Counterfactual attack on counterfactual quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sheng; Wnang, Jian; Tang, Chao Jing
2012-05-01
It is interesting that counterfactual quantum cryptography protocols allow two remotely separated parties to share a secret key without transmitting any signal particles. Generally, these protocols, expected to provide security advantages, base their security on a translated no-cloning theorem. Therefore, they potentially exhibit unconditional security in theory. In this letter, we propose a new Trojan horse attack, by which an eavesdropper Eve can gain full information about the key without being noticed, to real implementations of a counterfactual quantum cryptography system. Most importantly, the presented attack is available even if the system has negligible imperfections. Therefore, it shows that the present realization of counterfactual quantum key distribution is vulnerable.
Trojan horse attacks on counterfactual quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan
2016-04-01
There has been much interest in "counterfactual quantum cryptography" (T.-G. Noh, 2009 [10]). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes.
Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.
2014-05-01
We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.
Security of counterfactual quantum cryptography
Yin Zhenqiang; Li Hongwei; Chen Wei; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan
2010-10-15
Recently, a 'counterfactual' quantum-key-distribution scheme was proposed by T.-G. Noh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009)]. In this scheme, two legitimate distant peers may share secret keys even when the information carriers are not traveled in the quantum channel. We find that this protocol is equivalent to an entanglement distillation protocol. According to this equivalence, a strict security proof and the asymptotic key bit rate are both obtained when a perfect single-photon source is applied and a Trojan horse attack can be detected. We also find that the security of this scheme is strongly related to not only the bit error rate but also the yields of photons. And our security proof may shed light on the security of other two-way protocols.
Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-01
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle.
Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-01
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle. PMID:20366133
Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum communication.
Liu, Yang; Ju, Lei; Liang, Xiao-Lei; Tang, Shi-Biao; Tu, Guo-Liang Shen; Zhou, Lei; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Kai; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-07-20
Quantum effects, besides offering substantial superiority in many tasks over classical methods, are also expected to provide interesting ways to establish secret keys between remote parties. A striking scheme called "counterfactual quantum cryptography" proposed by Noh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009).] allows one to maintain secure key distributions, in which particles carrying secret information are seemingly not being transmitted through quantum channels. We have experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, a faithful implementation for such a scheme with an on-table realization operating at telecom wavelengths. To verify its feasibility for extension over a long distance, we have furthermore reported an illustration on a 1 km fiber. In both cases, high visibilities of more than 98% are achieved through active stabilization of interferometers. Our demonstration is crucial as a direct verification of such a remarkable application, and this procedure can become a key communication module for revealing fundamental physics through counterfactuals.
Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum communication.
Liu, Yang; Ju, Lei; Liang, Xiao-Lei; Tang, Shi-Biao; Tu, Guo-Liang Shen; Zhou, Lei; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Kai; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-07-20
Quantum effects, besides offering substantial superiority in many tasks over classical methods, are also expected to provide interesting ways to establish secret keys between remote parties. A striking scheme called "counterfactual quantum cryptography" proposed by Noh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009).] allows one to maintain secure key distributions, in which particles carrying secret information are seemingly not being transmitted through quantum channels. We have experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, a faithful implementation for such a scheme with an on-table realization operating at telecom wavelengths. To verify its feasibility for extension over a long distance, we have furthermore reported an illustration on a 1 km fiber. In both cases, high visibilities of more than 98% are achieved through active stabilization of interferometers. Our demonstration is crucial as a direct verification of such a remarkable application, and this procedure can become a key communication module for revealing fundamental physics through counterfactuals. PMID:22861830
Analysis of Counterfactual Quantum Certificate Authorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tian-Yin; Li, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Rui-Ling
2016-09-01
A counterfactual quantum certificate authorization protocol was proposed recently (Shenoy et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052307 (20)), in which a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. However, this protocol requires a classical authenticated channel between Bob and Charlie to prevent possible attacks from the third party Alice, which is in conflict with the task of certificate authorization in the sense that Bob and Charlie can establish an unconditionally-secure key by a quantum key distribution protocol if there is a classical authenticated channel between them and hence securely transact with each other even without the assistance of the third party Alice.
Counterfactual Measurements and the Quantum Zeno Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russo, Onofrio; Jiang, Liang
2014-03-01
The apparent paradoxical paradigm of an interaction free measurement (counterfactual measurement) of the presence of a classical or quantum object without any scattering or absorption of photons is considered in light of the quantum Zeno effect. From one perspective, the counterfactual measurement in principle is consistent with minimizing the interaction between the object and the photon. However, the quantum Zeno effect mandates that repeated interactions with photons (although weakly coupled) are required and necessary to inhibit the coherent evolution of the state of the system. We consider and appraise these seemingly conflicting concepts.
Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.
Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-02-12
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants.
Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.
Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-01-01
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936
Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles
Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-01-01
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936
On Replacing "Quantum Thinking" with Counterfactual Reasoning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narens, Louis
The probability theory used in quantum mechanics is currently being employed by psychologists to model the impact of context on decision. Its event space consists of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and its probability function sometimes violate the law of the finite additivity of probabilities. Results from the quantum mechanics literature indicate that such a "Hilbert space probability theory" cannot be extended in a useful way to standard, finitely additive, probability theory by the addition of new events with specific probabilities. This chapter presents a new kind of probability theory that shares many fundamental algebraic characteristics with Hilbert space probability theory but does extend to standard probability theory by adjoining new events with specific probabilities. The new probability theory arises from considerations about how psychological experiments are related through counterfactual reasoning.
Protocol for direct counterfactual quantum communication.
Salih, Hatim; Li, Zheng-Hong; Al-Amri, M; Zubairy, M Suhail
2013-04-26
It has long been assumed in physics that for information to travel between two parties in empty space, "Alice" and "Bob," physical particles have to travel between them. Here, using the "chained" quantum Zeno effect, we show how, in the ideal asymptotic limit, information can be transferred between Alice and Bob without any physical particles traveling between them.
Comment on 'Nonlocality, Counterfactuals and Quantum Mechanics'
Stapp, H.P.
1999-04-14
A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. 65, 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters' choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell's theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A 59, 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been ''smuggled'' in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective.
Counterfactual distribution of Schrödinger cat states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shenoy-Hejamadi, Akshata; Srikanth, R.
2015-12-01
In the counterfactual cryptography scheme proposed by Noh, the sender Alice probabilistically transmits classical information to the receiver Bob without the physical travel of a particle. Here we generalize this idea to the distribution of quantum entanglement. The key insight is to replace their classical input choices with quantum superpositions. We further show that the scheme can be generalized to counterfactually distribute multipartite cat states.
Limitations on quantum key repeaters.
Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas
2015-04-23
A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.
Limitations on quantum key repeaters.
Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas
2015-01-01
A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol. PMID:25903096
Secure quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2014-08-01
Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.
