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Sample records for counselling young cannabis

  1. [Hemoptysis in a young man smoking cannabis].

    PubMed

    Monfort, M; Larakeb, A; Gouraud, F

    2013-06-01

    The respiratory toxicity of cannabis is well known today. Along with the classic cannabis 'joint', there are other ways of consuming it, which should be known. Smoking cannabis that has been cut with micro-particles of silicon dioxide may cause hemoptysis. We will describe here the case of a young 16-year-old man who was in the hospital because of hemoptic expectoration. The etiologic investigation was negative, in particular a thoracic scan and a bronchial fiberscope. Questioning the patient afterwards allowed us to discover the inhalation of cannabis 2 h before the hemoptysis, cannabis mixed with micro-particles of silicon dioxide. Stopping inhalation stopped the symptoms. Pediatricians should be familiarized with such practices. Silicon dioxide particles cause ENT problems or bronchial ones (coughing, spitting, hemoptysis, wheezing). Over the long term, the risk of silicosis cannot be excluded, although a longer and more complete exposure is necessary.

  2. Trajectories of adolescent alcohol and cannabis use into young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Coffey, Carolyn; Lynskey, Michael T; Reid, Sophie; Hemphill, Sheryl; Carlin, John B; Hall, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    Both alcohol and cannabis use carry health risks. Both are commonly initiated in adolescence. To date little research has described trajectories of adolescent cannabis or alcohol use or compared their respective consequences in young adulthood. The design was a 10-year eight-wave cohort study of a state-wide community sample of 1943 Victorians initially aged 14-15 years. Moderate- and high-risk alcohol use was defined according to total weekly alcohol consumption. Moderate- and high-risk cannabis use were defined as weekly and daily use, respectively. Around 90% of young adults used either alcohol or cannabis. Although an association existed between alcohol and cannabis use, there was a tendency for heavy users to use one substance predominantly at any one time. Weekly or more frequent cannabis use in the absence of moderate-risk alcohol use in teenagers predicted a sevenfold higher rate of daily cannabis use in young adults but only a twofold increase in high-risk alcohol use. Conversely, moderate-risk adolescent alcohol use in the absence of weekly cannabis predicted an approximately threefold increased rate of both high-risk drinking and daily cannabis use in young adulthood. Selective heavy cannabis use in both adolescence and young adulthood was associated with greater illicit substance use and poorer social outcomes in young adulthood than selective alcohol use. Heavier teenage cannabis users tend to continue selectively with cannabis use. Considering their poor young adult outcomes, regular adolescent cannabis users appear to be on a problematic trajectory.

  3. Patterns of cannabis use, psychotic-like experiences and personality styles in young cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Spriggens, Lauren; Hides, Leanne

    2015-06-01

    To examine the influence of personality traits on the relationship between cannabis use and psychotic like experiences (PLEs) in young adults. 499 lifetime cannabis users aged 18 to 25years completed an online survey assessing PLEs using the positive scale of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and personality styles using the Brief Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-B) and the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), a measure of trait hopelessness, anxiety-sensitivity, impulsivity and sensation seeking. Cannabis use was assessed using items from the Youth Risk Behaviour Survey (YRBS) and a self-report measure of the lifetime level of cumulative cannabis use. Cannabis use as well as schizotypy and the four SURPS personality risk profiles were significantly associated with the frequency of PLEs in young cannabis users. The cumulative levels of lifetime cannabis exposure, trait schizotypy and hopelessness were the strongest predictors of PLEs in the multivariate analysis. Little evidence of a moderating effect of the personality risk profiles on the relationship between cannabis use and PLEs was found. Trait hopelessness was found to have a moderating effect on the relationship between the recency of cannabis use and the frequency of PLEs. The cumulative levels of lifetime cannabis exposure, trait schizotypy and hopelessness were associated with PLEs in young cannabis users. Individuals with high levels of trait hopelessness who use cannabis may be at higher risk of PLEs. Future research is required to increase understanding of the relationship between cannabis use and PLEs, using more complex moderation models containing personality traits along with other risk factors for PLEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  5. Prolonged cannabis withdrawal in young adults with lifetime psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fontaine, Madeleine; Nip, Emily; Zhang, Haiyue; Hanly, Ailish; Eden Evins, A

    2017-02-27

    Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol. Withdrawal symptom severity was assessed at baseline and at four weekly abstinent visits using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale. Cannabis dependence, age of initiation, and rate of abstinence were similar in PD+ and PD- groups. There was a diagnostic group by abstinent week interaction, suggesting a difference in time course for resolution of withdrawal symptoms by group, F(4,46)=3.8, p=0.009, controlling for sex, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms, and frequency of cannabis use in the prior 90days. In post hoc analyses, there was a difference in time-course of cannabis withdrawal. PD- had significantly reduced withdrawal symptom severity in abstinent week one [t(46)=-2.2, p=0.03], while PD+ did not report improved withdrawal symptoms until the second abstinent week [t(46)=-4.1, p=0.0002]. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms improved over four weeks in young people with and without a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. However, those with a psychiatric illness reported one week delayed improvement in withdrawal symptom severity. Longer duration of cannabis withdrawal may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence and difficulty quitting.

  6. AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Powell, J; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis—which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content—and also ±7 days apart when drug-free. Psychotomimetic symptoms and working memory were assessed on both the sessions. Variation at the rs2494732 locus of the AKT1 gene predicted acute psychotic response to cannabis along with dependence on the drug and baseline schizotypal symptoms. Working memory following cannabis acutely was worse in females, with some suggestion of an impact of COMT polymorphism on working memory when drug-free. These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate the AKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis. PMID:26882038

  7. Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: a longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D C; Freeman, Tom P; Das, Ravi K; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2015-03-01

    To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants' own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B=0.029, 95% CI=0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B=0.159, 95% CI=0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B=0.274, 95% CI=0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B=0.0168, 95% CI=0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B=0.0153, 95% CI=0.007, 0.027). Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D.C.; Freeman, Tom P.; Das, Ravi K.; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Results Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B = 0.274, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B = 0.0168, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B = 0.0153, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.027). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. PMID:25622777

  9. Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Patton, George C; Coffey, Carolyn; Carlin, John B; Degenhardt, Louisa; Lynskey, Michael; Hall, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14-15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety (revised clinical interview schedule) at wave 7. Results Some 60% of participants had used cannabis by the age of 20; 7% were daily users at that point. Daily use in young women was associated with an over fivefold increase in the odds of reporting a state of depression and anxiety after adjustment for intercurrent use of other substances (odds ratio 5.6, 95% confidence interval 2.6 to 12). Weekly or more frequent cannabis use in teenagers predicted an approximately twofold increase in risk for later depression and anxiety (1.9, 1.1 to 3.3) after adjustment for potential baseline confounders. In contrast, depression and anxiety in teenagers predicted neither later weekly nor daily cannabis use. Conclusions Frequent cannabis use in teenage girls predicts later depression and anxiety, with daily users carrying the highest risk. Given recent increasing levels of cannabis use, measures to reduce frequent and heavy recreational use seem warranted. What is already known on this topicFrequent recreational use of cannabis has been linked to high rates of depression and anxiety in cross sectional surveys and studies of long term usersWhy cannabis users have higher rates of depression and anxiety is uncertainPrevious longitudinal studies of cannabis use in youth have not analysed associations with frequent cannabis useWhat this study addsA strong association between daily use of cannabis and depression and anxiety in young women persists after adjustment for intercurrent use of other substancesFrequent cannabis use in teenage girls predicts later higher rates of depression and

  10. Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: an integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Silins, Edmund; Horwood, L John; Patton, George C; Fergusson, David M; Olsson, Craig A; Hutchinson, Delyse M; Spry, Elizabeth; Toumbourou, John W; Degenhardt, Louisa; Swift, Wendy; Coffey, Carolyn; Tait, Robert J; Letcher, Primrose; Copeland, Jan; Mattick, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Debate continues about the consequences of adolescent cannabis use. Existing data are limited in statistical power to examine rarer outcomes and less common, heavier patterns of cannabis use than those already investigated; furthermore, evidence has a piecemeal approach to reporting of young adult sequelae. We aimed to provide a broad picture of the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent cannabis use. We integrated participant-level data from three large, long-running longitudinal studies from Australia and New Zealand: the Australian Temperament Project, the Christchurch Health and Development Study, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. We investigated the association between the maximum frequency of cannabis use before age 17 years (never, less than monthly, monthly or more, weekly or more, or daily) and seven developmental outcomes assessed up to age 30 years (high-school completion, attainment of university degree, cannabis dependence, use of other illicit drugs, suicide attempt, depression, and welfare dependence). The number of participants varied by outcome (N=2537 to N=3765). We recorded clear and consistent associations and dose-response relations between the frequency of adolescent cannabis use and all adverse young adult outcomes. After covariate adjustment, compared with individuals who had never used cannabis, those who were daily users before age 17 years had clear reductions in the odds of high-school completion (adjusted odds ratio 0·37, 95% CI 0·20-0·66) and degree attainment (0·38, 0·22-0·66), and substantially increased odds of later cannabis dependence (17·95, 9·44-34·12), use of other illicit drugs (7·80, 4·46-13·63), and suicide attempt (6·83, 2·04-22·90). Adverse sequelae of adolescent cannabis use are wide ranging and extend into young adulthood. Prevention or delay of cannabis use in adolescence is likely to have broad health and social benefits. Efforts to reform cannabis legislation should be carefully assessed to

  11. Peer Network Counseling as Brief Treatment for Urban Adolescent Heavy Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J; Sabo, Roy; Zaharakis, Nikola M

    2017-01-01

    A small body of evidence supports targeting adolescents who are heavy users of cannabis with brief interventions, yet more research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of these studies. We conducted a secondary analysis of our Peer Network Counseling (PNC) study (Mason et al., 2015), focusing on 46 adolescents of the sample of 119 who reported heavy cannabis use at baseline. Urban adolescents (91% African American) presenting for primary health care were randomized to intervention or control conditions and followed for 6 months. We selected cases (n = 46) to analyze based on heavy cannabis use reported at baseline (≥10 times in past month). The ordinal response data (cannabis use) were modeled using a mixed-effects proportional odds model, including fixed effects for treatment, time, and their interaction, and a subject-level random effect. In the subsample of adolescents with heavy cannabis use, those assigned to PNC had a 35.9% probability of being abstinent at 6 months, compared with a 13.2% probability in the control condition. Adolescents in the PNC condition had a 16.6% probability of using cannabis 10 or more times per month, compared with a 38.1% probability in the control condition. This differs from results of the full sample (N = 119), where no significant effects on cannabis use were found. PNC increased the probability of abstinence and reduced heavy cannabis use. These results provide initial support for PNC as a model for brief treatment with non-treatment seeking adolescents who are heavy users of cannabis.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Connor B; Hill, Melanie L; Pardini, Dustin A; Meier, Madeline H

    2016-12-01

    Vaping nicotine (i.e., the use of e-cigarettes and similar devices to inhale nicotine) is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Though some vaporizers are capable of vaporizing cannabis, sparse research has investigated this method of cannabis administration. The present study examines the prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of 482 college students. Participants reported high lifetime rates of vaping nicotine (37%) and cannabis (29%). Men (rs = 0.09, p = .047) and individuals from higher socioeconomic status families (rs = 0.14, p = .003) vaped cannabis more frequently than women and individuals from lower SES families. In addition, those who vaped cannabis more frequently were more open to new experiences (rs = 0.17, p < .001) and showed greater approval of smoking cannabis regularly (rs = 0.35, p < .001). Among the largest correlates of cannabis vaping were frequent cannabis use (rs = 0.70, p < .001) and nicotine vaping (rs = 0.46, p < .001), suggesting that availability of cannabis and vaporizers is particularly important. Participants' top reason for vaping cannabis, endorsed by 65% of those who had vaped cannabis, was convenience and discreetness for use in public places. Several correlates distinguished cannabis users who vaped from cannabis users who did not vape, most notably more frequent cannabis use (odds ratios [OR] = 3.68, p < .001), alcohol use (OR = 2.07, p < .001), nicotine vaping (OR = 1.73, p < .001), and greater approval of smoking cannabis regularly (OR = 2.15, p < .001). Findings suggest that cannabis vaping is prevalent among young adults, particularly among those who use other substances frequently and have more favorable attitudes toward smoking cannabis. Research is needed on the antecedents and potential harms and benefits of cannabis vaping in young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Using Biography to Counsel Gifted Young Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    1995-01-01

    The use of biographies in counseling young men who are gifted is recommended, to assist them in dealing with such issues as underachievement, self-inflicted pressure in athletics, cultural alienation, and father-son relationships. Biographical works that may be used and strategies for using this counseling approach are examined, including case…

  14. Cannabis use by children and young people.

    PubMed

    McArdle, P A

    2006-08-01

    A popular internet site describes cannabis as "a leafy plant, the leaves and flowering tops (buds) of which may be either smoked or eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil". It is said that users often report a pleasant "subjective enhancement of visual and auditory perception, sometimes with synaesthesia (sounds take on visual colourful qualities)" and the sense that time passes more quickly than real time, a "fatuous euphoria", as well as relaxation and relief from stress.

  15. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  16. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  17. The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control). PMID:23950748

  18. Acute inferior myocardial infarction due to cannabis smoking in a young man.

    PubMed

    Kocabay, Gonenc; Yildiz, Mustafa; Duran, Nilufer Eksi; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Cannabis smoking, which has euphoric effects, is consistently increasing in Europe. Smoking cannabis is a rare trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) by inducing coronary artery spasm. Some cases who have thrombus formation in acute coronary artery and no serious atherosclerotic lesions have been reported in the literature. These cases had involved the left coronary artery. Although some cases were reported with MI after cannabis smoking, only two case reports with inferior MI after cannabis smoking were reported in the literature. The present report is of a young male patient who was affected by acute inferior MI half an hour after cannabis smoking.

  19. Tobacco may mask poorer episodic memory among young adult cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi M; Crane, Natania A; Mermelstein, Robin; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-09-01

    Co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use has become increasingly prevalent among young adults, but it is not clear how tobacco use may alter the neurocognitive profile typically observed among cannabis users. Although there is substantial evidence citing cannabis and tobacco's individual effect on episodic memory and related brain structures, few studies have examined the effect of combined cannabis and tobacco use on memory. This investigation examined relationships between amount of past year cannabis and tobacco use on 4 different indices of episodic memory among a sample of young adults who identified cannabis as their drug of choice. Results indicated that more cannabis use was linked with poorer initial acquisition, total learning, and delayed recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, but only among cannabis users who sporadically smoked cigarettes in the past year. Conversely, the amount of past year cannabis use was not associated with episodic memory performance among individuals who more consistently smoked cigarettes in the past year. These differences could not be explained by several relevant potential confounds. These findings provide important insight into a potential mechanism (i.e., attenuation of cognitive decrements) that might reinforce use of both substances and hamper cessation attempts among cannabis users who also smoke cigarettes. Ongoing and future research will help to better understand how co-use of cannabis and tobacco affects memory during acute intoxication and abstinence and the stability of these associations over time. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users.

  1. Influence of legal status on the uptake of cannabis in young people.

    PubMed

    Dirisu, Osasuyi; Shickle, Darren; Elsey, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Policies that limit young people's access to cannabis may reduce early onset of use and minimize health-related harm. This review article provides an update of recent research examining the influence of the cannabis policy frameworks on the use of cannabis by young people. There are significant concerns that ongoing policy changes in favour of legalization will increase the uptake of cannabis by young people. Evidence to support a causal effect of cannabis policy changes on increased uptake by young people is lacking; more time may be needed to assess the impact because the policies are still evolving. Policy changes in favour of legalization were associated with reduced risk perception although this may be a cause or consequence. The need to situate the impact of these policies in the context of specific policy features, social norms and perceptions about cannabis has been highlighted. A more nuanced understanding of the impact of the legal status of cannabis on young people is needed to build evidence for future policy options. The impact of these policies may not be immediately apparent but limiting young people's access to cannabis must be prioritized during policy deliberations.

  2. [Renal and spleen infarction after massive consumption of cannabis and cocaine in a young man].

    PubMed

    Le Guen, P-Y; Gestin, S; Plat, E; Quéhé, P; Bressollette, L

    2011-02-01

    Cannabis is the most widely consumed drug in the world, particularly among young subjects. Cocaine is the third leading illicit drug. Cases of renal infarction associated with combined consumption of cannabis and cocaine have been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 24-year-old man who presented renal and spleen infarction after massive consumption of cannabis and cocaine. Both vascular events arose on healthy arteries. Etiological tests were negative leading to the conclusion that the events resulted from a toxic cause related to cannabis and cocaine consumption. Different mechanisms, potentially including thrombosis, might explain the association of cannabis and cocaine with vascular events. We suggest that a systematic search for cannabis and cocaine consumption among young victims of vascular disease might be useful.

  3. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  4. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  5. The role of decision-making in cannabis-related problems among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi M.; Mermelstein, Robin M.; Diviak, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficits in decision-making and episodic memory are often reported among heavy cannabis users, yet little is known on how they influence negative consequences from cannabis use. Individual differences in decision-making may explain, in part, why some individuals experience significant problems from their cannabis use whereas others do not. We hypothesized that poor decision-making would moderate relationships between amount of cannabis use and problems from cannabis use whereas episodic memory performance would not. Method Young adult cannabis users (n = 52) with cannabis as their drug of choice and with minimal comorbidities completed semi-structured interviews, self-report questionnaires, and measures of neurocognitive functioning, with decision-making accessed via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), episodic memory via the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised (HVLT) and problems from cannabis use with the Marijuana Problems Scale. Results Strong relationships were observed between amount of cannabis use (lifetime, 12-month, and 30-day) and problems reported from use, but only among participants with Low (impaired) decision-making (R2 = .39 to .51; p < .01). No significant relationships were observed among those with better (low average to high average) decision-making performance (p > .05). In contrast, episodic memory performance was not a significant moderator of the relationship between amount of cannabis use and cannabis problems (p > .05). Conclusions Cannabis users with poor decision-making may be at greater risk for experiencing significant negative consequences from their cannabis use. Our results lend further support to emerging evidence of decision-making as a risk factor for addiction and extend these findings to cannabis users. PMID:26199058

  6. Impact of ADHD and cannabis use on executive functioning in young adults.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Lisdahl, Krista M; Molina, Brooke; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M

    2013-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. Young adults (24.2 ± 1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year ≥ monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Clark, Duncan B; Hayes, Jeanine; Tarter, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies involving adults suggest that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increases the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) (cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse). However, little work with PTSD and CUD has been conducted involving adolescents, despite the fact that CUD typically have their onset during adolescence. This study addresses the effect of PTSD on CUD among teenagers transitioning to young adulthood. The subjects in this ongoing study were the offspring of adult men with a lifetime history of a substance use disorder (SUD) (SUD+probands, N=343) vs those with no lifetime history of a SUD (SUD-probands, N=350). The participants were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25. Other variables examined were an index of behavioral undercontrol associated with future risk for developing SUD, known as the Transmissible Liability Index, or TLI, and affiliation with deviant peers. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Of these 693 subjects, 31 subjects were diagnosed with PTSD, and 161 were diagnosed with a CUD. The CUD subjects included 136 male participants and 25 female participants, including 103 (64%) Caucasian participants and 58 (36%) participants of other races. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of a CUD was associated with deviance of peers (Wald=63.4, p=0.000), the TLI (Wald=28.8, p=0.000), African American race (Wald=14.2, p=0.000), PTSD (Wald=12.7, p=0.000), male gender (Wald=12.0, p=0.001), household SES (Wald=9.2, p=0.002), and being an offspring of a SUD+proband (Wald=6.9, p=0.009). Path analyses demonstrated that PTSD is directly associated with the presence of a CUD and with peer deviance, that higher peer deviance is associated with the presence of a CUD, and that PTSD mediated the association between peer deviance and CUD. These findings suggest that PTSD

  8. Counseling Interventions for Adolescents and Young People in Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakidis, Stavros

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on the counseling interventions for adolescents and young people held in custody. The study analyses the social effects of imprisonment, the incapacitation effects of custody, the need for delivering counseling in custody. In addition it reviews evidence regarding the effects of delivering counseling interventions in…

  9. Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. Sources of information PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Main message Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians

  10. Did Cannabis Precipitate an STEMI in a Young Woman?

    PubMed

    Jehangir, Waqas; Stanton, Michael; Khan, Rafay; Sahgal, Puneet; Yousif, Abdalla

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is a substance that contains compounds that bind cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Cannabis also contains substances that do not bind these receptors. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the compound in cannabis responsible for its psychoactive effects and binding to cannabinoid receptors. Despite increasing popularity of the medical and recreational uses of cannabis, little attention has been paid to the adverse effects of the use of the substance. Evidence demonstrating an association between cannabis use and acute coronary syndromes has emerged with case reports and in vitro studies. This case report highlights an ST-segment myocardial infarction in a 27-year-old female with little cardiovascular risk factors, but a significant history of frequent cannabis use.

  11. Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Wright, Natasha E.; Kirchner-Medina, Christopher; Maple, Kristin E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-six percent of high school seniors have used cannabis in the past year, and an alarming 6.5% smoked cannabis daily, up from 2.4% in 1993 (Johnston et al., 2013). Adolescents and emerging adults are undergoing significant neurodevelopment and animal studies suggest they may be particularly vulnerable to negative drug effects. In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies outlining the effects of regular (at least weekly) cannabis use on neurocognition, including studies outlining cognitive, structural and functional findings. We will also explore the public health impact of this research. PMID:25013751

  12. [Cannabis cessation interventions offered to young French users: predictors of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Abdoul, H; Le Faou, A-L; Bouchez, J; Touzeau, D; Lagrue, G

    2012-04-01

    Cannabis use is very problematic among young French people, because of the young age of first consumption and its health consequences. Indeed, the average age of cannabis experimentation is about 15 in France and 49.5% of 17 year-olds report having used cannabis in their lives. To prevent this problem, tobacco and cannabis cessation services are dedicated to handle patients who want to stop tobacco and/or cannabis. Moreover, in 2004, specific medical outpatient services have been implemented to address the problem of young cannabis users. Since their establishment, some studies have reported demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients attending these services, but we still lack data on their follow-up and their medical and psychological care. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and psychiatric characteristics of young patients referred to tobacco/cannabis cessation consultations or specific young cannabis users' consultations and to evaluate their medical care and monitoring. We designed a retrospective study in seven cessation clinics in the Paris area between 2005 and 2007. Eligible patients were regular cannabis users aged under 40. An electronic medical database was completed using patients' medical records. Medical files reported demographic and clinical data. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the HAD and the Beck scores. Nicotine dependence was evaluated by Fagerström's score. The history of addictions, and data about consumption of cannabis, tobacco, alcohol and other drugs were recorded in the medical file. The follow-up of patients was defined by having at least two visits at the medical outpatient services. Tobacco and cannabis cessations were assessed at one-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic models were used to assess factors associated with patients' follow up and monitoring. Four cessation clinics accepted to participate in our study. One hundred and eight eligible patients were listed during the

  13. Brief intervention addressing excessive cannabis use in young people consulting their GP: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haller, Dagmar M; Meynard, Anne; Lefebvre, Danièle; Tylee, André; Narring, Françoise; Broers, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    When excessive cannabis consumption occurs in adolescence, the adverse consequences extend into adulthood. Interventions by GPs are effective in preventing harm associated with alcohol use. Similar interventions have potential in addressing cannabis use. To develop and pilot test a brief intervention targeting excessive cannabis use (defined as > or = 1x/week) in young people in primary care. Pilot intervention trial. Seven family practices in Switzerland. The team collaborated with GPs and young people to develop the intervention. Seven GPs piloted its use in their consultations. Patients aged 15 to 24 years consulting for any health problem were recruited before the consultation. Cannabis use, other substance use, and their psychosocial correlates were assessed with a short confidential questionnaire administered before the consultation and 1 month later. GPs, staff, and patients were asked to comment on the study and its feasibility. Of 81 young people invited to participate, 78 (70% female) agreed (participation rate: 96%). One in seven (13.2%, 95% confidence interval = 7.5% to 18.9%) used cannabis at least once a week. Data at 1 month were available for 42% who had provided email contact details and 91% of those who had provided their mobile phone number (63% overall). In most cases, the intervention lasted no more than 5 minutes. Comments from participants added favourable data towards the feasibility of the study. This pilot study provides a solid base on which to build a randomised trial of a brief intervention addressing cannabis use in young people consulting in family practice.

  14. Young brains on cannabis: It's time to clear the smoke.

    PubMed

    Porath-Waller, A J; Notarandrea, R; Vaccarino, F J

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance among youth. Recent policy developments and ongoing debate related to this drug underscore the urgent need to "clear the smoke" and better understand what the scientific evidence says about the health and behavioral effects of cannabis use, particularly on youth whose brains are undergoing rapid and extensive development.

  15. Young brains on cannabis: It's time to clear the smoke

    PubMed Central

    Notarandrea, R; Vaccarino, FJ

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance among youth. Recent policy developments and ongoing debate related to this drug underscore the urgent need to “clear the smoke” and better understand what the scientific evidence says about the health and behavioral effects of cannabis use, particularly on youth whose brains are undergoing rapid and extensive development. PMID:25778103

  16. [The use of cannabis in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Tossmann, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Since more than 30 years cannabis is the most common illicit drug in Germany and other European countries. According to different Studies conducted in representative community samples, it can be assumed, that every fifth woman and about every third man, aged 18 to 59 years had used cannabis at least once. Epidemiologic studies also show that cannabis use is strongly associated with adolescence and young adulthood, though. Thus, cannabis consumption significantly increases from age 15, while beginning with the age 23 the proportion of cannabis consumers continuously decreases. Following the results of current studies the majority of consumers uses cannabis rather occasional. Nevertheless about 10-15% of the current consumers show patterns of cannabis dependence according to international diagnostic criteria. Although counselling centres note an increasing demand for addiction specific treatment, cannabis users still remain a small group in treatment centre statistics.

  17. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  18. Can reduce--the effects of chat-counseling and web-based self-help, web-based self-help alone and a waiting list control program on cannabis use in problematic cannabis users: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Michael P; Haug, Severin; Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver; Sullivan, Robin; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars

    2013-11-14

    In European countries, including Switzerland, as well as in many states worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance after alcohol and tobacco. Although approximately one in ten users develop serious problems of dependency, only a minority attends outpatient addiction counseling centers. The offer of a combined web-based self-help and chat counseling treatment could potentially also reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers and help them to reduce their cannabis use. This paper presents the protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention in combination with, or independent of, tailored chat counseling compared to a waiting list in reducing or enabling the abstention from cannabis use in problematic users. The primary outcome will be the weekly quantity of cannabis used. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of days per week on which cannabis is used, the severity of cannabis use disorder, the severity of cannabis dependence, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, cannabis craving, the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other non-cannabis illicit drugs, changes in mental health symptoms, and treatment retention. The self-help intervention will consist of 8 modules designed to reduce cannabis use based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. The two additional individual chat-counseling sessions in the additional chat condition will be based on the same therapy approaches and tailored to participants' self-help information data and personal problems. The predictive validity of participants' baseline characteristics on treatment retention and outcomes will be explored. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy in combination or without chat counseling in reducing or enabling the

  19. Can reduce - the effects of chat-counseling and web-based self-help, web-based self-help alone and a waiting list control program on cannabis use in problematic cannabis users: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In European countries, including Switzerland, as well as in many states worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance after alcohol and tobacco. Although approximately one in ten users develop serious problems of dependency, only a minority attends outpatient addiction counseling centers. The offer of a combined web-based self-help and chat counseling treatment could potentially also reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers and help them to reduce their cannabis use. Methods/design This paper presents the protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention in combination with, or independent of, tailored chat counseling compared to a waiting list in reducing or enabling the abstention from cannabis use in problematic users. The primary outcome will be the weekly quantity of cannabis used. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of days per week on which cannabis is used, the severity of cannabis use disorder, the severity of cannabis dependence, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, cannabis craving, the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other non-cannabis illicit drugs, changes in mental health symptoms, and treatment retention. The self-help intervention will consist of 8 modules designed to reduce cannabis use based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. The two additional individual chat-counseling sessions in the additional chat condition will be based on the same therapy approaches and tailored to participants’ self-help information data and personal problems. The predictive validity of participants’ baseline characteristics on treatment retention and outcomes will be explored. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy in combination or without chat

  20. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  1. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  2. Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M; Diviak, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed, and less is known on the performance of non-treatment-seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction remain relatively unexplored. We compared young adult current cannabis users (CU, n = 65) and nonusing controls (NU, n = 65) on several laboratory measures of impulsive behavior, as well as on a measure of episodic memory commonly impacted by cannabis use. The CU group performed more poorly than the NU group on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total Immediate Recall and Delayed Recall. No significant differences were observed on the measures of impulsive behavior (i.e., Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Go-Stop Task; Monetary Choice Questionnaire; Balloon Analogue Risk Task). We examined relationships between neurocognitive performance and symptoms of cannabis use disorder symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV CUD) among the CU group, which revealed that poorer IGT performance was associated with more symptoms of DSM-IV CUD. Our results show poorer memory performance among young adult cannabis users than among healthy controls, but no differences on measures of impulsive behavior. However, performance on a specific type of impulsive behavior (i.e., poorer decision making) was associated with more cannabis use disorder symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that decision-making deficits may be more strongly associated with problems experienced from cannabis use, rather than solely being a consequence of cannabis use, per se.

  3. Alcohol and Cannabis: Young People Talking about How Parents Respond to Their Use of These Two Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highet, Gill

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern over rising levels of alcohol and cannabis use among young people. This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation of young people's cannabis-related beliefs and behaviour. Fifty-nine boys and girls aged 13 to 15 years were interviewed, mostly in self-selected friendship pairs, in six…

  4. Alcohol and Cannabis: Young People Talking about How Parents Respond to Their Use of These Two Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highet, Gill

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern over rising levels of alcohol and cannabis use among young people. This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation of young people's cannabis-related beliefs and behaviour. Fifty-nine boys and girls aged 13 to 15 years were interviewed, mostly in self-selected friendship pairs, in six…

  5. A Web-Based Self-Help Intervention With and Without Chat Counseling to Reduce Cannabis Use in Problematic Cannabis Users: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Michael P; Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars; Buehler, Eveline; Haug, Severin

    2015-10-13

    After alcohol and tobacco, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance in many countries worldwide. Although approximately one in ten users develops serious problems of dependency, only a minority attend outpatient addiction counseling centers. A Web-based intervention could potentially reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers. To test the efficacy of a Web-based self-help intervention with and without chat counseling-Can Reduce-in reducing the cannabis use of problematic cannabis users as an alternative to outpatient treatment services. Altogether, 436 participants were recruited by various online and offline media for the Web-based trial. A total of 308 of these were eligible for study participation and were randomly allocated in an unblinded manner to either self-help with chat (n=114), self-help without chat (n=101), or a waiting list control group (n=93). The fully automated self-help intervention consisted of eight modules designed to reduce cannabis use, and was based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. Additional individual chat counseling sessions were based on the same therapeutic principles. The sessions were conducted by trained counselors and addressed participants' personal problems. The main outcomes were the frequency (number of days) and quantity of cannabis use (number of standardized joints) per week, as entered into the consumption diary at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included self-reported symptoms of cannabis use disorder, severity of cannabis dependence, risky alcohol use, and mental health symptoms. Intervention participation and retention were extracted from the user progress data and the consumption diary, respectively. Can Reduce participants were older (U=2.296, P=.02) and reported a greater number of cannabis use days at baseline than patients who entered outpatient treatment with cannabis

  6. Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people

    PubMed Central

    Henquet, Cécile; Krabbendam, Lydia; Spauwen, Janneke; Kaplan, Charles; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in individuals with above average predisposition for psychosis who first used cannabis during adolescence. Design Analysis of prospective data from a population based sample. Assessment of substance use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms was based on standardised personal interviews at baseline and at follow up four years later. Participants 2437 young people (aged 14 to 24 years) with and without predisposition for psychosis. Main outcome measure Psychotic symptoms at follow up as a function of cannabis use and predisposition for psychosis at baseline. Results After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, urbanicity, childhood trauma, predisposition for psychosis at baseline, and use of other drugs, tobacco, and alcohol, cannabis use at baseline increased the cumulative incidence of psychotic symptoms at follow up four years later (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.46). The effect of cannabis use was much stronger in those with any predisposition for psychosis at baseline (23.8% adjusted difference in risk, 95% confidence interval 7.9 to 39.7, P = 0.003) than in those without (5.6%, 0.4 to 10.8, P = 0.033). The risk difference in the “predisposition” group was significantly greater than the risk difference in the “no predisposition” group (test for interaction 18.2%, 1.6 to 34.8, P = 0.032). There was a dose-response relation with increasing frequency of cannabis use. Predisposition for psychosis at baseline did not significantly predict cannabis use four years later (adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 2.31). Conclusion Cannabis use moderately increases the risk of psychotic symptoms in young people but has a much stronger effect in those with evidence of predisposition for psychosis. PMID:15574485

  7. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-06-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  8. Cannabis Smoking and Periodontal Disease Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Poulton, Richie; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Beck, James D.; Welch, David; Hancox, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Tobacco smoking is a recognized behavioral risk factor for periodontal disease (through its systemic effects), and cannabis smoking may contribute in a similar way. Objective To determine whether cannabis smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Design and Setting Prospective cohort study of the general population, with cannabis use determined at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years and dental examinations conducted at ages 26 and 32 years. The most recent data collection (at age 32 years) was completed in June 2005. Participants A complete birth cohort born in 1972 and 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand, and assessed periodically (with a 96% follow-up rate of the 1015 participants who survived to age 32 years). Complete data for this analysis were available from 903 participants (comprising 89.0% of the surviving birth cohort). Main Outcome Measure Periodontal disease status at age 32 years (and changes from ages 26 to 32 years) determined from periodontal combined attachment loss (CAL) measured at 3 sites per tooth. Results Three cannabis exposure groups were determined: no exposure (293 individuals, or 32.3%), some exposure (428; 47.4%), and high exposure (182; 20.2%). At age 32 years, 265 participants (29.3%) had 1 or more sites with 4 mm or greater CAL, and 111 participants (12.3%) had 1 or more sites with 5 mm or greater CAL. Incident attachment loss between the ages of 26 and 32 years in the none, some, and high cannabis exposure groups was 6.5%, 11.2%, and 23.6%, respectively. After controlling for tobacco smoking (measured in pack-years), sex, irregular use of dental services, and dental plaque, the relative risk estimates for the highest cannabis exposure group were as follows: 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.2) for having 1 or more sites with 4 mm or greater CAL; 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5–6.4) for having 1 or more sites with 5 mm or greater CAL; and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.2–3.9) for having incident attachment loss (in comparison with those who had

  9. A Web-Based Self-Help Intervention With and Without Chat Counseling to Reduce Cannabis Use in Problematic Cannabis Users: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars; Buehler, Eveline; Haug, Severin

    2015-01-01

    Background After alcohol and tobacco, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance in many countries worldwide. Although approximately one in ten users develops serious problems of dependency, only a minority attend outpatient addiction counseling centers. A Web-based intervention could potentially reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers. Objective To test the efficacy of a Web-based self-help intervention with and without chat counseling—Can Reduce—in reducing the cannabis use of problematic cannabis users as an alternative to outpatient treatment services. Methods Altogether, 436 participants were recruited by various online and offline media for the Web-based trial. A total of 308 of these were eligible for study participation and were randomly allocated in an unblinded manner to either self-help with chat (n=114), self-help without chat (n=101), or a waiting list control group (n=93). The fully automated self-help intervention consisted of eight modules designed to reduce cannabis use, and was based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. Additional individual chat counseling sessions were based on the same therapeutic principles. The sessions were conducted by trained counselors and addressed participants' personal problems. The main outcomes were the frequency (number of days) and quantity of cannabis use (number of standardized joints) per week, as entered into the consumption diary at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included self-reported symptoms of cannabis use disorder, severity of cannabis dependence, risky alcohol use, and mental health symptoms. Intervention participation and retention were extracted from the user progress data and the consumption diary, respectively. Results Can Reduce participants were older (U=2.296, P=.02) and reported a greater number of cannabis use days at baseline than patients who

  10. Bidirectional Associations Between Cannabis Use and Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood Among At-Risk Young Men.

