movements emphasized individual diversity, while multiculturalism and social justice highlighted cultural diversity. The author maintains that contemporary psychoanalytic thought can supply a needed intraindividual diversity…
Mitchell, Regina L. Garza
The blending of technology and education introduces ethical issues for colleges. In particular, those involved with online education may encounter unique dilemmas that have collegewide implications. In order for ethical decisions to be made in regard to online education, colleges must cultivate a culture of trust, define clearly the correct and…
D'Andrea, Michael; Heckman, Elizabeth Foster
This study represents a 40-year review of multicultural counseling outcome research that has been done in the mental health professions. Particular attention is directed to the outcomes that ensue from counseling situations that are composed of counselors and clients from different racial/cultural backgrounds and identities in individual, group,…
Smith, Shannon D.; Ng, Kok-Mun
This study examined international counseling students' (ICTs) experiences and perceptions of their multicultural counseling training (MCT) in the United States. The focus was on (a) relevance of the training, (b) effectiveness of the training methods, and (c) development of cross-cultural competence as trainees. Major findings indicated that ICTs…
This paper considers a different approach for developing ethical organizations. It argues that the practice of servant leadership provides a systematic training approach that should develop a more ethical culture. Servant leadership can serve as a "character ethic" that is teachable to individuals or organizations. The advantages and…
Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P
Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.
... from the following areas among others: psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family ... Cognitive Therapy for Depression by SJ Rupke, M.D., ...
Jackman, Mary Kathryn
Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)
Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James
Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…
Grabosky, Tomoko Kudo; Ishii, Harue; Mase, Shizuno
The authors provide a sociohistorical overview of the development of the counseling profession in Japan. They describe Japan's major social, cultural, and political changes; growing psychological problems in Japanese society; and an increased need for counseling services. Historical overviews and the current state of counseling are presented with…
Pope, Mark; Musa, Muhaini; Singaravelu, Hemla; Bringaze, Tammy; Russell, Martha
Documents the development of career counseling in Malaysia from 1957--when the British colonizers departed--to 2000. Presents information on the historic and economic context of the development of career counseling, an exploration of the educational system from which career counseling was born, and the cultural elements that have formed career…
In her strength-based model to train counseling psychologists, Smith (2006 [this issue]) criticizes deficit models of counseling. Rather than focusing on at-risk adolescents' victim status, she argues that counseling psychologists should concentrate on identifying at-risk youths' cultural and individual strengths. One can infer from her new…
Loewy, Michael I.; Williams, DiAnna Toliver; Keleta, Aster
The Kaffa ceremony is a unique, culturally appropriate, group counseling intervention for female East African refugees. A counseling group is described in which the Kaffa ceremony was instrumental in helping to bridge the gap between Western counseling and East African culture, providing a context for the group members to resolve long-held trauma.…
Today's medicine faces some critical moral challenges, yet the medical class suffers from an increasingly evident malaise: a growing dissatisfaction with an ethical demand often perceived as a cumbersome burden of rules and prohibitions, which risk to erode the fiduciary relations with patients. Such a negative appraisal is partly due to a narrow interpretation of the meaning of ethics, a misconception whose roots are in the positivistic stance that permeates our culture, and in its almost exclusively technological bent. This radical orientation of our culture shows itself in the vanishing of the idea of an intrinsic ethical dimension of medicine and consequent eclipse of traditional medical ethics, currently all but assimilated by bioethics. Maintaining a clear distinction between medical ethics and bioethics is a fundamental condition for guaranteeing an original ethical reflection in medicine, thereby fostering a constructive dialogue between philosophical and medical ethics. In this sense, occupational medicine holds a very propitious position, at the cross-roads to some of the most important dimensions in human life and society: health, work, environment. In a milieu which is too often inclined to efface the living human being and the deepest needs of humanity, the moral commitment of medical profession to the care of the integral reality of the embodied human person is one of the most important ethical challenges facing occupational medicine and a most valuable contribution to the current ethical debate. PMID:26822241
Today's medicine faces some critical moral challenges, yet the medical class suffers from an increasingly evident malaise: a growing dissatisfaction with an ethical demand often perceived as a cumbersome burden of rules and prohibitions, which risk to erode the fiduciary relations with patients. Such a negative appraisal is partly due to a narrow interpretation of the meaning of ethics, a misconception whose roots are in the positivistic stance that permeates our culture, and in its almost exclusively technological bent. This radical orientation of our culture shows itself in the vanishing of the idea of an intrinsic ethical dimension of medicine and consequent eclipse of traditional medical ethics, currently all but assimilated by bioethics. Maintaining a clear distinction between medical ethics and bioethics is a fundamental condition for guaranteeing an original ethical reflection in medicine, thereby fostering a constructive dialogue between philosophical and medical ethics. In this sense, occupational medicine holds a very propitious position, at the cross-roads to some of the most important dimensions in human life and society: health, work, environment. In a milieu which is too often inclined to efface the living human being and the deepest needs of humanity, the moral commitment of medical profession to the care of the integral reality of the embodied human person is one of the most important ethical challenges facing occupational medicine and a most valuable contribution to the current ethical debate.