Causal conditionals and counterfactuals
Frosch, Caren A.; Byrne, Ruth M.J.
2012-01-01
Causal counterfactuals e.g., ‘if the ignition key had been turned then the car would have started’ and causal conditionals e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ are understood by thinking about multiple possibilities of different sorts, as shown in six experiments using converging evidence from three different types of measures. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that conditionals that comprise enabling causes, e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ primed people to read quickly conjunctions referring to the possibility of the enabler occurring without the outcome, e.g., ‘the ignition key was turned and the car did not start’. Experiments 2a and 2b showed that people paraphrased causal conditionals by using causal or temporal connectives (because, when), whereas they paraphrased causal counterfactuals by using subjunctive constructions (had…would have). Experiments 3a and 3b showed that people made different inferences from counterfactuals presented with enabling conditions compared to none. The implications of the results for alternative theories of conditionals are discussed. PMID:22858874
Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution",
Security of Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2007-03-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is the most advanced application of Quantum Information Science. It allows extending secret keys over some distances in such a way that the security of the resulting key material can be guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. In contrast to presently used encryption techniques, the security of QKD can be proven in terms of information-theoretic measures. The resulting key can then be used for many tasks, including exchanging secret messages. QKD has been developed in the language of abstract two-level systems, the qubits. They cannot be easily implemented in optical signals. It took some time to bring the protocols and theory of QKD to the point where they fit to the realities of fiber-optical or free-space applications, including lossy channels. Today, QKD schemes can be implemented reliably using standard off-the-shelf components. Information theoretic security is a theoretical concept. Naturally, it is impossible to demonstrate directly that a given experimental set-up indeed creates a secret key. What one can do is to show that the experiment can give data within a certain parameters regime, such as error rate and loss rate, for which a security proof exists. I will discuss what parameter regime gives provable secure key and which parameter regime cannot lead to secret key. It is desirable to prove `unconditional security,' as it is termed in the world of classical cryptography: no assumption is made about the attacks of an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. However, one has to assume that the signal structure and the measurement device are correctly described by the adopted model and that no eavesdropper can intrude the sender or receiver unit. In this talk I will briefly introduce the concept of QKD and optical implementations. Especially I will discuss security aspects of modern approaches of QKD schemes that allow us to increase the covered distance and the achievable rate.
Detector decoy quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2009-04-01
Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.
Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2015-12-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.
Comment on [open quotes]Nonlocality, counterfactuals, and quantum mechanics[close quotes
Stapp, H.P. )
1999-09-01
A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. [bold 65], 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters[close quote] choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell[close quote]s theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A [bold 59], 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been [open quotes]smuggled[close quotes] in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society
No signaling and quantum key distribution.
Barrett, Jonathan; Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian
2005-07-01
Standard quantum key distribution protocols are provably secure against eavesdropping attacks, if quantum theory is correct. It is theoretically interesting to know if we need to assume the validity of quantum theory to prove the security of quantum key distribution, or whether its security can be based on other physical principles. The question would also be of practical interest if quantum mechanics were ever to fail in some regime, because a scientifically and technologically advanced eavesdropper could perhaps use postquantum physics to extract information from quantum communications without necessarily causing the quantum state disturbances on which existing security proofs rely. Here we describe a key distribution scheme provably secure against general attacks by a postquantum eavesdropper limited only by the impossibility of superluminal signaling. Its security stems from violation of a Bell inequality.
Quantum key distribution networks layer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Hao; Han, Zheng-fu; Hong, Pei-lin; Guo, Guang-can
2008-03-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) networks allow multiple users to generate and share secret quantum keys with unconditional security. Although many schemes of QKD networks have been presented, they are only concentrated on the system realization and physical implementations. For the complete practical quantum network, a succinct theoretic model that systematically describes the working processes from physical schemes to key process protocols, from network topology to key management, and from quantum communication to classical communication is still absent. One would hope that research and experience have shown that there are certain succinct model in the design of communication network. With demonstration of the different QKD links and the four primary types of quantum networks including probability multiplexing, wavelength multiplexing, time multiplexing and quantum multiplexing, we suggest a layer model for QKD networks which will be compatible with different implementations and protocols. We divide it into four main layers by their functional independency while defining each layer's services and responsibilities in detail, orderly named quantum links layer, quantum networks layer, quantum key distribution protocols process layer, and keys management layer. It will be helpful for the systematic design and construction of real QKD networks.
The Case for Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebila, Douglas; Mosca, Michele; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises secure key agreement by using quantum mechanical systems. We argue that QKD will be an important part of future cryptographic infrastructures. It can provide long-term confidentiality for encrypted information without reliance on computational assumptions. Although QKD still requires authentication to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, it can make use of either information-theoretically secure symmetric key authentication or computationally secure public key authentication: even when using public key authentication, we argue that QKD still offers stronger security than classical key agreement.
The security of practical quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarani, Valerio; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, Helle; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Dušek, Miloslav; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Peev, Momtchil
2009-07-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the first quantum information task to reach the level of mature technology, already fit for commercialization. It aims at the creation of a secret key between authorized partners connected by a quantum channel and a classical authenticated channel. The security of the key can in principle be guaranteed without putting any restriction on an eavesdropper’s power. This article provides a concise up-to-date review of QKD, biased toward the practical side. Essential theoretical tools that have been developed to assess the security of the main experimental platforms are presented (discrete-variable, continuous-variable, and distributed-phase-reference protocols).
All-photonic intercity quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Munro, William J.
2015-12-01
Recent field demonstrations of quantum key distribution (QKD) networks hold promise for unconditionally secure communication. However, owing to loss in optical fibres, the length of point-to-point links is limited to a hundred kilometers, restricting the QKD networks to intracity. A natural way to expand the QKD network in a secure manner is to connect it to another one in a different city with quantum repeaters. But, this solution is overengineered unless such a backbone connection is intercontinental. Here we present a QKD protocol that could supersede even quantum repeaters for connecting QKD networks in different cities below 800 km distant. Nonetheless, in contrast to quantum repeaters, this protocol uses only a single intermediate node with optical devices, requiring neither quantum memories nor quantum error correction. Our all-photonic `intercity' QKD protocol bridges large gaps between the conventional intracity QKD networks and the future intercontinental quantum repeaters, conceptually and technologically.
All-photonic intercity quantum key distribution.
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Munro, William J
2015-01-01
Recent field demonstrations of quantum key distribution (QKD) networks hold promise for unconditionally secure communication. However, owing to loss in optical fibres, the length of point-to-point links is limited to a hundred kilometers, restricting the QKD networks to intracity. A natural way to expand the QKD network in a secure manner is to connect it to another one in a different city with quantum repeaters. But, this solution is overengineered unless such a backbone connection is intercontinental. Here we present a QKD protocol that could supersede even quantum repeaters for connecting QKD networks in different cities below 800 km distant. Nonetheless, in contrast to quantum repeaters, this protocol uses only a single intermediate node with optical devices, requiring neither quantum memories nor quantum error correction. Our all-photonic 'intercity' QKD protocol bridges large gaps between the conventional intracity QKD networks and the future intercontinental quantum repeaters, conceptually and technologically.