    PubMed

    Womack, Sean R; Shaw, Daniel S; Weaver, Chelsea M; Forbes, Erika E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention.

  11. Bidirectional Associations Between Cannabis Use and Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood Among At-Risk Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Sean R.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Method: Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Results: Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Conclusions: Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:26997187

  12. Brief intervention addressing excessive cannabis use in young people consulting their GP: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Dagmar M; Meynard, Anne; Lefebvre, Danièle; Tylee, André; Narring, Françoise; Broers, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background When excessive cannabis consumption occurs in adolescence, the adverse consequences extend into adulthood. Interventions by GPs are effective in preventing harm associated with alcohol use. Similar interventions have potential in addressing cannabis use. Aim To develop and pilot test a brief intervention targeting excessive cannabis use (defined as ≥1×/week) in young people in primary care. Design of the study Pilot intervention trial. Setting Seven family practices in Switzerland. Method The team collaborated with GPs and young people to develop the intervention. Seven GPs piloted its use in their consultations. Patients aged 15 to 24 years consulting for any health problem were recruited before the consultation. Cannabis use, other substance use, and their psychosocial correlates were assessed with a short confidential questionnaire administered before the consultation and 1 month later. GPs, staff, and patients were asked to comment on the study and its feasibility. Results Of 81 young people invited to participate, 78 (70% female) agreed (participation rate: 96%). One in seven (13.2%, 95% confidence interval = 7.5% to 18.9%) used cannabis at least once a week. Data at 1 month were available for 42% who had provided email contact details and 91% of those who had provided their mobile phone number (63% overall). In most cases, the intervention lasted no more than 5 minutes. Comments from participants added favourable data towards the feasibility of the study. Conclusion This pilot study provides a solid base on which to build a randomised trial of a brief intervention addressing cannabis use in young people consulting in family practice. PMID:19275832

  13. The effects of cannabis on heart rate variability and well-being in young men.

    PubMed

    Schmid, K; Schönlebe, J; Drexler, H; Mueck-Weymann, M

    2010-06-01

    The effects of cannabis use on the autonomic regulation of the heart had been identified in tests with volunteers. We studied these effects of cannabis use on young adults in everyday life. We measured heart rate variability (HRV) and well-being (WHO-5 score) in young men during a routine medical examination. Seventy-two men were identified with a positive drug screening test solely for tetrahydrocannabinol. The comparison group consisted of 72 men, matched according to age and body mass index, who used no illicit drugs or pharmaceuticals. In the cannabis group, HRV was significantly increased compared to the control group. The median value of root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) at rest was 56.2 ms in the drug users and 48.6 ms in the controls (p<0.05). The ratio of low-to-high frequency was higher in the controls (median 1.87 vs. 1.62; p<0.05). Psychological well-being, measured by WHO-5 score was significantly lower in cannabis users. Our data support the hypothesis that the use of cannabis leads to a change in cardiovascular sympathovagal balance. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  14. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  15. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  16. Cannabis arteritis.

    PubMed

    El Omri, Naoual; Eljaoudi, Rachid; Mekouar, Fadwa; Jira, Mohammed; Sekkach, Youssef; Amezyane, Taoufik; Ghafir, Driss

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A 27-year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand. She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required. This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis. Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis. Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs.

  17. ADHD and Cannabis Use in Young Adults Examined Using fMRI of a Go/NoGo Task

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B.J.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L. Eugene; Potkin, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Methods Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n=25) and without (n=25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n=11) and without (n=12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. Results ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. Conclusions ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  18. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use.

  19. Explanations and expectations: drug narratives among young cannabis users in treatment

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how young people enrolled in drug addiction treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark, explain their cannabis careers and how they view their possibilities for quitting drug use again. Inspired by Mead and narrative studies of health and illness, the article identifies four different drug use ‘aetiologies’ drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future by assigning the interviewee a more or less agential position in relation to drugs. Further, the drug narratives are viewed as interactional achievements, related to the social context in which they were produced, namely, the institutional setting of the treatment centres. The article is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in drug addiction treatment. PMID:25688710

  20. Explanations and expectations: drug narratives among young cannabis users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-07-01

    This article analyses how young people enrolled in drug addiction treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark, explain their cannabis careers and how they view their possibilities for quitting drug use again. Inspired by Mead and narrative studies of health and illness, the article identifies four different drug use 'aetiologies' drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future by assigning the interviewee a more or less agential position in relation to drugs. Further, the drug narratives are viewed as interactional achievements, related to the social context in which they were produced, namely, the institutional setting of the treatment centres. The article is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in drug addiction treatment.

  1. Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care: focus on youth and other high-risk users.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-09-01

    To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians should give information on lower-risk cannabis

  2. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  3. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  4. Social functioning trajectories of young first-episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis misuse: a 30-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    González-Blanch, César; Gleeson, John F; Koval, Peter; Cotton, Sue M; McGorry, Patrick D; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month follow-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use). In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis.

  5. Social Functioning Trajectories of Young First-Episode Psychosis Patients with and without Cannabis Misuse: A 30-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    González-Blanch, César; Gleeson, John F.; Koval, Peter; Cotton, Sue M.; McGorry, Patrick D.; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month follow-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use). In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis. PMID:25849623

  6. Water pipe smoking and its association with cigarette and cannabis use in young adults in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Albisser, Silvio; Schmidlin, Jérome; Schindler, Christian; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2013-01-01

    Water pipe is a traditional method of tobacco use, which is epidemically spreading throughout Europe. There are scarce data about the use of water pipe and its relation to other addictive behaviors among young adults in Western countries. It was our aim to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of water pipe users in Switzerland and to describe concurrent cigarette and cannabis smoking habits. Young adults aged 16-30 years were evaluated based on a 16-item standardized questionnaire on tobacco consumption and exhaled carbon monoxide. Current water pipe smoking was defined as water pipe use at least once within the last 4 weeks; regular water pipe smoking was defined as water pipe use at least once a week during the last 52 weeks. Out of 353 volunteers, a total of 204 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.5 years, 113 males) met the inclusion criteria for the study. A total of 78% (n = 160), 30.0% (n = 55) and 3.9% (n = 8) reported ever, current and regular water pipe smoking, respectively. Males smoked more often than females: 2.8 sessions/year (interquartile range 1.1-8) versus 2 sessions/year (interquartile range 0-4; p = 0.022). The major risk factor for ever smoking water pipe was cigarette smoking (odds ratio 6.22, 95% confidence interval 2.33-16.62), followed by cannabis consumption (odds ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.62). Ever water pipe smoking was more common among current cannabis users (100 vs. 0%; p < 0.0001) and related to higher exhaled carbon monoxide values (6.0 ± 9.0 vs. 2.1 ± 4.6 ppm; p < 0.001). Water pipe smoking is common among young adults and strongly associated with cigarette smoking and cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on cannabis use in young adults in France.

    PubMed

    Sakyi, Kwame S; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela J

    2012-11-01

    The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression based on parental reports of depression (1989-2009) and offspring reports of parental lifetime history of depression. Current cannabis use was defined as use at least once in the preceding 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models controlling for young adult and parental socio-demographic variables. Approximately one fourth of youth (23%) reported consuming cannabis at least once in the past year. At the same time, 15% had parents who were divorced and 30% parents with a history of depression. The association between parental divorce and cannabis use in young adults was not statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 0.97-2.31). History of parental depression conferred a marginally statistically significant 42% higher odds of young adult cannabis use (adjusted OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00-2.01). Young adults who experienced both parental history of divorce and depression were more than two times as likely to be current cannabis users compared to those who experienced neither of these (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.26-4.48). Our findings highlight the critical importance of considering familial context in understanding cannabis use in young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Cannabis and myocardial infarction without angiographic stenosis in young patient: guilty or not guilty? A case report].

    PubMed

    Leblanc, A; Tirel-Badets, A; Paleiron, N; Castellant, P; Cornily, J-C; Andre, M; Grassin, F; Feuvrier, Y; Blanchard, C; Zagnoli, F; Quiniou, G; Vinsonneau, U

    2011-06-01

    Cannabis is the most consumed drug in France, particularly in young adults. Few reports have suggested a causal role of cannabis in the development of cardiovascular events. We describe one case of 26-year-old man, cannabis and tobacco smoker, admitted with recurrent ischemic stroke cause by post-myocardial infarction left ventricular thrombus. Coronary arteries were angiographicaly normal and etiological tests were negative. We suggest the possible relationship between marijuana use with coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cannabis prices and dynamics of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    van Ours, Jan C; Williams, Jenny

    2007-05-01

    This paper uses duration models and self-reported cannabis histories from young Australians to study the dynamics of cannabis use. We find that low cannabis prices are associated with early initiation into cannabis use. While the decision to quit does not appear to be directly influenced by price, we find that the younger an individual is when they start using cannabis the less likely they are to quit. Therefore, low cannabis prices lead to early use and because of that they lead to a low quit rate and hence a longer duration of use.

  10. Diffusion abnormalities in adolescents and young adults with a history of heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly; Cottone, John; Ardekani, Babak A; Sevy, Serge; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that adolescence is a key period for neuronal maturation. Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and young adults in the United States and internationally, very little is known about its impact on the developing brain. Based on neuroimaging literature on normal brain developmental during adolescence, we hypothesized that individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) would have brain structure abnormalities in similar brain regions that undergo development during late adolescence, particularly the fronto-temporal connection. Fourteen young adult males in residential treatment for cannabis dependence and 14 age-matched healthy male control subjects were recruited. Patients had a history of HCU throughout adolescence; 5 had concurrent alcohol abuse. Subjects underwent structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. White matter integrity was compared between subject groups using voxelwise and fiber tractography analysis. Voxelwise and tractography analyses revealed that adolescents with HCU had reduced fractional anisotropy, increased radial diffusivity, and increased trace in the homologous areas known to be involved in ongoing development during late adolescence, particularly in the fronto-temporal connection via arcuate fasciculus. Our results support the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use during adolescence may affect the trajectory of normal brain maturation. Due to concurrent alcohol consumption in five HCU subjects, conclusions from this study should be considered preliminary, as the DTI findings reported here may be reflective of the combination of alcohol and marijuana use. Further research in larger samples, longitudinal in nature, and controlling for alcohol consumption is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of the effect of cannabis on the developing brain.

  11. Diffusion abnormalities in adolescents and young adults with a history of heavy cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Cervellione, Kelly; Cottone, John; Ardekani, Babak A.; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2012-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that adolescence is a key period for neuronal maturation. Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and young adults in the United States and internationally, very little is known about its impact on the developing brain. Based on neuroimaging literature on normal brain developmental during adolescence, we hypothesized that individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) would have brain structure abnormalities in similar brain regions that undergo development during late adolescence, particularly the fronto-temporal connection. Method Fourteen young adult males in residential treatment for cannabis dependence and 14 age-matched healthy male control subjects were recruited. Patients had a history of HCU throughout adolescence; 5 had concurrent alcohol abuse. Subjects underwent structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. White matter integrity was compared between subject groups using voxelwise and fiber tractography analysis. Results Voxelwise and tractography analyses revealed that adolescents with HCU had reduced fractional anisotropy, increased radial diffusivity, and increased trace in the homologous areas known to be involved in ongoing development during late adolescence, particularly in the fronto-temporal connection via arcuate fasciculus. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use during adolescence may affect the trajectory of normal brain maturation. Due to concurrent alcohol consumption in five HCU subjects, conclusions from this study should be considered preliminary, as the DTI findings reported here may be reflective of the combination of alcohol and marijuana use. Further research in larger samples, longitudinal in nature, and controlling for alcohol consumption is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of the effect of cannabis on the developing brain. PMID:19111160

  12. A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Silins, Edmund; Swift, Wendy; Slade, Tim; Toson, Barbara; Rodgers, Bryan; Hutchinson, Delyse M

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which young adult former cannabis users fare better than infrequent users is unclear. We investigated the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and substance use and mental health outcomes at age 27. Data were from the 20+ year cohort of the PATH Through Life Study. Lifetime cannabis users (n = 1410) at age 23 were classified as former/occasional/regular users. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and six outcomes assessed at age 27. Compared with occasional cannabis users: (i) former users had odds of subsequent tobacco use [odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85], illicit drug use (cannabis, OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.28; other illicit drugs, OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.22-0.39) and mental health impairment (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92) that were 29-78% lower; and (ii) regular users had odds of subsequent frequent alcohol use (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), tobacco use (OR = 3.67, 95% CI 2.54-5.30), cannabis use (OR = 11.73, 95% CI 6.81-20.21) and dependence symptoms (OR = 12.60, 95% CI 8.38-18.94), and other illicit drug use (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.07-4.21) that were 2-13 times greater. Associations attenuated after covariate adjustment, and most remained significant. Clear associations exist between cannabis use status in young adulthood and subsequent mental health and substance use. While early intervention remains important to prevent regular cannabis use and the associated harms, experimentation with cannabis use in the years leading into young adulthood may not necessarily determine an immutable pathway to mental health problems and illicit substance use. [Silins E, Swift W, Slade T, Toson B, Rodgers B, Hutchinson DM. A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other

  13. Beyond the Classroom: The Inclusion of Young People with Learning Disabilities in UK Mainstream Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Counselling is increasingly seen as a way of addressing the psychological needs of young people with emotional, behavioural and academic problems. This paper explores the existing counselling landscape regarding inclusion of young people with learning disabilities in counselling. The research findings are based on data collected from an empirical…

  14. Beyond the Classroom: The Inclusion of Young People with Learning Disabilities in UK Mainstream Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Counselling is increasingly seen as a way of addressing the psychological needs of young people with emotional, behavioural and academic problems. This paper explores the existing counselling landscape regarding inclusion of young people with learning disabilities in counselling. The research findings are based on data collected from an empirical…

  15. Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing compared with drug information and advice for early intervention among young cannabis users.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Slym, Renee L; Strang, John

    2008-11-01

    To test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in comparison with drug information and advice in opportunistically securing reductions in drug-related risk among young cannabis users not seeking help. Randomized controlled trial. Eleven London Further Education colleges. A total of 326 students aged 16-19 years who smoked cannabis weekly or more frequently. Participants were randomized to a single-session intervention of MI or drug information and advice-giving. Cannabis use, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and harm outcomes were assessed after both 3 and 6 months. No differences were found between MI and drug information and advice, although MI fidelity was not high. There were wide-ranging individual practitioner effects on observed outcomes and a practitioner-intervention interaction was detected in relation to cannabis cessation after 3 months. Change over time was more pronounced for cannabis use than for other drug use. Further study of the nature and consequences of MI fidelity, and individual practitioner effects more generally, is needed. Advice may be an effective brief intervention with young cannabis users in its own right and should be evaluated further in trials.

  16. [Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in young adult cannabis-dependent treatment seekers: A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with cannabis dependence in young adults and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 141 cannabis-dependent subjects attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 140 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 140 subjects from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI) and psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI and Inadaptation Scale). Patients from the clinical groups presented more anxiety and depression symptoms than healthy participants, and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Cannabis-dependent patients were specifically characterized by low educational level and by the presence of paranoid ideation; they were also more impulsive and sensation-seeking than those from the other two groups. We discuss the implications of this study for clinical practice and for further research.

  17. Prenatal Cannabis and Tobacco Exposure in Relation to Brain Morphology: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Young Children.

    PubMed

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Franken, Ingmar H A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Lahey, Benjamin B; White, Tonya

    2016-06-15

    Cannabis use during pregnancy has been associated with negative behavioral outcomes and psychopathology in offspring. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure as a result of maternal cannabis use. In this prospective study, we investigated the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and brain morphology in young children. We matched 96 children prenatally exposed to tobacco only (without cannabis) with 113 unexposed control subjects on the basis of age and gender and subsequently selected 54 children exposed to prenatal cannabis (mostly combined with tobacco exposure). These children (aged 6 to 8 years) were part of a population-based study in the Netherlands, the Generation R Study, and were followed from pregnancy onward. We assessed brain volumetric measures and cortical thickness in magnetic resonance imaging scans using FreeSurfer. We performed vertexwise analyses in FreeSurfer and linear regression analyses adjusting for relevant covariates using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Prenatal cannabis exposure was not associated with global brain volumes, such as total brain volume, gray matter volume, or white matter volume. However, prenatal cannabis exposure was associated with differences in cortical thickness: compared with nonexposed control subjects, cannabis-exposed children had thicker frontal cortices. Prenatal tobacco exposure compared with nonexposed control subjects was associated with cortical thinning, primarily in the superior frontal and superior parietal cortices. Our findings suggest an association between prenatal cannabis exposure and cortical thickness in children. Further research is needed to explore the causal nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cannabis and smoking research: interviewing young people in self-selected friendship pairs.

    PubMed

    Highet, G

    2003-02-01

    This paper will discuss the use of paired interviewing as the main method of generating data in a study exploring the social context of young people's smoking and cannabis use. The research, conducted as part of an on-going PhD, involved 59 participants of both genders, aged 13-15 from different socioeconomic backgrounds, and with a wide range of cigarette and cannabis use experience. Participants were offered the choice of an individual interview or a paired interview with a friend of their choice, most opting for the paired format. The paper will discuss many of the methodological and ethical features of this method. In particular, it will discuss the potential for paired interviewing to access accounts generated within close friendship bonds, making this method distinctive from larger focus groups. It will also explore how paired interviewing facilitates access to interactions between participants, shedding light on many aspects of young people's social relationships and allowing occasional glimpses into more private territory. It will argue that the paired interview method can make a novel and distinctive contribution to health education/promotion research, policy and practice, and to any research that aims more fully to understand aspects of young people's social worlds.

  19. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Melissa M; Battisti, Robert A; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were used to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses, while a modified Timeline Followback interview and self-reports were used to measure cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, and impairment. Most individuals had at least two Axis I disorders in addition to cannabis dependence. Anxiety disorders were common, with posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, and generalised anxiety disorder accounting for the majority of these diagnoses. On average, young people reported a moderate degree of dependence and functional impairment, and a substantial number of cannabis-related problems. Although both males and females reported using similar quantities of cannabis per month, females reported using cannabis more frequently than males. The current data suggest that young people who present for cannabis use treatment in the context of a mental health issue may have a variety of psychiatric problems that need addressed and that males and females may have slightly different profiles. If cannabis use treatments are to advance for this population, more attention needs to be paid to the complex issues that young people present to treatment with.

  20. Materialist and post-materialist values and cannabis smoking among young adults: a population-based study in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2007-04-01

    The association between materialist, mixed and post-materialist values, and the experience of cannabis smoking among young adults was investigated. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne, southern Sweden, is a cross-sectional study with a 59% response rate. The 6787 persons aged 18-34 years included in this study answered a postal questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between materialist, mixed and post-materialist values and ever having experienced cannabis smoking. The multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders (age and education) on the differences in ever having experienced cannabis smoking according to materialist, mixed and post-materialist values. 28% of the men and 17% of the women had ever experienced cannabis smoking. The experience of cannabis smoking was significantly and positively associated with post-materialist values among both men and women. The odds ratios were 2.4 (1.8-3.1) for men with post-materialist values compared to men with materialist values, and 3.1 (2.4-4.0) for women with post-materialist values compared to women with materialist values. This study suggests that post-materialist values are positively associated with the risk of ever smoking cannabis. Because this is a cross-sectional study, the direction of causality remains to be investigated.

  1. High frequency of intracranial arterial stenosis and cannabis use in ischaemic stroke in the young.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Valérie; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Beaujeux, Rémy; Manisor, Monica; Rouyer, Olivier; Lauer, Valérie; Meyer, Nicolas; Marescaux, Christian; Geny, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    foramen ovale in 21 (13%); in 19 patients (12%), ischaemic stroke was related to an undetermined aetiology. Comparing risk factors between patients with intracranial arterial stenosis and those with other definite causes showed that there were only two significant differences: a lower age and a higher frequency of vasoactive substances (especially cannabis) in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis. All intracranial arterial stenosis in patients who used vasoactive substances were located in several intracranial vessels. Intracranial arterial stenosis may be an important mechanism of stroke in young patients and it should be systematically investigated using vascular imaging. Strong questioning about illicit drug consumption (including cannabis) or vasoactive medication use should also be performed. It should be emphasized for health prevention in young adults that cannabis use might be associated with critical consequences such as stroke. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  3. Developing Cross Cultural Competence: Applying Development and Prevention Ideals to Counseling Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Jeff; Frazier, Kimberly; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Barrett, Joe

    2011-01-01

    As counselors turn their attention to child-based counseling, there is a need to apply the core tenets of the discipline of counseling to young children and incorporate cross-cultural issues into clinical competence. Using Multicultural Counseling Theory (MCT), the authors discuss conventional approaches to providing clinical interventions for…

  4. Weeding out the information: an ethnographic approach to exploring how young people make sense of the evidence on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Barbara M; Jenkins, Emily K; Johnson, Joy L

    2013-11-27

    Contradictory evidence on cannabis adds to the climate of confusion regarding the health harms related to use. This is particularly true for young people as they encounter and make sense of opposing information on cannabis. Knowledge translation (KT) is in part focused on ensuring that knowledge users have access to and understand best evidence; yet, little attention has focused on the processes youth use to weigh scientific evidence. There is growing interest in how KT efforts can involve knowledge users in shaping the delivery of youth-focused public health messages. To date, the youth voice has been largely absent from the creation of public health messages on cannabis. This ethnographic study describes a knowledge translation project that focused on engaging young people in a review of evidence on cannabis that concluded with the creation of public health messages generated by youth participants. We facilitated two groups with a total of 18 youth participants. Data included transcribed segments of weekly sessions, researcher field notes, participant research logs, and transcribed follow-up interviews. Qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted. Group dynamics were influential in terms of how participants made sense of the evidence. The processes by which participants came to understand the current evidence on cannabis are described, followed by the manner in which they engaged with the literature for the purpose of creating an individual public health message to share with the group. At project end, youth created collaborative public health messages based on their understanding of the evidence illustrating their capacity to "weed out" the information. The content of these messages reflect a youth-informed harm reduction approach to cannabis use. This study demonstrates the feasibility of involving young people in knowledge translation initiatives that target peers. Youth participants demonstrated that they were capable of reading scientific literature and had

  5. Weeding out the information: an ethnographic approach to exploring how young people make sense of the evidence on cannabis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contradictory evidence on cannabis adds to the climate of confusion regarding the health harms related to use. This is particularly true for young people as they encounter and make sense of opposing information on cannabis. Knowledge translation (KT) is in part focused on ensuring that knowledge users have access to and understand best evidence; yet, little attention has focused on the processes youth use to weigh scientific evidence. There is growing interest in how KT efforts can involve knowledge users in shaping the delivery of youth-focused public health messages. To date, the youth voice has been largely absent from the creation of public health messages on cannabis. Methods This ethnographic study describes a knowledge translation project that focused on engaging young people in a review of evidence on cannabis that concluded with the creation of public health messages generated by youth participants. We facilitated two groups with a total of 18 youth participants. Data included transcribed segments of weekly sessions, researcher field notes, participant research logs, and transcribed follow-up interviews. Qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted. Results Group dynamics were influential in terms of how participants made sense of the evidence. The processes by which participants came to understand the current evidence on cannabis are described, followed by the manner in which they engaged with the literature for the purpose of creating an individual public health message to share with the group. At project end, youth created collaborative public health messages based on their understanding of the evidence illustrating their capacity to “weed out” the information. The content of these messages reflect a youth-informed harm reduction approach to cannabis use. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of involving young people in knowledge translation initiatives that target peers. Youth participants demonstrated that they were

  6. [Epidemiological news in cannabis].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use.

  7. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use.

  8. Recent cannabis use among adolescent and young adult immigrants in the Netherlands--the roles of acculturation strategy and linguistic acculturation.

    PubMed

    Delforterie, Monique J; Creemers, Hanneke E; Huizink, Anja C

    2014-03-01

    The present study examined the relation between two different acculturation measures (i.e., linguistic acculturation and the acculturation strategies integration, separation and marginalization) and past year cannabis use. Additionally, we studied the mediating role of affiliation with cannabis-using peers. Data were utilized from i4culture, a Dutch study on immigrant adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. Participants belonged to the five largest immigrant populations in the Netherlands, living in or around the four major Dutch cities: Amsterdam, the Hague, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. In total, 771 adolescents and young adults (mean age 19.29, SD=2.61, 53.8% female) from Surinamese (n=210, 27.2%), Moroccan (n=209, 27.1%), Turkish (n=110, 14.3%), Antillean (n=109, 14.1%), and Asian (n=133, 17.3%) backgrounds participated. With questionnaires, past year cannabis use, acculturation strategy, linguistic acculturation, and affiliation with cannabis-using peers were assessed. Using logistic regression analyses, we found no relation between acculturation strategy and past year cannabis use (OR=1.25, p=0.38 for separation vs integration and OR=0.86, p=0.50 for marginalization vs integration). Linguistic acculturation was positively related to cannabis use (OR=2.20, p<0.01). Affiliation with cannabis-using peers partly mediated this relation (OR=1.09, p<0.01). Non-Western immigrant youngsters who speak the host culture's language at home are more likely to use cannabis than youngsters who speak their native language at home. The former group is more likely to affiliate with cannabis-using peers, which partly explains their increased risk of cannabis use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Young Clients' Narratives of the Purpose and Outcome of Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Kerry; Cartwright, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how adolescent clients construct the purpose and outcome of counselling. A narrative analysis was performed on interviews with 22 clients (aged 16--18) who had used a school-based counselling service. The aim was to identify the purpose and outcomes that participants attributed to their counselling experience. The analysis…

  10. Young Clients' Narratives of the Purpose and Outcome of Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Kerry; Cartwright, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how adolescent clients construct the purpose and outcome of counselling. A narrative analysis was performed on interviews with 22 clients (aged 16--18) who had used a school-based counselling service. The aim was to identify the purpose and outcomes that participants attributed to their counselling experience. The analysis…

  11. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12.

  12. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Najman, Jake Moses; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Clavarino, Alexandra; Kisely, Steve

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up. Exposure to any childhood maltreatment, and childhood neglect in particular, predicted subsequent cannabis abuse with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 1.79 and 2.62, respectively. Any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect predicted cannabis dependence with AORs of 2.47, 2.81, 2.44 and 2.68, respectively. The associations for an early age of onset of cannabis abuse and dependence were significant and consistent for maltreated children. In addition, frequency of maltreatment substantiations predicted cannabis abuse, dependence and an early age of onset of these disorders. The AORs for cannabis ever use without any DSM-IV cannabis disorder were 1.78 for any maltreatment and 2.15 for emotional abuse. Any childhood maltreatment and neglect predicted lifetime ever cannabis use, as well as cannabis use disorder. There was little evidence for any interaction between gender and different forms of childhood maltreatment and its association with cannabis use disorders. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, as well as multiple episodes of maltreatment independently predicted cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological Change in Distressed Young People Who Do Not Receive Counselling: Does Improvement Happen Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniunaite, Akvile; Ahmad Ali, Zenib; Cooper, Mick

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore self-healing processes in young people, and to develop an understanding of the effects of school-based counselling (SBC), by analysing changes in young people who did not receive this intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 young people on a waiting list for SBC. Participants…

  14. The Impact of School-Based Counselling on Young People's Capacity to Study and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupani, Pooja; Haughey, Nuala; Cooper, Mick

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how school-based counselling might impact young people's capacity to study and learn. Previous research has indicated that counselling in schools has an indirect positive impact on academic achievement. A mixed methods approach, using a semi-structured qualitative interview and a brief rating scale, was employed with 21 young…

  15. Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

  16. Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

  17. Combined grey matter VBM and white matter TBSS analysis in young first episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Haller, Sven; Curtis, Logos; Badan, Maryse; Bessero, Séverine; Albom, Mara; Chantraine, Fabrice; Alimenti, Alessandro; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Merlo, Marco

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is temporally associated with the development of first episode psychosis (FEP). Whether or not the chronic use of this substance induces structural brain changes that may be responsible for the cognitive and psychological disturbances in this disorder is still matter of debate. To address this issue, we compared the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assessed grey (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in young FEP patients between users versus non-users of cannabis. This prospective study included 50 consecutive FEP subjects: 33 users (22.7 ± 4.1 years, 4 women) and 17 non-users (23.9 ± 4.2 years, 10 women). Users were further divided into 15 heavy (23.3 ± 4.5 years, 2 women) and 18 light users (22.2 ± 3.8 years, 2 women) according to their lifetime cannabis use. Voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis of GM and tract-based-spatial-statistics (TBSS) analysis of WM were performed. Age and gender were used as non-explanatory co-regressors. There were no supra-threshold differences between user and non-user groups for both GM and WM parameters. This was also the case when only heavy users were compared to non-users. Multivariate models controlling for age and gender confirmed these findings. We found no evidence for cannabis consumption related alterations in GM or WM in FEP subjects. Due to the strict correction for multiple comparisons and sample size, we cannot formally exclude subtle morphometric changes associated with cannabis consumption. However, even if present, such potential alterations would be of low magnitude.

  18. Cognitive control in young adults with cannabis use disorder: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Maij, David Lr; van de Wetering, Ben Jm; Franken, Ingmar Ha

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary models of substance use disorders emphasize the role of cognitive control, which has been linked to difficulties in resisting the use of substances. In the present study, we measured two aspects of cognitive control, response inhibition (operationalized by a Go/NoGo Task) and performance monitoring (operationalized by an Eriksen Flanker Task), in a group of young cannabis-use disorder (CUD) patients and compared these functions with two control groups (i.e. a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers). We employed both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. The results indicate that CUD patients displayed reduced NoGo-P3 event-related potentials compared with non-smoking controls, but not compared with smoking controls. In addition, CUD patients were slower on Go trials than both control groups. No other between-group electrophysiological or behavioural differences were observed. These results seem to suggest that CUD patients have problems related to response inhibition, but performance monitoring seems relatively unaffected.

  19. [Frequent non-medical cannabis use: health sequelae and effectiveness of detoxification treatment].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Udo; Specka, Michael; Scherbaum, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical (recreational) use of cannabis is common particularly among young adults. In light of the ongoing legalization debate the clinical impact of physical and psychosocial consequences of regular recreational cannabis consumption should be presented. Health consequences appear to be more pronounced the earlier the regular recreational cannabis use had been started in the individual's development. There is an increasing demand from recreational cannabis users for medical treatment of cannabis-related complaints including the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Physical sequelae such as chronic bronchitis, cyclical hyperemesis and fertility problems are usually reversible along with abstinence. The often debilitating cannabis-related mental and cognitive complaints respond on a qualified inpatient detoxification treatment with high effect sizes (Cohen's d 0.7 -1.4). The severity of the cannabis addiction benefits sustainably from psychotherapeutic approaches and individual psychosocial counseling (Cohen's d 0,5-1,2). Currently, the actual health hazard of recreational cannabis use was evaluated by addiction experts to be significantly lower than that of tobacco or alcohol use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Associations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms With Marijuana and Synthetic Cannabis Use Among Young Adult U.S. Veterans: A Pilot Investigation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sean; Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-05-01

    This study involves a pilot investigation of associations between marijuana and synthetic cannabis use with PTSD symptoms among a young adult sample of U.S. veterans. In a cross-sectional survey of a community sample of 790 young adult U.S. veterans, we assessed demographics, combat severity, marijuana and synthetic cannabis use, expectancies of marijuana use, and PTSD symptoms. Overall, 61.8% and 20.4% of our sample reported lifetime and past-month marijuana use, whereas 17.0% and 3.4% reported lifetime and past-month synthetic cannabis use. Veterans screening positive for PTSD were more likely to use marijuana and synthetic cannabis in their lifetime and in the past month. Positive PTSD screens, as well as greater expectancies that marijuana leads to relaxation and tension reduction, were associated with past-month marijuana use in logistic regression analyses. Expectancies moderated the relationship between PTSD and marijuana use, such that those with positive PTSD screens reporting higher levels of relaxation and tension-reduction expectancies were most likely to report past-month marijuana use. Our findings suggest an association of PTSD symptoms with marijuana and synthetic cannabis use among young adult U.S. veterans. Future research should further investigate the link between PTSD and marijuana use, as well as the rates and consequences of synthetic cannabis use among veterans.

  1. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. © 2013.

  2. [Cannabis: A Cognitive Illusion].

    PubMed

    Galván, Gonzalo; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco

    The vision of cannabis as a soft drug is due to the low risk perception that young and old people have of the drug. This perception is based on erroneous beliefs that people have about the drug. To compare the beliefs of cannabis use and consequences among adolescents with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use and those without a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use. Quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 156 high school students who completed an ad-hoc questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and 22 questions about the beliefs that young people had about cannabis use and its consequences. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 13.5%. The prevalence group consisted mostly of males. Statistically significant differences between different groups and different beliefs were found. The group with no lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived higher risk as regards the damage that cannabis can cause to memory, other cognitive functions, neurons, mental health, and general health. The group with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived a lower risk as regards the use of cannabis, and think that intelligent people smoke cannabis, and that cannabis has positive effects on the brain, increasing creativity. and is used to cure mental diseases. Those who used cannabis once in their life perceive the use of the substance as less harmful or less potential danger to health compared to those who never consumed. In fact those who consumed at some time even have beliefs that suggest positive effects in those people that consume it. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis use and other predictors of the onset of daily cigarette use in young men: what matters most? Results from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia; Schaub, Michael P; Gmel, Gerhard; Haug, Severin

    2015-09-02

    According to the gateway hypothesis, tobacco use is a gateway of cannabis use. However, there is increasing evidence that cannabis use also predicts the progression of tobacco use (reverse gateway hypothesis). Unfortunately, the importance of cannabis use compared to other predictors of tobacco use is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine which variables, in addition to cannabis use, best predict the onset of daily cigarette smoking in young men. A total of 5,590 young Swiss men (mean age = 19.4 years, SD = 1.2) provided data on their substance use, socio-demographic background, religion, health, social context, and personality at baseline and after 18 months. We modelled the predictors of progression to daily cigarette smoking using logistic regression analyses (n = 4,230). In the multivariate overall model, use of cannabis remained among the strongest predictors for the onset of daily cigarette use. Daily cigarette use was also predicted by a lifetime use of at least 50 cigarettes, occasional cigarette use, educational level, religious affiliation, parental situation, peers with psychiatric problems, and sociability. Our results highlight the relevance of cannabis use compared to other potential predictors of the progression of tobacco use and thereby support the reverse gateway hypothesis.

  4. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.

  5. Cannabis and the lung.

    PubMed

    Reid, P T; Macleod, J; Robertson, J R

    2010-12-01

    The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. Studies on cannabis are challenging and subject to confounding by concomitant use of tobacco and other social factors, and while many of the studies referred to in this review are beset by the difficulties inherent in undertaking epidemiological research of the effects of cannabis, there is an emerging concern among many chest physicians who would suggest that habitual smoking of cannabis may contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumothorax and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis. Special attention should be given to the risk of lung cancer, particularly as biological plausibility may precede epidemiology.