Caring for patients from different cultural or religious backgrounds may create difficult ethical dilemmas for physicians. The article reviews four case histories, involving patients from the Navajo culture or the Christian Science Church, that highlight some of these ethical problems. It then discusses an "ethics of responsibility," which is based on and encompasses a variety of meanings of responsibility, including responsibility as recognition, as taking charge, as the ability to assess the consequences of one's actions, and as making a commitment. An ethics of responsibility provides a novel perspective for resolving ethical problems in medicine. PMID:20495256
Sternberg, Robert J.
Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…
Verkuyl, D A A
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women's Health advises against tubal occlusion (TO) performed at the time of caesarean section (CS/TO) or following a vaginal delivery (VD/TO) if this sterilisation has not been discussed with the woman in an earlier phase of her pregnancy. This advice is neither in accordance with existing medical custom nor evidence based. Particularly in less-resourced locations, adherence to it would deny much wanted one-off sterilisation opportunities to hundreds of thousands of women, many of whom have no reliable contraceptive alternative. To be sure, a well-timed discussion in pregnancy about a potential peripartum TO is preferable and, if conducted as a matter of course (as the Committee appears to promote), would represent an enormous improvement on current practice. Earlier counselling has the advantage that it results in fewer women who regret having rejected the CS/TO or VD/TO option. However, there is no evidence that earlier counselling leads to a smaller proportion of regretted sterilisations. Consequently, where early TO counselling has been impossible, forgotten or deliberately omitted on pronatalist, traditional, financial, cultural or religious grounds, offering a perinatal sterilisation belatedly and in an unbiased, culturally sensitive manner is often verifiably better than not presenting that option at all, notably where high parity and uterine scars are particularly dangerous. Belated counselling, as will be demonstrated in this paper, saves many lives. The Committee's blanket rejection of belated counselling on perinatal sterilisation is therefore unjustified. PMID:25009073
... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect all... be assisted by counsel (see paragraph (c) of this section); (6) To challenge the IO for cause (such... available. (d) If a hearing is requested, the IO will conduct the hearing after reasonable notice to...
... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect all... be assisted by counsel (see paragraph (c) of this section); (6) To challenge the IO for cause (such... available. (d) If a hearing is requested, the IO will conduct the hearing after reasonable notice to...
... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect all... be assisted by counsel (see paragraph (c) of this section); (6) To challenge the IO for cause (such... available. (d) If a hearing is requested, the IO will conduct the hearing after reasonable notice to...
Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.
Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.
Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…
Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying
Three-quarters of the world come from collectivistic group-oriented cultures. As the world becomes more globalized it is inevitable that group counseling will be a major choice of healing and psychological intervention internationally. However, a review of scholarly articles from "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" and…
Sandhu, Daya Singh, Ed.
Counselors must consider social change as they design programs to maximize student potential, personal growth, self-determination, and self-responsibility. There is also a need for counselors to develop, implement, and evaluate counseling programs for culturally diverse students. The book is intended as a textbook for courses in elementary school…
Hershenson, David B.
Theorizes that the evolution of psychological counseling (from psychoanalysis to trait-and-factor counselng to behavior modification) follows a cyclical pattern based on the repetitive cycles of Western culture, in which faith, logic and power succeed each other as the dominant structuring principles. (WAS)
Chandras, Kananur V.
Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…
Srinivas, Sindhu K
The potential delivery of an extremely premature infant presents a clinical situation that raises a complex combination of medical, social, ethical, religious, and economic issues. It is a unique medical encounter such that it is not all about "curing" the patient. Rather, it is an encounter where counseling is assisting families in deciding between life and death underscoring the stressful nature for both patients and providers. As with any other condition, health care providers are responsible for discussing all potential options and outcomes for families presented with the threat of an extremely premature infant. These decisions include but are not limited to place and mode of delivery, resuscitation decisions, and palliative management. Given the urgency of the situation, the emotionally charged nature of the decision, and the relative unpredictability prior to presentation, this particular situation poses unique challenges for all involved and mandates the need to have carefully constructed guidelines and processes for care and counseling that meet the needs of all involved.
Ten Have, Marieke
Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate.
Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.