All-photonic intercity quantum key distribution
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Munro, William J.
2015-01-01
Recent field demonstrations of quantum key distribution (QKD) networks hold promise for unconditionally secure communication. However, owing to loss in optical fibres, the length of point-to-point links is limited to a hundred kilometers, restricting the QKD networks to intracity. A natural way to expand the QKD network in a secure manner is to connect it to another one in a different city with quantum repeaters. But, this solution is overengineered unless such a backbone connection is intercontinental. Here we present a QKD protocol that could supersede even quantum repeaters for connecting QKD networks in different cities below 800 km distant. Nonetheless, in contrast to quantum repeaters, this protocol uses only a single intermediate node with optical devices, requiring neither quantum memories nor quantum error correction. Our all-photonic ‘intercity' QKD protocol bridges large gaps between the conventional intracity QKD networks and the future intercontinental quantum repeaters, conceptually and technologically. PMID:26671044
Quantum key distribution with a reference quantum state
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-11-15
A new quantum key distribution protocol stable at arbitrary losses in a quantum communication channel has been proposed. For the stability of the protocol, it is of fundamental importance that changes in states associated with losses in the communication channel (in the absence of the eavesdropper) are included in measurements.
Numerical approach for unstructured quantum key distribution.
Coles, Patrick J; Metodiev, Eric M; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2016-05-20
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows for communication with security guaranteed by quantum theory. The main theoretical problem in QKD is to calculate the secret key rate for a given protocol. Analytical formulas are known for protocols with symmetries, since symmetry simplifies the analysis. However, experimental imperfections break symmetries, hence the effect of imperfections on key rates is difficult to estimate. Furthermore, it is an interesting question whether (intentionally) asymmetric protocols could outperform symmetric ones. Here we develop a robust numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols. Ultimately this will allow researchers to study 'unstructured' protocols, that is, those that lack symmetry. Our approach relies on transforming the key rate calculation to the dual optimization problem, which markedly reduces the number of parameters and hence the calculation time. We illustrate our method by investigating some unstructured protocols for which the key rate was previously unknown.
Numerical approach for unstructured quantum key distribution.
Coles, Patrick J; Metodiev, Eric M; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows for communication with security guaranteed by quantum theory. The main theoretical problem in QKD is to calculate the secret key rate for a given protocol. Analytical formulas are known for protocols with symmetries, since symmetry simplifies the analysis. However, experimental imperfections break symmetries, hence the effect of imperfections on key rates is difficult to estimate. Furthermore, it is an interesting question whether (intentionally) asymmetric protocols could outperform symmetric ones. Here we develop a robust numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols. Ultimately this will allow researchers to study 'unstructured' protocols, that is, those that lack symmetry. Our approach relies on transforming the key rate calculation to the dual optimization problem, which markedly reduces the number of parameters and hence the calculation time. We illustrate our method by investigating some unstructured protocols for which the key rate was previously unknown. PMID:27198739
Numerical approach for unstructured quantum key distribution
Coles, Patrick J.; Metodiev, Eric M.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows for communication with security guaranteed by quantum theory. The main theoretical problem in QKD is to calculate the secret key rate for a given protocol. Analytical formulas are known for protocols with symmetries, since symmetry simplifies the analysis. However, experimental imperfections break symmetries, hence the effect of imperfections on key rates is difficult to estimate. Furthermore, it is an interesting question whether (intentionally) asymmetric protocols could outperform symmetric ones. Here we develop a robust numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols. Ultimately this will allow researchers to study ‘unstructured' protocols, that is, those that lack symmetry. Our approach relies on transforming the key rate calculation to the dual optimization problem, which markedly reduces the number of parameters and hence the calculation time. We illustrate our method by investigating some unstructured protocols for which the key rate was previously unknown. PMID:27198739
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing
2012-03-30
How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing
2012-03-30
How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686
Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation
Yuen, Horace P.
2010-12-15
We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.
Fully device-independent quantum key distribution.
Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas
2014-10-01
Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol.
Fully device-independent quantum key distribution.
Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas
2014-10-01
Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol. PMID:25325625
Quantum key distribution based on quantum dimension and independent devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-03-01
In this paper, we propose a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on only a two-dimensional Hilbert space encoding a quantum system and independent devices between the equipment for state preparation and measurement. Our protocol is inspired by the fully device-independent quantum key distribution (FDI-QKD) protocol and the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol. Our protocol only requires the state to be prepared in the two-dimensional Hilbert space, which weakens the state preparation assumption in the original MDI-QKD protocol. More interestingly, our protocol can overcome the detection loophole problem in the FDI-QKD protocol, which greatly limits the application of FDI-QKD. Hence our protocol can be implemented with practical optical components.
Key Reconciliation for High Performance Quantum Key Distribution
Martinez-Mateo, Jesus; Elkouss, David; Martin, Vicente
2013-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution is carving its place among the tools used to secure communications. While a difficult technology, it enjoys benefits that set it apart from the rest, the most prominent is its provable security based on the laws of physics. QKD requires not only the mastering of signals at the quantum level, but also a classical processing to extract a secret-key from them. This postprocessing has been customarily studied in terms of the efficiency, a figure of merit that offers a biased view of the performance of real devices. Here we argue that it is the throughput the significant magnitude in practical QKD, specially in the case of high speed devices, where the differences are more marked, and give some examples contrasting the usual postprocessing schemes with new ones from modern coding theory. A good understanding of its implications is very important for the design of modern QKD devices. PMID:23546440
Key Reconciliation for High Performance Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Mateo, Jesus; Elkouss, David; Martin, Vicente
2013-04-01
Quantum Key Distribution is carving its place among the tools used to secure communications. While a difficult technology, it enjoys benefits that set it apart from the rest, the most prominent is its provable security based on the laws of physics. QKD requires not only the mastering of signals at the quantum level, but also a classical processing to extract a secret-key from them. This postprocessing has been customarily studied in terms of the efficiency, a figure of merit that offers a biased view of the performance of real devices. Here we argue that it is the throughput the significant magnitude in practical QKD, specially in the case of high speed devices, where the differences are more marked, and give some examples contrasting the usual postprocessing schemes with new ones from modern coding theory. A good understanding of its implications is very important for the design of modern QKD devices.