  6. Young Men With Cancer Experience Low Referral Rates for Fertility Counseling and Sperm Banking.

    PubMed

    Grover, Natalie S; Deal, Allison M; Wood, William A; Mersereau, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    With improved cancer survival rates and the current trend of delaying parenthood, fertility is a growing issue among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fertility counseling and sperm banking in reproductive-age male cancer patients and to assess factors that influence counseling and banking. Male patients ages 13 to 50 years who received a new cancer diagnosis from January 1, 2013, to May 1, 2015, and planned to initiate curative chemotherapy at our center were identified. Documentation of fertility counseling and sperm cryopreservation was abstracted from the medical record. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine variables associated with fertility counseling and sperm banking. Of 201 patients who fit the study criteria, 59 (29%) received fertility counseling and 23 (11%) attempted sperm banking. All patients who banked sperm had documentation of fertility counseling. Younger patients were significantly more likely to be counseled, with mean ages of 27.4 and 40.4 years for counseled and noncounseled patients, respectively (P < .001). Among counseled patients, those with a lower median income (P = .038) or who had Medicaid or no insurance (P = .042) were less likely to bank sperm. In a multivariable logistic regression model, older age (5-year odds ratio, 0.61; P < .001) and presence of comorbidities (odds ratio, 0.15; P = .03) remained significantly associated with a lower counseling rate. There is a low rate of fertility counseling and referral for sperm banking in young men with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Further work is needed to develop interventions to improve fertility counseling rates and opportunities for sperm banking. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Alcohol, cannabis and other drugs and subsequent suicide ideation and attempt among young Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Orozco, Ricardo; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Menendez, David

    2017-08-01

    To report results from a follow-up study of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs on suicidal behavior. We estimated prospective associations of substance use as a risk factor for incident suicide ideation and attempt, from a follow-up conducted in 2013 (n = 1071) of the original Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey conducted in 2005. Cannabis use before age 15 (ideation risk ratio (RR) = 3.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-11.03; attempt RR = 5.23; 95% CI = 1.17-23.32), early onset of DSM-IV drug use disorder (DUD) among cannabis users (ideation RR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.11-9.84; attempt RR = 4.14; 95% CI = 1.28-13.36), high frequency of cannabis use (RR for attempts = 4.60; 1.03-20.60) and recent DSM-IV-DUD among cannabis users (RR for attempts = 4.74; 1.09-20.57) increased the RR. For "other drug use", significant results were found among those with high frequency use of other drugs such that they had a higher RR of suicide attempt (5.04; 1.03-24.64). For alcohol, only those who initiated alcohol before age 15 had higher RRs of suicide attempt (1.79; 1.00-3.20). Those who used cannabis at an early age, early onset of DSM-IV-DUD, and those with heavy cannabis use and recent DSM-IV-DUD among cannabis users in the last 12-months had increased risk of suicide ideation and attempt. Drugs other than cannabis showed some of these associations, but to a lesser degree. Prevention of substance use and treatment of those already engaged in drug use, by decreasing suicide ideation and attempt, may help to prevent suicide in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis-associated myocardial infarction in a young man with normal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hodcroft, Christopher J; Rossiter, Melissa C; Buch, Ashesh N

    2014-09-01

    The use of cannabis is not usually regarded as a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome. However, several cases of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with cannabis use have been reported in the scientific literature. The etiology of this phenomenon is not known. To present a case of cannabis-associated MI in which atherosclerotic coronary disease was excluded as a potential etiology by intravascular ultrasound examination, and briefly review the other possible mechanisms by which this effect may be mediated. We present the case of a previously healthy 21-year-old man who regularly smoked cannabis and presented to the Emergency Department with ST-elevation myocardial infarction after participating in a sport. He was also a cigarette smoker, but had no other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. At coronary angiography, a large amount of thrombus was found in the left anterior descending coronary artery. He recovered with medical treatment, and subsequent intravascular ultrasound examination showed no evidence of atherosclerosis at the site of the thrombus. Cannabis-associated MI is increasingly recognized. The etiology is unclear, but we believe this is the first report of the phenomenon where atherosclerotic plaque rupture has been excluded as the cause with a high degree of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social capital, the miniaturization of community and cannabis smoking among young adults.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2004-06-01

    The impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturization of community, i.e. the combination of high social participation and low trust, on cannabis smoking was investigated. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional study. A total of 13,715 persons aged 18-80 years, of which 3,978 persons aged 18-34 years were included in this study, answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and ever having experienced cannabis smoking. The multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders (age, country of origin and education) on the differences in having experienced cannabis smoking according to social participation, trust and their four combination categories. Cannabis smoking is not associated with social participation, but positively associated with low trust among both men and women, and the miniaturization of community, i.e. the combination of high social participation and low trust, among men. This study suggests that the miniaturization of community, i.e. the combination of high social participation and low levels of generalized trust of other people, may enhance the experience of cannabis smoking.

  10. Clinical Approaches to Improving Alcohol Education and Counseling in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Novik, Melinda G.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical prevention trials (approaches to educating and counseling) of adolescents (teens and young adults ages 12 to 25 years old) about risks related to alcohol use indicate that reduction in adolescent alcohol use is possible with nonphysicians as interventionists and physicians as interventionists supported by patient counseling guides and resources. Opportunities for personalized, interactive adolescent education with goal setting appears key to intervention success. Physicians might also be more effective if they are aware of emerging alcohol problems among youth, systems-level resources for counseling adolescents about prevention, and appropriate guidance for parents. Recommendations and resources for clinicians working with adolescents regarding alcohol misuse are provided. PMID:22423468

  11. Solitary cannabis use in adolescence as a correlate and predictor of cannabis problems.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12-18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solitary Cannabis Use in Adolescence as a Correlate and Predictor of Cannabis Problems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Methods Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12–18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Results Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Conclusions Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. PMID:26365838

  13. Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Tait, Robert J; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen

    2011-12-01

      To evaluate the relationship between change in cannabis use and changed cognitive performance over 8 years.   We used survey methodology with a cohort design.   An Australian community sample aged 20-24 years at baseline.   We assessed cognitive performance with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) (immediate and delayed), Spot-the-Word test (STW), Symbol Digit Modality test (SDMT) and Digit Backwards (DB). Groups of cannabis users were defined from self-reports across three waves as: 'never' (n= 420) 'remain light' (n= 71), 'former light' (n= 231), 'remain heavy' (n= 60), 'former heavy' (n= 60) and 'always former' (since start of study) (n= 657). Planned contrasts within mixed model repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for longitudinal analysis with an adjusted alpha of 0.01.   Data were obtained from 2404 participants with 1978 (82.3%) completing wave 3. At baseline there were significant differences between cannabis groups on CVLT (immediate and delayed) and SDMT. However, after controlling for education, gender, gender × group and gender × wave, there were no significant between-group differences and only CVLT immediate recall reached adjusted statistically significant longitudinal change associated with changed cannabis use (group × wave P= 0.007). Specifically, former heavy users improved their performance relative to remaining heavy users (estimated marginal means: former heavy 6.1-7.5: remain heavy 6.4-6.6).   Cessation of cannabis use appears to be associated with an improvement in capacity for recall of information that has just been learned. No other measures of cognitive performance were related to cannabis after controlling for confounds. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier; Tomaselli, Olivia; Lisdahl, Krista; Tamm, Leanne; Jernigan, Terry; Newman, Erik; Epstein, Jeffery N; Molina, Brooke S G; Greenhill, Laurence L; Potkin, Steven G; Hinshaw, Stephen; Swanson, James M

    2017-01-01

    One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1) individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis (n = 23); (2) individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis (n = 22); (3) comparisons who currently use cannabis (n = 15); and (4) comparisons who do not currently use cannabis (n = 15). The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and negative outcomes

  15. Experiences of Counsellors Providing Online Chat Counselling to Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Mitchell J.; Rickwood, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Online counselling is a rapidly growing field and, while there is emerging evidence of its comparative effectiveness, there has been little research into what techniques are being applied in practice and which clients will most likely benefit from this medium. Using a focus group methodology, this study examines the experiences of 19 online…

  16. Counselling Refugee Young People: An Exploration of Therapeutic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the key findings from a study that considered significant issues that affect refugees and asylum-seekers, and explored beneficial counselling approaches relevant to this group. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with three counsellors and three specialist children's support advisors. Data were analysed…

  17. Experiences of Counsellors Providing Online Chat Counselling to Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Mitchell J.; Rickwood, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Online counselling is a rapidly growing field and, while there is emerging evidence of its comparative effectiveness, there has been little research into what techniques are being applied in practice and which clients will most likely benefit from this medium. Using a focus group methodology, this study examines the experiences of 19 online…

  18. Counselling Refugee Young People: An Exploration of Therapeutic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the key findings from a study that considered significant issues that affect refugees and asylum-seekers, and explored beneficial counselling approaches relevant to this group. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with three counsellors and three specialist children's support advisors. Data were analysed…

  19. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  20. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  1. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  2. Cannabis and psychosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Pantović, Maja; Damjanović, Aleksandra; Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Ivković, Maja; Milovanović, Srđan; Lacković, Maja; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The association between cannabinoids and psychosis has been known for almost a thousand years, but it is still speculated whether cannabis use may be a contributory cause of psychosis, that is, whether it may precipitate schizophrenia in those at risk. In this paper, we will briefly present the data from individual longitudinal studies in the field, together with the factors that are considered important for the association of cannabis abuse and occurrence of schizophrenia and prevention opportunities in the target population. The reviewed studies clearly suggest that cannabis abuse predicts an increased risk for schizophrenia, particularly in young adults. They underline both the need to create adequate prevention measures and consequently avoid the occurrence of the disease in the young at risk. Particular attention should be additionally devoted toward encouraging the young presenting with psychotic symptoms to stop or, at the very least, reduce the frequency of cannabis abuse. The issues are undoubtedly to be addressed by the health care system in general.

  3. School-based humanistic counseling for psychological distress in young people: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Katherine; Cooper, Mick; Berdondini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    School-based humanistic counseling (SBHC) is a widely delivered intervention for psychological distress in young people, particularly in the UK. This study piloted a set of procedures for evaluating SBHC and obtaining indications of effect. Psychologically distressed young people (aged 13-16) were randomized to either 12 weeks of SBHC or a waiting list control. The primary outcome was psychological distress at the 12-week endpoint, as measured by the Young Person's CORE. Those allocated to counseling (n=16) showed significantly greater reductions in psychological distress than participants in the control group (n=17), with an effect size (ES) (g) of 1.14 on the primary outcome and a mean ES across all four outcome measures of 0.73 at endpoint. The findings indicate that SBHC may be an effective means of reducing psychological distress in young people.

  4. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  5. Synthetic Cannabis Overdose and Withdrawal in a Young Adult: A Case Report, Commentary on Regulation, and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Samaan, John; Ferrer, Gerardo F; Akinyemi, Boye; Junquera, Patricia; Oms, Juan; Dumenigo, Rhaisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Marijuana has been used for its psychotropic effects including enhanced relaxation and perceptual alterations. However, the use of synthetic marijuana (SM) leads to more frequent and drastic side effects than the typical use of regular marijuana, owing to the fact that SM has a shorter duration and an earlier peak of action. Despite all the potential adverse health effects associated with SM use, current health policies on SM are very limited. It is believed that the popularity of SM has increased, due to its easy accessibility in the US and lack of detection in typical urine drug screens for THC. Case Report. One case presented is of a young adult patient, with histories of recurrent synthetic cannabis and recreational cannabis use, who had developed drastic physiological and psychiatric symptoms, including the development of acute-onset psychosis. Conclusion/Discussion. This case, as many others nationwide, exemplifies the impact of synthetic cannabinoid use and abuse in adolescents. Side effects and adverse health consequences of synthetic cannabinoid use warrant stricter regulations and policies in order to decrease psychiatric hospital admissions and associated healthcare costs.

  6. Synthetic Cannabis Overdose and Withdrawal in a Young Adult: A Case Report, Commentary on Regulation, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Gerardo F.; Akinyemi, Boye; Junquera, Patricia; Oms, Juan; Dumenigo, Rhaisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Marijuana has been used for its psychotropic effects including enhanced relaxation and perceptual alterations. However, the use of synthetic marijuana (SM) leads to more frequent and drastic side effects than the typical use of regular marijuana, owing to the fact that SM has a shorter duration and an earlier peak of action. Despite all the potential adverse health effects associated with SM use, current health policies on SM are very limited. It is believed that the popularity of SM has increased, due to its easy accessibility in the US and lack of detection in typical urine drug screens for THC. Case Report. One case presented is of a young adult patient, with histories of recurrent synthetic cannabis and recreational cannabis use, who had developed drastic physiological and psychiatric symptoms, including the development of acute-onset psychosis. Conclusion/Discussion. This case, as many others nationwide, exemplifies the impact of synthetic cannabinoid use and abuse in adolescents. Side effects and adverse health consequences of synthetic cannabinoid use warrant stricter regulations and policies in order to decrease psychiatric hospital admissions and associated healthcare costs. PMID:27777807

  7. Examining the Complexities of Measuring Effectiveness of Online Counselling for Young People Using Routine Evaluation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefi, Aaron; Hanley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    As mental health services for young people develop, the need for evaluation and audit to justify expenditure follows suit. Counselling is being provided in more and more schools and community settings across the country, and there is an increasing focus on evidence-based funding. Practice-based evidence has an important role to play in fulfilling…

  8. The Self-Injury Experiences of Young Adult Women: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Milliken, Tammi F.

    2010-01-01

    Many counselors lack a clear understanding of the phenomenon of self-injury. This article presents results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of young adult women who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Interpretation of the participants' narrative data offers insight into the value of a humanistic approach to counseling this…

  9. Vocational Counseling Needs of Young Women as Perceived by Working Business and Professional Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haczynski, Sharon L.

    Designed to determine the additional competencies women need to obtain jobs and advance in them, a study focused on the counseling needs of young women as perceived by the membership of the Wisconsin Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs comprised of 2,700 women who are working part-time, full-time, or in partnership. The…

  10. The Self-Injury Experiences of Young Adult Women: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Milliken, Tammi F.

    2010-01-01

    Many counselors lack a clear understanding of the phenomenon of self-injury. This article presents results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of young adult women who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Interpretation of the participants' narrative data offers insight into the value of a humanistic approach to counseling this…

  11. Behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected young women: targets for preconception counseling.

    PubMed

    Echenique, Marisa; Rodriguez, Violeta J; LaCabe, Richard P; Privette, C Kyle; Jones, Deborah L; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Fischl, Margaret A

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to describe demographic and psychological characteristics among HIV-infected young women, and to identify knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with conception, with the goal of informing interventions or programmatic decisions regarding preconception counseling methods for young women living with HIV. Behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected young women (n = 34) were conveniently sampled in Miami, Florida. Participants were asked to complete measures of reproductive knowledge, attitudes toward conception, and risk behaviors, as well as measures of depression and cognitive functioning. Perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected young women were very similar in important areas of health preconception practices such as conception-related health literacy and conception-related communication with providers. Behaviorally infected women, however, were somewhat more likely to have been pregnant in the past, and had greater knowledge of healthy contraception practices and family planning. Despite the difference among groups, both the perinatally and behaviorally acquired women demonstrated having adequate overall knowledge. Depression was higher and consistent with moderate depression among the behaviorally HIV-infected women in comparison to perinatally infected women. This study found that that despite adequate reproductive knowledge, most young HIV-infected women were not using contraception. Given the consequences of presentation of advanced HIV during pregnancy, the need for both treatment adherence and preconception counseling is essential. Results suggest that interventions or programmatic decisions regarding preconception counseling methods for young women living with HIV are necessary and potentially transferrable between populations.

  12. Stress, Hypertension, and Young Black Americans: The Importance of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the stress-hypertension relationship among young African black Americans and shows how counselors can intervene using a conceptual sociopsychophysiological model of stress. Concludes that preventive stress management directed at vulnerable, young African-American students by counselors is very important in addressing disproportionate…

  13. Comorbidity: cannabis and complexity.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Beverley; Wooding, Sally; Stevens, Garry; Connor, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs, and its effects have traditionally been seen as less harmful than outcomes associated with the highly prevalent use of alcohol and other illicit substances (e.g., cocaine and amphetamines), and injecting drugs. Consequently, less attention has been focused on developing and evaluating interventions in this area. However, current research supports the idea that cannabis does pose a number of acute and chronic health risks to the individual and to society. The authors review findings concerning the physiological and neurological effects of cannabis, prevalence of use, and studies concerning its possible role as a "gateway" drug. Diagnostic criteria for cannabis dependence and abuse are discussed, with a focus on whether a cannabis withdrawal syndrome exists and if so how it can be diagnosed. There is strong support for a link between cannabis and the development and exacerbation of psychosis and other mental health conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression). Further research is needed to determine the underlying neurochemical processes and their possible contribution to etiology, as well as the social factors that contribute to the increasing use of cannabis by young people. In addition there is a need for systematic evaluation using randomized controlled trials to determine effective prevention and treatment strategies. A number of public health programs that address cannabis use are reviewed along with available evidence for their effectiveness.

  14. [Cannabis poisoning in a young child; don't ask about drugs].

    PubMed

    de Sonnaville-de Roy van Zuidewijn, M L; Schilte, P P

    1989-09-02

    A 14-month-old girl was admitted as an emergency case with an acute neurological disorder. As clinical examination did not lead to a diagnosis, intoxication was presumed. Urine analysis revealed cannabis metabolites. The parents thought it possible that the girl had taken a piece of hashish from a table. We stress the point that taking the history of children with no previous signs of illness of longer standing should include questions about pharmaceutical products and drugs taken by the parents.

  15. Age moderates non-genetic influences on the initiation of cannabis use: a twin-sibling study in Dutch adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Vink, Jacqueline M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Neale, Michael C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-09-01

    To examine the heritability of cannabis initiation, the influence of a possible twin-specific environment and the influence of age on the effects of genes and environment in Dutch adolescents and young adults. Genetic structural equation modelling was used to partition the variance in the liability to cannabis initiation into genetic and environmental components. All participants were registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. A total of 6,208 twins (age 13-20) and 1,545 siblings (age 11-25) from 3,503 families participated in this study. Self-reported cannabis use was assessed prospectively with the Dutch Health Behavior Questionnaire. At the median age of the sample (16.5), genetic factors explained 40% of the individual differences in liability to cannabis initiation. Twins resembled each other more than non-twin siblings, which could not be attributed to the age difference between non-twin siblings. Environmental influences increased with age. This increase applied to environmental factors shared by twins (47% of the variance), environmental factors shared by twins and siblings (24%) and environmental factors unique to an individual (13%). The heritability of the liability for cannabis initiation is higher in adolescents than in young adults due to a larger contribution of environmental factors in young adults. This is due mainly to environmental factors only shared by twins and those shared by all offspring growing up in the same family, but the contribution of environmental factors specific to individuals is also larger in young adults. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Contraception, communication and counseling for sexuality and reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with CF.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anna; Moriarty, Carmel; Towns, Susan

    2010-06-01

    With survival now into the fourth decade and rapid growth of the adolescent and adult population of people with cystic fibrosis CF sexual and reproductive health issues are integral to the management of adolescents and adults with CF. Education and counseling for sexual health related issues must be included in the daily routine of CF care. With advances in genetic counseling, contraception, assisted reproductive technology and collaborative management adolescents and young adults with CF realizing their sexual and reproductive potentials safely and realistically can be possible .

  17. A service-level action research intervention to improve identification and treatment of cannabis and related mental health issues in young Indigenous Australians: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan

    2014-07-31

    Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a service-level action research intervention and evaluation protocol for use in the few services where it is possible to engage young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The protocol is being developed in two services where youth mental health is core business: a primary healthcare centre and a youth service in the Cairns and hinterland region, far north Queensland. The protocol calls first for baseline data to be collected using staff and client surveys; network mapping; and analysis of screening, treatment and referral rates. The protocol's intervention phase is driven by service needs identified from baseline data. Intervention strategies focus on implementing/enhancing cannabis screening instruments and processes in line with current best practice; enhancing networks with external drug and mental health services; developing culturally acceptable training and resources; developing activities aiming to reduce cannabis use in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients using the services. The protocol requires implementation of the multilevel intervention within each service for 1 year, with follow-up data then collected and compared to baseline. Process evaluation identifies the more effective intervention strategies and documents the challenges to be overcome for full implementation. Ethics approval was provided by The James Cook University, Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics Approval Number H5322. Peer-reviewed publications will also be used to disseminate

  18. A service-level action research intervention to improve identification and treatment of cannabis and related mental health issues in young Indigenous Australians: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a service-level action research intervention and evaluation protocol for use in the few services where it is possible to engage young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Methods/Design The protocol is being developed in two services where youth mental health is core business: a primary healthcare centre and a youth service in the Cairns and hinterland region, far north Queensland. The protocol calls first for baseline data to be collected using staff and client surveys; network mapping; and analysis of screening, treatment and referral rates. The protocol's intervention phase is driven by service needs identified from baseline data. Intervention strategies focus on implementing/enhancing cannabis screening instruments and processes in line with current best practice; enhancing networks with external drug and mental health services; developing culturally acceptable training and resources; developing activities aiming to reduce cannabis use in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients using the services. The protocol requires implementation of the multilevel intervention within each service for 1 year, with follow-up data then collected and compared to baseline. Process evaluation identifies the more effective intervention strategies and documents the challenges to be overcome for full implementation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was provided by The James Cook University, Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics Approval Number H5322. Peer

  19. Identifying Young People's Guidance Needs through Telephone Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Bettylu Rasmussen; San Martin, Alfredo Hidalgo; Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia Nuno; Farias, Martha Villasenor; Mora, Iliana Sahagun

    2001-01-01

    Examined needs expressed by young people in Guadalajara in Jalisco, Mexico, during phone calls to the Mexican Social Security Institute. Differences were significant by gender and age. Findings point to the need for more programs that reinforce good health practices, including avoiding risky behaviors. (BF)

  20. Sexuality, pre-conception counseling and urological management of pregnancy for young women with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Daniela; Noia, Giuseppe; Triarico, Silvia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Pellegrino, Marcella; Carducci, Brigida; De Santis, Marco; Caruso, Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    A great number of newborns with spina bifida now survive with a growing life expectancy. Support with regard to sexual issues is essential in the management of adolescents with spina bifida, who require specific knowledge of sexual problems related to their disability. Women with spina bifida are usually fertile and need pre-conception counseling. Furthermore, compared to healthy women they have a higher chance of conceiving a child with spina bifida, so they are treated with periconceptional folic acid supplements. In addition pregnancies in women with spina bifida require adequate management of secondary conditions, mainly urological issues, which are exacerbated during pregnancy. This article gives an overview of sexual education, sex functioning and sexual activity among adolescents with spina bifida. Moreover, we aim to support young women with spina bifida, providing pre-conception counseling and practical guidelines essential for the urological management of their pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Counselling parents on young children's healthy diet: A modified scoping review.

    PubMed

    Holmberg Fagerlund, Bettina; Helseth, Sølvi; Owe, Jenny; Glavin, Kari

    2017-05-25

    To map and describe key information in existing research about counselling of parents of children aged 0-2 years on the child's healthy diet in preventive healthcare settings, particularly in public health nursing. Many parents are likely to be concerned with their infant's food-related happiness "here and now," disregarding the child's long-term health and development related to feeding practices. Hence, a focus on counselling parents in considering young children's healthy diet is important. A modified scoping review with an inductive qualitative content analysis of selected empirical studies. Systematic searches in EMBASE (1996-2015 Week 46), Ovid Nursing Database (1946-2015 November Week 1), Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE (2000-18 November 2015) and CINAHL (2000-22 December 2015), using search terms based on aims. Eight included studies, with participants per sample ranging from 19->500. Research designs were focus group discussions and/or interview study (n = 2), cluster-randomised trials (n = 2), randomised controlled trials (n = 2), a follow-up interview study (n = 1) to a previous randomised controlled trial and a cross-sectional electronic questionnaire study (n = 1). The studies included a total sample of 2,025 participants, 42 of them in interview studies. Findings indicate parents' perceptions of inconsistency, misconceptions and uncertainty related to the recommendations on child feeding from the authorities. Thus, adapted advice could impact healthier child diet. Maternal knowledge on child feeding and reduced use of food as a reward are mediators for improved diet quality in children. Counselling on young children's healthy diet should be anticipatory, consistent and adapted to the family. Due to inconsistent recommendations and omitted focus on anticipatory counselling on child feeding, parents might perceive pressure and uncertainty related to the child's diet. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Hoang, Minh V; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Le, Chung H; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009-2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.

  3. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Hoang, Minh V.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M.; Le, Chung H.; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam. PMID:26328947

  4. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Addington, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants’ age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR. PMID:26626949

  5. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Addington, Jean

    2015-12-30

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants' age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder predict cannabis misuse.

    PubMed

    Spradlin, Alexander; Mauzay, Dakota; Cuttler, Carrie

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis use has been linked to many psychological disorders. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the link between cannabis use and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to examine this link by exploring associations between severity of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, and cannabis misuse; determining whether these associations exist above and beyond symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress; and testing the mediating role of cannabis coping motives (i.e., using cannabis to cope with negative affect and other problems). A large sample of young adult cannabis users (n=430) completed an online survey containing measures of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, cannabis misuse, and cannabis use motives. Severity of OCD (as indexed by higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised) was unrelated to frequency and quantity of cannabis use, but it was significantly, positively related to increased cannabis misuse. These effects persisted after controlling for anxiety, depression, and stress. The specific feature of obsessing was found to consistently predict cannabis misuse. Finally, an indirect effect of severity of OCD on cannabis misuse via coping motives was discovered. Together, these findings indicate that there may be an association between OCD and cannabis misuse that is independent of anxiety, depression, and stress, and that is mediated by coping motives. Based on these findings, we recommend that individuals with OCD symptoms avoid using cannabis because they may be more vulnerable to the development of problematic use and cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebellar grey-matter deficits, cannabis use and first-episode schizophrenia in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Martin; Rasser, Paul E; Peck, Greg; Carr, Vaughan J; Ward, Philip B; Thompson, Paul M; Johnston, Patrick; Baker, Amanda; Schall, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.

  8. Developmental pathways from prenatal marijuana exposure to Cannabis Use Disorder in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sonon, Kristen; Richardson, Gale A; Cornelius, Jack; Kim, Kevin H; Day, Nancy L

    Earlier studies reported an association between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and cognitive and behavioral problems in the offspring. A recent publication demonstrated the relation between PME and offspring marijuana use at age 22. There are no reports of the association between PME and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) at 22years, the age when use of marijuana and CUD peak. Subjects are from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Study, a longitudinal study of PME and other exposures during pregnancy. The cohort of mothers and their offspring has been followed since the fourth prenatal month through 22years of age. A path analysis was conducted on 590 mother-child pairs, representing 77% of the birth cohort, to examine potential pathways from PME to CUD in offspring at 22years of age. There is no direct effect of PME on CUD. There are, however, two indirect pathways from PME to CUD. In the first, the pathway from PME to CUD goes through offspring early age of marijuana onset. In the second, offspring depression at age 10 and early age of marijuana onset predict CUD. Although there is no direct effect of PME on CUD, there are significant indirect pathways from PME to CUD that affect the rate of CUD in the population. Thus, PME, offspring depression, and an early age of marijuana initiation, are significant points for intervention. As marijuana is legalized in more states, the rates of marijuana use will increase significantly, including during pregnancy, and the consequences of the association between PME and CUD will become even more significant from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detecting and Managing Mental Health Issues within Young Adults. A Systematic Review on College Counselling in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ghilardi, Alberto; Buizza, Chiara; Carobbio, Egle Miriam; Lusenti, Rossella

    2017-01-01

    Background: College counselling can be considered as a front-line service in detecting and managing mental health issues within young adults. In this sense, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of counselling interventions. Objective: To provide a systematic review about college counselling in Italy; to assess which psychological interventions really meet student needs, and their effectiveness; to focus on the level of cohesion between Italian counselling services and the international guidelines about college counselling. Method: A systematic review about college counselling through PsycInfo and PubMed was carried out. Because of the scarceness of pertinent available articles, the survey was extended to Google Scholar and Riviste Web. Keywords: counselling, mental health, wellbeing, psychological support, university, students, Italy. Results: Out of thirty-four articles retrieved, 16 are relevant to academic counselling, the other 18 have been considered not pertinent to the aim of the present review. Data show a lack of homogeneity in methodology and organization between each University: different approaches towards students’ needs. Furthermore, no follow-up studies or measurement of effectiveness were found. Conclusion: This review is a contribution to disseminate the results of counselling experiences in Italy and represents an effort to encourage colleagues working in a web environment to share results and methods for a more organized protocol application. PMID:28839455

  10. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  11. [Medicinal cannabis].

    PubMed

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  12. Contraception counseling for young breast cancer patients: A practical needs assessment and a survey among medical oncologists.

    PubMed

    Güth, Uwe; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Bitzer, Johannes; Tirri, Brigitte Frey; Moffat, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed an unselected, consecutive cohort of young breast cancer (BC) patients (≤40 years, n = 100) with regard to the contraceptive methods used at the time of diagnosis. Based on this data, we assessed the individual need for contraceptive counseling before cancer therapy. Secondly, in a study-specific self-report questionnaire, we surveyed 101 medical oncologists with the aim of evaluating attitudes towards contraception and how young patients are being counseled in the practical clinical setting. In 62% of our cohort of young BC patients, we identified situations in which contraceptive counseling was necessary at the time of BC diagnosis. The patients did not use contraception or used an ineffective method (TIER III/IV, 42%), or were using hormonal methods (12%) or IUDs (8%). Almost all respondents of the survey (99%) stated that contraception is an important aspect in the surveillance of young BC patients and the vast majority (90%) discussed this item before starting therapy. Only 20% of the respondents reported that they a) inform the patients that reliable contraception is necessary before starting therapy, b) ask whether contraceptive methods are used during ongoing therapy, and c) regularly refer their patients to specialist counseling by a gynecologist. A large proportion of young women require contraceptive counseling after newly diagnosed BC. Oncologists should be aware that the use of reliable contraceptive methods should not only be discussed before starting therapy, but also during ongoing therapy. Oncologists should consider actively referring their young patients to gynecologists to ensure proper contraceptive counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  14. What predicts incident use of cannabis and progression to abuse and dependence? A 4-year prospective examination of risk factors in a community sample of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    von Sydow, Kirsten; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-09-01

    To determine risk factors of incident onset of use, abuse and dependence of cannabis in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Risk factors were examined in a prospective longitudinal design across 4 years in a representative sample (N = 2,446) aged 14-24 at the outset of the study (EDSP). Patterns of DSM-IV defined cannabis use, abuse and dependence were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Potential risk factors were assessed at baseline. Incident cannabis use, abuse and dependence at second follow-up (on average 42 months after baseline) were the main outcome measures in this study. Associations were analyzed with logistic and negative binomial regressions. Using 11 of a total of 56 variables examined, the predictive value of the final multiple logistic regression for incident cannabis use was moderately good (area under the ROC curve = 0.78). Cannabis use frequency was predicted in the final model by 18 variables, cannabis abuse by two variables in the younger subsample and nine factors in the older group, and dependence by eight variables (dependence: ROC curve area = 0.97). Incident cannabis use was predicted mainly by availability of drugs, peers' drug use, a more 'positive' attitude towards future drug use, and regular previous use of licit drugs, while cannabis dependence was predicted primarily by parental death before age 15, deprived socio-economic status, and baseline use of other illicit drugs. Different factors predict the onset or severity of cannabis use and the progression to abuse and dependence. In addition to well-documented risk factors such as peer group pressure, drug availability, and low self-esteem, findings suggest that family history (e.g. parental mental disorders, early parental death), and prior experiences with legal drugs play a significant role in the initiation of cannabis consumption and the transition to cannabis use disorders in adolescents and young adults. Findings suggest

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Sensitivity to Peer Information in Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Schuster, Randi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; van der Kouwe, Andre; Evins, A. Eden

    2016-01-01

    Though social influence is a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of marijuana use, neural correlates of influence in those who use marijuana are unknown. In this study, marijuana-using young adults (MJ) (n = 20) and controls (CON) (n = 23) performed a decision-making task in which they made a perceptual choice after viewing the choices of unknown peers via photographs, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. MJ and CON did not show differences in the overall number of choices that agreed vs. opposed group influence, but only the MJ group showed reaction time slowing when deciding against group choices. Reaction time was associated with greater activation of frontal regions. MJ compared to CON showed significantly greater activation in the caudate when presented with peer information. Across groups, caudate activation was associated with self-reported susceptibility to influence. These findings indicate that young adults who use MJ may exhibit increased effort when confronted with opposing peer influence, as well as exhibit greater responsivity of the caudate to social information. These results not only better define the neural basis of social decisions, but also suggest that marijuana use is associated with exaggerated neural activity during decision-making that involves social information. PMID:27068178

  16. Reduced memory and attention performance in a population-based sample of young adults with a moderate lifetime use of cannabis, ecstasy and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Indlekofer, F; Piechatzek, M; Daamen, M; Glasmacher, C; Lieb, R; Pfister, H; Tucha, O; Lange, K W; Wittchen, H U; Schütz, C G

    2009-07-01

    Regular use of illegal drugs is suspected to cause cognitive impairments. Two substances have received heightened attention: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy') and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC or 'cannabis'). Preclinical evidence, as well as human studies examining regular ecstasy consumers, indicated that ecstasy use may have negative effects on learning, verbal memory and complex attentional functions. Cannabis has also been linked to symptoms of inattention and deficits in learning and memory. Most of the published studies in this field of research recruited participants by means of newspaper advertisements or by using word-of-mouth strategies. Because participants were usually aware that their drug use was critical to the research design, this awareness may have caused selection bias or created expectation effects. Focussing on attention and memory, this study aimed to assess cognitive functioning in a community-based representative sample that was derived from a large-scale epidemiological study. Available data concerning drug use history allowed sampling of subjects with varying degrees of lifetime drug experiences. Cognitive functioning was examined in 284 young participants, between 22 and 34 years. In general, their lifetime drug experience was moderate. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, including measures for verbal learning, memory and various attentional functions. Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cognitive functioning and lifetime experience of drug use. Ecstasy and cannabis use were significantly related to poorer episodic memory function in a dose-related manner. For attentional measures, decrements of small effect sizes were found. Error measures in tonic and phasic alertness tasks, selective attention task and vigilance showed small but significant effects, suggesting a stronger tendency to experience lapses of attention. No indication for differences in

  17. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Shin, Hayden H; Gray, Andrew R; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-07-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers.Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms.

  18. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  19. Cannabis--1988.

    PubMed

    Hollister, L E

    1988-01-01

    In this updating review of research on cannabis particular attention has been paid to the increasing number of studies of the disposition of the components of cannabis in man, as well as possible effects on health. Specific binding sites for cannaboids have not been demonstrated. Approximately 80 metabolites of tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) have been discovered, of which 11-OH-THC is the main metabolite, but it contributes little to the overall effect when the drug is smoked or given intravenously. The minimum plasma level of THC associated with the psychotropic effect is 25 ng/ml. Cannabis may produce directly an acute panic reaction, a toxic delirium, and acute paranoid state, or acute mania. Cannabis use may aggrevate schizophrenia, but it is much less certain whether it can lead to sociopathy or even to "amotivational syndrome". Despite widespread use of cannabis in virtually all parts of the world, no catastrophic effects on health have been noted. Cannabis appears to be relatively safe as compared with current social drugs. It is, however, still too early in the history of the present episode of cannabis use to be sanguine about possible bad effects.

  20. Contraception: the Need for Expansion of Counsel in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Fridgen, Olivia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon; Tamargo, Christina; Vadaparampil, Susan; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-02-15

    Little is known about oncology provider recommendations regarding best practices in contraception use during cancer treatment and through survivorship for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. This review examined the literature to identify related studies on contraception recommendations, counseling discussions, and methods of contraception in the AYA oncology population. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, including all peer-reviewed journals with no publication date exclusions. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of the following phrases or keywords: "oncology OR cancer" AND "contraception, family planning, contraceptive devices, contraceptive agents, intrauterine devices OR IUD, vaccines, spermatocidal agents, postcoital, immunologic, family planning, vasectomy, tubal ligation, sterilization" AND "young adult OR adolescent" AND "young adult AND adolescent". Reviewers assessed articles using the "Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies" which considers: (1) selection bias; (2) study design; (3) confounders; (4) blinding; (5) data collection methods; and (6) withdrawals and dropouts. A total of five articles were included and all studies were quantitative. Results showed no consistent recommendations among providers, references to guidelines, or methods of contraceptive types. Provider guidelines for discussions with AYA patients should be expanded to provide comprehensive, consistent, and quality cancer care in the AYA population.