This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…
O'Morain, Padraig; McAuliffe, Garrett J.; Conroy, Kayte; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Michel, Rebecca E.
Counseling in Ireland has experienced rapid growth in the past 30 years. Public attitudes toward counseling have become more positive, especially with the increasing secularization of a once strongly religious Catholic society. Licensure is nonexistent but there are certification bodies that attempt to ensure qualified practice. There is no…
Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.
In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…
Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.
There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…
McWhirter, Ellen Hawley
Counseling for empowerment is a complex and multifaceted process that requires, for some, a radical departure from the traditional conceptualization of the helper's role. The process of empowerment demands that professional helpers and their clients take an active, collaborative approach to identifying problems and goals. Drawing from counseling,…
Nelson, Richard C.
Explains spa in counseling as uplifting, positive experiences in which focus is placed directly on helping clients feel good about themselves. Provides several examples of spa in counseling, simplest procedure being activity "Things I Can Do," in which counselor helps client focus on and savor some of most often-repeated actions of which he is…
Woody, Robert Henley
Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…
Walz, Garry R.
Counseling and human services in the 1990s will be different from counseling today. Among the changes to be expected will be a shift of emphasis from a client specialty focus to a focus on life decisions and planning; from a traditional case load approach to a demand for high output and performance; and from a professional services orientation to…
Benjamin, Libby; Walz, Garry R.
This guide offers counselors and special education and classroom teachers assistance in counseling handicapped children. Major articles focus on counseling children who are mentally retarded, emotionally, visually and hearing impaired, learning disabled, and gifted. Additional information is provided on: (1) sexual fulfillment for the handicapped;…
Jordaan, Jean-Pierre, Ed.; And Others
The purpose of this pamphlet, written under the auspices of the American Psychological Association, is to inform the reader of the nature of the counseling psychologist's job. It is divided into five sections: (1) what a counseling psychologist does: his roles, his clientele, how he helps, how he solves problems, how he differs from the clinical…
Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.
Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…
LaMontagne, Ramona Marie
This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…
This response suggests that Inclusive Cultural Empathy (ICE) is a process that multiculturally aware group counselors can use to help group members move beyond the confines of social privilege and culture-bound assumptions that divide members and impede communication. (Contains 1 figure.)
This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).
Hill, Brian V.
Growing concern about a shrinking cultural consensus on values, coupled with religious pluralisation and the realisation that schooling is not, and cannot be, value-neutral, have led to proposals to teach ethics in schools, interpreted as a contribution of the discipline of philosophy to the common curriculum. To the extent that this approach is…
Fabre, J; Allaz, A F
Opinions diverge on the ethics of preventive medicine. A balance needs to be struck between nihilism (doing nothing) and fanaticism (doing too much). The authors consider the ethical aspects of preventive medicine from the practising physician's viewpoint. Various aspects can be identified: SCIENTIFIC AND METHODOLOGICAL: Like any medical act, preventive practice relies on good scientific data. The epidemiologic studies should be clinically relevant and their recommendations must be interpreted critically before being incorporated into clinical practice. It should not be forgotten that we are dealing with patients and their behaviour. Tactful dialogue and personalized intervention are essential. DEONTOLOGICAL: Modern medicine is oriented toward health maintenance and promotion, thus including prevention. Although the community has drawn obvious benefits from preventive practices such as the use of vaccines, prevention must not be allowed to become a medical tyranny. Respect for the individual should remain its central concern. ETHICAL: The "meaning of life" must not be forgotten. Factors such as quality of life should always be kept in mind in measuring the benefits of prevention. By providing objective information and tailored counselling, the aim of prevention is to encourage expression of the individual's own responsibility for her/his own health. FINANCIAL: Preventive medicine is not covered by health insurance schemes. Cost-benefit analysis should consider not only the economic aspects of prevention but also its positive impacts on the entire social field. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL: The findings of epidemiologic studies must be adapted to precise socio-cultural environments. In our culture, for example, caregivers should be the first to practise what they preach. It must also be remembered that at the present time the basic preventive measures are still not accessible to everyone. PMID:2270441
The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.
Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.
This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…
Public health covers public activities linked with cure, prevention and health promotion directed to positively influence the health of populations. As far as these criteria are met, health policies are public health. Public health holds many ethical implications. Resources and health opportunities are redistributed, ends and means of public health as well as rights and duties have to be discussed, and conflicts exist between targets. Ethical policy counselling is an important complement to natural and social scientific policy counselling. However, ethical counselling cannot solve conflicts about values and norms nor does it claim to do so. There are different theories and approaches, recommended principles differ and are in conflict with each other. It must not be expected that a generally accepted frame for public health ethical policy counselling will be developed. Public health ethics can develop an ordering effect and enforce more clarity for actors about their values and norms, but in case of unresolvable dissent between experts it can also be misused to give support to the legitimation of political decisions. Orientation of consulting activities towards the "pragmatistic model" (Habermas) and a counselling of the civil society is promising to prevent such exploitation.
Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Lisby, Marianne; Eskildsen, Anette Gjetrup; Saedder, Eva Aggerholm; Nielsen, Lars Peter
Medication reviews have the potential to lower the incidence of prescribing errors. To benefit from a medication review, the prescriber must adhere to medication counselling. Adherence rates vary from 39 to 100%. The aim of this study was to examine counselling-naive hospital physicians' perspectives and demands to medication counselling as well as study factors that might increase adherence to the counselling. The study was conducted as a questionnaire survey among physicians at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire was developed based on focus group interviews and literature search, and was pilot-tested among 30 physicians before being sent to 669 physicians. The questionnaire consisted of 35 items divided into four categories: attitudes (19 items), behaviours (3 items), assessment (8 items) and demographics (5 items). The response rate was 60% (400/669). Respondents were employed at psychiatric, medical or surgical departments. Eighty-five per cent of respondents agreed that patients would benefit of an extra medication review, and 72% agreed that there was a need for external medication counselling. The most important factor that could increase adherence was the clinical relevance of the counselling as 78% rated it of major importance. The most favoured method for receiving counselling was via the electronic patient record.
... provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues... health departments in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges, approaches for evaluating the impact of public health ethics, strategies for increasing collaboration between public...
.... Purpose: The ES will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics... meeting; discussion of next steps on addressing potential public health ethical issues associated with... in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges. The agenda is subject to change...
Modell, Bernadette; Darr, Aamra
Consanguineous marriage is customary in many societies, but leads to an increased birth prevalence of infants with severe recessive disorders. It is therefore often proposed that consanguineous marriage should be discouraged on medical grounds. However, several expert groups have pointed out that this proposal is inconsistent with the ethical principles of genetic counselling, overlooks the social importance of consanguineous marriage and is ineffective. Instead, they suggest that the custom increases the possibilities for effective genetic counselling, and recommend a concerted effort to identify families at increased risk, and to provide them with risk information and carrier testing when feasible.
Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation of a Computer-Based Counseling Program (CARE+ Spanish) to Support HIV Treatment Adherence and Risk Reduction for People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Chhun, Nok; Cleland, Charles M; Crespo-Fierro, Michele; Parés-Avila, José A; Lizcano, John A; Shedlin, Michele G; Johnston, Barbara E; Sharp, Victoria L
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States disproportionately affects minorities, including Latinos. Barriers including language are associated with lower antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence seen among Latinos, yet ART and interventions for clinic visit adherence are rarely developed or delivered in Spanish. Objective The aim was to adapt a computer-based counseling tool, demonstrated to reduce HIV-1 viral load and sexual risk transmission in a population of English-speaking adults, for use during routine clinical visits for an HIV-positive Spanish-speaking population (CARE+ Spanish); the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was the theoretical framework guiding program development. Methods A longitudinal randomized controlled trial was conducted from June 4, 2010 to March 29, 2012. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive HIV treatment center comprising three clinics in New York City. Eligibility criteria were (1) adults (age ≥18 years), (2) Latino birth or ancestry, (3) speaks Spanish (mono- or multilingual), and (4) on antiretrovirals. Linear and generalized mixed linear effects models were used to analyze primary outcomes, which included ART adherence, sexual transmission risk behaviors, and HIV-1 viral loads. Exit interviews were offered to purposively selected intervention participants to explore cultural acceptability of the tool among participants, and focus groups explored the acceptability and system efficiency issues among clinic providers, using the TAM framework. Results A total of 494 Spanish-speaking HIV clinic attendees were enrolled and randomly assigned to the intervention (arm A: n=253) or risk assessment-only control (arm B, n=241) group and followed up at 3-month intervals for one year. Gender distribution was 296 (68.4%) male, 110 (25.4%) female, and 10 (2.3%) transgender. By study end, 433 of 494 (87.7%) participants were retained. Although intervention participants had reduced viral loads, increased
Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya
Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621
The Ob/Gyn Department of Rambam University, Haifa, Israel, recently established a Center for Sexual Counseling, Therapy and Education. The Center's concept and format of therapy, and some preliminary observations, are presented. (Author)
Outlines Gestalt therapy techniques to increase active listening and counselor/client involvement in career counseling. Discusses awareness through dialog, role playing or "presentizing," and experiential "presentizing." Presents a sample dialog as illustration. (RC)