Finite-key security analysis for multilevel quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brádler, Kamil; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Fickler, Robert; Broadbent, Anne; Boyd, Robert
2016-07-01
We present a detailed security analysis of a d-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on two and three mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) both in an asymptotic and finite-key-length scenario. The finite secret key rates (in bits per detected photon) are calculated as a function of the length of the sifted key by (i) generalizing the uncertainly relation-based insight from BB84 to any d-level 2-MUB QKD protocol and (ii) by adopting recent advances in the second-order asymptotics for finite block length quantum coding (for both d-level 2- and 3-MUB QKD protocols). Since the finite and asymptotic secret key rates increase with d and the number of MUBs (together with the tolerable threshold) such QKD schemes could in principle offer an important advantage over BB84. We discuss the possibility of an experimental realization of the 3-MUB QKD protocol with the orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom of photons.
Optimal Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution
Kamaruddin, S.; Shaari, J. S.
2016-01-01
We consider an optimal quantum key distribution setup based on minimal number of measurement bases with binary yields used by parties against an eavesdropper limited only by the no-signaling principle. We note that in general, the maximal key rate can be achieved by determining the optimal tradeoff between measurements that attain the maximal Bell violation and those that maximise the bit correlation between the parties. We show that higher correlation between shared raw keys at the expense of maximal Bell violation provide for better key rates for low channel disturbance. PMID:27485160
Optimal Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamaruddin, S.; Shaari, J. S.
2016-08-01
We consider an optimal quantum key distribution setup based on minimal number of measurement bases with binary yields used by parties against an eavesdropper limited only by the no-signaling principle. We note that in general, the maximal key rate can be achieved by determining the optimal tradeoff between measurements that attain the maximal Bell violation and those that maximise the bit correlation between the parties. We show that higher correlation between shared raw keys at the expense of maximal Bell violation provide for better key rates for low channel disturbance.
Optimal Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Kamaruddin, S; Shaari, J S
2016-01-01
We consider an optimal quantum key distribution setup based on minimal number of measurement bases with binary yields used by parties against an eavesdropper limited only by the no-signaling principle. We note that in general, the maximal key rate can be achieved by determining the optimal tradeoff between measurements that attain the maximal Bell violation and those that maximise the bit correlation between the parties. We show that higher correlation between shared raw keys at the expense of maximal Bell violation provide for better key rates for low channel disturbance. PMID:27485160
Two-layer quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Paulo Vinícius Pereira; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2015-06-01
Recently a new quantum key distribution protocol using coherent and thermal states was proposed. In this work, this kind of two-layer QKD protocol is formalized and its security against the most common attacks, including external control and Trojan horse attacks, is discussed.
Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Rui-Rui; Yang, Li
2012-08-01
An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible.
Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.
Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara
2003-08-29
The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.
Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i
2013-01-01
How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…
Differential phase shift quantum key distribution.
Inoue, Kyo; Waks, Edo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2002-07-15
A novel quantum cryptography scheme is proposed, in which a single photon is prepared in a linear superposition state of three basis kets. A photon split to three pulses is sent from Alice to Bob, where the phase difference between sequential two pulses carries bit information. Bob measures the phase difference by passive differential phase detection. This scheme is suitable for fiber transmission systems and offers a key creation efficiency higher than conventional fiber-based BB84. PMID:12144419
Causal inference based on counterfactuals
Höfler, M
2005-01-01
Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept. PMID:16159397
Quantum hacking on quantum key distribution using homodyne detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-03-01
Imperfect devices in commercial quantum key distribution systems open security loopholes that an eavesdropper may exploit. An example of one such imperfection is the wavelength-dependent coupling ratio of the fiber beam splitter. Utilizing this loophole, the eavesdropper can vary the transmittances of the fiber beam splitter at the receiver's side by inserting lights with wavelengths different from what is normally used. Here, we propose a wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system using homodyne detection. By inserting light pulses at different wavelengths, this attack allows the eavesdropper to bias the shot-noise estimation even if it is done in real time. Based on experimental data, we discuss the feasibility of this attack and suggest a prevention scheme by improving the previously proposed countermeasures.
Quantum key distribution with dual detectors
Qi, Bing; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qian, Li
2007-05-15
To improve the performance of a quantum-key-distribution (QKD) system, high speed, low dark count single photon detectors (or low-noise homodyne detectors) are required. However, in practice, a fast detector is usually noisy. Here, we propose a dual-detector method to improve the performance of a practical QKD system with realistic detectors: the legitimate receiver randomly uses either a fast (but noisy) detector or a quiet (but slow) detector to measure the incoming quantum signals. The measurement results from the quiet detector can be used to bound the eavesdropper's information, while the measurement results from the fast detector are used to generate a secure key. We apply this idea to various QKD protocols. Simulation results demonstrate significant improvements of the secure key rate in the lower loss regime in both Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with ideal single photon source and Gaussian-modulated coherent states protocol; while for decoy-state BB84 protocol with weak coherent source, the improvement is moderate. We also discuss various practical issues in implementing the dual-detector scheme.
Quantum key distribution protocol using random bases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meslouhi, A.; Amellal, H.; Hassouni, Y.; El Baz, M.; El Allati, A.
2016-04-01
In order to enhance the quantum key distribution (QKD) security, a new protocol, “QKDPRB” based on random bases is proposed. It consists of using standard encoding bases moving circularly with a variable rotational angle α which depends on angular velocity ω(t); thus, the traditional bases turn into relative ones. To prove the security and the efficiency of the protocol, we present a universal demonstration which proves a high level security of the proposed protocol, even in the presence of the intercept and resend attack. Finally, the QKDPRB may improve the security of QKD.
Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation
Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu
2016-01-01
Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a “classical” party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution. PMID:26813384
Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation.
Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu
2016-01-01
Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a "classical" party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution. PMID:26813384
Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu
2016-01-01
Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a “classical” party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution.
Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution
Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Korzh, Boris; Martin, Anthony; Bussières, Félix; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo
2014-12-01
Recently, a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme based on entanglement swapping, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), was proposed to bypass all measurement side-channel attacks. While mdiQKD is conceptually elegant and offers a supreme level of security, the experimental complexity is challenging for practical systems. For instance, it requires interference between two widely separated independent single-photon sources, and the secret key rates are dependent on detecting two photons—one from each source. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment of a QKD scheme that removes the need for a two-photon system and instead uses the idea of a two-qubit single-photon to significantly simplify the implementation and improve the efficiency of mdiQKD in several aspects.
Completely device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, Edgar A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Kofler, Johannes; Pawłowski, Marcin
2016-08-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a provably secure way for two distant parties to establish a common secret key, which then can be used in a classical cryptographic scheme. Using quantum entanglement, one can reduce the necessary assumptions that the parties have to make about their devices, giving rise to device-independent QKD (DIQKD). However, in all existing protocols to date the parties need to have an initial (at least partially) random seed as a resource. In this work, we show that this requirement can be dropped. Using recent advances in the fields of randomness amplification and randomness expansion, we demonstrate that it is sufficient for the message the parties want to communicate to be (partially) unknown to the adversaries—an assumption without which any type of cryptography would be pointless to begin with. One party can use her secret message to locally generate a secret sequence of bits, which can then be openly used by herself and the other party in a DIQKD protocol. Hence our work reduces the requirements needed to perform secure DIQKD and establish safe communication.