  1. Reaching Out: A Proactive Process to Include Young People with Learning Disabilities in Counselling in Secondary Schools in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a proactive process to include young people with learning disabilities in mainstream counselling in secondary schools in the UK based on the findings of a consequential mixed methods research study. Data were collected from a quantitative and qualitative survey (n = 396) and qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 15) with…

  2. Reaching Out: A Proactive Process to Include Young People with Learning Disabilities in Counselling in Secondary Schools in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a proactive process to include young people with learning disabilities in mainstream counselling in secondary schools in the UK based on the findings of a consequential mixed methods research study. Data were collected from a quantitative and qualitative survey (n = 396) and qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 15) with…

  3. Childhood academic ability in relation to cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use from adolescence into early adulthood: Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to determine the association between childhood academic ability and the onset and persistence of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use across adolescence in a representative sample of English schools pupils. Previous research has produced conflicting findings. Design Data from 7 years of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), 2004–2010 (age 13/14–19/20). Setting Self-completion questionnaires during home visits, face-to-face interviews and web-based questionnaires. Participants Data from 6059 participants (3093 females) with information on academic ability around age 11 and health behaviours from age 13/14 to 16/17 (early adolescence) and from age 18/19 to 19/20 (late adolescence). Outcome measures Regularity of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use from early to late adolescence. Results In multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for a range of covariates, the high (vs low) academic ability reduced the risk of persistent cigarette smoking (RR=0.62; CI 95% 0.48 to 0.81) in early adolescence. High (vs low) academic ability increased the risk of occasional (RR=1.25; CI 95% 1.04 to 1.51) and persistent (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) regular alcohol drinking in early adolescence and persistent (RR=2.28; CI 95% 1.84 to 2.82) but not occasional regular alcohol drinking in late adolescence. High academic ability was also positively associated with occasional (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) and persistent (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) cannabis use in late adolescence. Conclusions In a sample of over 6000 young people in England, high childhood academic at age 11 is associated with a reduced risk of cigarette smoking but an increased risk of drinking alcohol regularly and cannabis use. These associations persist into early adulthood, providing evidence against the hypothesis that high academic ability is associated with temporary ‘experimentation’ with substance use. PMID:28228447

  4. Childhood academic ability in relation to cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use from adolescence into early adulthood: Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE).

    PubMed

    Williams, James; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    2017-02-22

    Our aim was to determine the association between childhood academic ability and the onset and persistence of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use across adolescence in a representative sample of English schools pupils. Previous research has produced conflicting findings. Data from 7 years of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), 2004-2010 (age 13/14-19/20). Self-completion questionnaires during home visits, face-to-face interviews and web-based questionnaires. Data from 6059 participants (3093 females) with information on academic ability around age 11 and health behaviours from age 13/14 to 16/17 (early adolescence) and from age 18/19 to 19/20 (late adolescence). Regularity of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use from early to late adolescence. In multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for a range of covariates, the high (vs low) academic ability reduced the risk of persistent cigarette smoking (RR=0.62; CI 95% 0.48 to 0.81) in early adolescence. High (vs low) academic ability increased the risk of occasional (RR=1.25; CI 95% 1.04 to 1.51) and persistent (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) regular alcohol drinking in early adolescence and persistent (RR=2.28; CI 95% 1.84 to 2.82) but not occasional regular alcohol drinking in late adolescence. High academic ability was also positively associated with occasional (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) and persistent (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) cannabis use in late adolescence. In a sample of over 6000 young people in England, high childhood academic at age 11 is associated with a reduced risk of cigarette smoking but an increased risk of drinking alcohol regularly and cannabis use. These associations persist into early adulthood, providing evidence against the hypothesis that high academic ability is associated with temporary 'experimentation' with substance use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  5. Growing cannabis with naphthalene in Rome.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Nadia

    2003-12-17

    A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation.

  6. Adolescent cannabis use, change in neurocognitive function, and high-school graduation: A longitudinal study from early adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU.

  7. Knowledge and use of HIV counseling and testing services among young persons in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Titiloye, Musibau; Oshiname, Frederick; Oyewole, Oyediran

    AIDS is a major public health problem in Nigeria. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) service is an important component of prevention and control programs. Little information is available about young persons' knowledge and use of HCT services in Nigeria. This study assessed knowledge of HIV/AIDS and use of HCT services among secondary school students and apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected through 16 focus group discussions (FGD) and administration of a 36-item questionnaire to 1,281 randomly selected male and female secondary school students and apprentices aged 15-25 years. The respondents consisted of 54% apprentices and 46% students. Although virtually all respondents were aware of AIDS, only 15.8% of the sample had heard about HCT. Of those who were aware of HCT, 30.1% knew where to access the service. Students had superior knowledge of HCT than apprentices. Only 7% of those aware of HCT had ever taken the test. The percentage of those who had reportedly taken the test ranged from 11.3% of female apprentices to 6.3% of male students, 5.3% of female students, and 5.2% of male apprentices. The barriers identified by FGD participants to use of HCT services are fear of stigmatization, perceived exorbitant cost of testing, lack of knowledge of where HCT service are available, and belief that HCT is meant for only sexually active persons. However, 82.6% of the entire sample expressed the willingness to take HCT if it is provided free of charge, and there is a guarantee of confidentiality of results. Young persons have limited knowledge of HCT and under-utilize this service. Establishment of new HCT centers, promotion activities using the media, and peer education are recommended to increase uptake of this service among young persons in Nigeria.

  8. Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The risks associated with early age at initiation for alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use are well documented, yet the timing of first use has rarely been studied in genetically informative frameworks, leaving the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to age at initiation largely unknown. The current study assessed overlap in heritable and environmental influences on the timing of initiation across these three substances in African-American women, using a sample of 462 female twins (100 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs) from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. Mean age at the time of interview was 25.1 years. Ages at first use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis were gathered in diagnostic interviews administered over the telephone. Standard genetic analyses were conducted with substance use initiation variables categorized as never, late, and early onset. Variance in the timing of first use was attributable in large part to genetic sources: 44% for alcohol, 62% for cigarettes, and 77% for cannabis. Genetic correlations across substances ranged from 0.25 to 0.70. Shared environmental influences were modest for alcohol (10%) and absent for cigarettes and cannabis. Findings contrast with reports from earlier studies based on primarily Caucasian samples, which have suggested a substantial role for shared environment on substance use initiation when measured as lifetime use. By characterizing onset as timing of first use, we may be tapping a separate construct. Differences in findings may also reflect a distinct etiological pathway for substance use initiation in African-American women that could not be detected in previous studies. PMID:19261395

  9. Cannabis arteritis: ever more important to consider.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rui Pedro; Resende, Cristina Isabel Pinho; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2017-03-13

    Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution. CA is a subtype of Buerger's disease. It is poorly known but increasingly prevalent and manifests in cannabis users regardless of tobacco use. The drug is considered at least a cofactor of the arteriopathy. The most effective treatment is cessation of consumption. Being cannabis one of the most consumed drugs, its mandatory to ask about its use in all young patients with arteriopathy.

  10. [Does consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis in adolescents and young adults with cancer affect the use of analgesics during hospitalizations?].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Boyle, H; Moreaux, J; Guillot, L; Chvetzoff, G; Charbonnel, J-F; Marec-Berard, P

    2016-04-01

    The specificities of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-25 years with cancer are now well recognized. Dedicated care was initiated in 2012 in France under the leadership of the INCa (National Cancer Institute). Research on supportive care and particularly pain management are still rare. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of toxic substances (tobacco, cannabis, alcohol) in AYAs with cancer as well as its progression during the month following the diagnosis and to analyze its influence on opioid analgesic prescriptions during treatment. This is a prospective study including all new patients aged 15-25 years in two centers between January and June 2013. Data on consumption of psychoactive substances were obtained during an individual interview with a questionnaire. National surveys were used to compare this cohort with the general population. Data on opioid treatments were collected from the computerized prescription software and computerized patient record. Thirty-seven AYAs were eligible and 30 were included; 67% of them were male and the median age was 18.7 years. The questionnaire on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption at diagnosis was well accepted. Consumption profiles were comparable to the general population. Changes in behavior were observed during the 1st month after diagnosis, with a decrease or cessation of consumption, particularly among young people. This study showed differences in the use and requirements for opioid analgesics during hospitalization according to these consumption data. Prevention and support for AYAs who are regular consumers of toxic substances must be organized during initial care in oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p < 0.001] and this effect became stronger as age decreased (b = -0.006, 95% CI -0.010 to -0.002, p = 0.004). By contrast, use of low-potency cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  12. The challenges in developing a rational cannabis policy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Lynskey, Michael

    2009-05-01

    A rational cannabis policy would arguably be one that minimized the harms of both cannabis use and the legal policies adopted to control its use. We, therefore, review recent epidemiological evidence on the harmful effects of cannabis use and social research on the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cannabis increases the risk of road crash injury if users drive while intoxicated. When used chronically, cannabis can produce dependence, respiratory disease and psychotic symptoms, especially in vulnerable young adults. It probably also increases poor educational outcomes and possibly increases the use of other illicit drugs, although it is debated whether these relationships are causal. Proponents of a relaxation of cannabis prohibition argue that prohibition has failed to deter cannabis use, incurs substantial economic costs, has generated a large black market, has increased the potency of cannabis and users' access to other drugs and involves foregone tax revenue from the legal sale of cannabis. Development of a more rational cannabis policy requires better evaluations of both the health consequences of regular cannabis use and of the costs and benefits of enforcing the existing prohibition on its use. It also requires the liberalization of the international control system to allow member states to experiment with different methods of regulating and controlling cannabis use.

  13. Healthcare providers balancing norms and practice: challenges and opportunities in providing contraceptive counselling to young people in Uganda - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. This study aims to explore healthcare providers' (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical guidelines should be implemented alongside in

  14. Healthcare providers balancing norms and practice: challenges and opportunities in providing contraceptive counselling to young people in Uganda - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. Objective This study aims to explore healthcare providers' (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. Design We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Conclusions Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical

  15. Healthcare providers balancing norms and practice: challenges and opportunities in providing contraceptive counselling to young people in Uganda – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B.; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. Objective This study aims to explore healthcare providers’ (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. Design We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Conclusions Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical

  16. Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

  17. Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

  18. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole L.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Method: Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Results: Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Conclusions: Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. PMID:27172585

  19. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  20. The Cash and Counseling model of self-directed long-term care: Effectiveness with young adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Harry, Melissa L; Mahoney, Kevin J; Mahoney, Ellen K; Shen, Ce

    2017-03-10

    Young adults with disabilities face numerous barriers to independence and achieving markers of adulthood. Qualitative evidence suggests that flexible, self-directed budgets for purchasing home and community-based services might help fill an identified service gap and help improve the transition to adulthood for this group. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Cash and Counseling model of self-directed budgets for young adults with long-term care disabilities by analyzing secondary data from the Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation randomized control trial. We compared nine-month community involvement, satisfaction rating, health status rating compared to peers, and unmet needs outcomes using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Our sample included 456 participants aged 18 to 30 randomized to treatment groups with the opportunity to receive Cash and Counseling (n = 207) or control groups eligible for agency-based care (n = 249), whether self-reported (n = 128) or by proxy (n = 328). Multivariate logistic regression models showed that compared to controls at nine-month follow-up, treatment group members had significantly greater odds of being very satisfied with life, when care was received, the care arrangement, transportation, help around the house and community, personal care, and getting along with paid attendants, and significantly lower odds of unmet needs with medication and routine health care at home and with transportation. Cash and Counseling performed better than or comparable with agency-based care for young adults with long-term care disabilities, suggesting its viability as a service option for this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Counselling Model for Young Women in the United Arab Emirates: Cultural Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Although all modalities of therapy work equally well, some models are better suited to work with specific populations. This article outlines a rationale for a counselling model used for female college students in the United Arab Emirates where the concept of counselling is not well known, and where the social and cultural organizations demand a…

  2. Does a short-term intervention promote mental and general health among young adults? – An evaluation of counselling

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Regina; Brucefors, Agneta Bergsten

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 1988, self-reported mental health problems in Sweden have increased more among young people than in any other age group. Young adults aged 18 – 29 with minor mental health problems were welcomed to four (at most) counselling sessions led by psychotherapists. The present study aimed to evaluate the method's appropriateness and usefulness. Methods The study population was recruited consecutively during six months (N = 74) and consisted of 59 women and 15 men. Fifty-one, 46 women and five men, met the criterion for a personal semi-structured interview three months post intervention. Self-assessed health data were collected on three occasions using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Pearlin's Personal Mastery Scale and two items from the Swedish Living Conditions Surveys. Thirteen women and six men were not statistically assessed due to incomplete data, but were interviewed by telephone. Four men refused to be interviewed and became dropouts. Results The largest group of the study population had long been troubled by their problem(s): 43 percent for over three years and 28 percent for over one year. Among those personally interviewed, 76 percent reported psychological distress (> 3 GHQ points) before the counselling. After the counselling, GHQ-12 distress decreased by 50 percent while mastery and perceived health status increased significantly. A majority experienced an improved life situation, found out something new about themselves and could make use of the sessions afterwards. Personal participant session contentment was about 70 percent and all counsellees would recommend the intervention to a friend. Those interviewed by telephone were not statistically assessed due to incomplete health data. Their personal contentment was just under 50 percent, though all except one would recommend the counselling to a friend. Their expectations of the intervention were more result-orientated compared to the more process-directed personally

  3. Medicinal cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  4. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  5. Factors associated with discipline counseling for parents of infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Michael; Larson, Kandyce; Wissow, Lawrence S; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and better understand the factors associated with discipline counseling at health visits and how parents' needs for discipline counseling are being met. Cross-sectional data analyses from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Participants were 1216 parents of children aged between 10 and 35 months. Main outcome measures were parents' reports that their health care provider discussed discipline practices with them in the previous year, and if not, whether this would have been helpful (an unmet need). Discipline counseling was more common when the health care provider discussed other developmental and psychosocial topics, did a developmental assessment, received higher ratings of family centered care and provided longer visits, and when parents indicated having the opportunity to ask all their questions. However, parents who reported less support for child rearing and parents who reported greater use of spanking were less likely to receive discipline counseling. Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents and parents who reported less support were more likely to report an unmet need for discipline counseling. Higher income respondents were less likely to report an unmet need for discipline counseling. Discipline counseling at health visits is associated with a family-centered orientation and the delivery of other developmental and psychosocial services. However, many parents who might have benefited from discipline counseling were less likely to receive it and more likely to report this as an unmet need. These data suggest that discipline counseling may be more accurately tailored to parents most likely to benefit. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of cannabis in cardiovascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Hamza H.; Ghali, Jalal K.

    2017-01-01

    The growing popularity of medical and recreational consumption of cannabis, especially among the youth, raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long-terms effects. The cardiovascular effects of cannabis are not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia, and potentially sudden death, and to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity, especially during the first few hours of consumption. Cannabinoids, or the active compounds of cannabis, have been shown to have heterogeneous effects on central and peripheral circulation. Acute cannabis consumption has been shown to cause an increase in blood pressure, specifically systolic blood pressure (SBP), and orthostatic hypotension. Cannabis use has been reported to increase risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in the healthy young patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered as a promising therapeutic target in the management of several disease conditions. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are being increasingly investigated for their therapeutic effects; however, the value of their benefits over possible complications remains controversial. Despite the considerable research in this field, the benefits of cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remains questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating attitude towards recreational consumption and promotion of the therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among the public, especially youth, about the cardiovascular risks associated with cannabis use and to disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding its ill effects. PMID:28840009

  7. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Background The heaviest period of cannabis use coincides with ongoing white matter (WM) maturation. Further, cannabis-related changes may be moderated by FAAH genotype (rs324420). We examined the association between cannabis use and FAAH genotype on frontolimbic WM integrity in adolescents and emerging adults. We then tested whether observed WM abnormalities were linked with depressive or apathy symptoms. Methods Participants included 37 cannabis users and 37 healthy controls (33 female; ages 18–25). Multiple regressions examined the independent and interactive effects of variables on WM integrity. Results Regular cannabis users demonstrated reduced WM integrity in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus (UNC) (MD, right: p = .009 and left: p = .009; FA, right: p = .04 and left: p = .03) and forceps minor (fMinor) (MD, p = .03) compared to healthy controls. Marginally reduced WM integrity in the cannabis users was found in the left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) (FA, p = .08). Cannabis group ∗ FAAH genotype interaction predicted WM integrity in bilateral ATR (FA, right: p = .05 and left: p = .001) and fMinor (FA, p = .02). In cannabis users, poorer WM integrity was correlated with increased symptoms of depression and apathy in bilateral ATR and UNC. Conclusions Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users. PMID:26106535

  8. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Shollenbarger, Skyler G; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The heaviest period of cannabis use coincides with ongoing white matter (WM) maturation. Further, cannabis-related changes may be moderated by FAAH genotype (rs324420). We examined the association between cannabis use and FAAH genotype on frontolimbic WM integrity in adolescents and emerging adults. We then tested whether observed WM abnormalities were linked with depressive or apathy symptoms. Participants included 37 cannabis users and 37 healthy controls (33 female; ages 18-25). Multiple regressions examined the independent and interactive effects of variables on WM integrity. Regular cannabis users demonstrated reduced WM integrity in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus (UNC) (MD, right: p = .009 and left: p = .009; FA, right: p = .04 and left: p = .03) and forceps minor (fMinor) (MD, p = .03) compared to healthy controls. Marginally reduced WM integrity in the cannabis users was found in the left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) (FA, p = .08). Cannabis group ∗ FAAH genotype interaction predicted WM integrity in bilateral ATR (FA, right: p = .05 and left: p = .001) and fMinor (FA, p = .02). In cannabis users, poorer WM integrity was correlated with increased symptoms of depression and apathy in bilateral ATR and UNC. Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users.

  9. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267.

  10. Challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D

    2009-03-01

    This paper outlines the major policy challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia. The first is uncertainty about the health effects of cannabis, especially in young people. The second is uncertainty about the extent and severity of harms attributed to cannabis prohibition by its critics. The paper summarises and briefly states the extent of these putative harms to the degree that the data allow. The third challenge is a consequence of the first two, and the very different weightings that proponents of more liberal or restrictive policies give to harms arising from cannabis use and those arising from prohibition, namely, strong disagreements within the community about how we should respond to cannabis use by young people. In the face of such disagreement the formulation of cannabis policy necessitates a political compromise. The compromise that has emerged is a continued prohibition of cannabis production, sale and use, combined with either civil penalties for use in some states and reduced penalties or diversion in others. It concludes with suggestions about what needs to be learned about the health effects of cannabis use and the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition if we are to develop policies that are more effective in reducing harms caused by cannabis use.

  11. Feasibility of teaching motivational interviewing to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Smeerdijk, Maarten; Keet, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; Barrowclough, Christine; Linszen, Don; Schippers, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of providing motivational interviewing (MI) training to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use. The training was offered in a mental health care setting as part of a family motivational intervention (FMI). Ninety-seven parents were randomly assigned to either FMI or routine family support (RFS). To obtain a measure of parent's MI skills at baseline and 3 months after they completed FMI, their role-play interactions with an actor portraying their child were coded. The coding method had satisfactory inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. At follow-up, parents in FMI showed significantly greater adherence to (p=.03) and competence in (p=.04) MI than parents in RFS. Parents in FMI also demonstrated significantly greater increases in expressing empathy (p=.01). These results demonstrate that FMI is a feasible method for increasing MI skills in parents. Additional research is needed to better understand the unique application of MI to parent-child interactions. © 2014.

  12. Long-Term Experiences in Cash and Counseling for Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Familial Programme Representative Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Harry, Melissa L; MacDonald, Lynn; McLuckie, Althea; Battista, Christina; Mahoney, Ellen K; Mahoney, Kevin J

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to explore previously unknown long-term outcomes of self-directed personal care services for young adults with intellectual disabilities and limitations in activities of daily living. The present authors utilized participatory action research and qualitative content analysis in interviewing 11 unpaid familial programme representatives of young adults with intellectual disabilities, ages 23-34, who were eligible for income-based Medicaid and enrolled five or more years in a Cash and Counseling-based programme of self-direction in the United States. Young adults are represented as receiving services and supports in a supportive and stable environment, with previously identified short-term programme benefits evident over the long-term. Young adults are also transitioning to adulthood at home with their families as primary social support and caregivers, bridging a service gap. Our results show that self-direction helps meet these young adults' personal care and community engagement needs over time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  14. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of

  15. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility

  16. Attitudes towards cannabis use and genetic testing for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Lawrence, Ryan E; Demro, Caroline; Appelbaum, Paul S; Dixon, Lisa B

    2016-06-01

    Within schizophrenia, genetic factors contribute greatly to risk, yet genetic testing for the disorder is not available. For some individuals with specific genotypes, cannabis use may increase risk of schizophrenia. It is possible that genetic tests could be offered in the future to inform individuals of the risk of schizophrenia if they use cannabis. Previous research, however, provides little guidance on how young adults might respond to such tests. We assessed a group of young adults (n = 83) to determine how the perceived magnitude of increased risk for schizophrenia in the presence of cannabis use influences decisions to undergo genetic testing, as well as subsequent attitudes and intentions towards cannabis use. Participants were significantly more likely to indicate willingness to get tested if the results identified a 10% risk versus a 2% risk of schizophrenia. Participants also indicated that if the results of their test reflected increased risk due to cannabis use, it would be more important to avoid cannabis in the 10% risk scenario as compared to the 2% risk scenario. These findings remained consistent among a subset of participants who indicated cannabis use. Results suggest that cannabis users and non-users were positively influenced in terms of intentions to change behaviour based on the magnitude of risk conveyed by genetic testing. These findings provide an initial step towards understanding young people's attitudes towards genetic testing and may help prepare interventions specifically tailored around cannabis use reduction for people at risk for schizophrenia. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Toking and Driving: Characteristics of Canadian University Students Who Drive after Cannabis Use--An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rodopoulos, Jenny; Rehm, Jurgen; Ivsins, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent among young adults in Canada. Due to cannabis' impairment effects, driving under the influence of cannabis has recently developed into a traffic-safety concern, yet little is known about the specific circumstances and factors characterizing this behavior among young people. In this study, we interviewed a…

  18. Toking and Driving: Characteristics of Canadian University Students Who Drive after Cannabis Use--An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rodopoulos, Jenny; Rehm, Jurgen; Ivsins, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent among young adults in Canada. Due to cannabis' impairment effects, driving under the influence of cannabis has recently developed into a traffic-safety concern, yet little is known about the specific circumstances and factors characterizing this behavior among young people. In this study, we interviewed a…

  19. [Cannabis: Use and dependence].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis: a rare cause of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Houissa; Mouna, Bouraoui; Leila, Mouelhi; Radhouane, Debbeche; Taoufik, Najjar

    2013-02-01

    Drugs of all types are related to the etiology of pancreatitis in approximately 2% of cases. However, there have been very few reports of acute pancreatitis associated with cannabis use in the general population. This report is the first such case in our country, and involves a 22-year-old North African man who presented to our emergency department with transfixiant epigastric abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The patient denied any past or familial medical history, was taking no medications chronically and had no history of trauma. The patient admitted to smoking one pack of cigarettes a day and occasional cannabis use, and no alcohol consumption. Biological and morphological explorations found Balthazar grade-A acute pancreatitis with no biliary dilatation or obstruction. The etiological workup was normal and, on repeat questioning, the patient admitted to being a regular and excessive user of cannabis, and to having done so 2 days before the abdominal pain. The use of cannabis is frequently seen worldwide and even in North Africa, and regular users, especially young adults, should be informed of the risk of this possible cannabis-induced pancreatic disease. This case should also be borne in mind, although the association of cannabis with pancreatitis is problematic because of the difficulty in monitoring cannabinoids in the body and the illegality of cannabis use and, consequently, getting patients to admit to using it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cannabis use disorder: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy

    2009-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the epidemiology of cannabis use, cannabis use disorders and its treatment. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug internationally. While use is decreasing in the developed world, it appears to be stable or increasing in developing countries and some indigenous communities. Early initiation and regular adolescent use have been identified as particular risk factors for later problematic cannabis (and other drug) use, impaired mental health, delinquency, lower educational achievement, risky sexual behaviour and criminal offending in a range of studies. It is estimated that approximately one in ten people who had ever used cannabis will become dependent with risk increasing markedly with frequency of use. There has been an increase in the proportion of treatment provided for cannabis use. There are as yet no evidence-based pharmacotherapies available for the management of cannabis withdrawal and craving. Relatively brief cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management have the strongest evidence of success, and structured, family-based interventions, provide potent treatment options for adolescents. With criminally involved young people and those with severe, persistent mental illness, longer and more intensive therapies provided by interdisciplinary teams may be required.

  2. [Cannabis and acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Belhadj, I; Tritar, A; Moukala, T; Amri, N; Noury, A; Zaghdoudi, M

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most common substance of drug abuse in the world and has euphoric and hallucinogenic effects. Its cardiovascular effects are well-known. However, there is limited information concerning cannabis-induced acute coronary syndrome and the exact contribution of cannabis smoking to coronary artery disease. We report and discuss a case of ST-Elevation acute coronary syndrome occurring in a young patient aged 24 years, who was a heavy cannabis smoker. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Cannabis use among children and adolescents: impacts and consequences].

    PubMed

    Peyret, Emmanuelle; Delorme, Richard

    2014-03-01

    A health policy for the prevention and treatment of cannabis-related disorders is urgently needed in France, given the high prevalence of cannabis use among children and adolescents. Such a policy will require a better understanding of the endo-cannabinoid system and the impact of exogenous cannabinoids in this fragile population. The brain continues to undergo significant development until the age of about 25 years, and cannabis consumption by young people therefore carries specific risks of dependence (frequency and intensity), and of neuroanatomical, cognitive and emotional damage. This article summarizes the available data and offers a medical view of the risks and consequences of cannabis use by children and adolescents.

  4. Bad trip due to anticholinergic effect of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Mangot, Ajish G

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis in its various forms has been known since time immemorial, the use of which has been rising steadily in India. 'Bad trips' have been documented after cannabis use, manifestations ranging from vague anxiety and fear to profoundly disturbing states of terror and psychosis. Cannabis is known to affect various neurotransmitters, but 'bad trip' due to its anticholinergic effect has never been described in literature to the best of author's knowledge. Hereby, the author describes a case of a young adult male experiencing profound anticholinergic effects after being exposed for the first time in his life to bhang, a local oral preparation of cannabis.

  5. [Alveolar haemorrhage following a cannabis water pipe].

    PubMed

    Moatemri, Z; Zaibi, H; Dabboussi, S; Mhamedi, S; Aichaouia, C; Khadhraoui, M; Cheikh, R

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory toxicity of cannabis is well-known today particularly with the new consumption patterns. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted for haemoptysis, with unfavourable outcome and acute respiratory failure. Various explorations concluded to acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Etiological assessment was initially negative. Outcome was favourable during hospitalization, authorizing the discharge of our patient. Two days later, alveolar haemorrhage recur, with positive toxicological tests for cannabis and the patient admits smoking cannabis by plastic "bang". We illustrate, through this case, the severity of respiratory complications caused by new methods of using cannabis, particularly with plastic 'bang', hence the need to insist of the importance of supported withdrawal and to inform young people how these techniques are serious.ssss.

  6. Believability of Messages about Cannabis, Cocaine and Heroin among Never-Triers, Trier-Rejecters and Current Users of Cannabis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Rossiter, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the believability of strong warnings about the negative consequences of drug use among young adults in Australia who have never tried, currently use, or have tried and rejected cannabis. It finds that the strong warnings about cannabis are generally believed by never-triers. The same warnings are perceived by current users as…

  7. Believability of Messages about Cannabis, Cocaine and Heroin among Never-Triers, Trier-Rejecters and Current Users of Cannabis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Rossiter, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the believability of strong warnings about the negative consequences of drug use among young adults in Australia who have never tried, currently use, or have tried and rejected cannabis. It finds that the strong warnings about cannabis are generally believed by never-triers. The same warnings are perceived by current users as…

  8. Randomised controlled trial of school-based humanistic counselling for emotional distress in young people: Feasibility study and preliminary indications of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing six weeks of humanistic school-based counselling versus waiting list in the reduction of emotional distress in young people, and to obtain initial indications of efficacy. Methods Following a screening procedure, young people (13 - 15 years old) who experienced emotional distress were randomised to either humanistic counselling or waiting list in this multi-site study. Outcomes were assessed using a range of self-report mental health measures, with the emotional symptoms subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) acting as the primary outcome indicator. Results Recruitment procedures were successful, with 32 young people consenting to participate in the trial and 27 completing endpoint measures. Trial procedures were acceptable to all involved in the research. No significant differences were found between the counselling and waiting list groups in reductions in levels of emotional symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.03), but clients allocated to counselling showed significantly greater improvement in prosocial behaviour (g = 0.89) with an average effect size (g) across the nine outcome measures of 0.25. Participants with higher levels of depressive symptoms showed significantly greater change. Conclusion This study suggested that a randomised controlled trial of counselling in schools is acceptable and feasible, although initial indications of efficacy are mixed. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68290510. PMID:20412578

  9. Correlates of sexual-risk behaviors among young black MSM: implications for clinic-based counseling programs.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Ricks, JaNelle M

    2017-06-01

    This study applied an 8-item index of recent sexual-risk behaviors to young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and evaluated the distribution for normality. The distribution was tested for associations with possible antecedents of sexual risk. YBMSM (N = 600), aged 16-29 years, were recruited from a sexually transmitted infection clinic, located in the southern US. Men completed an extensive audio computer-assisted self-interview. Thirteen possible antecedents of sexual risk, as assessed by the index, were selected for analyses. The 8-item index formed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.77 (SD = 1.77). In adjusted analyses, not having completed education beyond high school was associated with less risk, as was having sex with females. Conversely, meeting sex partners online was associated with greater risk, as was reporting that sex partners were drunk during sex. The obtained normal distribution of sexual-risk behaviors suggests a corresponding need to "target and tailor" clinic-based counseling and prevention services for YBMSM. Avoiding sex when partners are intoxicated may be an especially valuable goal of counseling sessions.

  10. Variable activation in striatal subregions across components of a social influence task in young adult cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Lee, Sang; Kuster, John K; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2016-05-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated the importance of social influence in initiation and maintenance of drug use, but little is known about neural mechanisms underlying social influence in young adults who use recreational drugs. To better understand whether the neural and/or behavioral response to social influence differs in young adults using illicit drugs, 20 marijuana-using young adults (MJ) aged 18-25, and 20 controls (CON) performed a decision-making task in the context of social influence, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. A priori analyses focused on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), with post hoc analyses in the rest of the striatum. In this task, participants could choose to either follow or go against group influence. When subjects applied social information to response choice selection (independent of following or going against group influence), we observed activation in the middle striatum (caudate), in the MJ group only, that extended ventrally into the NAc. MJ users but not CON showed greater activation in the NAc but not the caudate while making choices congruent with group influence as opposed to choices going against group influence. Activation in the NAc when following social influence was associated with amount of drug use reported. In contrast, during the feedback phase of the task we observed significant NAc activation in both MJ and CON, along with dorsal caudate activation only in MJ participants. This NAc activation did not correlate with drug use. This study shows that MJ users, but not CON, show differential brain activation across striatal subregions when applying social information to make a decision, following versus going against a group of peers, or receiving positive feedback. The current work suggests that differential neural sensitivity to social influence in regions such as the striatum may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of marijuana use.

  11. Assessing the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hall, W; Weier, M

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in assessing the public health impact of legalizing cannabis use in Colorado and Washington State is the absence of any experience with legal cannabis markets. The Netherlands created a de facto legalized cannabis market for recreational use, but policy analysts disagree about how it has affected rates of cannabis use. Some US states have created de facto legal supply of cannabis for medical use. So far this policy does not appear to have increased cannabis use or cannabis-related harm. Given experience with more liberal alcohol policies, the legalization of recreational cannabis use is likely to increase use among current users. It is also likely that legalization will increase the number of new users among young adults but it remains uncertain how many may be recruited, within what time frame, among which groups within the population, and how many of these new users will become regular users.

  12. FAP, gastric cancer, and genetic counseling featuring children and young adults: a family study and review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Snyder, Carrie; Davies, Janine M; Lanspa, Stephen; Lynch, Jane; Gatalica, Zoran; Graeve, Victoria; Foster, Jason

    2010-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is a highly complex and multifaceted colorectal cancer prone disorder which is often significantly confounded by extracolonic cancers inclusive of gastric cancer, a significant problem in the Orient. Gastric cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis is heavily influenced by fundic gland polyps which are often so voluminous as to defy effective endoscopic surveillance. This study involves more than two decades of investigation of an attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis family where gastric cancer posed an early diagnostic problem because it was obscured by multiple fundic gland polyps. Fundic gland polyps are common in familial adenomatous polyposis and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and, if voluminous, may interfere with effective endoscopic gastric cancer surveillance. This family is believed to be the first of its type reported with focus upon education and genetic counseling in the setting of a family information service. Cancer control in familial adenomatous polyposis may be partially resolved through use of familial colorectal cancer registries, with greater attention to family history and its interpretation, genetic counseling, and clinical translation for diagnosis and management.

  13. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk. PMID:20130780

  14. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis.

  15. Health promotion for young patients with haemophilia. Counselling, adjuvant exercise therapy and school sports.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Judith; Herbsleb, Marco; Stanek, Frank-Detlef; Gabriel, Holger; Kentouche, Karim

    2016-06-15

    The haemophilia treatment centre of the Clinic for Children and Youth Medicine in Jena extends medical care by health-promotion measures, namely: health counselling, adjuvant exercise therapy and school sports. In addition to the regular medical checks at the treatment centre patients are examined regarding physical fitness, joint situation, quality of life in general and disease-specific manner, as well as psycho-social and nutritional behaviour. Findings and medical results of the examinations are integrated into an individual advice on therapy, school sports, and health recommendations. This aimed at strengthening health-related resources and minimizing potential injuries. First long-term evaluation shows an increase of activity behaviour and physical fitness without increasing bleeding rate and maintained joint function.

  16. Cannabis use: signal of increasing risk of serious cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

    2014-04-23

    Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis-related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger-like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people.