Structural Counterfactuals: A Brief Introduction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearl, Judea
2013-01-01
Recent advances in causal reasoning have given rise to a computational model that emulates the process by which humans generate, evaluate, and distinguish counterfactual sentences. Contrasted with the "possible worlds" account of counterfactuals, this "structural" model enjoys the advantages of representational economy,…
Optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution without quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocquet, Aurélien; Alléaume, Romain; Leverrier, Anthony
2012-01-01
We consider the security of the BB84 (Bennett and Brassard 1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing pp 175-9), six-state (Bruß 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.3018) and SARG04 (Scarani et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.057901) quantum key distribution protocols when the eavesdropper does not have access to a quantum memory. In this case, Eve’s most general strategy is to measure her ancilla with an appropriate positive operator-valued measure designed to take advantage of the post-measurement information that will be released during the sifting phase of the protocol. After an optimization on all the parameters accessible to Eve, our method provides us with new bounds for the security of six-state and SARG04 against a memoryless adversary. In particular, for the six-state protocol we show that the maximum quantum bit error ratio for which a secure key can be extracted is increased from 12.6% (for collective attacks) to 20.4% with the memoryless assumption.
Counterfactual Thinking Facilitates Behavioral Intentions
Smallman, Rachel; Roese, Neal J.
2009-01-01
People often ponder what might have been, and these counterfactual inferences have been linked to behavior regulation. Counterfactuals may enhance performance by either a content-specific pathway (via shift in behavioral intentions) and/or a content-neutral pathway (via mindsets or motivation). Three experiments provided new specification of the content-specific pathway. A sequential priming paradigm revealed that counterfactual judgments facilitated RTs to complete behavioral intention judgments relative to control judgments and to a no-judgment baseline (Experiment 1). This facilitation effect was found only for intention judgments that matched the information content of the counterfactual (Experiment 2) and only for intention judgments as opposed to a different judgment that nevertheless focused on the same information content (Experiment 3). These findings clarify the content-specific pathway by which counterfactuals influence behavior. PMID:20161221
Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo, Gordon
2013-04-01
The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However
Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuchs, G.
2013-10-01
We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.
A universal quantum key distribution method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, He-qing; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Tian, Pei-gen
2013-09-01
Combining heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) with passive decoy-state idea, a new method is presented for quantum key distribution (QKD). The weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single photon source (HSPS) are the most common photon sources for state-of-the-art QKD. However, there is a prominent crossover between the maximum secure distance and the secure key generation rate if these two sources are applied in a practical decoy-state QKD. The method in this paper does not prepare decoy states actively. Therefore, it uses the same experimental setup as the conventional protocol, and there is no need for a hardware change, so its implementation is very easy. Furthermore, the method can obtain a longer secure transmission distance, and its key generation rate is higher than that of the passive decoy-state method with WCS or HSPS in the whole secure transmission distance. Thus, the limitation of the mentioned photo sources for QKD is broken through. So the method is universal in performance and implementation.
Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals
Lagnado, David A; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i
2013-01-01
How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main theoretical and empirical issues that arise from this literature and propose a novel model of intuitive judgments of responsibility. This model is a function of both pivotality (whether an agent made a difference to the outcome) and criticality (how important the agent is perceived to be for the outcome, before any actions are taken). The model explains empirical results from previous studies and is supported by a new experiment that manipulates both pivotality and criticality. We also discuss possible extensions of this model to deal with a broader range of causal situations. Overall, our approach emphasizes the close interrelations between causality, counterfactuals, and responsibility attributions. PMID:23855451
Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Bing; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2007-09-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is "time-shift" attack, which is applicable to QKD systems with gated single photon detectors (SPDs). In this attack, the eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the time mismatch between the open windows of the two SPDs. She can acquire a significant amount of information on the final key by simply shifting the quantum signals forwards or backwards in time domain. Our experimental results in [9] with a commercial QKD system demonstrate that, under this attack, the original QKD system is breakable. This is the first experimental demonstration of a feasible attack against a commercial QKD system. This is a surprising result. The second one is "phase-remapping" attack [10]. Here, Eve exploits the fact that a practical phase modulator has a finite response time. In principle, Eve could change the encoded phase value by time-shifting the signal pulse relative to the reference pulse.
Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems
Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio
2010-09-15
We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.
Performance of device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhu; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-07-01
Quantum key distribution provides information-theoretically-secure communication. In practice, device imperfections may jeopardise the system security. Device-independent quantum key distribution solves this problem by providing secure keys even when the quantum devices are untrusted and uncharacterized. Following a recent security proof of the device-independent quantum key distribution, we improve the key rate by tightening the parameter choice in the security proof. In practice where the system is lossy, we further improve the key rate by taking into account the loss position information. From our numerical simulation, our method can outperform existing results. Meanwhile, we outline clear experimental requirements for implementing device-independent quantum key distribution. The maximal tolerable error rate is 1.6%, the minimal required transmittance is 97.3%, and the minimal required visibility is 96.8 % .
Perceptual presence without counterfactual richness.
Madary, Michael
2014-01-01
In this commentary, I suggest that non-visual perceptual modalities provide counterexamples to Seth's claim that perceptual presence depends on counterfactual richness. Then I suggest a modification to Seth's view that is not vulnerable to these counterexamples. PMID:24739124
Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode
Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.
2015-12-28
Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.
Counterfactual Reasoning: From Childhood to Adulthood
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions…
Discourse Updating after Reading a Counterfactual Event
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Vega, Manuel; Urrutia, Mabel
2012-01-01
This paper explores the temporal course of discourse updating after reading counterfactual events. To test the accessibility to discourse information, readers were asked to identify probes related to initial events in the text, previous to the counterfactual, or probes related to the critical counterfactual events. Experiment 1 showed that 500 ms…
One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement.
Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao
2016-01-01
A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the "Ping-pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865
One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement
Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao
2016-01-01
A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper’s attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the “Ping-pong” protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865
Quantum circuit for optimal eavesdropping in quantum key distribution using phase-time coding
Kronberg, D. A.; Molotkov, S. N.
2010-07-15
A quantum circuit is constructed for optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution proto- cols using phase-time coding, and its physical implementation based on linear and nonlinear fiber-optic components is proposed.
On the complexity of search for keys in quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.