  17. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  18. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Counseling Young Students at Risk: Resources for Elementary Guidance Counselors. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.; Schreiber, Penny A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses seven critical problem areas that can place today's young students at risk. "Children in Self-Care" (Merlyn Pitney) discusses the key problems of the rapidly increasing number of "latch key" students who must fend for themselves before and/or after school. "Stress Management for Children" (Kristine Kunkle) shows…

  20. Career Guidance and Therapeutic Counselling: Sharing "What Works" in Practice with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westergaard, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in the UK and across the world, where austerity measures are biting deep, find themselves at a time of crisis and uncertainty in their lives. The assumptions previously held of clear and straightforward career paths are being challenged and "career" has come to mean more than simply "work" or…

  1. Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. School Counseling Series. Volume 2: Increase Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy launched a journal series to support and build awareness of the issues and challenges raised by the College Board Advocacy & Policy Center's research report, "The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color" (youngmenofcolor.collegeboard.org.) The intent of the series is to…

  2. Career Counseling for Young People with Physical Disabilities: An Introduction to "Thresholds." ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Margaret; Peterson, John

    For a number of years, studies have reported that people with disabilities have lower work force participation rates than the general public. One factor may be a lack of transitional, vocational programs for young people with disabilities. This digest describes "Thresholds," a career development program created with a basis on the unique…

  3. Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. School Counseling Series. Volume 2: Increase Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy launched a journal series to support and build awareness of the issues and challenges raised by the College Board Advocacy & Policy Center's research report, "The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color" (youngmenofcolor.collegeboard.org.) The intent of the series is to…

  4. Effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling for psychological distress in young people: Pilot randomized controlled trial with follow-up in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Peter; Sewell, Ros; Cooper, Mick; Osman, Sarah; Fugard, Andrew J B; Pybis, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot a test of the effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) in an ethnically diverse group of young people (aged 11-18 years old), with follow-up assessments at 6 and 9 months. Pilot randomized controlled trial, using linear-mixed effect modelling and intention-to-treat analysis to compare changes in levels of psychological distress for participants in SBHC against usual care (UC). ISRCTN44253140. In total, 64 young people were randomized to either SBHC or UC. Participants were aged between 11 and 18 (M = 14.2, SD = 1.8), with 78.1% of a non-white ethnicity. The primary outcome was psychological distress at 6 weeks (mid-therapy), 12 weeks (end of therapy), 6-month follow-up and 9-month follow-up. Secondary measures included emotional symptoms, self-esteem and attainment of personal goals. Recruitment and retention rates for the study were acceptable. Participants in the SBHC condition, as compared with participants in the UC condition, showed greater reductions in psychological distress and emotional symptoms, and greater improvements in self-esteem, over time. However, at follow-up, only emotional symptoms showed significant differences across groups. The study adds to the pool of evidence suggesting that SBHC can be tested and that it brings about short-term reductions in psychological and emotional distress in young people, across ethnicities. However, there is no evidence of longer-term effects. School-based humanistic counselling can be an effective means of reducing the psychological distress experienced by young people with emotional symptoms in the short term. The short-term effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling is not limited to young people of a White ethnicity. There is no evidence that school-based humanistic counselling has effects beyond the end of therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Therapeutic use of cannabis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Kay; Green, Anita J

    Therapeutic cannabis use raises a number of dilemmas for nurses. This article examines the legal, political and ethical challenges raised by the use of cannabis by people with life-limiting or terminal illnesses in their own homes. (Throughout this paper, the term cannabis refers to illegal cannabis unless specified.) A literature review of databases from 1996 was conducted and internet material was also examined. Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.

  6. Cannabis and sex: multifaceted paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S

    1982-01-01

    At the present level of ignorance about sexuality and cannabis, what rational position can be adopted? First, it must be recognized that even without cannabis, current involvement in sex-related activities may well have been called "promiscuous" by a preceding generation or two. The general loosening of morality, the erosion of family, church and other authoritarian controls, The Pill, antibiotics and other recent developments have contributed to current casual attitudes. Although one may not perceive it, counterculture beliefs have had their impact on the dominant culture. Marijuana has some enhancing effect upon sexual proceedings for some individuals. It may be sexually evocative and gratifying. Nonspecific factors play an important role in this matter. Opposite effects also occur, and an endocrinologic basis for actual diminution of drives and potency may exist. The final paradox is that cannabis' employment for sexual arousal is predominantly an activity of young adults. The older age groups most in need of sexual support and assistance are less frequently involved in its use. It is unclear why this dichotomy between need and utilization exists.

  7. [Cannabis use: what to do in general practice?].

    PubMed

    Benard, Victoire; Rolland, Benjamin; Messaadi, Nassir; Petit, Aymeric; Cottencin, Olivier; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use is now more frequent than alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking among young people (15-34years), whereas it may induce numerous medical aftermaths. Identifying and assessing cannabis use in general practice have become a current public health issue. The two steps of screening consist in spotting risky use of cannabis, and then in checking criteria for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Risky use requires a "brief intervention" by the general practitioner (GP). In case of CUD, the new DSM-5 criteria allow measuring the severity of the subsequent disorder, and listing the medical and social consequences. Using these criteria can help the GP to decide when the patient should be referred to an addiction-specialized unit. The GP has also to spot the different physical and psychiatric complications of cannabis use, in order to coordinate care between the different specialists.

  8. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.

  9. Evaluating the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Lynskey, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Since 2012 four US states have legalized the retail sale of cannabis for recreational use by adults, and more are likely to follow. This report aimed to (1) briefly describe the regulatory regimes so far implemented; (2) outline their plausible effects on cannabis use and cannabis-related harm; and (3) suggest what research is needed to evaluate the public health impact of these policy changes. We reviewed the drug policy literature to identify: (1) plausible effects of legalizing adult recreational use on cannabis price and availability; (2) factors that may increase or limit these effects; (3) pointers from studies of the effects of legalizing medical cannabis use; and (4) indicators of cannabis use and cannabis-related harm that can be monitored to assess the effects of these policy changes. Legalization of recreational use will probably increase use in the long term, but the magnitude and timing of any increase is uncertain. It will be critical to monitor: cannabis use in household and high school surveys; cannabis sales; the number of cannabis plants legally produced; and the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of cannabis. Indicators of cannabis-related harms that should be monitored include: car crash fatalities and injuries; emergency department presentations; presentations to addiction treatment services; and the prevalence of regular cannabis use among young people in mental health services and the criminal justice system. Plausible effects of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the United States include substantially reducing the price of cannabis and increasing heavy use and some types of cannabis-related harm among existing users. In the longer term it may also increase the number of new users. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-10-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in a coffee shop. Young adult frequent cannabis users (n = 106) from the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study. The objectively measured amount of cannabis per joint (dose in grams) was compared with self-reported estimates using a prompt card and average number of joints made from 1 g of cannabis. In addition, objectively assessed THC concentration in the participant's cannabis was compared with self-reported level of intoxication, subjective estimate of cannabis potency and price per gram of cannabis. Objective estimates of doses per joint (0.07-0.88 g/joint) and cannabis potency (1.1-24.7%) varied widely. Self-reported measures of dose were imprecise, but at group level, average dose per joint was estimated accurately with the number of joints made from 1 g [limit of agreement (LOA) = -0.02 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29; 0.26], whereas the prompt card resulted in serious underestimation (LOA = 0.14 g, 95% CI = -0.10; 0.37). THC concentration in cannabis was associated with subjective potency ['average' 3.77% (P = 0.002) and '(very) strong' 5.13% more THC (P < 0.001) than '(very) mild' cannabis] and with cannabis price (about 1% increase in THC concentration per euro spent on 1 g of cannabis, P < 0.001), but not with level of intoxication. Self-report measures relating to cannabis use appear at best to be associated weakly with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Assessment of eating behaviour in young women requesting nutritional counselling and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Boschi, V; Muscariello, E; Maresca, I; Ricciardi Lo Schiavo, F; Tranchese, V; Bellini, O; Colantuoni, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of maternal eating behaviour on a clinical population of young women compared with a non-clinical one. A group of 59 young women (age 16-30 yr) attending a weight-loss Clinic and their mothers (n=59; age 37-64 yr) were enrolled. They were compared with a group of female students (n=59; age 18-36 yr) and their mothers (n=59; age 41-67 yr). Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Eating behaviour was assessed by using the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Eating Inventory (EI) and Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26). The EDI-2 scales significantly different between the groups were drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, inadequacy, enteroceptive awareness and insecurity. The EI scales values were all different between the groups and consistently higher in the clinical populations. The differences between groups were even more striking for the EAT-26 scales; the clinical young women had the highest scores. The daughter-mother correlation for each scale in the clinical and non-clinical groups showed that the EDI-2 scales assessing eating behaviour, drive for thinness, bulimia and body dissatisfaction, were significantly related in the non clinical group but not in the clinical group. On the other side, the clinical group showed correlation for the scales assessing psychopathological traits such as perfectionism, interpersonal disrupt, enteroceptive awareness, impulsivity and insecurity. For EI scales the correlation was significant for disinhibition in the non clinical group. A correspondence was observed for dieting in the non clinical group and for food preoccupation in the clinical group. EDI-2, EI and EAT-26 scales assessing eating behaviour were strongly predictive of BMI in both groups. Maternal eating behaviour influences the young women; in particular mothers-daughters of the clinical group showed some problems, for which they still had to grow up and stand out

  12. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  13. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  14. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.

    PubMed

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities.

  15. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure

    PubMed Central

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Keimpema, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world’s most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal “legal” highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities. PMID:24793873

  16. Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We outline and evaluate competing explanations of three relationships that have consistently been found between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs, namely, (1) that cannabis use typically precedes the use of other illicit drugs; and that (2) the earlier cannabis is used, and (3) the more regularly it is used, the more likely a young person is to use other illicit drugs. We consider three major competing explanations of these patterns: (1) that the relationship is due to the fact that there is a shared illicit market for cannabis and other drugs which makes it more likely that other illicit drugs will be used if cannabis is used; (2) that they are explained by the characteristics of those who use cannabis; and (3) that they reflect a causal relationship in which the pharmacological effects of cannabis on brain function increase the likelihood of using other illicit drugs. These explanations are evaluated in the light of evidence from longitudinal epidemiological studies, simulation studies, discordant twin studies and animal studies. The available evidence indicates that the association reflects in part but is not wholly explained by: (1) the selective recruitment to heavy cannabis use of persons with pre-existing traits (that may be in part genetic) that predispose to the use of a variety of different drugs; (2) the affiliation of cannabis users with drug using peers in settings that provide more opportunities to use other illicit drugs at an earlier age; (3) supported by socialisation into an illicit drug subculture with favourable attitudes towards the use of other illicit drugs. Animal studies have raised the possibility that regular cannabis use may have pharmacological effects on brain function that increase the likelihood of using other drugs. We conclude with suggestions for the type of research studies that will enable a decision to be made about the relative contributions that social context, individual characteristics, and drug effects make

  17. Cannabis 'dependence' and attentional bias for cannabis-related words.

    PubMed

    Field, M

    2005-09-01

    Drug users have attentional biases for drug-related stimuli, and the frequency of drug use and craving are associated with attentional bias. However, research to date has not investigated the relationship between the severity of cannabis dependence, and attentional bias for cannabis-related stimuli. In the present study, 28 recreational cannabis users completed a modified Stroop task with cannabis-related and control words, plus questionnaire measures of cannabis dependence and craving. Participants were split into those who met diagnostic criteria for cannabis dependence based on scores on the Cannabis Severity of Dependence Scale (C-SDS), and those who did not. The cannabis-dependent group had a significant attentional bias for the cannabis-related words, but the non-dependent group did not. Correlations indicated that attentional bias was also associated with the frequency of cannabis use, and with subjective craving.

  18. The Draft and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Marylou

    A rationale is presented for why counselors need to become involved in draft counseling. The author discusses five basic reasons why draft counseling should be offered and then considers a number of examples which indicate the kinds of problems which young draft-age men face: anxiety, moral dilemma, family pressures, self image, etc. The…

  19. Effect of Peer Counselling by Mother Support Groups on Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices: The Lalitpur Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Komal P.; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M. Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J. P.; Gupta, Y. P.; Bhatt, Girish C.; Ansari, Dilshad A.; Sharma, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. Methods We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points–2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). Results The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p = <0.0001)and T2 (62% vs. 11%); 13.3 (9.4, 18.9, p = <0.0001); use of prelacteal feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, p<0.0001) and T2 (67% vs. 5%); 44.4 (28.8, 68.4, p = <0.0001); rates of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p = <0.0001) and T2 (60% vs. 7%); 20.5 (11.3, 37.2, p = <0.0001); initiation of complementary feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p = <0.0001) and T2 (96% vs. 54%); 22.9 (11.8, 44.1, p = <0.0001) and complementary feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Conclusions Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained. PMID:25369452

  20. Effect of peer counselling by mother support groups on infant and young child feeding practices: the Lalitpur experience.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Komal P; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J P; Gupta, Y P; Bhatt, Girish C; Ansari, Dilshad A; Sharma, B

    2014-01-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points-2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p =  <0.0001)and T2 (62% vs. 11%); 13.3 (9.4, 18.9, p =  <0.0001); use of prelacteal feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, p<0.0001) and T2 (67% vs. 5%); 44.4 (28.8, 68.4, p = <0.0001); rates of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p =  <0.0001) and T2 (60% vs. 7%); 20.5 (11.3, 37.2, p =  <0.0001); initiation of complementary feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p =  <0.0001) and T2 (96% vs. 54%); 22.9 (11.8, 44.1, p =  <0.0001) and complementary feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained.

  1. Cannabis Smoking in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  2. Cannabis: a trigger for acute myocardial infarction? A case report.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Francesco; Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2008-07-01

    Cannabis smoking is consistently increasing in Europe and after alcohol it is the most common recreational drug in the western world. Users and lay people believe that marijuana or hashish is safe. Over the past four decades, however, it has been well established that cannabis has pathophysiological effects on the cardiovascular system. Information concerning the link between cannabis consumption and myocardial infarction is limited and existing data are controversial on this topic. In our case report, we describe a case of a young man who after smoking marijuana experienced ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by acute thrombosis of the descending artery, submitted to efficacious primary coronary angioplasty.

  3. [Maternal cannabis use and intra-uterine growth restriction].

    PubMed

    Davitian, C; Uzan, M; Tigaizin, A; Ducarme, G; Dauphin, H; Poncelet, C

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, especially among young women in Western societies. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy have been studied for many years. The vast majority of studies have shown a link between maternal consumption of cannabis and foetal development. Foetal growth restriction seems to be the major complication of cannabis exposure. Nevertheless, all these studies have suffered from several methodological biases. The maternal marijuana use should be first and foremost detected in pregnant women for a specific addiction management and pregnancy follow-up.

  4. Do medical cannabis laws encourage cannabis use?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Dennis M; Charles Huber, J

    2007-05-01

    Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the period 1995-2002 were examined in three cities in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose), one city in Colorado (Denver), and one city in Oregon (Portland). Data were also analysed for juvenile arrestees in two of the California cities and Portland. Data on emergency department patients from the Drug Abuse Warning Network for the period 1994-2002 were examined in three metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco), one in Colorado (Denver), and one in Washington State (Seattle). The analysis followed an interrupted time-series design. No statistically significant pre-law versus post-law differences were found in any of the ADAM or DAWN sites. Thus, consistent with other studies of the liberalization of cannabis laws, medical cannabis laws do not appear to increase use of the drug. One reason for this might be that relatively few individuals are registered medical cannabis patients or caregivers. In addition, use of the drug by those already sick might "de-glamorise" it and thereby do little to encourage use among others.

  5. [CANNABIS: ALTERNATIVE REALITIES (CRA)].

    PubMed

    Galván, Gonzalo Daniel; Guerrero, Manuel; Pinedo López, Jhon; García, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this cross sectional and descriptive study, secondary school students trom the city of Santa Rosa were questioned about their beliefs about cannabis and their risk perception derived from it. The sample consisted in 83 male and 71 female 17 year-old teenagers. On the one hand, it was found that the highest risk perceptions were related to the legal issues that might arise due to cannabis consumption, and to its effects on neurons. On the other hand, the lowest risk perceptions were associated with the belief/ idea that smoking tobacco affects the lungs more than smoking cannabis, which might create dependence, and its use can cause mental disorders. Several significant differences were found as regards gender, since the female students noticed more risk than male students in that the consumption of cannabis can develop mental disorders, amotivational syndrome, lack of enthusiasm and less satisfaction with life. The teenager's risk perception about cannabis is variable.

  6. Cannabis dependence, cognitive control and attentional bias for cannabis words.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, J; Watson, P; Koenders, L; Vingerhoets, W A M; Goudriaan, A E; Wiers, R W

    2013-12-01

    One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving. © 2013.

  7. Cannabis careers revisited: applying Howard S. Becker's theory to present-day cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest a revision of the theory. As part of this, we propose a stretch of the sociological approach represented by Becker and followers in order to include, not only recreational drug use, but also use for which young people have sought treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  9. Genetic Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Before or between pregnancies > Genetic counseling Genetic counseling E-mail to a friend Please fill ... a genetic counselor in your area. What is genetic counseling? Genetic counseling helps you understand how genes , ...

  10. Mental health symptoms and their relationship to cannabis use in adolescents attending residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Albertella, Lucy; Norberg, Melissa M

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined mental health symptoms and their relationship to cannabis use and treatment outcomes in a sample of adolescents who received treatment for cannabis dependence through a residential substance use program. The sample included 132 adolescents who nominated cannabis as their primary drug of concern upon admission and who completed at least 30 days of treatment. This study found that mental health symptoms of young cannabis users reduced significantly from admission to three-month follow-up. Further, pretreatment symptoms of anxiety were associated with greater pretreatment cannabis use, while symptoms of phobic anxiety were associated with less pretreatment cannabis use. Pretreatment obsessive-compulsive and somatization symptoms were associated with greater follow-up cannabis use, whereas pretreatment paranoid ideation symptoms were associated with less follow-up cannabis use. Further, follow-up somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hostility, and phobic anxiety were associated with greater follow-up cannabis use while follow-up symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity were associated with less follow-up cannabis use. These findings highlight a variety of areas for further investigation in order to enhance current treatment for cannabis use.

  11. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Roux, Perrine; Rolland, Benjamin; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world. Its use is largely concentrated among young people (15- to 34-year-olds). There is a variety of cannabis use patterns, ranging from experimental use to dependent use. Men are more likely than women to report both early initiation and frequent use of cannabis. Due to the high prevalence of cannabis use, the impact of cannabis on public health may be significant. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified. Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases.

  12. Stroke from Vasospasm due to Marijuana Use: Can Cannabis Synergistically with Other Medications Trigger Cerebral Vasospasm?

    PubMed

    Jamil, Marium; Zafar, Atif; Adeel Faizi, Syed; Zawar, Ifrah

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of imaging proven cerebral vasospasm causing ischemic stroke in a young patient chronically on buprenorphine-naloxone for heroin remission who started smoking cannabis on a daily basis. With cannabis legalization spreading across the states in the USA, it is important for physicians not only to be aware of cannabis reported association with cerebral vasospasm in some patients but also to be on the lookout for possible interacting medications that can synergistically affect cerebral vessels causing debilitating strokes.

  13. Cannabis and pregnancy: Maternal child health implications during a period of drug policy liberalization.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Terplan, Mishka

    2017-05-18

    Cannabis use is common and increasing among women in the United States. State policies are changing with a movement towards decriminalization and legalization. We explore the implications of cannabis liberalization for maternal and child health. Most women who use cannabis quit or cut back during pregnancy. Although women are concerned about the possible health effects of cannabis, providers do a poor job of counseling. There is a theoretical potential for cannabis to interfere with neurodevelopment, however human data have not identified any long-term or long lasting meaningful differences between children exposed in utero to cannabis and those not. Scientifically accurate dissemination of cannabis outcomes data is necessary. Risks should be neither overstated nor minimized, and the legal status of a substance should not be equated with safety. Decreasing or stopping use of all recreational drugs should be encouraged during pregnancy. Providers must recognize that even in environments where cannabis is legal, pregnant women may end up involved with Child Protective Services. In states where substance use is considered child abuse this may be especially catastrophic. Above all, care for pregnant women who use cannabis should be non-punitive and grounded in respect for patient autonomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can cannabis cause psychosis?

    PubMed

    Michaels, Timothy I; Novakovic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing popular support for the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has led to legalization for both medicinal and recreational purposes in the United States. To the extent that these changes in policy lead to increase widespread use, it is important to consider the association between heavy chronic cannabis use and the onset of psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia. This article provides a brief review of evidence that support cannabis use as a risk factor in the complex etiology of psychotic illness. In addition to reviewing psychopharmacology, longitudinal research, and clinical studies, the article addresses the potential implications of current research on public health policy.

  15. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cannabis and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Anaïs

    2011-01-01

    From time out of mind, man has grown hemp for both "industrial" and "recreational" use (it is then referred to as cannabis). Of course, cannabis has strong psychoactive properties and is one of the most commonly used "soft drugs" in the world. Clinicians should know the adverse effects on mucous membranes and on skin, which may sometimes entail an absolutely necessary stopping of consumption. Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as arteritis due to cannabis consumption may be extremely severe and result in worrying situations for both clinicians and patients.

  17. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  18. CANNABIS RELATED PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES: A SELECTIVE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Malhotra, Anil; Varma, Vijoy K.

    1994-01-01

    Association between cannabis use and various psychiatric syndromes does exist, but their nature remains elusive. Cannabis intoxication, ‘cannabis psychosis’ and certain other conditions related with cannabis use like flashbacks and prolonged depersonalization are discussed in this paper. The controversial nature of the cannabis - schizophrenia link is noted, and various methodological issues in clinical cannabis research are highlighted. PMID:21743686

  19. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabis-AAT) and to investigate the predictive relationship between an approach-bias for cannabis-related materials and levels of cannabis use, craving, and the course of cannabis use. Design, settings and participants Cross-sectional assessment and six-month follow-up in 32 heavy cannabis users and 39 non-using controls. Measurements Approach and avoidance action-tendencies towards cannabis and neutral images were assessed with the cannabis AAT. During the AAT, participants pulled or pushed a joystick in response to image orientation. To generate additional sense of approach or avoidance, pulling the joystick increased picture size while pushing decreased it. Craving was measured pre- and post-test with the multi-factorial Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Cannabis use frequencies and levels of dependence were measured at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Findings Heavy cannabis users demonstrated an approach-bias for cannabis images, as compared to controls. The approach-bias predicted changes in cannabis use at six-month follow-up. The pre-test MCQ emotionality and expectancy factor were associated negatively with the approach-bias. No effects were found on levels of cannabis dependence. Conclusions Heavy cannabis users with a strong approach-bias for cannabis are more likely to increase their cannabis use. This approach-bias could be used as a predictor of the course of cannabis use to identify individuals at risk from increasing cannabis use. PMID:21518067

  20. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    PubMed Central

    Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas with alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs. PMID:19340636

  1. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    PubMed

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  2. Anxiety sensitivity and cannabis use-related problems: The impact of race.

    PubMed

    Dean, Kimberlye E; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2017-04-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among young adults. Anxiety sensitivity (AS; ie, fear of anxiety-related symptoms) is positively related to coping motives for cannabis use (which are robustly positively linked to cannabis-related problems). However, AS is unrelated to cannabis use-related problems. Yet, extant studies have been conducted on primarily White samples. It may be that among Black students, AS-physical concerns (ie, fear of physical anxiety-related sensations) are related to cannabis problems given that Black individuals are more likely than White individuals to report experiencing greater and more intense somatic symptoms when experiencing anxiety. Black individuals may rely on cannabis to cope with fear of these somatic symptoms, continuing to use despite cannabis-related problems. The current study tested whether race moderated the relation between AS-physical concerns and cannabis problems among 102 (85.3% female) current cannabis using undergraduates who were either non-Hispanic Black (n = 51) or non-Hispanic White (n = 51). After controlling for frequency of cannabis use, income, and gender, race significantly moderated the relation between AS-physical concerns and cannabis use-related problems such that AS-physical concerns significantly predicted cannabis-related problems among Black and not White individuals. Findings highlight the importance of considering race in identifying psychosocial predictors of cannabis-related problems. Intervention strategies for Black cannabis users may benefit from examining and targeting AS-physical concerns. (Am J Addict 2017;26:209-214). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both.

  4. Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... District of Columbia have enacted laws to legalize medical marijuana (see Question 1 ). In the United States, Cannabis ... District of Columbia have enacted laws to legalize medical marijuana. (See Question 4 ). What are cannabinoids? Cannabinoids are ...

  5. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  6. Cannabis masks diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Annemarie

    2011-10-04

    This is the first series to identify that diabetic ketosis presenting in cannabis users has a different and conflicting acid base profile compared to non-cannabis users and can confuse the need for intensive or critical care in these at-risk patients. This association of drugtaking history and clinical presentation has implications for how the authors treat the drug using sector of the population with diabetes.

  7. [Cannabis and cancer].

    PubMed

    Carriot, F; Sasco, A J

    2000-10-01

    Several publications have recently suggested a relationship between cannabis use and certain types of cancer. We gathered information on the latest findings on the subject. A manual and computerized bibliographic search on cannabis and cancer was conducted. In users under 40 years of age, cannabis is suspected to increase the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly of the tongue and larynx, and possibly of lung. Other tumours being suspected are non-lymphoblastic acute leukaemia and astrocytoma. In head and neck cancer, carcinogenicity was observed for regular (i.e. more than once a day for years) cannabis smokers. Moreover, cannabis increases the risk of head and neck cancer in a dose-response manner for frequency and duration of use. Interaction was observed with cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Delta9-THC seems to have a specific carcinogenic effect different from that of the pyrolysis products. Epidemiological studies are needed as soon as possible to provide data on the European and French situation. Information on the possible risks of a regular use of cannabis should be a priority.

  8. Cannabis and sport

    PubMed Central

    Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti‐doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti‐Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Methods Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. Results The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. Conclusions There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis. PMID:16799094

  9. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Muetzel, R.L.; Luciana, M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18-20 years old at baseline) regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment. PMID:26602958

  10. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mary P; Collins, Paul F; Lim, Kelvin O; Muetzel, R L; Luciana, M

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18-20 years old at baseline) regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment.

  11. Cardiac arrest following cannabis use: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cannabis, or Marijuana, remains one of the most universally used recreational drugs. Over the last four decades, its popularity has risen considerably as it became easily accessible and relatively affordable. Peak use is amongst the young aged 18 to 25 years, although these figures are now shifting towards earlier teens. A strongly installed culture still regards cannabis a harmless drug, yet as more reports have shown there are considerable adverse cardiovascular events linked with its use. Case Presentation In this paper, we present the case of a 15-year-old male who suffered a cardiac arrest following cannabis use and survived the episode. Conclusion Cardiac arrest is a rare and possibly fatal consequence of cannabis use. Public awareness should be raised by extensively promoting all potential complications associated with its use. PMID:19946452

  12. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  13. [Desired effects and adverse effects of cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Drewe, J

    2003-06-01

    Although the use of cannabis shows no pronounced acute toxicity, acute psychological and psychomotor disturbances are observed occasionally after intake of single doses. Cannabis use can result in relevant impairment of driving ability. The risk is enhanced by concomitant use of alcohol. This augments the effect of cannabis significantly. After chronic use, significantly more psychotic symptoms become manifest, and there is a risk for developing psychological and physical dependence. Young age and pre-existing psychological disturbances increase the risk of these adverse effects. Chronic marijuana smoking is associated with increased toxicity and the risk of cancer of the respiratory tract. There is evidence of disturbance of the immune system and teratogenic effects of chronic cannabis use.

  14. Social anxiety and cannabis-related impairment: The synergistic influences of peer and parent descriptive and injunctive normative perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Garey, Lorra; Buckner, Julia D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cannabis users, especially socially anxious cannabis users, are influenced by perceptions of other’s use. The present study tested whether social anxiety interacted with perceptions about peer and parent beliefs to predict cannabis-related problems. Methods Participants were 148 (36.5% female, 60.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian) current cannabis users aged 18–36 (M = 21.01, SD = 3.09) who completed measures of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, social anxiety, and cannabis use behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to investigate the predictive value of the social anxiety × parent injunctive norms × peer norms interaction terms on cannabis use behaviors. Results Higher social anxiety was associated with more cannabis problems. A three-way interaction emerged between social anxiety, parent injunctive norms, and peer descriptive norms, with respect to cannabis problems. Social anxiety was positively related to more cannabis problems when parent injunctive norms were high (i.e., perceived approval) and peer descriptive norms were low. Results further showed that social anxiety was positively related to more cannabis problems regardless of parent injunctive norms. Conclusions The present work suggest that it may be important to account for parent influences when addressing normative perceptions among young adult cannabis users. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions incorporating feedback regarding parent norms impacts cannabis use frequency and problems. PMID:27144526

  15. Social Anxiety and Cannabis-Related Impairment: The Synergistic Influences of Peer and Parent Descriptive and Injunctive Normative Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Garey, Lorra; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-06-06

    Cannabis users, especially socially anxious cannabis users, are influenced by perceptions of other's use. The present study tested whether social anxiety interacted with perceptions about peer and parent beliefs to predict cannabis-related problems. Participants were 148 (36.5% female, 60.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian) current cannabis users aged 18-36 (M = 21.01, SD = 3.09) who completed measures of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, social anxiety, and cannabis use behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to investigate the predictive value of the social anxiety X parent injunctive norms X peer norms interaction terms on cannabis use behaviors. Higher social anxiety was associated with more cannabis problems. A three-way interaction emerged between social anxiety, parent injunctive norms, and peer descriptive norms, with respect to cannabis problems. Social anxiety was positively related to more cannabis problems when parent injunctive norms were high (i.e., perceived approval) and peer descriptive norms were low. Results further showed that social anxiety was positively related to more cannabis problems regardless of parent injunctive norms. The present work suggests that it may be important to account for parent influences when addressing normative perceptions among young adult cannabis users. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions incorporating feedback regarding parent norms impacts cannabis use frequency and problems.

  16. Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marijuana (Cannabis) Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Medical Marijuana (Cannabis) Marijuana FAQs Managing Pain and Sleep Issues ... enforce federal marijuana laws in states that permit medical marijuana use. This should reduce confusion in those states ...

  17. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Incorporating elements of social franchising in government health services improves the quality of infant and young child feeding counselling services at commune health centres in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Keithly, Sarah C; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2014-12-01

    Although social franchising has been shown to enhance the quality of reproductive health services in developing countries, its effect on nutrition services remains unexamined. This study assessed the effects of incorporating elements of social franchising on shaping the quality of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling facilities and services in Vietnam. Process-related data collected 12 months after the launch of the first franchises were used to compare randomly assigned Alive & Thrive-supported health facilities (AT-F, n = 20) with standard facilities (SF, n = 12) across three dimensions of service quality: 'structure', 'process' and 'outcome' that capture the quality of facilities, service delivery, and client perceptions and use, respectively. Data collection included facility assessments (n = 32), staff surveys (n = 96), counselling observations (n = 137), client exit interviews (n = 137) and in-depth interviews with mothers (n = 48). Structure: AT-F were more likely to have an unshared, well-equipped room for nutrition counselling than SF (65.0% vs 10.0%). Compared with SF providers, AT-F staff had better IYCF knowledge (mean score 9.9 vs 8.8, range 0-11 for breastfeeding; mean score 3.6 vs 3.2, range 0-4 for complementary feeding). AT-F providers also demonstrated significantly better interpersonal communication skills (score 9.6 vs 5.1, range 0-13) and offered more comprehensive counselling sessions. Overall utilization of franchises was low (10%). A higher proportion of pregnant women utilized franchise services (48.9%), compared with mothers with children 6-23.9 months (1.4%). There was no quantitative difference in client satisfaction with counselling services between AT-F and SF, but franchise users praised the AT-F for problem solving related to child feeding. Incorporating elements of social franchising significantly enhances the quality of IYCF counselling services within government primary healthcare facilities, particularly their

  19. Genetic Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Counseling Genomic Testing Pathogen Genomics Epidemiology Resources Genetic Counseling Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir In ... informed decisions about testing and treatment. Reasons for Genetic Counseling There are many reasons that people go ...

  20. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...

  1. Coma due to cannabis toxicity in an infant.

    PubMed

    Appelboam, Andrew; Oades, Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    In young children, cannabis ingestion resulting in coma is very rare. Only nine cases have been reported in the literature and most have occurred in inquisitive toddlers. We review the cases to date and report the youngest recorded case of coma due to cannabis ingestion in an 11-month-old girl. This case highlights the importance of considering toxicological causes and the parental recreational drug history in young children who present with an altered level of consciousness. Child protection considerations are also discussed.

  2. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    PubMed

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa.

  3. [Cannabis--abuse and consequences].

    PubMed

    Wøien, Vidar-André; Horwitz, Henrik; Høgberg, Lotte C G; Askaa, Bjarke; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-02-02

    Cannabis is the world's most popular illicit drug, and around half of all Danes have tried it at least once. In this paper we review the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis. We also discuss the treatment of cannabis intoxication and present data from The Danish Poison Information Center.

  4. COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR Genetic Polymorphisms Moderate Executive Control in Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Beatriz Fagundo, Ana; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuyás, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to test if these polymorphisms moderate the harmful effects of cannabis use on executive function in young cannabis users. We recruited 144 participants: 86 cannabis users and 58 non-drug user controls. Both groups were genotyped and matched for genetic makeup, sex, age, education, and IQ. We used a computerized neuropsychological battery to assess different aspects of executive functions: sustained attention (CANTAB Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, RVIP), working memory (N-back), monitoring/shifting (CANTAB ID/ED set shifting), planning (CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge, SOC), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). We used general linear model-based analyses to test performance differences between cannabis users and controls as a function of genotypes. We found that: (i) daily cannabis use is not associated with executive function deficits; and (ii) COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderate the link between cannabis use and executive performance. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val/val genotype exhibited lower accuracy of sustained attention, associated with a more strict response bias, than val/val non-users. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val allele also committed more monitoring/shifting errors than cannabis users carrying the met/met genotype. Finally, cannabis users carrying the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype had worse IGT performance than s/s non-users. COMT and SLC6A4 genes moderate the impact of cannabis use on executive functions. PMID:23449176

  5. The burden of disease attributable to cannabis use in Canada in 2012.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Sameer; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Cheng, Joyce; Popova, Svetlana; Kurdyak, Paul; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use is associated with several adverse health effects. However, little is known about the cannabis-attributable burden of disease. This study quantified the age-, sex- and adverse health effect-specific cannabis-attributable (1) mortality, (2) years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), (3) years of life lost due to disability (YLDs) and (4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Canada in 2012. Epidemiological modeling. Canada. Canadians aged ≥ 15 years in 2012. Using comparative risk assessment methodology, cannabis-attributable fractions were computed using Canadian exposure data and risk relations from large studies or meta-analyses. Outcome data were obtained from Canadian databases and the World Health Organization. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Monte Carlo methodology. Cannabis use was estimated to have caused 287 deaths (95% CI = 108, 609), 10,533 YLLs (95% CI = 4760, 20,833), 55,813 YLDs (95% CI = 38,175, 74,094) and 66,346 DALYs (95% CI = 47,785, 87,207), based on causal impacts on cannabis use disorders, schizophrenia, lung cancer and road traffic injuries. Cannabis-attributable burden of disease was highest among young people, and males accounted for twice the burden than females. Cannabis use disorders were the most important single cause of the cannabis-attributable burden of disease. The cannabis-attributable burden of disease in Canada in 2012 included 55,813 years of life lost due to disability, caused mainly by cannabis use disorders. Although the cannabis-attributable burden of disease was substantial, it was much lower compared with other commonly used legal and illegal substances. Moreover, the evidence base for cannabis-attributable harms was smaller. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J; Dariano, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    A number of states in the United States legally allow the use of cannabis as a medical therapy to treat an illness or to alleviate symptoms. Concern persists as to whether these types of laws are increasing juvenile recreational cannabis use. It is also plausible that medical cannabis laws engender an escalation of illicit non-cannabis drug use among juveniles because cannabis is frequently considered to be a gateway drug. This study uses longitudinal data drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health for the 50 U.S. states and a cross-sectional pooled-time series research design to investigate the effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use and on juvenile non-cannabis illicit drug use. Our study period encompasses five measurement periods calibrated in two-year intervals (2002-2003 to 2010-2011). This research design is advantageous in that it affords us the ability not only to assess the effect of the implementation of medical cannabis laws on juvenile drug use, but also to consider other state-specific factors that may explain variation in drug use that cannot be accounted for using a single time series. Findings show that medical cannabis laws amplify recreational juvenile cannabis use. Other salient predictors of juvenile cannabis use at the state-level of analysis include perceived availability of cannabis, percent of juveniles skipping school, severity of perceived punishment for cannabis possession, alcohol consumption, percent of respondents with a father residing in household, and percent of families in the state receiving public assistance. There is little empirical evidence to support the view that medical cannabis laws affect juveniles' use of illicit non-cannabis drugs. Based on our findings, it seems reasonable to speculate that medical cannabis laws amplify juveniles' use of cannabis by allaying the social stigma associated with recreational cannabis use and by placating the fear that cannabis use could potentially result in a

  7. Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of Varenicline for Treating Co-Occurring Cannabis and Tobacco Use.

    PubMed

    Adams, Tangeria R; Arnsten, Julia H; Ning, Yuming; Nahvi, Shadi

    2017-09-27

    Few studies have evaluated treatment for co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of varenicline for co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Participants who reported cannabis use on ≥5 days per week were recruited from an urban, outpatient opioid treatment program (OTP). Participants were randomized to either four weeks of standard OTP clinical care (SCC; medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder and individual behavioral counseling), followed by four weeks of SCC plus varenicline (SCC+VT), or to four weeks of SCC+VT followed by four weeks of SCC. All participants contributed feasibility and outcome data during both study phases. Of 193 persons screened, seven were enrolled. Retention at eight weeks was 100%. No adverse effects prompted varenicline discontinuation. Participants reported lower cannabis craving during the SCC+VT phase compared to baseline, and lower frequencies and quantities of cannabis use compared to both baseline and the SCC alone phase. In the SCC+VT phase, participants also reported fewer cigarettes per day. Among persons with co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use, varenicline is well-tolerated and may reduce cannabis craving, cannabis use, and tobacco use.

  8. Is alexithymia related to cannabis use disorder? Results from a case-control study in outpatient adolescent cannabis abusers.

    PubMed

    Dorard, Géraldine; Bungener, Catherine; Phan, Olivier; Edel, Yves; Corcos, Maurice; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, alexithymia has been considered a risk factor for multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions. Yet, whereas alexithymia has been extensively studied in adults with a substance misuse, only one study has reported data on cannabis abusers from the general population. Hence, our main objective was to explore alexithymia in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking young outpatients with a DSM-IV cannabis dependence or abuse diagnosis compared to controls. 120 young patients (95 males - mean age 17.9years (SD=2.8; 14 to 25)) with a cannabis dependence or abuse (DSM-IV-TR criteria evaluated with the MINI), seeking treatment in an addiction unit, and 110 healthy control subjects (77 males - mean age 18.2years (SD=3.4; 14 to 25)) participated in the study. They completed a battery of self-reports measuring alexithymia (TAS-20; BVAQ-B), depression (BDI-13) and state and trait anxiety (STAI). 35.3% of cannabis users were alexithymic, and logistic regression analysis showed that the alexithymic components of difficulties identifying and describing feelings combined with trait anxiety predicted group membership. This first study on young cannabis abusers and dependent subjects further emphasizes the importance of considering the affective style, and particularly the anxious temperament and alexithymia features, as factors associated with substance misuse during late adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sudden onset unexplained encephalopathy in infants: think of cannabis intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Eran; Rekhtman, David; Berkun, Yackov; Wexler, Isaiah

    2016-03-01

    The use of cannabis as both a therapeutic agent and recreational drug is common, and its availability is increasing as a result of legalization in many countries. Among older children, the manifestations of cannabis intoxication are numerous and include both neurological and systemic manifestations that are frequently non-specific. There have been only a few reports detailing cannabis intoxication in infants and toddlers. We describe three infants who presented to the emergency department with encephalopathic signs without prominent systemic manifestations. During the initial interview of caregivers, no history of exposure to neurotoxic agents was obtained. All three patients were subsequently diagnosed with cannabis intoxication based on urine toxic screens for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The infants recovered with supportive care that included fluids and monitoring. The non-specific symptomatology of cannabis intoxication in infants together with the wide differential for unexplained acute onset encephalopathy may delay diagnosis and lead to inappropriate procedures and interventions such as antimicrobial treatments and imaging studies. Healthcare personnel of emergency rooms, urgent care centers, and general clinics should be aware of the potential risk of cannabis ingestion in young infants. A thorough medical history and toxic screen are warranted in all infants with unexplained decreased sensorium.

  10. Cannabis, cannabinoids and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Boram; McPartland, John M; Glass, Michelle

    2004-02-01

    In most countries Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug. Its use during pregnancy in developed nations is estimated to be approximately 10%. Recent evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system, now consisting of two receptors and multiple endocannabinoid ligands, may also play an important role in the maintenance and regulation of early pregnancy and fertility. The purpose of this review is therefore twofold, to examine the impact that cannabis use may have on fertility and reproduction, and to review the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in hormonal regulation, embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy.

  11. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    PubMed

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  12. COUNSELING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WATERLOO, GLENN E.

    THE NEED FOR COUNSELING IS EMPHASIZED BY THE FACT THAT 875,000 CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL IMPEDIMENTS TO LEARNING. TYPICAL COUNSELING PRACTICES ARE PROBLEM-CENTERED COUNSELING, EXCLUSIVELY "VOCATIONAL" OR "EDUCATIONAL" COUNSELING WITH LITTLE CONCERN FOR THE WHOLE INDIVIDUAL, EXTREME DIRECTIVE OR…

  13. Cannabis and social welfare assistance: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2011-09-01

    To investigate associations between cannabis use and subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance. The Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. A population-based Norwegian sample (n = 2606) was followed-up from adolescence to late 20s. Self-report data were merged with data from national registers. Data were extracted on the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and other illegal substances. Information was also retrieved on socio-demographic and family factors, academic achievement, conduct problems and mental health. National registers provided data on social welfare assistance, educational level and crime statistics. We observed prospective bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use and subsequent social welfare assistance (P < 0.0001). The associations were reduced after adjusting for a range of potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. Frequent cannabis users were at highly increased risk for subsequently receiving social welfare assistance. At 28 years, those with 50+ times cannabis use during the previous 12 months and had an odds ratio of 9.3 (95% confidence interval: 4.3-20.1) for receiving social welfare assistance in the following 2-year span. Users of cannabis also had longer periods of receiving social welfare assistance than others (P < 0.0001) and were less likely to leave the welfare assistance system (P < 0.0001). In Norway the use of cannabis is linked with subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance whether the consequences are related to use of the substance per se, or to cultural factors and the illegal status of the cannabis. Future research should attempt to understand the interactions of factors behind these associations. © 2011 The Author, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Respiratory health effects of cannabis: position statement of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D R; Hall, W

    2003-07-01

    Both the gaseous and the particulate phases of tobacco and cannabis smoke contain a similar range of harmful chemicals. However, differing patterns of inhalation mean that smoking a 'joint' of cannabis results in exposure to significantly greater amounts of combusted material than with a tobacco cigarette. The histopathological effects of cannabis smoke exposure include changes consistent with acute and chronic bronchitis. Cellular dysplasia has also been observed, suggesting that, like tobacco smoke, cannabis exposure has the potential to cause malignancy. These features are consistent with the clinical presentation. Symptoms of cough and early morning sputum production are common (20-25%) even in young individuals who smoke cannabis alone. Almost all studies indicate that the effects of cannabis and tobacco smoking are additive and independent. Public health education should dispel the myth that cannabis smoking is relatively safe by highlighting that the adverse respiratory effects of smoking cannabis are similar to those of smoking tobacco, even although it remains to be confirmed that smoking cannabis alone leads to the development of chronic lung disease.

  15. An Australian Twin Study of Cannabis and Other Illicit Drug Use and Misuse, and Other Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug throughout the developed world and there is consistent evidence of heritable influences on multiple stages of cannabis involvement including initiation of use and abuse/dependence. In this paper, we describe the methodology and preliminary results of a large-scale interview study of 3,824 young adult twins (born 1972–1979) and their siblings. Cannabis use was common with 75.2% of males and 64.7% of females reporting some lifetime use of cannabis while 24.5% of males and 11.8% of females reported meeting criteria for DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. Rates of other drug use disorders and common psychiatric conditions were highly correlated with extent of cannabis involvement and there was consistent evidence of heritable influences across a range of cannabis phenotypes including early (≤15 years) opportunity to use (h2 = 72%), early (≤16 years) onset use (h2 = 80%), using cannabis 11+ times lifetime (h2 = 76%), and DSM abuse/dependence (h2 = 72%). Early age of onset of cannabis use was strongly associated with increased rates of subsequent use of other illicit drugs and with illicit drug abuse/dependence; further analyses indicating that some component of this association may have been mediated by increasing exposure to and opportunity to use other illicit drugs. PMID:22874079

  16. Grey Matter Changes Associated with Heavy Cannabis Use: A Longitudinal sMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Koenders, Laura; Cousijn, Janna; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A M; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W; Meijer, Carin J; Machielsen, Marise W J; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anneke E; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cannabis exposure and the development of cannabis use disorders may affect brain morphology. However, cross-sectional studies cannot make a conclusive distinction between cause and consequence and longitudinal neuroimaging studies are lacking. In this prospective study we investigate whether continued cannabis use and higher levels of cannabis exposure in young adults are associated with grey matter reductions. Heavy cannabis users (N = 20, age baseline M = 20.5, SD = 2.1) and non-cannabis using healthy controls (N = 22, age baseline M = 21.6, SD = 2.45) underwent a comprehensive psychological assessment and a T1- structural MRI scan at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Grey matter volumes (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum) were estimated using the software package SPM (VBM-8 module). Continued cannabis use did not have an effect on GM volume change at follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed consistent negative correlations between cannabis related problems and cannabis use (in grams) and regional GM volume of the left hippocampus, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus. These results suggests that small GM volumes in the medial temporal lobe are a risk factor for heavy cannabis use or that the effect of cannabis on GM reductions is limited to adolescence with no further damage of continued use after early adulthood. Long-term prospective studies starting in early adolescence are needed to reach final conclusions.

  17. Utility of the comprehensive marijuana motives questionnaire among medical cannabis patients.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Bonar, Erin E; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Walton, Maureen A; Ilgen, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n=1116). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate properties of the CMMQ. Multiple regressions were used to estimate associations between motives and cannabis use, physical health functioning, and mental health functioning. Fit indices were acceptable, and factor loadings ranged from 0.57 to 0.94. Based on regression analyses, motives accounted for 7% of the variance in recent cannabis use, and independent of cannabis use, accounted for 5% and 19% of physical and mental health functioning, respectively. Regression analyses also revealed that distinct motives were associated with cannabis use and physical and mental health functioning. Among adults seeking medical cannabis certification, the factor structure of the CMMQ was supported, and consistent with prior studies of adolescents and young adults using cannabis recreationally. Thus, individuals who use cannabis medically may have diverse reasons for use that extend beyond the management of medical symptoms. In addition, coping and sleep-related motives may be particularly salient for this population. Findings support the utility of the CMMQ in future research on medical cannabis use; however, expansion of the scale may be needed to address medical motives for use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre‐Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis‐related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger‐like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

  19. [Use of Mental Health Service Among Young Adults on Unemployment Benefit Before and after Receiving Counseling at a Psychiatric Liaison Department].

    PubMed

    Hagen, C; Bänfer, S; Werkstetter, L; Hebebrand, J; Reissner, V

    2016-12-14

    Objective: To determine mental health service utilization before and after consultation of a psychiatric liaison service ("Support 25") among youths aged 16-24 years suffering from mental disorders and receiving unemployment benefits. Methods: Longitudinal registration of mental health service use over a 9-month period (N=148); measurement of possible moderators with questionnaires and rating scales. Results: Mental health service utilization increased from initially 22% to 40% and 47.5% 3 and 6 months after receiving individual treatment recommendation. Low-threshold psychosocial counseling was frequented more often than specific psychiatric or psychotherapeutic treatment. Subjects who contacted mental health services showed a trend towards a lower level of psychosocial functioning than subjects who did not seek treatment. Stigma-related factors did not hinder mental health service use. Conclusions: Despite a high degree of psychiatric morbidity, the surveyed sample of unemployed youths had problems to successfully enter mental health services. Although a substantial increase in service use was observed after receiving psychoeducational information at a psychiatric liaison service, the use of low-threshold counseling predominated. This finding suggests that the mental health system should adapt better to the specific needs of young unemployed, for example, by expanding low-threshold psychiatric pre-treatment offers at vocational centers.

  20. Cannabis and psychosis: Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a ‘cause-effect’ relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the ‘transition-to-psychosis’ due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553

  1. Can we make cannabis safer?

    PubMed

    Englund, Amir; Freeman, Tom P; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis use and related problems are on the rise globally alongside an increase in the potency of cannabis sold on both black and legal markets. Additionally, there has been a shift towards abandoning prohibition for a less punitive and more permissive legal stance on cannabis, such as decriminalisation and legalisation. It is therefore crucial that we explore new and innovative ways to reduce harm. Research has found cannabis with high concentrations of its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to be more harmful (in terms of causing the main risks associated with cannabis use, such as addiction, psychosis, and cognitive impairment) than cannabis with lower concentrations of THC. By contrast, cannabidiol, which is a non-intoxicating and potentially therapeutic component of cannabis, has been found to reduce the negative effects of cannabis use. Here, we briefly review findings from studies investigating various types of cannabis and discuss how future research can help to better understand and reduce the risks of cannabis use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

  3. A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-06-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.

  4. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Parkkari, Jari; Taanila, Henri; Suni, Jaana; Mattila, Ville M; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Vuorinen, Petteri; Kannus, Pekka; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2011-04-11

    The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). A neuromuscular training and injury

  5. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). Conclusions A

  6. Distance to Cannabis Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-11-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that influence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 km of a cannabis shop have a lower age of onset.

  7. Cannabis use and cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Moussouttas, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug and is often considered innocuous. However, cases of acute onset neurologic dysfunction occurring in relation to cannabis use have been described and corresponding cerebral imaging studies have documented focal ischemic changes and vessel abnormalities. This article reviews all reported cases of presumed cannabis related cerebral ischemic events in the medical literature, as well as pertinent human and animal experimental studies on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects of cannabis. Cannabis use seems to have been causally related to several instances of cerebral ischemia and infarction. Proposed etiologic mechanisms have included cerebral vasospasm, cardioembolization, and systemic hypotension with impaired cerebral autoregulation, but most of the available data points to a vasospastic process. The exact relation of cannabis to cerebrovascular disease remains to be determined.

  8. Cannabis and neurodevelopment: implications for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Suresh

    2006-06-01

    The developing brain is susceptible to the effects of exogenous cannabinoids both during the perinatal period through maternal cannabis use and in young adolescent users. Emerging data from human and animal perinatal exposure studies demonstrate a subtle rather than gross effect of cannabis upon later functioning including; specific cognitive deficits especially in visuospatial function; impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity; depressive symptoms; and substance use disorders. From animal studies motor control systems, neuroendocrine function and nociception may additionally be affected. Fetal studies indicate that these outcomes may be through cannabinoid mediated influences on the ontogeny of, especially dopamine and opioid, neurotransmitter systems. The effect of cannabinoids in the adolescent suggest long-term deleterious outcomes in cognition, depressive symptoms, schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Much of these data support a neurodevelopmental effect, however, predisposing genetic and/or environmental factors cannot be excluded from human studies. Gender specific differences have been observed in both human and animal studies implying sex hormone and related factors may interact with cannabinoids in neurodevelopment. Further understanding how cannabinoids influence neurodevelopment will inform public debate about the health effects of cannabis but also open avenues in discerning how modulation of the endocannabinoid system may assist in the development of therapeutic tools for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  10. Cannabis and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Mehta, Hetal

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people with schizophrenia use cannabis and its effects on the illness are unclear. Objectives To evaluate the effects of cannabis use on people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like illnesses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials involving cannabinoids and people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed effects model. We calculated the numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH). For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a fixed effects model. Main results We identified one randomised trial. No significant differences were found between the Cannabis and Psychosis Therapy (CAP) intervention group and the Psychoeducaton (PE) intervention for use of cannabis at three months assessment (n=47, RR 1.04 CI 0.6 to 1.7). BPRS-extended scale scores at three months assessment (n=47, WMD −3.60 CI −12.8 to 5.6) and nine months assessment (n=47, WMD 0.80 CI −7.5 to 9.1) were non-significant between CAP and PE. We found no significant improvement in social functioning in the CAP group compared with PE (at 3 months, n=47, WMD −0.80 CI −10 to 8.4) and (at 9 months, n=47, WMD −4.70 CI −14.5 to 5.1). Authors’ conclusions At present, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of cannabis/cannabinoid compounds for people suffering with schizophrenia. This review highlights the need for well designed, conducted and reported clinical trials to address the potential effects of cannabis based compounds for people with schizophrenia. PMID:18646115

  11. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    PubMed

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  12. [Somatic consequences of cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Cottencin, Olivier; Bence, Camille; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis can have negative effects in its users, and a range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been dentified. Acute cannabis consumption is rarely lethal but it is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accident because of longer reaction time or impaired motor coordination. Chronic effects of cannabis use include generally cardiovascular and respiratory consequences but there are also oral, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and mucous, metabolic, gynecologic and obstetrical, sexual consequences, and cancer But associated tobacco smoking or other potential confounders may explain part of those somatic consequences.

  13. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  15. Genetic counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000510.htm Genetic counseling To use the sharing features on this ... cystic fibrosis or Down syndrome. Who May Want Genetic Counseling? It is up to you whether or ...

  16. Cannabis withdrawal in chronic cannabis users with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Douglas L.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared A.; Turner, Hailey; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; McMahon, Robert P.; Gorelick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic users of cannabis often report withdrawal symptoms after abstinence from use, but little is known about cannabis withdrawal in people with schizophrenia. Methods Cannabis use patterns and withdrawal symptoms in adults with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use before attempting to quit without formal treatment were assessed with the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a 176-item, semi-structured questionnaire. Results 120 participants, predominantly African–American (62.5%) and male (76.7%), met inclusion criteria. 20.1% reported that their first regular cannabis use (median age 15 years [range 8–48]) preceded their age at first psychotic symptoms (20 [4–50] years). Twenty (16.7%) participants met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse; 98 (81.7%) met surrogate criteria for lifetime cannabis dependence. Withdrawal symptoms were reported by 113 (94.2%) participants, with 74.2% reporting ≥4 symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were craving for cannabis (59.2%), feeling anxious (52.57%), feeling bored (47.5%), feeling sad or depressed (45.8%), feeling irritable or jumpy (45.0%), feeling restless (43.3%), and trouble failing asleep (33.3%). One hundred-and-four (92.0%) participants took some action to relieve at least one of their withdrawal symptoms during their index-quit attempt, including 26 (23.0%) participants who reported resuming cannabis use. Conclusion Cannabis withdrawal is a clinically significant feature of cannabis use among people with schizophrenia, may serve as a negative reinforcer for relapse, and deserves greater attention in treatment and research. Clinical Trials registration NCT00679016. PMID:23146560

  17. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  18. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  19. A preliminary comparison of cannabis use in subsyndromal gamblers: select neurocognitive and behavioral differences based on use.

    PubMed

    Leppink, Eric; Derbyshire, Katherine; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis and gambling are 2 common forms of impulsive behavior among young adults. Although both cannabis use and gambling have been associated with specific cognitive deficits on tasks related to decision making, no studies to date have examined the possible effects on neurocognition in those who simultaneously gamble and use cannabis. To address this question, the present study analyzed 214 subsyndromal gamblers from a larger study on impulsivity. Of these subjects, 64 (29.9%) were current cannabis users (last use within the last 3 months) and 150 (70.1%) had no history of cannabis use in the last 3 months, along with 163 healthy controls. Participants were assessed on various cognitive and clinical measures, including measures for gambling severity and impulsivity. Subjects using cannabis had higher rates of current alcohol use disorders and more frequent gambling behavior per week. Gamblers who used cannabis also exhibited significantly greater scores on one measure of attentional impulsivity. Both gambling groups differed from healthy controls on all clinical and select neurocognitive variables, consistent with previous research. These results indicate that cannabis use in young adults who gamble is associated with nuanced behavioral differences, although causality could not be determined. Longitudinal research should examine cannabis use in subsyndromal gamblers over time to characterize whether these findings are causative.

  20. Counseling Endorphins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry

    1994-01-01

    The author introduces, through personal narrative, the idea that the experience of counseling another person can create "counseling endorphins" and invites other mental health professionals to enter into a dialogue about the possibility of a counseling "high" and about how to design research to explore this phenomenon. (Author/JPS)

  1. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  2. Counseling Endorphins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry

    1994-01-01

    The author introduces, through personal narrative, the idea that the experience of counseling another person can create "counseling endorphins" and invites other mental health professionals to enter into a dialogue about the possibility of a counseling "high" and about how to design research to explore this phenomenon. (Author/JPS)

  3. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R

    2015-03-01

    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The consequences of chronic cannabis smoking in vulnerable adolescents.

    PubMed

    Iede, Montaha Al; Nunn, Kenneth; Milne, Bronwyn; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2016-11-09

    Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana. We address those adolescents genetically and environmentally vulnerable to mental illness, with specific emphasis on indigenous and neurodevelopmentally impaired young people who show patterns of usage and response very different to adults and more resilient members of the population. Specifically, the practice of mixing tobacco with marijuana by aboriginal youth, and the resultant coalition of dependencies, will likely presage a rise in pulmonary and central nervous system pathology over the coming decades. Aboriginal youth begin using earlier, persist longer, and take greater quantities of cannabis than non-indigenous youth. This paper recommends practical interventions to reduce the multiple health consequences of chronic cannabis use in young people, especially indigenous young people. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cannabis and cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, E; Amato, M; Izzo, A A

    2000-08-01

    Cannabis and cannabinoids exert many of their biological functions through receptor-mediated mechanisms. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified, namely CB(1) and CB(2), both coupled to a G protein. CB(1) receptors have been detected in the central nervous system (where they are responsible for the characteristic effects of Cannabis, including catalepsy, depression of motor activity, analgesia and feelings of relaxation and well being) and in peripheral neurons (where their activation produces a suppression in neurotransmitter release in the heart, bladder, intestine and vas deferens). Cannabinoid CB(2) receptors have only been detected outside the central nervous system, mostly in cells of the immune system, presumably mediating cannabinoid-induced immunosuppression and antinflammatory effects. With the discovery of cannabinoid receptors for exogenous cannabinoids, also endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide, 2-arachidonylglycerol) have been described.

  6. [Cannabis affects driving skills].

    PubMed

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-03-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most important psychoactive substance in cannabis, is frequently detected in blood from apprehended drivers suspected for drugged driving. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the negative effects of THC upon cognitive functions and psychomotor skills. These effects could last longer than a measurable concentration of THC in blood. Culpability studies have recently demonstrated an increased risk of becoming responsible in fatal or injurious traffic accidents, even with low blood concentrations of THC. It has also been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the degree of impairment, the drug dose and the THC blood concentration. It is very important to focus on the negative effect of cannabis on fitness to drive in order to prevent injuries and loss of human life and to avoid large economic consequences to the society.

  7. Cannabis - the Israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2016-05-01

    Short overviews are presented on the historical uses of cannabis in the Middle East and on the more recent scientific and medical research on phytocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, with emphasis on research contributions from Israel. These are followed by examples of research projects and clinical trials with cannabinoids and by a short report on the regulation of medical marijuana in Israel, which at present is administered to over 22,000 patients.

  8. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  9. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  10. Frequent cannabis use is associated with reduced negative priming among females.

    PubMed

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between cannabis use, sex, and attentional inhibition in a sample of 325 young Australians (194 women and 131 men) aged 14 to 24 years. Participants completed an online assessment, which included self-report measures of alcohol and other drug use, psychological distress, schizotypy, and location-based negative priming. Participants who had never used cannabis (n = 163) were compared with occasional (n = 118) and frequent (n = 44) cannabis users, with frequent use being defined as having used cannabis at least weekly in the past 6 months. There was a significant interaction between sex and cannabis use, with follow-up analyses indicating that frequent cannabis use was associated with reduced negative priming among females only. This study highlights the role of sex in influencing how cannabis use interacts with cognition and suggests that females who use cannabis frequently may be more likely than males to exhibit deficits in attentional inhibition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L.C.; Henry, E.A.; Willcutt, E.G.; Kinnear, M.K.; Ito, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Methods Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p’s<.01) and that childhood HI symptoms were associated with earlier initiation of cannabis (p<.01). Further, current IN symptoms moderated the relationships between level of use and more severe outcomes (p’s<.01), such that higher IN strengthened positive associations among use and problem cannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Conclusions Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. PMID:24332802

  12. Long-Term Experiences in Cash and Counseling for Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Familial Programme Representative Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Melissa L.; MacDonald, Lynn; McLuckie, Althea; Battista, Christina; Mahoney, Ellen K.; Mahoney, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to explore previously unknown long-term outcomes of self-directed personal care services for young adults with intellectual disabilities and limitations in activities of daily living. Materials and Methods: The present authors utilized participatory action research and qualitative content analysis in interviewing 11 unpaid…

  13. Is recent cannabis use associated with acute coronary syndromes? An illustrative case series.

    PubMed

    Casier, Isabelle; Vanduynhoven, Philippe; Haine, Steven; Vrints, Chris; Jorens, Philippe G

    2014-04-01

    Cannabis is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We report three cases where recent and/or chronic use of marijuana led to severe cardiac dysfunction. All three patients collapsed at home and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with initial restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The mechanism of the cardiovascular collapse was different in each case. The first case presented with asystole and was found to have diffuse coronary vasospasm on coronary angiography in the hours after acute cannabis abuse. In the second case, an acute anterior infarction with occlusion of both the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left anterior descendens (LAD) was observed in a young patient without known cardiovascular risks but with chronic cannabis abuse. The third case presented at home with ventricular fibrillation presumably caused by an acute coronary syndrome due to left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion. The hetero-anamnesis of the family reported that all three patients had recently used cannabis. Toxicological screening also showed no other substance abuse than cannabis. Using these three cases, we would like to illustrate that the widespread use of cannabis is not as innocent as is believed. Cannabis use can lead to severe cardiovascular problems and sudden death, not only in people at increased cardiovascular risk, but also in young people without any medical history or risk factors.

  14. [Motivational interventions: psychosis and cannabis].

    PubMed

    Favrod, J

    2009-12-01

    Cannabis use by people suffering from schizophrenia increase relapse rate and reduce adhesion to treatment. Motivational interventions could reduce cannabis misuse. The motivational interviewing principles and techniques are presented in a concrete way as well as the required adaptations to bypass cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.

  15. Stroke from Vasospasm due to Marijuana Use: Can Cannabis Synergistically with Other Medications Trigger Cerebral Vasospasm?

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Atif; Adeel Faizi, Syed; Zawar, Ifrah

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of imaging proven cerebral vasospasm causing ischemic stroke in a young patient chronically on buprenorphine-naloxone for heroin remission who started smoking cannabis on a daily basis. With cannabis legalization spreading across the states in the USA, it is important for physicians not only to be aware of cannabis reported association with cerebral vasospasm in some patients but also to be on the lookout for possible interacting medications that can synergistically affect cerebral vessels causing debilitating strokes. PMID:27833768

  16. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting.

  17. Cannabis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2004-03-01

    This review covers published information on psychoactive drugs, particularly cannabis, in Papua New Guinea. Legal drugs are mentioned to place the illegal drugs into a broader public health context. Although a number of psychoactive drugs were used traditionally (and are used now), cannabis is the only illicit drug for which prevalence of use is currently not negligible. Very little epidemiology research on cannabis use and its individual and public health sequelae has been conducted, although a fuller criminology literature on the topic exists. The published cannabis use prevalence studies are limited in scope, and the most-cited one is of questionable accuracy. The complex interactions between the health of individuals and their social environments are highlighted by the destructive impacts that cannabis cultivation, trafficking and use are having in contemporary PNG.

  18. Does cannabis use moderate smoking cessation outcomes in treatment-seeking tobacco smokers? Analysis from a large multi-center trial.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Rachel A; Ashare, Rebecca L; Schnoll, Robert A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; George, Tony P

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and cannabis are frequently used in combination and cannabis co-use may lead to poor tobacco cessation outcomes. Therefore, it is important to explore if cannabis co-use is associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving successful tobacco abstinence among treatment-seeking tobacco smokers. The present study examined whether current cannabis use moderated tobacco cessation outcomes after 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment (varenicline vs. nicotine patch vs. placebo) with adjunctive behavioral counseling. Treatment-seeking tobacco smokers (N = 1,246) were enrolled in an intent-to-treat study, of which 220 were current cannabis users. Individuals were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of placebo (placebo pill plus placebo patch), nicotine patch (active patch plus placebo pill), or varenicline (active pill plus placebo patch), plus behavioral counseling. The primary endpoint was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment. Controlling for rate of nicotine metabolism, treatment arm, age, sex, alcohol, and level of nicotine dependence, cannabis users were as successful at achieving biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence compared to tobacco-only smokers. Findings suggest that cannabis use does not hinder the ability to quit tobacco smoking. Future tobacco cessation studies should employ prospective, longitudinal designs investigating cannabis co-use over time and at different severity levels. (Am J Addict 2016;25:291-296). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Mikael A; Hazekamp, Arno; Colzato, Lorenza S; van Steenbergen, Henk; van der Wee, Nic J A; Durieux, Jeffrey; Manai, Meriem; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis users often claim that cannabis has the potential to enhance their creativity. Research suggests that aspects of creative performance might be improved when intoxicated with cannabis; however, the evidence is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of cannabis on creativity. We examined the effects of administering a low (5.5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) or high (22 mg THC) dose of vaporized cannabis vs. placebo on creativity tasks tapping into divergent (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent (Remote Associates Task) thinking, in a population of regular cannabis users. The study used a randomized, double-blind, between-groups design. Participants in the high-dose group (n = 18) displayed significantly worse performance on the divergent thinking task, compared to individuals in both the low-dose (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups. The findings suggest that cannabis with low potency does not have any impact on creativity, while highly potent cannabis actually impairs divergent thinking.

  20. Statistics on Cannabis Users Skew Perceptions of Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rachel M.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Everingham, Susan S.; Kilmer, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight (1) differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; (2) how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and (3) the correlation between frequency of use in the past-month and average grams consumed per use-day. Key findings: focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanics. Further, data from a survey conducted in seven European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations. PMID:24223560

  1. Electronic cigarettes and cannabis: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    To describe cannabis 'vaping' with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic vaporizers (e-vaporizers). Internet survey in 2013-2014. Participants were 11 people who 'vaped' cannabis with e-cigarettes and 44 people who vaped cannabis with e-vaporizers, enrolled online. Most participants were men (78%). They had used e-cigarettes for 6 days and e-vaporizers for 50 days on average to vape cannabis. Current users of e-cigarettes vaped cannabis on 2 days/week versus 6 days/week for users of e-vaporizers. In these devices, they mostly inserted cannabis buds and oil rather than hashish or wax/butane honey oil. Dual users, who both smoked and vaped cannabis, currently smoked 5 joints/week compared to 14 joints/week before they started to vape cannabis (p = 0.004). Half the participants (45%) reported that vaping cannabis helped them stop or reduce their total cannabis use, 37% that it had no impact on their cannabis use, and 6% that it increased it. Vaping cannabis was perceived as healthier and more discrete than smoking it (less odor). Disadvantages included dry mouth and fewer positive cannabis effects. Cannabis vaping via e-cigarettes or e-vaporizers is an infrequent behavior that was previously almost undocumented. E-cigarettes do not appear to be a very appealing way to use cannabis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    PubMed

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use.

  3. Impact of Cannabis Use on Long-Term Remission in Bipolar I and Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Lesley; Kulkarni, Jayashri; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of regular cannabis use on long-term remission of mood symptoms in bipolar spectrum disorders. Methods The 24-month prospective observational study included patients (n=239) with bipolar I disorder and schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Participants were classified as regular cannabis users (three times or more per week) or non-users. The primary outcome measure was the achievement of remission on the evaluations during the 24 months. Results Of the 234 participants for whom data was available, 25 (10.7%) were regular cannabis users, and the group comprised significantly more males than females. In the total population, cannabis use was significantly associated with decreased likelihood of remission during the 24-month follow-up period. Subgroup analyses showed that cannabis use was significantly associated with lower remission rates on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in females (n=139) and patients prescribed mood stabilizers alone (n=151), whereas in males (n=95) and patients prescribed olanzapine and/or a mood stabilizer (n=83), cannabis use was significantly associated with lower remission rates on the Young Mania Rating Scale. Remission rates were lowest in the concurrent cannabis and tobacco smoking group (n=22) followed by the tobacco smoking only group (n=97), and the non-smoker group (n=116). The post-hoc analysis revealed that all remission rates were significantly lower in the concurrent cannabis and the tobacco smoking group compared to the non-smoker group. Conclusion Cannabis use negatively affects the long-term clinical outcome in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. A comprehensive assessment and integrated management of cannabis use are required to achieve better treatment outcomes for bipolar spectrum disorders. PMID:26207128

  4. Cannabis dependence and mental health perception amongst people diverted by police after arrest for cannabis-related offending behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Feeney, G F X; Connor, J P; Young, R McD; Tucker, J; McPherson, A

    2005-01-01

    Use of cannabis and other mind-altering drugs may be associated with violence or other offending behaviours. In many countries mere possession of the drug may be sufficient to lead to a criminal conviction and, therefore, a criminal record. Recent legal and policy reforms in Australia have led to development of cannabis diversion programmes. To describe substance misuse patterns and health perception in a consecutive series of young people in Queensland who were spared a criminal record because of a cannabis diversion scheme. Between 9 July 2001 and 24 August 2004, 640 men and 187 women were diverted through the Queensland Illicit Drug Diversion Initiative (QIDDI) for treatment at a hospital alcohol and drug service. In this cross-sectional study of their drug use history, participants also completed the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for cannabis and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Almost 60% of participants were cannabis dependent (as determined by the SDS). Polysubstance use was also more prevalent amongst dependent participants. Self-reported health (GHQ-28) was poorer than expected from Australian normative data, and worse if participants were cannabis dependent. Applying the GHQ-28 threshold for psychiatric case identification (caseness), cannabis dependent participants had significantly higher level of caseness across all subscales of somatic concerns, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression. Dependent women registered the highest proportion of psychopathology, particularly anxiety and social dysfunction. Young cannabis users in Queensland who come into contact with the police are more likely than not to be dependent on the drug. Their high levels of psychopathology suggest that they are better placed in healthcare rather than the criminal justice system, and that appropriately responsive mental healthcare programmes are needed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties. PMID:28355238

  6. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  7. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Radwan, Mohamed M; Gul, Waseem; Chandra, Suman; Galal, Ahmed

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ(9)-THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant. Besides Δ(9)-THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products. Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis. The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.

  8. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  9. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  10. (Re)introducing medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Mather, Laurence E; Rauwendaal, Evert R; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne L; Wodak, Alex D

    2013-12-16

    • After considering extensive scientific and medical evidence, a New South Wales Legislative Council multiparty committee recommended that medicinal cannabis should lawfully be made available for selected-use pharmacotherapy. • The evidence indicates that cannabis has genuine medicinal utility in patients with certain neuropathic conditions, with acceptable levels of risk from mostly mild side effects. • The potential medical benefits of cannabis pharmacotherapy have largely been overlooked, with research and society's attention, in most parts of the world, being directed towards the hazards of its recreational use. • The NSW Government has since dismissed the unanimous and compassionate recommendations of their committee.

  11. [Does cannabis use lead to schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Heekeren, K

    2011-11-02

    There is a high comorbidity between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Several factors contribute to this comorbidity: secondary development of addiction, cannabis-related induction of psychosis and shared neurobiological alterations. Meanwhile, there is evidence that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that a frequent cannabis use doubles the risk for schizophrenia. Interestingly, schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis use often show significantly better performances in neuropsychological tests than patients without cannabis use. This is nevertheless not due to a positive effect of cannabis, but a sign of cannabis-related psychosis induction in subjects with a higher level of function and less cognitive impairment. Whether cannabis use leads to schizophrenia is determined by the individual vulnerability.

  12. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-05-26

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic.