2016-03-01
The trace distance is used as a security criterion in proofs of security of keys in quantum cryptography. Some authors doubted that this criterion can be reduced to criteria used in classical cryptography. The following question has been answered in this work. Let a quantum cryptography system provide an ɛ-secure key such that ½‖ρ XE - ρ U ⊗ ρ E ‖1 < ɛ, which will be repeatedly used in classical encryption algorithms. To what extent does the ɛ-secure key reduce the number of search steps (guesswork) as compared to the use of ideal keys? A direct relation has been demonstrated between the complexity of the complete consideration of keys, which is one of the main security criteria in classical systems, and the trace distance used in quantum cryptography. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of search steps for the determination of the actual key have been presented.
Achieving high visibility in subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chistyakov, V. V.; Smirnov, S. V.; Nazarov, Yu V.; Kynev, S. M.; Gleim, A. V.
2016-08-01
We study influence of quantum signal polarization distortions in the optical fiber on the interference pattern visibility in a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system. An optical scheme of the polarization compensation unit is suggested, and dynamics of the QBER depending on the unit architecture is explored.
Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state
Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan
2007-07-15
To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.
Quantum oblivion: A master key for many quantum riddles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elitzur, Avshalom C.; Cohen, Eliahu
2014-02-01
A simple quantum interaction is analyzed, where the paths of two superposed particles asymmetrically cross, while a detector set to detect an interaction between them remains silent. Despite this negative result, the particles' states leave no doubt that a peculiar interaction has occurred: One particle's momentum is changed while the other's remains unaffected, in apparent violation of momentum conservation. Revisiting the foundations of the standard quantum measurement process offers the resolution. Prior to the macroscopic recording of no interaction, a brief critical interval (CI) prevails, during which the particles and the detector's pointer form a subtle entanglement which immediately dissolves. It is this self-cancellation, henceforth "quantum oblivion (QO)," that lies at the basis of some well-known intriguing quantum effects. Such is interaction-free measurement (IFM)1 and its more paradoxical variants like Hardy's Paradox2 and the quantum liar paradox.3 Even the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect4 and weak measurement (WM)5 turn out to belong to this group. We next study interventions within the CI that produce some other peculiar effects. Finally, we discuss some of the conceptual issues involved. Under a greater time-resolution of the CI, some non-local phenomena turn out to be local. Momentum is conserved due to the quantum uncertainties inflicted by the particle-pointer interaction, which sets the experiment's final boundary condition.
A novel protocol for multiparty quantum key management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Yang, Yi-Xian; Li, Zongpeng
2015-08-01
Key management plays a fundamental role in the field of cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel multiparty quantum key management (QKM) protocol. Departing from single-function quantum cryptography protocols, our protocol has a salient feature in that it accomplishes a complete QKM process. In this process, we can simultaneously realize the functions of key generation, key distribution and key backup by executing the protocol once. Meanwhile, for the first time, we propose the idea of multi-function QKM. Firstly, the secret key is randomly generated by managers via the quantum measurements in -level Bell basis. Then, through entanglement swapping, the secret key is successfully distributed to users. Under circumstances of urgent requirement, all managers can cooperate to recover the users' secret key, but neither of them can recover it unilaterally. Furthermore, this protocol is further generalized into the multi-manager and multi-user QKM scenario. It has clear advantages in the burgeoning area of quantum security group communication. In this system, all group members share the same group key, and group key management is the foundation of secure group communication and hence an important subject of study.
GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu
2008-07-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.
Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing
Fung, C.-H. Fred; Chau, H. F.; Ma Xiongfeng
2010-01-15
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure key generation method between two distant parties by wisely exploiting properties of quantum mechanics. In QKD, experimental measurement outcomes on quantum states are transformed by the two parties to a secret key. This transformation is composed of many logical steps (as guided by security proofs), which together will ultimately determine the length of the final secret key and its security. We detail the procedure for performing such classical postprocessing taking into account practical concerns (including the finite-size effect and authentication and encryption for classical communications). This procedure is directly applicable to realistic QKD experiments and thus serves as a recipe that specifies what postprocessing operations are needed and what the security level is for certain lengths of the keys. Our result is applicable to the BB84 protocol with a single or entangled photon source.
Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chau, H. F.
2010-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure key generation method between two distant parties by wisely exploiting properties of quantum mechanics. In QKD, experimental measurement outcomes on quantum states are transformed by the two parties to a secret key. This transformation is composed of many logical steps (as guided by security proofs), which together will ultimately determine the length of the final secret key and its security. We detail the procedure for performing such classical postprocessing taking into account practical concerns (including the finite-size effect and authentication and encryption for classical communications). This procedure is directly applicable to realistic QKD experiments and thus serves as a recipe that specifies what postprocessing operations are needed and what the security level is for certain lengths of the keys. Our result is applicable to the BB84 protocol with a single or entangled photon source.
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states.
Etcheverry, S; Cañas, G; Gómez, E S; Nogueira, W A T; Saavedra, C; Xavier, G B; Lima, G
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD.
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states.
Etcheverry, S; Cañas, G; Gómez, E S; Nogueira, W A T; Saavedra, C; Xavier, G B; Lima, G
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states
Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Implementing Diffie-Hellman key exchange using quantum EPR pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Sayonnha; Parakh, Abhishek
2015-05-01
This paper implements the concepts of perfect forward secrecy and the Diffie-Hellman key exchange using EPR pairs to establish and share a secret key between two non-authenticated parties and transfer messages between them without the risk of compromise. Current implementations of quantum cryptography are based on the BB84 protocol, which is susceptible to siphoning attacks on the multiple photons emitted by practical laser sources. This makes BB84-based quantum cryptography protocol unsuitable for network computing environments. Diffie-Hellman does not require the two parties to be mutually authenticated to each other, yet it can provide a basis for a number of authenticated protocols, most notably the concept of perfect forward secrecy. The work proposed in this paper provides a new direction in utilizing quantum EPR pairs in quantum key exchange. Although, classical cryptography boasts of efficient and robust protocols like the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, in the current times, with the advent of quantum computing they are very much vulnerable to eavesdropping and cryptanalytic attacks. Using quantum cryptographic principles, however, these classical encryption algorithms show more promise and a more robust and secure structure for applications. The unique properties of quantum EPR pairs also, on the other hand, go a long way in removing attacks like eavesdropping by their inherent nature of one particle of the pair losing its state if a measurement occurs on the other. The concept of perfect forward secrecy is revisited in this paper to attribute tighter security to the proposed protocol.
Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution.
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-01-01
Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359
A continuous-variable quantum key distribution using correlated photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donkor, Eric; Erdmann, Reinhard; Kumavor, Patrick D.