  13. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  14. Cannabis in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Guzman, M

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer-related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Success Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, D. Barnes; Boffey, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes success counseling, a counseling approach based on the principles of William Glasser's control theory and reality therapy that helps campers examine their wants and needs, evaluate their own behaviors, and see the connections between behavior and the ability to meet basic needs for love, power, fun, and freedom. Provides examples of…

  16. Success Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, D. Barnes; Boffey, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes success counseling, a counseling approach based on the principles of William Glasser's control theory and reality therapy that helps campers examine their wants and needs, evaluate their own behaviors, and see the connections between behavior and the ability to meet basic needs for love, power, fun, and freedom. Provides examples of…

  17. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-05-05

    as compared with low-intensity interventions.The most consistent evidence supports the use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and particularly their combination for assisting with reduction of cannabis use frequency at early follow-up (MET: MD 4.45, 95% CI 1.90 to 7.00, four studies, 612 participants; CBT: MD 10.94, 95% CI 7.44 to 14.44, one study, 134 participants; MET + CBT: MD 7.38, 95% CI 3.18 to 11.57, three studies, 398 participants) and severity of dependence (MET: SMD 4.07, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.17, two studies, 316 participants; MET + CBT: SMD 7.89, 95% CI 0.93 to 14.85, three studies, 573 participants), although no particular intervention was consistently effective at nine-month follow-up or later. In addition, data from five out of six studies supported the utility of adding voucher-based incentives for cannabis-negative urines to enhance treatment effect on cannabis use frequency. A single study found contrasting results throughout a 12-month follow-up period, as post-treatment outcomes related to overall reduction in cannabis use frequency favoured CBT alone without the addition of abstinence-based or treatment adherence-based contingency management. In contrast, evidence of drug counselling, social support, relapse prevention and mindfulness meditation was weak because identified studies were few, information on treatment outcomes insufficient and rates of treatment adherence low. In line with treatments for other substance use, abstinence rates were relatively low overall, with approximately one-quarter of participants abstinent at final follow-up. Finally, three studies found that intervention was comparable with treatment as usual among participants in psychiatric clinics and reported no between-group differences in any of the included outcomes. Included studies were heterogeneous in many aspects, and important questions regarding the most effective duration, intensity and type of intervention were raised and

  18. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    outcomes (particularly in terms of cannabis use frequency and severity of dependence) in the short term as compared with low-intensity interventions. The most consistent evidence supports the use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and particularly their combination for assisting with reduction of cannabis use frequency at early follow-up (MET: MD 4.45, 95% CI 1.90 to 7.00, four studies, 612 participants; CBT: MD 10.94, 95% CI 7.44 to 14.44, one study, 134 participants; MET + CBT: MD 7.38, 95% CI 3.18 to 11.57, three studies, 398 participants) and severity of dependence (MET: SMD 4.07, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.17, two studies, 316 participants; MET + CBT: SMD 7.89, 95% CI 0.93 to 14.85, three studies, 573 participants), although no particular intervention was consistently effective at nine-month follow-up or later. In addition, data from five out of six studies supported the utility of adding voucher-based incentives for cannabis-negative urines to enhance treatment effect on cannabis use frequency. A single study found contrasting results throughout a 12-month follow-up period, as post-treatment outcomes related to overall reduction in cannabis use frequency favoured CBT alone without the addition of abstinence-based or treatment adherence-based contingency management. In contrast, evidence of drug counselling, social support, relapse prevention and mindfulness meditation was weak because identified studies were few, information on treatment outcomes insufficient and rates of treatment adherence low. In line with treatments for other substance use, abstinence rates were relatively low overall, with approximately one-quarter of participants abstinent at final follow-up. Finally, three studies found that intervention was comparable with treatment as usual among participants in psychiatric clinics and reported no between-group differences in any of the included outcomes. Authors’ conclusions Included studies were heterogeneous in many

  19. Psychosis following traumatic brain injury and cannabis use in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rabner, Jonathan; Gottlieb, Sarah; Lazdowsky, Lori; LeBel, Alyssa

    2016-03-01

    Both cannabis and traumatic brain injury (TBI) pose risks on the developing brain, including a potential increased vulnerability for developing psychosis. Recent reports detail an upward trend in both adolescent cannabis use and the concentration of THC, the most potent psychoactive component in cannabis. Similarly, it is estimated that 1.7 million Americans incur a TBI each year. Previously trivialized as a minor nuisance, attitudes towards TBIs are changing as researchers and the public recognize TBIs' possible long-lasting sequelae. Two cases are presented of adolescent patients with histories of TBI and self-reported heavy, recreational cannabis use who developed symptoms of psychosis. Similar neuronal signaling pathways involved in cannabis ingestion and TBI recovery, specifically CB1 receptors of the endocannabinoid system, as well as the allostatic load model provide context for the two presented cases. Given the cases and theories presented, we believe that cannabis use may act as a neurological stressor and risk factor for psychosis outweighing its possible benefits as a therapeutic solution for pain in late adolescent and young adult populations. The presented cases provide further support for the compounded risk of developing psychosis following TBI and cannabis use. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Adolescent peer networks and the moderating role of depressive symptoms on developmental trajectories of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; de la Haye, Kayla; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigated how depressive symptoms moderate the role of peer cannabis use on developmental patterns of individual cannabis use from adolescence to young adulthood, controlling for a broad set of individual and family factors. Data from two sources were analyzed separately: two saturated schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Waves I-III (N=1550) covering 1994-2001; and three schools in the CARBIN study, covering 2012-2014. Discrete mixture models identified developmental trajectories of cannabis use in each data source, and logit models linked network and depressive symptom information to the trajectories. Five similar cannabis use trajectories were identified in both datasets: Nonuse, Low, Moderate, Increasing, and High. Peer cannabis use at baseline predicted higher individual cannabis use trajectories, controlling for a wide range of factors. However, the association between peer cannabis use and higher levels of use (Moderate and High) attenuated as the adolescent's level of depressive symptoms increased. Although these results may suggest that depression dampers adolescents' susceptibility to peer influence, these results are also consistent with the notion that depressed adolescents withdraw from their peer groups, distancing them from the initial source of peer influence over time. The resulting isolation may place adolescents at higher risk of adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cannabis and Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Change Blossoms a Mile High.

    PubMed

    Hoffenberg, Edward J; Newman, Heike; Collins, Colm; Tarbell, Sally; Leinwand, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    The trend toward decriminalization of cannabis (marijuana) continues sweeping across the United States. Colorado has been a leader of legalization of medical and recreational cannabis use. The growing public interest in the medicinal properties of cannabis and its use by patients with a variety of illnesses including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) makes it important for pediatric gastroenterologists to understand this movement and its potential effect on patients. This article describes the path to legalization and "medicalization" of cannabis in Colorado and the public perception of safety despite the known adverse health effects of use. We delineate the mammalian endocannabinoid system and our experience of caring for children and adolescents with IBD in an environment of increasing awareness and acceptance of its use. We then summarize the rationale for considering that cannabis may have beneficial and harmful effects for patients with IBD. Finally, we highlight the challenges federal laws impose on conducting research on cannabis in IBD. The intent of this article is to inform health care providers about the issues around cannabis use and research in adolescents and young adults with IBD.

  2. Cannabis use and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aldington, S; Harwood, M; Cox, B; Weatherall, M; Beckert, L; Hansell, A; Pritchard, A; Robinson, G; Beasley, R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the risk of lung cancer associated with cannabis smoking. A case-control study of lung cancer in adults cannabis use. The relative risk of lung cancer associated with cannabis smoking was estimated by logistic regression. In total, 79 cases of lung cancer and 324 controls were included in the study. The risk of lung cancer increased 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2-15) for each joint-yr of cannabis smoking, after adjustment for confounding variables including cigarette smoking, and 7% (95% CI 5-9) for each pack-yr of cigarette smoking, after adjustment for confounding variables including cannabis smoking. The highest tertile of cannabis use was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (relative risk 5.7 (95% CI 1.5-21.6)), after adjustment for confounding variables including cigarette smoking. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that long-term cannabis use increases the risk of lung cancer in young adults.

  3. Weeding Out the Truth: Adolescents and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following.

  4. Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Nakamura, Brad; Earleywine, Mitchell; LaBrie, Joseph

    2005-03-30

    The current investigation uses a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate college students (N=189) to investigate schizotypal traits among cannabis and non-cannabis users, as well as the temporal order of the onset of these traits and cannabis use. Findings suggest that regular cannabis users are significantly more prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions as well as disorganization, but not interpersonal deficits, than non-regular users and those who have never used. Additionally, the onset of schizotypal symptoms generally precedes the onset of cannabis use. The findings do not support a causal link between cannabis use and schizotypal traits.

  5. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    PubMed

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  6. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    PubMed

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  8. Cannabis and Pain: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.; Palastro, Matthew D.; Johnson, Brian; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cannabis has been used for medical purposes across the world for centuries. As states and countries implement medical and recreational cannabis policies, increasing numbers of people are using cannabis pharmacotherapy for pain. There is a theoretical rationale for cannabis' efficacy for pain management, although the subjective pain relief from cannabis may not match objective measurements of analgesia. As more patients turn to cannabis for pain relief, there is a need for additional scientific evidence to evaluate this increase. Materials and Methods: Research for this review was performed in the PubMed/National Library of Medicine database. Discussion: Preclinical studies demonstrate a narrow therapeutic window for cannabis as pharmacotherapy for pain; the body of clinical evidence for this indication is not as extensive. A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials of cannabis and cannabinoids for pain found modest evidence supporting the use of cannabinoid pharmacotherapy for pain. Recent epidemiological studies have provided initial evidence for a possible reduction in opioid pharmacotherapy for pain as a result of increased implementation of medical cannabis regimens. Conclusion: With increased use of medical cannabis as pharmacotherapy for pain comes a need for comprehensive risk-benefit discussions that take into account cannabis' significant possible side effects. As cannabis use increases in the context of medical and recreational cannabis policies, additional research to support or refute the current evidence base is essential to attempt to answer the questions that so many healthcare professionals and patients are asking. PMID:28861509

  9. Cannabis and Pain: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P; Palastro, Matthew D; Johnson, Brian; Ditre, Joseph W

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis has been used for medical purposes across the world for centuries. As states and countries implement medical and recreational cannabis policies, increasing numbers of people are using cannabis pharmacotherapy for pain. There is a theoretical rationale for cannabis' efficacy for pain management, although the subjective pain relief from cannabis may not match objective measurements of analgesia. As more patients turn to cannabis for pain relief, there is a need for additional scientific evidence to evaluate this increase. Materials and Methods: Research for this review was performed in the PubMed/National Library of Medicine database. Discussion: Preclinical studies demonstrate a narrow therapeutic window for cannabis as pharmacotherapy for pain; the body of clinical evidence for this indication is not as extensive. A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials of cannabis and cannabinoids for pain found modest evidence supporting the use of cannabinoid pharmacotherapy for pain. Recent epidemiological studies have provided initial evidence for a possible reduction in opioid pharmacotherapy for pain as a result of increased implementation of medical cannabis regimens. Conclusion: With increased use of medical cannabis as pharmacotherapy for pain comes a need for comprehensive risk-benefit discussions that take into account cannabis' significant possible side effects. As cannabis use increases in the context of medical and recreational cannabis policies, additional research to support or refute the current evidence base is essential to attempt to answer the questions that so many healthcare professionals and patients are asking.

  10. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  11. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  12. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  13. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2006-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent, mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% +/- 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1 to 55.3%.

  14. Cannabis use and mood disorders: patterns of clinical presentations among adolescents in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Konings, M; Maharajh, Hari D

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the increase use of cannabis among adolescents in both developing and developed countries, few studies have looked at cannabis use and mood disorders. In a series of case studies, this research project seeks to investigate patterns of clinical presentations seen among cannabis users in psychiatric outpatients in Trinidad. Five clinical patterns of presentations are identified among cannabis users and abusers based on variables of dosing, age of initial use, duration of use, tolerance and reverse tolerance and poly-drug abuse. All patients in these case studies were standardized for method of use and potency of cannabis used. Patients were screened by urine tests to determine co-morbid use of other substances. Other variables such as environmental factors and genetic vulnerability were reviewed as far as possible from historical accounts of family members. The five patterns described are low, controlled use with mild euphoria and heightened awareness, moderate use with mixed depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour, heavy, short term use with manic symptoms, long term incremental use with psychotic symptoms due to the trumping of depressive symptoms and cannabis mixed with other substances resulting in florid psychosis. Mood disorders appear to be a common finding among adolescents using cannabis. Sensitization to symptomatic presentation and early detection of cannabis use in young adolescents are necessary. Further research is needed on the effect of cannabinoids on emotions, behaviour and thinking and its relationship to mental disorders. This study is useful as a guideline for the implementation of public health strategies and legislation concerning the use of cannabis in youths.

  15. Cannabis use in the community.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J R; Miller, P; Anderson, R

    1996-11-01

    The illegal use of cannabis has been increasing in many Western countries for the past two decades. Recently, some interest has been shown in modifying legislation and control. The need for general practitioners to be aware of the short- and long-term consequences of cannabis use is increasing, and more information is required about its effects on behaviour, psychological states and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The use of general practice populations to study the prevalence of cannabis use and its damaging effects is less represented in the literature than it should be, considering the extent of cannabis consumption. A study was carried out in 1995 to determine the prevalence of cannabis use in a general practice population and any associated health problems. As a pilot study, samples of cannabis were obtained for forensic analysis. Two questionnaires were used. One very short enquiry about the use, if any, of the drug, and a longer one about the effects of its use. Data concerning medical effects were included from patients' case notes. Samples of cannabis were obtained for forensic examination. A very high proportion (61%) of patients surveyed indicated some cannabis use (past or present). Thirty-seven per cent had used it in the previous 12 months. Users could be broadly divided into transitory experimenters, regular users and heavy users. Medical problems included those attributed to associated tobacco smoking, other illegal drug use and psychological problems. Benefits perceived by patients recording use were many. Polydrug use and legislation issues were difficult to separate from the effects of cannabis itself. Chest infections, anxiety and depression, and drug dependence were common diagnoses, and 13 of the 32 females in the study group had evidence of cervical smear abnormalities. Few serious damaging effects from cannabis use itself were identified, although chest infections and anxiety problems were common. Tobacco damage, associated drug

  16. Genetic Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Sakati, Nadia; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Jones, Oliver W.; Dixson, Barbara K.

    1976-01-01

    The geographic distribution of County Health Department clinic facilities in the state of California has made it readily possible to establish a regionalized program for genetic counseling services, using public health nurses as a major source of case-finding. From both consumer and health professional standpoints, regionalized satellite genetic counseling clinics have been successful, and in particular, the effectiveness of public health nurses in identifying clinical genetic problems is readily apparent. Long-term follow-up reinforcement of genetic counseling appears to be an important conclusion from these studies. It is our suggestion that reinforcement of counseling would best be accomplished through the health team member (physician, nurse and so forth) following the patient or family rather than through the consulting geneticist. PMID:946335

  17. Correlates of cannabis use among high school students in Shamva District, Zimbabwe: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chivandire, Charmaine T; January, James

    2016-06-01

    We set out to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that influence cannabis use in young people aged 13 to 19 years in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. A descriptive cross-sectional study focusing on the correlates of cannabis use was conducted among 311 school-going adolescents who were selected using multistage sampling. Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis. Associations were found between cannabis use and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), and having had engaged in sexual intercourse (P < 0.001). Significant relationships were found between recreational use of cannabis and having family members, friends, and parents who have used cannabis (P < 0.001). Students who reported using alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and having had engaged in sexual activity were more likely to use cannabis. There is need for identification of these risky behaviours among students, and ecological frameworks and holistic approaches in health promotion programming should be fostered in an effort to increase awareness of the potential harmful effects of cannabis use on adolescents' health and life outcomes.

  18. Solitary cannabis use frequency mediates the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use and related problems.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Dean, Kimberlye E

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Solitary Cannabis Use Frequency Mediates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. Methods The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Results Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Discussion and Conclusions Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Scientific Significance Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. PMID:26890064

  20. Sex differences in associations between cannabis craving and neural responses to cannabis cues: Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical research indicates that there are sex differences in how men and women initiate, progress, respond to, and withdraw from cannabis use; however, neurophysiological differences, such as neural responses to cannabis cues, are not well understood. Using functional MRI and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task, we compared neural responses to backward-masked cannabis cues to neutral cues in treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent adults (N = 44; 27 males) and examined whether sex differences exist. In addition, functional MRI findings were correlated with cannabis craving. Backward-masked cannabis cues elicited greater neural responses than neutral cues in reward-related brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus/amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, p < .01, k > 121 voxels. Although no significant sex differences in neural responses to cannabis cues emerged, women showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the bilateral insula and cannabis craving and an inverse correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and cannabis craving. Men, however, showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the striatum and cannabis craving. Given that cues and craving are important triggers and the focus on many behavioral treatment approaches, these findings suggest that treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent men and women may benefit from sex-specific and tailored cannabis use disorder treatments.

  1. Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

  2. Longitudinal predictors of cannabis use and dependence in offspring from families at ultra high risk for alcohol dependence and in control families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shirley Y; Jones, Bobby L; Steinhauer, Stuart R; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use is common among adolescents. Identification of the factors associated with continued heavy use into young adulthood and development of cannabis abuse and dependence is of considerable importance. The role of familial risk for addiction and an associated endophenotype, P300 amplitude, has not previously been related to cannabis use and dependence. A prospective longitudinal study spanning childhood and young adulthood provided the opportunity for exploring these factors, along with genetic variation, in the cannabis use behaviors of 338 young adult offspring from high and low familial risk for alcohol dependence families (ages 19-30). P300 data were collected multiple times in childhood. The association between young adult patterns of cannabis use or cannabis abuse/dependence was tested with genetic variation in the cannabinoid gene, CNR1, the ANKK1-DRD2 gene, and childhood developmental trajectories of P300. Young adult patterns of cannabis use was characterized by three patterns: (i) no use throughout; (ii) declining use from adolescence through young adulthood; and (iii) frequent use throughout. Following the low P300 trajectory in childhood predicted cannabis abuse and dependence by young adulthood. A four SNP ANKK1-DRD2 haplotype (G-G-G-C) was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of use patterns (P = 0.0008). Although CNR1 variation overall was not significantly associated with these patterns, among individuals with cannabis abuse/dependence the presence of one or both copies of the rs806368 A > G minor allele conferred a 5.4-fold increase (P = 0.003) in the likelihood that they would be in the frequent and persistent use group rather than the declining use group.

  3. Screening of cannabis-related problems among youth: the CPQ-A-S and CAST questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabis use among young people is a significant problem, making particularly necessary validated screening instruments that permit secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the psychometric properties of the CAST and CPQ-A-S questionnaires, two screening instruments specifically addressing the youth population. Methods Information was obtained on sociodemographics, frequency of substance use, psychopathological symptoms and cannabis-use problems, and the CPQ-A-S and CAST were applied, as well as an infrequency scale for discarding responses made randomly. The sample was made up of 144 young people aged 16 to 20 that had used cannabis in the last month, of which 71.5% were boys. Mean age of the sample was 17.38 years (SD = 1.16). Results The results show that from the psychometric point of view both the CAST and the CPQ-A-S are good screening instruments. Conclusions The CAST is shorter and presents slightly better internal consistency than the CPQ-A-S. Both instruments show high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of young people dependent on cannabis according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. The CPQ-A-S appears to show greater capacity for detecting psychopathological distress associated with use. Both questionnaires yield significant odds ratios as predictors of frequent cannabis use and of the DSM IV-TR abuse and dependence criteria. In general, the CPQ-A-S emerges as a better predictor than the CAST. PMID:22471908

  4. Whatever Happened to Counseling in Counseling Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Michael J.; Berman, Margit; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Conoley, Collie W.; Duan, Changming; Whiston, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    A suspected decline in published counseling-related research in "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP") and the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") was investigated through content analyses of the two journals from 1979 to 2008. A marked decline in counseling-related research may signify a shift in emphasis away from counseling as the most…

  5. Cannabis Smoking and Cardiovascular Health: It's Complicated.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R

    2017-08-01

    Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  7. Interactive Career Counseling on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ginger; Horan, John J.; Tompkins-Bjorkman, Amy; Kovalski, Theresa; Hackett, Gail

    2000-01-01

    Describes three interactive career counseling Internet programs based on cognitive restructuring and differential diagnosis: changing career beliefs of young women, helping parents facilitate children's career development, and altering attributions related to academic motivation for at-risk students. (SK)

  8. Exposure to Cannabis in Popular Music and Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860

  9. Cannabis in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

  10. [Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence.

  11. Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-11-01

    Individuals report using cannabis for the promotion of sleep, and the effects of cannabis on sleep may vary by cannabis species. Little research has documented preferences for particular cannabis types or cannabinoid concentrations as a function of use for sleep disturbances. 163 adults purchasing medical cannabis for a physical or mental health condition at a cannabis dispensary were recruited. They provided self-report of (a) whether cannabis use was intended to help with sleep problems (e.g. insomnia, nightmares), (b) sleep quality (PSQI), (c) cannabis use (including preferred type), and (d) symptoms of DSM-5 cannabis dependence. 81 participants reported using cannabis for the management of insomnia and 14 participants reported using cannabis to reduce nightmares. Individuals using cannabis to manage nightmares preferred sativa to indica strains (Fisher's exact test (2) = 6.83, p < 0.05), and sativa users were less likely to endorse DSM-5 cannabis dependence compared with those who preferred indica strains (χ(2)(2) = 4.09, p < 0.05). Individuals with current insomnia (t(9) = 3.30, p < 0.01) and greater sleep latency (F(3,6) = 46.7, p < 0.001) were more likely to report using strains of cannabis with significantly higher concentrations of CBD. Individuals who reported at least weekly use of hypnotic medications used cannabis with lower THC concentrations compared to those who used sleep medications less frequently than weekly (t(17) = 2.40, p < 0.05). Associations between sleep characteristics and the type of cannabis used were observed in this convenience sample of individuals using cannabis for the management of sleep disturbances. Controlled prospective studies are needed to better characterize the impact that specific components of cannabis have on sleep. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use.

  13. Cannabis use in first-treatment bipolar I disorder: relations to clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kvitland, Levi R; Melle, Ingrid; Aminoff, Sofie R; Lagerberg, Trine V; Andreassen, Ole A; Ringen, Petter A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between recent cannabis use, current symptomatology and age at onset of first manic, depressive and psychotic episodes in a large sample with first-treatment bipolar I disorder (BD I). One hundred one patients with first-treatment Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) bipolar I disorder were included as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis study. The Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used for DSM-IV diagnosis and identification of episodes of illness. Earlier suicide attempts were recorded. Manic, depressive and psychotic symptoms were rated using the Young Mania Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptoms and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale correspondingly. Cannabis use within the six last months was recorded. After controlling for confounders, recent cannabis use was significantly associated with lower age at onset of first manic and psychotic episode, but not with onset of first depressive episode (both P < 0.05). Recent use was also associated with more lifetime suicide attempts (P < 0.01). No group differences were found on symptom levels. The present study confirms earlier findings of an association between cannabis use and a lower age at onset. Recent cannabis use was also associated with more lifetime suicide attempts. The current findings suggest that recent cannabis use is associated with a more severe course of illness in the early phase of BD I. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Sports Counseling: A New Counseling Specialty Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gary M.; Wooten, H. Ray, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Provides background information about sports counseling for student-athletes. Presents a proposal for a Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs specialty training area for sports counseling. (Author)

  15. Implementing Injury Prevention Counseling in a Clinic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    While physicians should provide injury prevention counseling to parents of young children, they do not always feel they are adequately prepared to provide such counseling. An injury prevention training project was developed to train physicians in injury prevention counseling and to examine factors related to parental compliance with injury…

  16. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  17. Cannabis and risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Drewe, Margaret; Drewe, Jürgen; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2004-11-13

    Legalization of cannabis use in Switzerland has recently been debated by the Swiss Parliament. Although legalization has not yet been decided upon, it is still the subject of impassioned public discussion. If cannabis use is legalized, an increase in consumption is to be expected. One of the manifold negative consequences for mental health will probably be an increase in the prevalence of psychoses -- not only acute, toxic psychosis but also chronic psychoses. Schizophrenic psychoses are expected to be triggered at an earlier age and to be negatively influenced in their course. This eventuality could have deleterious consequences not only for many currently healthy individuals predisposed to psychosis, but also for the disability pension.

  18. Bias and the cannabis researcher.

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, J T; Andrysiak, T

    1981-01-01

    This report focuses on several aspects of the "drug" cannabis in our society: the historical notion of a chemical as a moral issue (i.e., good and evil) rather than a pharmacological one; the scientist as a human being as well as a witting or unwitting influencer of social policy; the statistical design and manipulation of research consciously or unconsciously for fame and fortune (grants); the research treatment "connection" as part of our drug abuse industrial complex, a billion dollar a year industry; and the covert governmental manipulation and distortion of cannabis (and other drug) data.

  19. Cannabis use and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony M A; Ferris, Jason A; Simpson, Judy M; Shelley, Julia; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide. Despite this, its impact on sexual health is largely unknown. The aim of this article is to examine the association between cannabis use and a range of sexual health outcomes. The main outcome measures include the number of sexual partners in the past year, condom use at most recent vaginal or anal intercourse, diagnosis with a sexually transmissible infection in the previous year, and the occurrence of sexual problems. Method used in this article includes a computer-assisted telephone survey of 8,656 Australians aged 16-64 years resident in Australian households with a fixed telephone line. Of the 8,650 who answered the questions about cannabis use, 754 (8.7%) reported cannabis use in the previous year with 126 (1.5%) reporting daily use, 126 reported (1.5%) weekly use, and 502 (5.8%) reported use less often than weekly. After adjusting for demographic factors, daily cannabis use compared with no use was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting two or more sexual partners in the previous year in both men (adjusted odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.89; P = 0.02) and women (2.58, 1.08-6.18; P = 0.03). Daily cannabis use was associated with reporting a diagnosis of a sexually transmissible infection in women but not men (7.19, 1.28-40.31; P = 0.02 and 1.45, 0.17-12.42; P = 0.74, respectively). Frequency of cannabis use was unrelated to sexual problems in women but daily use vs. no use was associated with increased reporting among men of an inability to reach orgasm (3.94, 1.71-9.07; P < 0.01), reaching orgasm too quickly (2.68, 1.41-5.08; P < 0.01), and too slowly (2.05, 1.02-4.12; P = 0.04). Frequent cannabis use is associated with higher numbers of sexual partners for both men and women, and difficulties in men's ability to orgasm as desired.

  20. A Genome-Wide Scan for Loci Influencing Adolescent Cannabis Dependence Symptoms: Evidence for Linkage on Chromosomes 3 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian J.; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hartman, Christie A.; Stallings, Michael C.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Young, Susan E.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most frequently abused illicit substance among adolescents and young adults. Genetic risk factors account for part of the variation in the development of Cannabis Dependence symptoms; however, no linkage studies have been performed for Cannabis Dependence symptoms. This study aimed to identify such loci. Method: 324 sibling pairs from 192 families were assessed for Cannabis Dependence symptoms. Probands (13-19 years of age) were recruited from consecutive admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. The siblings of the probands ranged in age from 12-25 years. A community-based sample of 4843 adolescents and young adults was utilized to define an age- and sex-corrected index of Cannabis Dependence vulnerability. DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence symptoms were assessed in youth and their family members with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument -Substance Abuse Module. Siblings and parents were genotyped for 374 microsatellite markers distributed across the 22 autosomes (average inter-marker distance = 9.2 cM). Cannabis Dependence symptoms were analyzed using Merlin-regress, a regression-based method that is robust to sample selection. Results: Evidence for suggestive linkage was found on chromosome 3q21 near marker D3S1267 (LOD = 2.61), and on chromosome 9q34 near marker D9S1826 (LOD = 2.57). Conclusions: This is the first reported linkage study of cannabis dependence symptoms. Other reports of linkage regions for illicit substance dependence have been reported near 3q21, suggesting that this region may contain a quantitative trait loci influencing cannabis dependence and other substance use disorders. PMID:17169504

  1. Death Education and Grief Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mille, Nancy A.

    This paper explores ways in which school counselors can help young people with death-related concerns. It is often assumed that school counselors have the necessary skills for working with students who experience grief, but most graduate counseling curricula do not require courses in death education; thus, many counselors feel uncomfortable in…

  2. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  3. Cannabis use expectancies mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cannabis use among cannabis-dependent veterans.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and cannabis use, and the mediating role of positive and negative expectancies of cannabis use. Participants (n = 100) were cannabis-dependent veterans recruited as part of a larger self-guided cannabis quit study. Baseline (prequit) data were used. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the General Depression subscale of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), and cannabis use expectancies were assessed using the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire. Quantity of cannabis use in the past 90 days was assessed with the Timeline Follow-Back. A parallel multiple mediation path analysis was conducted to simultaneously examine the effects of positive and negative expectancies as mediators of the relation between IDAS-Depression and prequit cannabis use. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were indirectly related to cannabis use through positive, but not negative, expectancies. This effect was unique to IDAS-Dysphoria symptoms. Depressive symptoms, particularly cognitive-affective symptom features, may be important to consider in better understanding positive cannabis effect expectancies among veterans in regard to cannabis use.

  4. A prospective study of cannabis use as a risk factor for non-adherence and treatment dropout in first-episode schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachel; Ream, Geoffrey; McCormack, Joanne; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Although several studies have reported on cannabis use and adherence for first episode of psychosis patients, the findings remain unclear as to whether cannabis use is a risk factor for poor adherence in young people with first-episode schizophrenia. This study was designed to follow patients’ use of cannabis and adherence in a naturalistic setting during the first 12 months of treatment. It examines whether cannabis use is a risk factor for two distinct types of non-adherence: non-adherence to medication and treatment dropout.. Methods Participants were 112 first-episode schizophrenia patients of diverse backgrounds at two community hospitals, enrolled in of two second-generation antipsychotic medications. a study of differential effectiveness Multiple indicators were used to assess cannabis use and adherence to medication. Patients were encouraged to continue in the study even after periods of treatment refusal or change from study to standardized medication. Study hypotheses were tested using Cox proportional hazards models with cannabis use as a time-varying covariate. Results After 12 months, 23 had dropped out and 37 had at some point been non-adherent to medication. Of 34 participants who used cannabis during treatment, 32 had a prior diagnosis of cannabis abuse/dependence and 30 were male. Independently of age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, site, and medication assignment, cannabis use significantly increased hazard of non-adherence by a factor of 2.4 (p < .001) and hazard of dropout by a factor of 6.4 (p = .034). Conclusion Results indicate that cannabis use is a risk factor for non-adherence to medication and dropout from treatment. Treatment for first-episode schizophrenia may be more effective if providers address the issue of cannabis use with patients throughout the early years of treatment, especially for those with existing cannabis abuse/dependence. PMID:19481424

  5. Photo Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosciewski, F. William

    1975-01-01

    Counselors at all levels are perpetually seeking new and more effective ways of establishing and maintaining therapeutic contact with their clients. The author has found the use of family photographs in counseling as a very effective means of establishing a good counselor-client relationship. (Author/HMV)

  6. Outplacement Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowdell, Richard L.; And Others

    This monographs discusses outplacement counseling (the process of helping a terminated employee secure new employment) in business and industry and in higher education. The first section, outplacement in business and industry, describes the emergence of outplacement services and discusses benefits and problems associated with the service. The…

  7. Outplacement Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony S.; Dai, Sheila

    Rapid changes in technology and the economy have led to major staff reductions in the workplace, and have increased the need to assist displaced employees with outplacement counseling that is responsive, cost-effective, humane, and on-going. College counselors have the basic skills to effectively expand their role in this field in ways that…

  8. Genetic Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Information is presented on a number of tests used in genetic counseling (e.g., genetic evaluation, chromosome evaluation, consideration of multifactorial conditions, prenatal testing, and chorionic villus sampling) which help parents with one disabled child make family planning decisions. (CB)

  9. [Search association between cannabis abuse and bipolar disorder: A study on a sample of patients hospitalized for bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Kazour, F; Awaida, C; Souaiby, L; Richa, S

    2016-10-10

    Cannabis use is very frequent in bipolar disorder and has been found to increase the duration and frequency of manic symptoms while decreasing those of depression. Bipolar patients who use cannabis were shown to have poorer compliance to treatment, more symptoms that are psychotic and a worse prognosis than patients who do not. In this study, we have evaluated the importance of cannabis use among bipolar patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon (Hôpital Psychiatrique de la Croix [HPC]) as well as the clinical differences between cannabis users and non-users. Over a period of 13 months, we recruited the patients admitted to HPC for bipolar disorder according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. These patients were screened for substance abuse/dependence and were accordingly divided into 2 groups: cannabis users and cannabis non-users. Both groups were interviewed by a medical student and asked to answer the following questionnaires: the MINI DSM-IV, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) for evaluating manic episodes, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for evaluating depressive episodes, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) to assess psychotic symptoms associated to the bipolar disorder, and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) for evaluating the importance of cannabis consumption. The study's exclusion criteria were the following: diagnosis of a confusional state, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, dementia, age less than 18 years old or superior to 85 years old, and non-cooperation. Among the 100 bipolar patients included in the study, 27 (27 %) were cannabis users. Eight of these 27 patients were first admitted to HPC for substance abuse and then included in the study after a bipolar disorder was diagnosed according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. Cannabis use was found to be more prevalent in young males with a mean age of 20.3 years old at the first contact with the substance

  10. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  11. The Impact of Peers and Social Disapproval on High-Risk Cannabis Use: Gender Differences and Implications for Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jennifer E.

    2004-01-01

    Drug education programs that rely on an abstinence based philosophy neglect, and may even contribute to, the potentially adverse consequences experienced by young people who already engage in this potentially health-compromising behaviour. A predominant focus of drug research during the initial wave of rising cannabis use by young people in the…

  12. The Impact of Peers and Social Disapproval on High-Risk Cannabis Use: Gender Differences and Implications for Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jennifer E.

    2004-01-01

    Drug education programs that rely on an abstinence based philosophy neglect, and may even contribute to, the potentially adverse consequences experienced by young people who already engage in this potentially health-compromising behaviour. A predominant focus of drug research during the initial wave of rising cannabis use by young people in the…

  13. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence.

  14. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  15. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  16. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  17. New vistas on cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Frau, Roberto; Kalivas, Peter W; Spencer, Sade; Chioma, Vivian; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2017-03-31

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most consumed illicit drugs for recreational purposes worldwide, and the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorder has dramatically increased in the last decades. Due to the recent decriminalization or legalization of cannabis use in the Western Countries, we may predict that the number of people suffering from cannabis use disorder will increase. Despite the increasing number of cannabis studies over the past two decades, we have gaps of scientific knowledge pertaining to the neurobiological consequences of long-term cannabis use. Moreover, no specific treatments for cannabis use disorders are currently available. In this review, we explore new research that may help fill these gaps. We discuss and provide a solution to the experimental limitation of a lack of rodent models of THC self-administration, and the importance this model can play in understanding the neurobiology of relapse and in providing a biological rationale for potential therapeutic targets. We also focus our attention on glial cells, commenting on recent preclinical evidence suggesting that alterations in microglia and astrocytes might contribute to the detrimental effects associated with cannabis abuse. Finally, due to the worrisome prevalence rates of cannabis use during pregnancy, we highlight the associations between cannabis use disorders during pregnancy and congenital disorders, describing the possible neuronal basis of vulnerability at molecular and circuit level.

  18. A review of the world cannabis situation.

    PubMed

    Leggett, T

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets. For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis, often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas. This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions. In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users. Cannabis is not a uniform drug: the impact of using cannabis of differing potencies and chemical compositions needs to be researched. While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment.

  19. Transient Retinal Dysfunctions after Acute Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Robert, Matthieu P; Giersch, Anne; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Ingster-Moati, Isabelle; Pon-Monnier, Amandine; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although cannabis is very widespread worldwide, the impact of cannabis on visual function remains poorly understood. This is partly due to numerous difficulties met in developing clinical studies in cannabis users. Here, we report the first documented case of neuroretinal dysfunction after acute cannabis smoking. This observation was favored by the need of an annual ophthalmic evaluation in the context of a chloroquine intake for a systemic lupus erythematosus in a 47-year-old heavy cannabis user. A complete ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity tests, intraocular pressure, fundoscopic examination, automated 10° central visual field, full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and multifocal ERG was performed twice - 30 min and 5 h after cannabis smoking. A strong decrease (up to 48%) in the a-wave amplitude of the full-field ERG was measured 30 min after cannabis smoking for all scotopic responses compared with the responses 5 h after smoking. Other tests showed reproducible results between the 2 series of measurements. This clinical case suggests that acute inhalation of cannabis affects the photoreceptors functioning. This rare situation suggests further investigations are required on the impact of cannabis on retinal processing, especially since cannabis has been incriminated in car injuries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  1. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  2. Position Paper: Should the Scottish National Party Support Scotland to Legalize, Decriminalize, or Prohibit Cannabis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhaveri, Sujata

    2005-01-01

    The UK has the highest rate of cannabis use among young people worldwide. Dr. Alan Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse reports, "Every year more than 100,000 people, most of them adolescents, seek treatment for their inability to control their marijuana use." According to the Scottish Drug Misuse Statistics in…

  3. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  4. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  5. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  6. Unintentional Cannabis Intoxication in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Isabelle; Mouvier, Sébastien; Labadie, Magali; Manin, Cécile; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Eyer, Didier; Dufour, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort. All children aged <6 years admitted to a tertiary-level pediatric emergency department (PED) for proven cannabis intoxication (compatible symptoms and positive toxicological screening results) during the reference period were included. Twenty-four PEDs participated in our study; 235 children were included, and 71% of the patients were 18 months old or younger. Annual admissions increased by a factor of 13. Hashish resin was the main form ingested (72%). During the study period, the evolution was characterized by a national increase in intoxications, younger intoxicated children (1.28 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.7 years, P = .005), and more comas (n = 38) (P = .05, odds ratio 3.5 [1.02-11.8]). Compared with other intoxications, other PED admissions, and the same age population, cannabis-related admissions were greater. There was a potential link between the increased incidence of comas and increased THC concentration in resin seized in France over the period. Children are collateral victims of changing trends in cannabis use and a prevailing THC concentration. Intoxicated children are more frequent, are younger, and have intoxications that are more severe. This raises a real issue of public health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    et un bref counseling, en insistant sur les effets du cannabis sur la santé et en visant l’abstinence (certains groupes à risque élevé devraient s’abstenir complètement de consommer du cannabis) ou la réduction de la consommation, et ils doivent fournir des stratégies pratiques de réduction de la consommation. Les techniques d’entrevue motivationnelle doivent faire partie des séances de counseling. Les médecins devraient aiguiller les patients qui sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou qui présentent des problèmes liés à leur usage de cannabis vers des soins spécialisés, tout en veillant à ce qu’ils demeurent en contact avec leur généraliste. De plus, les médecins devraient donner à tous les usagers de cannabis de l’information sur la consommation à faible risque. Conclusion Les médecins devraient effectuer au moins une fois chez tous leurs patients de leur pratique un test de dépistage de l’usage de cannabis, particulièrement chez les patients qui présentent des problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis. Les tests de dépistage doivent être plus fréquents chez les personnes à risque, soit au moins tous les ans. Il faut savoir distinguer la consommation à faible risque de l’usage problématique. Les patients dont l’usage est problématique doivent recevoir de brèves séances de counseling et ces patients doivent être aiguillés vers un spécialiste s’ils sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou d’y mettre un terme.

  8. Counseling Dual Career Families: Heterosexual and Lesbian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Natalie S.

    Young women now have more freedom to shape themselves than young women anywhere or at any time in history. In counseling women for dual-career families the real and imagined difficulties must be addressed and their courage and self-conviction strengthened, not undermined. Especially crucial to the counseling process with these women is an…

  9. Investigation of sex-dependent effects of cannabis in daily cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Women exhibit an accelerated progression from first cannabis use to cannabis use disorder (CUD) and show pronounced negative clinical issues related to CUD relative to men. Whether sex-dependent differences in cannabis' direct effects contribute to the heightened risk in women is unknown. This analysis directly compared cannabis' abuse-related subjective effects in men and women matched for current cannabis use. Data from four double-blind, within-subject studies measuring the effects of active cannabis (3.27-5.50% THC, depending on study) relative to inactive cannabis (0.00% THC) were combined for this analysis. Data from equal numbers of men and women from each study matched for current cannabis use were pooled (total n=35 men; 35 women); cannabis' effects were analyzed according to cannabis condition (active versus inactive) and sex. Active cannabis produced more robust subjective effects associated with abuse liability ('Good,' 'Liking,' 'Take Again') and intoxication ('High,' 'Stimulated') relative to inactive cannabis (p≤0.0001). Women reported higher ratings of abuse-related effects ['Take Again' and 'Good' (p≤0.05)] relative to men under active cannabis conditions but did not differ in ratings of intoxication. Active cannabis increased heart rate (p≤0.0001) equally for both sexes. The results from this study suggest that when matched for cannabis use, women are more sensitive to the subjective effects related to cannabis' abuse liability relative to men, which may contribute to the enhanced vulnerability to developing CUD. Thus, sex is an important variable to consider when assessing the development of CUD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do recreational cannabis users, unlicensed and licensed medical cannabis users form distinct groups?

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to gain a more nuanced perspective on the differences between recreationally and medically motivated cannabis use by distinguishing between people who use cannabis for recreational purposes, unlicensed and licensed medical users. Data collection was conducted online from a convenience sample of 1479 Israeli cannabis users. Multinomial regression analysis compared unlicensed medical users (38%) with recreational (42%) and licensed medical (5.6%) users in terms of sociodemographics, mode, frequency and problematic cannabis use. There were more variables distinguishing unlicensed from licensed users than there were distinguishing features between unlicensed and recreational users. Recreational users were more likely to be male, less likely to eat cannabis, to use cannabis frequently and to use alone and before midday than unlicensed users. Licensed users were older than unlicensed users, they reported less hours feeling stoned, less cannabis use problems and they were more likely to report cannabis use patterns analogous of medication administration for chronic problems (frequent use, vaping, use alone and use before midday). This study suggests that a sizable proportion of cannabis users in Israel self-prescribe cannabis and that licensed medical cannabis users differ from unlicensed users. This is, in turn, suggestive of a rigorous medicalized cannabis program that does not function as a backdoor for legal access to recreational use. However, due to methodological limitations this conclusion is only suggestive. The most meaningful differences across recreational, unlicensed and licensed users were mode and patterns of use rather than cannabis use problems. Current screening tools for cannabis use problems may, however, not be well suited to assess such problems in medically motivated users. Indeed, when screening for problematic cannabis use there is a need for a more careful consideration of whether or not cannabis use is medically motivated

  11. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  12. Vocational Guidance and Counselling: On the Way to "Euro-Counselling"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chome, Gesa, Ed.; Koditz, Volker, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    European cooperation in vocational counseling is today no longer a matter for specialists alone. Parents, teachers, and trainers are increasingly finding themselves confronted with young people considering the option of taking a traineeship or employment abroad. The counseling available in such cases, however, is often still inadequate. A large…

  13. W. G. Perry's Model of Intellectual and Ethical Development: Implications of Recent Research for the Education and Counseling of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheese, Ron; Radovanovic, Helen

    Liberal arts approaches to university education and many theories of counseling share as a goal the development of critical thinking in the individuals served. Such thinking requires the ability to consider the context within which one is working and the context within which the events and ideas under consideration occur. William Perry has…

  14. The Cannabis Information Helpline: Assessing Interest in the Medicinal Use of Cannabis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Albertella, Lucy

    2017-10-15

    The majority of Australians support a change in legislation to allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes. Despite strong public support, very little is known about the patterns of medicinal cannabis use among Australians. This study aims to gain a better understanding of Australian medicinal cannabis users and their patterns of use. The nature of calls to the Cannabis Information and Helpline (N = 15701), a free national service for Australians with concerns regarding cannabis use, were investigated to determine the number of calls made by those who inquired about the medicinal use of cannabis (N = 275) and the implied reasons for use among those who identify using cannabis in this way. The majority of medicinal cannabis inquirers mentioned cannabis to alleviate pain. Further, compared to other callers, medicinal cannabis inquirers were more likely to be male, unemployed, older, and have recently started using cannabis. These findings highlight the need for future research to better understand the issues faced by Australians regarding the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes and how they may be meaningfully addressed. Particular focus should be placed toward older, unemployed males.

  15. Pathways to psychosis in cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, but the exact biological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to understand the neurobiological pathways that link cannabis use to schizophrenia. This has been an area of great debate; despite similarities between cannabis users and schizophrenia patients, the evidence is not sufficient to establish cause-and-effect. There have been advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of cannabis dependence as well as the role of the cannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms associated with the development of psychosis and effects from cannabis use may be similar but remain elusive. In order to better understand these associations, this paper will show common neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes as well as common cognitive dysfunction in cannabis users and patients of schizophrenia. We conclude that epidemiologic evidence highlights potential causal links; however, neurobiological evidence for causality remains weak.

  16. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  17. Cannabis and the developing brain: insights from behavior.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2008-05-13

    The isolation and identification, in 1964, of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis, opened the door to a whole new field of medical research. The exploration of the therapeutic potential of THC and other natural and synthetic cannabinoid compounds was paralleled by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, comprising cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, which offered exciting new insights into brain function. Besides its well-known involvement in specific brain functions, such as control of movement, memory and emotions, the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. For this reason, changes in its activity during stages of high neuronal plasticity, such as the perinatal and the adolescent period, can have long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences. Here, we summarize human and animal studies examining the behavioral and neurobiological effects of in utero and adolescent exposure to cannabis. Since cannabis preparations are widely used and abused by young people, including pregnant women, understanding how cannabinoid compounds affect the developing brain, leading to neurobehavioral alterations or neuropsychiatric disorders later in life, is a serious health issue. In addition, since the endocannabinoid system is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases, a detailed investigation of possible adverse effects of cannabinoid compounds on the central nervous system (CNS) of immature individuals is warranted.

  18. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    PubMed

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Robin Room and cannabis policy: dangerous comparisons.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes Robin Room's contribution to cannabis policy debates over the period 1993-2010. It focuses on a controversy that erupted over a review that Room and the author undertook for the World Health Organization in the mid-1990s on the comparative harms of cannabis, alcohol, opiates and tobacco. It also briefly describes Room's recent work on global cannabis policy and ends with a brief appreciation of the character of his scholarly contributions to this field.

  20. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Robert W; Butorac, Mario; Cobian, Eloy Pulido; van der Sluis, Willem

    2005-03-08

    The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority (64.1%) of patients reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44% used cannabis for >/=5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild.

  1. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction due to slow coronary flow occurring after cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Ahmet; Cakmak, Mahmut

    2010-11-01

    Slow coronary flow (SCF) is an angiographic finding defined as the slow movement of contrast throughout the coronary lumen in the absence of epicardial coronary stenosis. It has been reported that SCF can on rare occasions cause ST elevated myocardial infarction (MI). Recent studies have shown that cannabis consumption can increase the risk of coronary heart disease and can trigger acute coronary syndromes, especially in young individuals without common risk factors. Here, we present a case of inferior MI in a patient who had consumed cannabis regularly over a long period and whose coronary angiography revealed SCF.

  2. [Legalization of cannabis: between political irresponsibility and loss of responsibility of psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Iannitelli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In Italy a political parliamentary majority, recognized by all the press as "cross party", is going to approve the law that will legalize the use of cannabis. As diversified in different Countries, it is a phenomenon which affects substantially homogeneous many European nations, as well as several states of the USA and other Countries of the world. The authors, after listing the main harmful effects of cannabis, especially in young people, on cognitive functions and on the onset of several psychotic disorders, express the need for reflection by the mental health experts on a problem of extreme relevance and urgency care.

  3. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  4. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical cannabis and chronic opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M

    2010-12-01

    Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. A small, high-quality literature supports the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The smoked botanical product, however, is associated with a number of adverse medical and psychiatric consequences. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that acute use of cannabis results in impairment of every important metric related to the safe operation of a motor vehicle. Epidemiological data show associations between recent cannabis use and both psychomotor impairment and motor vehicle crashes, associations that are strengthened by the concomitant use of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Finally, data from pain clinics reveals an unusually high prevalence of cannabis use in nearly all age groups and an association between cannabis use and opioid and other substance misuse. Based on available data and expert opinion, concomitant use of cannabis and opioids is an absolute contraindication to the operation of a motor vehicle. In patients who use cannabis and are prescribed opioids, heightened vigilance for opioid- and other substance-related problems is warranted. It is appropriate to refrain from prescribing opioids to individuals using medical cannabis if there is reasonable suspicion that the combination will pose a risk to the patient or others.

  6. Cannabis Exposure in an Omani Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shidhani, Thuraya A.; Arora, Vinita

    2011-01-01

    We report a confirmed case of cannabis exposure in an Omani female child with developmental delay. Cannabis exposure in children can lead to many consequences; for example, chronic use can result in developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, and hyperactivity while there is a risk of coma with acute exposure. It is important for clinicians to consider substance abuse as a differential diagnosis for similar presentations in paediatric patients, noting that children are at risk of cannabis exposure if their parents/caregivers are cannabis users. PMID:22087402

  7. Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patient group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis. PMID:19956405

  8. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

  10. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  11. Recreational drug use and binge drinking: stimulant but not cannabis intoxication is associated with excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Chalmers, Jenny; Sunderland, Matthew; Bright, David A

    2014-07-01

    Binge drinking is elevated among recreational drug users, but it is not clear whether this elevation is related to intoxication with recreational drugs. We examined whether stimulant intoxication and cannabis intoxication were associated with binge drinking among young adults. An online survey of 18- to 30-year-old Australians who had drunk alcohol in the past year (n = 1994) were quota sampled for: (i) past year ecstasy use (n = 497); (ii) past year cannabis (but not ecstasy) use (n = 688); and (iii) no ecstasy or cannabis use in the past year (alcohol-only group, n = 809). Binge drinking last Saturday night (five or more drinks) was compared for participants who took stimulants (ecstasy, cocaine, amphetamine or methamphetamine) or cannabis last Saturday night. Ecstasy users who were intoxicated with stimulants (n = 91) were more likely to binge drink than ecstasy users who were not (n = 406) (89% vs. 67%), after adjusting for demographics, poly-drug use and intoxication with cannabis and energy drinks (adjusted odds ratio 3.1, P = 0.007), drinking a median of 20 drinks (cf. 10 drinks among other ecstasy users). Cannabis intoxication was not associated with binge drinking among cannabis users (57% vs. 55%) or ecstasy users (73% vs. 71%). Binge drinking was more common in all of these groups than in the alcohol-only group (34%). Stimulant intoxication, but not cannabis intoxication, is associated with binge drinking among young adults, compounding already high rates of binge drinking among people who use these drugs. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. [Multiple psychoactive substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) in the French general population in 2005].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Spilka, Stanislas

    2008-02-01

    To quantify the different forms of polydrug use in the French population and the principal factors associated with it. Data came from the Baromètre Santé 2005, a general population study. Polydrug use was approached by 2 indicators: regular use of at least 2 products among alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, and the use during the year of at least 2 illegal drugs besides cannabis (not necessarily concomitantly). Regular use of some combination of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis was reported by 8.3% of the population. Those aged 20-24 years combined tobacco and cannabis most frequently, with 11.6% reporting this joint use. Regular consumption of all 3 products was rare, reported by less than 1% of those aged 15-64 years. It was highest among those aged 20-29 years, but still less than 2% of the age group. The principal combination for those aged 35 years or older was alcohol and tobacco, and those in this group rarely combined cannabis with another substance. There was a strong association between cannabis use and use of other illicit psychoactive substances. Lifetime use of illicit psychoactive substances except for cannabis was reported by 10.0% of the 15-34 year-olds; for use during the previous year, it was 2.3%. The factors associated with these practices were unemployment, male gender, and youth. Postsecondary education appeared to distance young adults from the different forms of polydrug use. Because use of multiple psychoactive substances is often associated with risk-taking or vulnerability, particular attention to these practices is justified. Surveys in the general population do not cover the most vulnerable or most "desocialized" populations and do not allow the most dangerous forms of polydrug use to be described. They supply useful information for assessing the extent of the most common combined uses in the population and their probable health and social repercussions.

  13. The Effects of Cannabis on Inpatient Agitation, Aggression, and Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph M; Wu, Chris Y; Winder, Gerald Scott; Casher, Michael I; Marshall, Vincent D; Bostwick, Jolene R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between cannabis use and the hospital course of patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient unit with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. Many confounding variables potentially contribute to the clinical presentation of hospitalized patients in the psychiatric unit. Illicit drug use, in particular, has been associated with acute agitation, and questions can be raised as to what lasting effects drug use prior to admission may have throughout a patient's hospital stay. Subjects with a discharge diagnosis of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychosis not otherwise specified (N = 201) were retrospectively identified, and those with positive results of urine drug screen for cannabis on admission were compared to negative counterparts. Agitation and aggression were measured using an adaptation of the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC). These markers were also quantified by comparing charted episodes of restraint and seclusion and administration of as needed medications, such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Positive urine drug screen results for cannabis was correlated with young (p = .001) males (p = .003) with bipolar disorder (p = .009) exhibiting active manic symptoms (p = .003) at the time of admission. Cannabis use was further associated with a shorter length of stay (p = .008), agitation triggering adapted PANSS-EC nursing assessments (p = .029), and oral medications as needed (p = .002) for agitation. Cannabis use, as defined by positive urine drug screen results, was more common in patients with bipolar disorder and was accompanied by a higher incidence of inpatient agitation. Although these patients also had short hospital lengths of stay, there was no clear relationship between level of agitation and length of stay across all patient groups. One possible explanation for patients with bipolar disorder

  14. [Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis: Review of teratogenicity studies in animals].

    PubMed

    Spézia, F

    2006-10-01

    Despite an intensive national campaign of information, the drugs most frequently consumed by young adults undoubtedly continue to be alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. If the impact of these drugs on the health of the consumers can be evaluated in conjunction with the clinical and epidemiologic data, the consequences on the embryo due to their consumption by the pregnant women can be appreciated thanks to the abundant literature describing their effects in the gravid animal. Taking into account the abundant literature available in multiple animal species, the zero drug recommendation should be widely diffused to pregnant women.

  15. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    PubMed

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction.

  16. Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of societal and political changes that have raised critical questions about the long-term impact of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) that are especially important given the prevalence of its abuse and that potential long-term effects still largely lack scientific data. Disturbances of the epigenome have generally been hypothesized as the molecular machinery underlying the persistent, often tissue-specific transcriptional and behavioral effects of cannabinoids that have been observed within one’s lifetime and even into the subsequent generation. Here, we provide an overview of the current published scientific literature that examined epigenetic effects of cannabinoids. Though mechanistic insights about the epigenome remain sparse, accumulating data in humans and animal models have begun to reveal aberrant epigenetic modifications in brain and the periphery linked to cannabis exposure. Expansion of such knowledge and causal molecular relationships could help provide novel targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26546076

  17. Prospective Associations between Cannabis Use, Abuse, and Dependence and Panic Attacks and Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Lewinsohn, Peter; Bernstein, Amit; Schmidt, Norman B.; Buckner, Julia D.; Seeley, John; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study prospectively evaluated cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in relation to the development of panic attacks and panic disorder. Participants at the start of the study were adolescents (n = 1,709) with a mean age of 16.6 years (SD = 1.2; time 1) and were re-assessed 1 year later (time 2) and then again as young adults (time 3; Mean age = 24.2 years, SD = 0.6). Results indicated that cannabis use and dependence were significantly prospectively associated with an increased odds for the development of panic attacks and panic disorder. However, cannabis was not incrementally associated with the development of panic after controlling for daily cigarette smoking. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18076905

  18. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    PubMed

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.

  19. First positive reactions to cannabis constitute a priority risk factor for cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Horwood, John; Falissard, Bruno; Hassler, Christine; Romo, Lucia; Choquet, Marie; Fergusson, David; Gorwood, Philip

    2009-10-01

    To assess the association between first reactions to cannabis and the risk of cannabis dependence. A cross-sectional population-based assessment in 2007. A campus in a French region (Champagne-Ardennes). A total of 1472 participants aged 18-21 years who reported at least one life-time cannabis consumption, of 3056 students who were screened initially [the Susceptibility Addiction Gene Environment (SAGE) study]. Positive and negative effects of first cannabis consumptions, present cannabis dependence and related risk factors were assessed through questionnaires.   The effects of first cannabis consumptions were associated dose-dependently with cannabis dependence at age 18-21 years, both according to the transversal approach of the SAGE study and to the prospective cohort of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) assessed at the age of 25 years. Participants of the SAGE study who reported five positive effects of their first cannabis consumption had odds of life-time cannabis dependence that were 28.7 (95% confidence interval: 14.6-56.5) higher than those who reported no positive effects. This association remains significant after controlling for potentially confounding factors, including individual and familial variables. This study suggests an association between positive reactions to first cannabis uses and risk of life-time cannabis dependence, this variable having a central role among, and through, other risk factors. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Cannabis and related impairment: the unique roles of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety and social avoidance.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to using cannabis to cope in social situations and to avoiding social situations if marijuana is unavailable. Yet, the relative impact of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety relative to use to cope with negative affect more broadly has yet to be examined. The present study used the Marijuana to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) to examine the incremental validity of using cannabis use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if cannabis is unavailable (MCSAS-Avoid) in a community-recruited sample of 123 (34.1% female) current cannabis users. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, other cannabis use motives, and cannabis expectancies, MCSAS-Cope remained significantly positively related to cannabis use frequency and cannabis-related problems. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, and experiential avoidance, MCSAS-Avoid remained significantly related to cannabis problems but not frequency. The present findings suggest that cannabis use to manage social forms of anxiety may be important to understanding cannabis use behaviors. The current findings identify cognitive/motivational factors implicated in more frequent cannabis use and in cannabis-related impairment, which may be essential to inform efforts to further refine prevention and treatment efforts. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Cannabis and Related Impairment: The Unique Roles of Cannabis Use to Cope with Social Anxiety and Social Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Social anxiety appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to using cannabis to cope in social situations and to avoiding social situations if marijuana is unavailable. Yet, the relative impact of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety relative to use to cope with negative affect more broadly has yet to be examined. Methods The present study used the Marijuana to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) to examine the incremental validity of using cannabis use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if cannabis is unavailable (MCSAS-Avoid) in a community-recruited sample of 123 (34.1% female) current cannabis users. Results After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, other cannabis use motives, and cannabis expectancies, MCSAS-Cope remained significantly positively related to cannabis use frequency and cannabis-related problems. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, and experiential avoidance, MCSAS-Avoid remained significantly related to cannabis problems but not frequency. Discussion and Conclusions The present findings suggest that cannabis use to manage social forms of anxiety may be important to understanding cannabis use behaviors. Scientific Significance The current findings identify cognitive/motivational factors implicated in more frequent cannabis use and in cannabis-related impairment, which may be essential to inform efforts to further refine prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:25196146

  2. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Smit, E; Verdurmen, J E E; Engels, R C M E; Vollebergh, W A M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N=3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Logistic regression analyses revealed that 1) parental cannabis use was significantly related to more adolescent lifetime and recent cannabis use, and 2) restrictive cannabis-specific parental rules were associated with less adolescent recent cannabis and lifetime use of other illicit drugs, even when controlled for sociodemographic factors, general parenting, adolescent tobacco use, and tobacco-specific parenting. In addition, no significant interaction was observed between parental cannabis use and cannabis-specific rules in their relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use, indicating that cannabis rules are evenly associated with adolescent drug use for families with and without parental cannabis experience. In addition to general parenting practices, restrictive cannabis-specific rules are related to lower adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug rates. Parents who ever used cannabis have children with a higher prevalence of cannabis use. However, their restrictive cannabis-specific rules are equally related to a lower chance of adolescent cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-10-14

    Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Robust regression analysis was used to analyse data derived from two nationally representative samples of adults participating in comparable cross-sectional online surveys in one country where medical cannabis smoking is illegal (Norway, n = 2175, 51 % male) and in one country where medical cannabis smoking is legal (Israel, n = 648, 49 % male). The belief that cannabis has medical benefits was more strongly related to support for medical cannabis legalization than were beliefs about addiction and spillover effects. While the support for medical cannabis legalization was stronger in Israel than in Norway (78 vs. 51 %, p < 0.01), the belief variables had, in general, more impact on the policy stand in Norway. The belief that cannabis has medical benefits is particularly salient for support for medical cannabis legalization. It is possible that the recent surge in evidence supporting the medical benefits of cannabis will increase the belief about medical benefits of cannabis in the general population which may in turn increase public support for medical cannabis legalization. Results also suggest that once medical cannabis is legalized, factors beyond cannabis-specific beliefs will increasingly influence medical cannabis legalization support. These conclusions are, however, only suggestive as the current study is based on cross-sectional data. Hopefully, future research will be able to capitalize on changes in medical cannabis policies and conduct longitudinal studies that enable an

  4. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  5. Validation of the Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) in adult cannabis users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD

    2011-06-01

    Outcome expectancies are a key cognitive construct in the etiology, assessment and treatment of Substance Use Disorders. There is a research and clinical need for a cannabis expectancy measure validated in a clinical sample of cannabis users. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) was subjected to exploratory (n=501, mean age 27.45, 78% male) and confirmatory (n=505, mean age 27.69, 78% male) factor analysis in two separate samples of cannabis users attending an outpatient cannabis treatment program. Weekly cannabis consumption was clinically assessed and patients completed the Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis (SDS-C) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Two factors representing Negative Cannabis Expectancies and Positive Cannabis Expectancies were identified. These provided a robust statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal reliabilities were high. Negative expectancies were associated with greater dependence severity (as measured by the SDS) and positive expectancies with higher consumption. The interaction of positive and negative expectancies was consistently significantly associated with self-reported functioning across all four GHQ-28 scales (Somatic Concerns, Anxiety, Social Dysfunction and Depression). Specifically, within the context of high positive cannabis expectancy, higher negative expectancy was predictive of more impaired functioning. By contrast, within the context of low positive cannabis expectancy, higher negative expectancy was predictive of better functioning. The CEQ is the first cannabis expectancy measure to be validated in a sample of cannabis users in treatment. Negative and positive cannabis expectancy domains were uniquely associated with consumption, dependence severity and self-reported mental health functioning. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  7. Risk-Taking, Harm and Help-Seeking: Reported by Young People in Treatment at a Youth Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cassandra; Kelly, John

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as a normative component of development, risk-taking by young people is a well-researched subject, and some risk-taking behaviours, such as substance use, are particularly well covered because of their potential to adversely affect health and wellbeing. What has remained unclear is the extent of young people's risk-taking while engaged in…

  8. Risk-Taking, Harm and Help-Seeking: Reported by Young People in Treatment at a Youth Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cassandra; Kelly, John

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as a normative component of development, risk-taking by young people is a well-researched subject, and some risk-taking behaviours, such as substance use, are particularly well covered because of their potential to adversely affect health and wellbeing. What has remained unclear is the extent of young people's risk-taking while engaged in…

  9. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  10. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  11. Neurocognitive functioning and cannabis use in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit substance used among schizophrenia patients. The effects of cannabis are mediated through the endocannabinoid system, which is a major regulator of neurotransmission and may be disturbed in schizophrenia. Though cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is well established, the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia patients are still unclear. This paper reviews 19 studies that examine the cognitive effects of cannabis on schizophrenia by comparing cognitive functioning of cannabis-using and non-using schizophrenia patients across a vast range of domains (memory, attention and processing speed, executive functions, visuospatial, psychomotor and language). Of the studies included in the review, 11 reported better cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users, 5 found minimal or no difference between the groups and 3 found poorer cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users. The inconsistencies in the studies reviewed may stem from significant methodological variance between the studies regarding patient selection, adequate controls, cognitive measures used, measures of cannabis use, additional drugs used, and clinical aspects of schizophrenia. These methodological issues are discussed, as well as possible explanations for the results presented and suggestions for future research in this field.

  12. Therapy and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... trained in psychotherapy include professionals representing psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and ...

  13. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions.

  14. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts.

  15. Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms in Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ≥1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ≥10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ≥ moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment. PMID:20510550

  16. Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  17. Cannabis-related impairment and social anxiety: the roles of gender and cannabis use motives.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2012-11-01

    Social anxiety appears to be especially related to cannabis-related problems, yet the nature of this association remains unclear. Some data suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to problematic cannabis use. The current study examined the relations between social anxiety, cannabis use and use-related problems, and motives for cannabis use by gender among 174 (42.5% female) current (past-month) cannabis users. Among men, social anxiety was significantly, positively related to the number of cannabis-related problems and coping and conformity motives. Coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems. Among women, social anxiety was significantly related only to social motives, and was unrelated to cannabis-related problems. These findings suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to using cannabis as a means of avoidance coping (avoiding scrutiny and negative affect), which may contribute to the high rates of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Counseling Psychology and Professional School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical, political, and organizational analysis regarding counseling psychology's involvement in professional school counseling. Issues discussed include collaboration, curriculum and training, and professional identity, as well as the commonalities that bind counselor education/professional school counseling and…

  19. Factors for Personal Counseling among Counseling Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, J. Stephen; Shufelt, Brett

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the use of counseling among counselor trainees and the characteristics of consumers and nonconsumers. Approximately 61% of those surveyed (n = 85) reported that they had received counseling, with the majority being mental health counseling trainees. Nonconsumers (n = 54) indicated that they coped with problems in other…

  20. Factors for Personal Counseling among Counseling Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, J. Stephen; Shufelt, Brett

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the use of counseling among counselor trainees and the characteristics of consumers and nonconsumers. Approximately 61% of those surveyed (n = 85) reported that they had received counseling, with the majority being mental health counseling trainees. Nonconsumers (n = 54) indicated that they coped with problems in other…

  1. The relationship between cannabis outcome expectancies and cannabis refusal self-efficacy in a treatment population.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Kavanagh, David J; Young, Ross McD

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies are central to Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Alcohol studies demonstrate the theoretical and clinical utility of applying both SCT constructs. This study examined the relationship between refusal self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in a sample of cannabis users, and tested formal mediational models. Patients referred for cannabis treatment completed a comprehensive clinical assessment, including recently validated cannabis expectancy and refusal self-efficacy scales. A hospital alcohol and drug out-patient clinic. Patients referred for a cannabis treatment [n = 1115, mean age 26.29, standard deviation (SD) 9.39]. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) and Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (CRSEQ) were completed, along with measures of cannabis severity [Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS)] and cannabis consumption. Positive (β = -0.29, P < 0.001) and negative (β = -0.19, P < 0.001) cannabis outcome expectancies were associated significantly with refusal self-efficacy. Refusal self-efficacy, in turn, fully mediated the association between negative expectancy and weekly consumption [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03, 0.17] and partially mediated the effect of positive expectancy on weekly consumption (95% CI = 0.06, 0.17). Consistent with Social Cognitive Theory, refusal self-efficacy (a person's belief that he or she can abstain from cannabis use) mediates part of the association between cannabis outcome expectancies (perceived consequences of cannabis use) and cannabis use. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Using cannabis to help you sleep: heightened frequency of medical cannabis use among those with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes is proliferating in the U.S., and PTSD is an explicitly approved condition for accessing medical cannabis in 5 states. Prior research suggests that people with PTSD often use cannabis to help cope with their condition, and that doing so results in more frequent and problematic cannabis use patterns. Specific coping motivations, such as sleep improvement, among medical cannabis users, have not been examined. The present study evaluated specific coping use motivations, frequency of cannabis and alcohol use, and mental health among a convenience sample of patients (N=170) at a medical cannabis dispensary in California. Those with high PTSD scores were more likely to use cannabis to improve sleep, and for coping reasons more generally, compared with those with low PTSD scores. Cannabis use frequency was greater among those with high PTSD scores who used for sleep promoting purposes compared with those with low PTSD scores or those who did not use for sleep promoting purposes. Consistent with prior research, this study found increased rates of coping-oriented use of cannabis and greater frequency of cannabis use among medical users with high PTSD scores compared with low PTSD scores. In addition, sleep improvement appears to be a primary motivator for coping-oriented use. Additional research is needed to examine the health consequences of this pattern of cannabis use and whether alternative sleep promoting interventions (e.g. CBT-I) could reduce the reliance on cannabis for adequate sleep among those with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Estimating the economic value of British Columbia's domestic cannabis market: implications for provincial cannabis policy.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan; Nosyk, Bohdan; Kerr, Thomas; Fischer, Benedikt; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2012-11-01

    British Columbia (BC), Canada, is home to a large illegal cannabis industry that is known to contribute to substantial organized crime concerns. Although debates have emerged regarding the potential benefits of a legally regulated market to address a range of drug policy-related social problems, the value of the local (i.e., domestically consumed) cannabis market has not been characterized. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to generate a median value and 95% credibility interval for retail expenditure estimates of the domestic cannabis market in BC. Model parameter estimates were obtained for the number of cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use, the quantity of cannabis used, and the price of cannabis from government surveillance data and studies of BC cannabis users. The median annual estimated retail expenditure on cannabis by British Columbians was $407 million (95% Credibility Interval [CI]: $169-948 million). Daily users accounted for the bulk of the cannabis revenue, with a median estimated expenditure of approximately $357 million (95% CI: $149-845 million), followed by weekly users ($44 million, 95% CI: $18-90 million), and monthly users ($6 million, 95% CI: $3-12 million). When under-reporting of cannabis use was adjusted for, the estimated retail expenditure ranged from $443 million (95% CI: $185-1 billion) to $564 million (95% CI: $236-1.3 billion). Based on local consumption patterns, conservative estimates suggest that BC's domestic illegal cannabis trade is worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Given the value of this market and the failure and harms of law enforcement efforts to control the cannabis market, policymakers should consider regulatory alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  5. Cannabis and caries--does regular cannabis use increase the risk of caries in cigarette smokers?

    PubMed

    Schulz-Katterbach, Michèle; Imfeld, Thomas; Imfeld, Carola

    2009-01-01

    The use of cannabis by adolescents in Switzerland has almost doubled in the past decade. Empirical observations in private dental practices indicate that cannabis users have more carious lesions than those who do not use cannabis. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that regular cannabis use increases the risk of caries because of hyposalivation or lifestyle. Forty-three regular cannabis users were enrolled in the test group and 42 tobacco smokers were used as a negative control group. All subjects were 18-25 years old. Data were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and a clinical examination. There was no significant difference between groups in decayed and filled surfaces (DFS), saliva flow rate and plaque and gingival indices. The cannabis group had, however, significantly higher DS (decayed surface) values (p = 0.0001) and significantly lower frequencies of daily tooth brushing and dental control visits (p < 0.0001) than the control group. Additionally, the cannabis group reported a significantly higher consumption of sugar-containing beverages than the control group (p = 0.0078). To obtain more objective data relations, the DS values of male cannabis users were also compared with those of Swiss military recruits found in another study. The cannabis users had more caries on smooth surfaces than the military recruits. Although comparison with epidemiological data suggested that the prevalence of caries on smooth surfaces is elevated in cannabis users, DFS data indicated that cannabis users do not have an increased risk of caries. Lifestyle combined with short-term hyposalivation after delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol consumption is the most probable cause of the high prevalence of caries on smooth surfaces in cannabis users. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of cannabis use on oral health.

  6. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  7. Social capital, political trust and experience of cannabis smoking: a population-based study in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate whether political mistrust in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) is an independent characteristic of cannabis smokers, or whether it reflects low confidence in people in general, and therefore low social capital. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 with a 59% response rate providing data on political trust, cannabis smoking, and potential confounders. 13.9% of the men and 8.3% of the women had smoked cannabis; 17.3% of the male and 11.6% of the female respondents reported no trust at all in the Riksdag, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported a moderate political trust. Young age, high education, unemployment, low generalized trust in other people, and lower levels of political trust were associated with cannabis smoking, even after multiple adjustments. The groups men with no trust at all in the Riksdag, and women with high trust, not particularly high political trust and no political trust at all had significantly higher odds ratios of cannabis smoking than the very high trust reference category. The results thus somewhat differed between men and women. Low political trust is associated with cannabis smoking, independently of trust in people in general.

  8. The Moderating Effects of Cannabis Use and Decision Making on the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M.; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01