2015-05-01
We propose a quantum key distribution system based on the generation and transmission of random continuous variables in time, energy (frequency), phase, and photon number. The bounds for quantum measurement in our scheme are determined by the uncertainty principle, rather than single quadrature measurements of entangled states, or the no-cloning of (unknown) single quantum states. Correlated measurements are performed in the energy-time, and momentum-displacement frames. As a result the QKD protocols for generation of raw-keys, sifted-keys and privacy amplifications offer a higher level of security against individual or multi-attacks. The network architecture is in a plug-and-play configuration; the QKD protocol; determination of quantum bit error rate, and estimation of system performance in the presence of eavesdropping are presented.
Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-01-01
Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359
Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-11-01
Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.
Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakassis, Anastase; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Williams, Carl J.
2004-08-01
The paper proposes algorithmic and environmental modifications to the extant reconciliation algorithms within the BB84 protocol so as to speed up reconciliation and privacy amplification. These algorithms have been known to be a performance bottleneck 1 and can process data at rates that are six times slower than the quantum channel they serve2. As improvements in single-photon sources and detectors are expected to improve the quantum channel throughput by two or three orders of magnitude, it becomes imperative to improve the performance of the classical software. We developed a Cascade-like algorithm that relies on a symmetric formulation of the problem, error estimation through the segmentation process, outright elimination of segments with many errors, Forward Error Correction, recognition of the distinct data subpopulations that emerge as the algorithm runs, ability to operate on massive amounts of data (of the order of 1 Mbit), and a few other minor improvements. The data from the experimental algorithm we developed show that by operating on massive arrays of data we can improve software performance by better than three orders of magnitude while retaining nearly as many bits (typically more than 90%) as the algorithms that were designed for optimal bit retention.
Multiparty quantum-key-distribution protocol without use of entanglement
Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-12-15
We propose a quantum-key-distribution protocol that enables three parties to agree at once on a shared common random bit string in the presence of an eavesdropper without use of entanglement. We prove its unconditional security and analyze the key rate.
Experimental quantum key distribution with finite-key security analysis for noisy channels.
Bacco, Davide; Canale, Matteo; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2013-01-01
In quantum key distribution implementations, each session is typically chosen long enough so that the secret key rate approaches its asymptotic limit. However, this choice may be constrained by the physical scenario, as in the perspective use with satellites, where the passage of one terminal over the other is restricted to a few minutes. Here we demonstrate experimentally the extraction of secure keys leveraging an optimal design of the prepare-and-measure scheme, according to recent finite-key theoretical tight bounds. The experiment is performed in different channel conditions, and assuming two distinct attack models: individual attacks or general quantum attacks. The request on the number of exchanged qubits is then obtained as a function of the key size and of the ambient quantum bit error rate. The results indicate that viable conditions for effective symmetric, and even one-time-pad, cryptography are achievable.
Experimental quantum key distribution with finite-key security analysis for noisy channels.
Bacco, Davide; Canale, Matteo; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2013-01-01
In quantum key distribution implementations, each session is typically chosen long enough so that the secret key rate approaches its asymptotic limit. However, this choice may be constrained by the physical scenario, as in the perspective use with satellites, where the passage of one terminal over the other is restricted to a few minutes. Here we demonstrate experimentally the extraction of secure keys leveraging an optimal design of the prepare-and-measure scheme, according to recent finite-key theoretical tight bounds. The experiment is performed in different channel conditions, and assuming two distinct attack models: individual attacks or general quantum attacks. The request on the number of exchanged qubits is then obtained as a function of the key size and of the ambient quantum bit error rate. The results indicate that viable conditions for effective symmetric, and even one-time-pad, cryptography are achievable. PMID:24008848
Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2016-03-01
A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.
Counterfactual Reasoning Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients
Castellví, Pere; Caño, Agnès; Benejam, Bessy
2016-01-01
Background Counterfactual thinking is a specific type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Although it has been broadly studied in the general population, research on schizophrenia is still scarce. The aim of the current study was to further examine counterfactual reasoning in this illness. Methods Forty schizophrenia patients and 40 controls completed a series of tests that assessed the influence of the “causal order effect” on counterfactual thinking, and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences from a hypothetical situation. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as neurocognitive variables, were also examined. Results Compared to controls, the schizophrenia patients generated fewer counterfactual thoughts when faced with a simulated scenario. The pattern of response when assessing the causality effect of the order was also different between the groups, with the patients being more frequently unable to attribute any ordering of events than the control subjects. Additionally, the schizophrenia patients showed more difficulties when deriving normative counterfactual inferences from hypothetical social situations. None of the counterfactual reasoning measures was associated to any of the cognitive functions or clinical and socio-demographic variables assessed. Conclusions A global impairment in counterfactual thinking characterizes schizophrenia patients. Because of the potential impact of such deficits on psychosocial functioning, targeting counterfactual reasoning for improvement might be considered in future treatment approaches. PMID:26828931
The aftermath of rash action: sleep-interfering counterfactual thoughts and emotions.
Schmidt, Ralph E; Van der Linden, Martial
2009-08-01
A consistent body of evidence suggests that excessive cognitive activity at bedtime is a key factor in insomnia. It is generally assumed that sleep-interfering cognitions are affect laden, but still little is known about the precise nature of the affective processes that are involved. The present study sought to explore the role of counterfactual thinking and counterfactual emotions (regret, shame, and guilt) in insomnia as a function of impulsivity. It was hypothesized that when retiring for the night, individuals scoring high on urgency review their rash daytime behavior and are therefore likely to engage in counterfactual thinking and to experience associated feelings of regret, shame, and guilt. A sample of 101 undergraduate students completed three questionnaires: the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Bedtime Counterfactual Processing Questionnaire, and the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that both urgency and counterfactual processing were related to insomnia severity and that the effect of urgency on insomnia was mediated by counterfactual processing. These findings reveal for the first time that impulsivity relates to counterfactual cognitive-affective processing and that this type of processing contributes to sleep disturbances. PMID:19653778
Quantum cryptography and authentication with low key-consumption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abidin, A.; Pacher, C.; Lorünser, T.; Larsson, J.-Å.; Peev, M.
2011-11-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD - also referred to as Quantum Cryptography) is a technique for secret key agreement. It has been shown that QKD rigged with Information-Theoretic Secure (ITS) authentication (using secret key) of the classical messages transmitted during the key distribution protocol is also ITS. Note, QKD without any authentication can trivially be broken by man-in-the-middle attacks. Here, we study an authentication method that was originally proposed because of its low key consumption; a two-step authentication that uses a publicly known hash function, followed by a secret strongly universal2 hash function, which is exchanged each round. This two-step authentication is not information-theoretically secure but it was argued that nevertheless it does not compromise the security of QKD. In the current contribution we study intrinsic weaknesses of this approach under the common assumption that the QKD adversary has access to unlimited resources including quantum memories. We consider one implementation of Quantum Cryptographic protocols that use such authentication and demonstrate an attack that fully extract the secret key. Even including the final key from the protocol in the authentication does not rule out the possibility of these attacks. To rectify the situation, we propose a countermeasure that, while not information-theoretically secure, restores the need for very large computing power for the attack to work. Finally, we specify conditions that must be satisfied by the two-step authentication in order to restore information-theoretic security.
High Speed Quantum Key Distribution Over Optical Fiber Network System.
Ma, Lijun; Mink, Alan; Tang, Xiao
2009-01-01
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a number of complete fiber-based high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD) systems that includes an 850 nm QKD system for a local area network (LAN), a 1310 nm QKD system for a metropolitan area network (MAN), and a 3-node quantum network controlled by a network manager. This paper discusses the key techniques used to implement these systems, which include polarization recovery, noise reduction, frequency up-conversion detection based on a periodically polled lithium nitrate (PPLN) waveguide, custom high-speed data handling boards and quantum network management. Using our quantum network, a QKD secured video surveillance application has been demonstrated. Our intention is to show the feasibility and sophistication of QKD systems based on current technology. PMID:27504218
Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on reusable key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, ChaoHua; Guo, GongDe; Lin, Song
2014-11-01
An arbitrated quantum signature scheme without using entangled states is proposed. In the scheme, by employing a classical hash function and random numbers, the secret keys of signer and receiver can be reused. It is shown that the proposed scheme is secure against several well-known attacks. Specifically, it can stand against the receiver's disavowal attack. Moreover, compared with previous relevant arbitrated quantum signature schemes, the scheme proposed has the advantage of less transmission complexity.
Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.
Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J
2012-01-01
We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411
Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance.
Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Koashi, Masato
2014-05-22
Quantum cryptography exploits the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics to provide a secure way to exchange private information. Such an exchange requires a common random bit sequence, called a key, to be shared secretly between the sender and the receiver. The basic idea behind quantum key distribution (QKD) has widely been understood as the property that any attempt to distinguish encoded quantum states causes a disturbance in the signal. As a result, implementation of a QKD protocol involves an estimation of the experimental parameters influenced by the eavesdropper's intervention, which is achieved by randomly sampling the signal. If the estimation of many parameters with high precision is required, the portion of the signal that is sacrificed increases, thus decreasing the efficiency of the protocol. Here we propose a QKD protocol based on an entirely different principle. The sender encodes a bit sequence onto non-orthogonal quantum states and the receiver randomly dictates how a single bit should be calculated from the sequence. The eavesdropper, who is unable to learn the whole of the sequence, cannot guess the bit value correctly. An achievable rate of secure key distribution is calculated by considering complementary choices between quantum measurements of two conjugate observables. We found that a practical implementation using a laser pulse train achieves a key rate comparable to a decoy-state QKD protocol, an often-used technique for lasers. It also has a better tolerance of bit errors and of finite-sized-key effects. We anticipate that this finding will give new insight into how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics can be related to secure communication, and will facilitate the simple and efficient use of conventional lasers for QKD.
Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance.
Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Koashi, Masato
2014-05-22
Quantum cryptography exploits the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics to provide a secure way to exchange private information. Such an exchange requires a common random bit sequence, called a key, to be shared secretly between the sender and the receiver. The basic idea behind quantum key distribution (QKD) has widely been understood as the property that any attempt to distinguish encoded quantum states causes a disturbance in the signal. As a result, implementation of a QKD protocol involves an estimation of the experimental parameters influenced by the eavesdropper's intervention, which is achieved by randomly sampling the signal. If the estimation of many parameters with high precision is required, the portion of the signal that is sacrificed increases, thus decreasing the efficiency of the protocol. Here we propose a QKD protocol based on an entirely different principle. The sender encodes a bit sequence onto non-orthogonal quantum states and the receiver randomly dictates how a single bit should be calculated from the sequence. The eavesdropper, who is unable to learn the whole of the sequence, cannot guess the bit value correctly. An achievable rate of secure key distribution is calculated by considering complementary choices between quantum measurements of two conjugate observables. We found that a practical implementation using a laser pulse train achieves a key rate comparable to a decoy-state QKD protocol, an often-used technique for lasers. It also has a better tolerance of bit errors and of finite-sized-key effects. We anticipate that this finding will give new insight into how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics can be related to secure communication, and will facilitate the simple and efficient use of conventional lasers for QKD. PMID:24848060
Experimental realization of equiangular three-state quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-07-01
Quantum key distribution using three states in equiangular configuration combines a security threshold comparable with the one of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and a quantum bit error rate (QBER) estimation that does not need to reveal part of the key. We implement an entanglement-based version of the Renes 2004 protocol, using only passive optic elements in a linear scheme for the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), generating an asymptotic secure key rate of more than 10 kbit/s, with a mean QBER of 1.6%. We then demonstrate its security in the case of finite key and evaluate the key rate for both collective and general attacks.
Experimental realization of equiangular three-state quantum key distribution
Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution using three states in equiangular configuration combines a security threshold comparable with the one of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and a quantum bit error rate (QBER) estimation that does not need to reveal part of the key. We implement an entanglement-based version of the Renes 2004 protocol, using only passive optic elements in a linear scheme for the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), generating an asymptotic secure key rate of more than 10 kbit/s, with a mean QBER of 1.6%. We then demonstrate its security in the case of finite key and evaluate the key rate for both collective and general attacks. PMID:27465643
Experimental realization of equiangular three-state quantum key distribution.
Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-07-28
Quantum key distribution using three states in equiangular configuration combines a security threshold comparable with the one of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and a quantum bit error rate (QBER) estimation that does not need to reveal part of the key. We implement an entanglement-based version of the Renes 2004 protocol, using only passive optic elements in a linear scheme for the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), generating an asymptotic secure key rate of more than 10 kbit/s, with a mean QBER of 1.6%. We then demonstrate its security in the case of finite key and evaluate the key rate for both collective and general attacks.
Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comandar, L. C.; Lucamarini, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Tam, S. W.-B.; Yuan, Z. L.; Penty, R. V.; Shields, A. J.
2016-05-01
Security in quantum cryptography is continuously challenged by inventive attacks targeting the real components of a cryptographic set-up, and duly restored by new countermeasures to foil them. Owing to their high sensitivity and complex design, detectors are the most frequently attacked components. It was recently shown that two-photon interference from independent light sources can be used to remove any vulnerability from detectors. This new form of detection-safe quantum key distribution (QKD), termed measurement-device-independent (MDI), has been experimentally demonstrated but with modest key rates. Here, we introduce a new pulsed laser seeding technique to obtain high-visibility interference from gain-switched lasers and thereby perform MDI-QKD with unprecedented key rates in excess of 1 megabit per second in the finite-size regime. This represents a two to six orders of magnitude improvement over existing implementations and supports the new scheme as a practical resource for secure quantum communications.
Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar
2014-03-01
We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.
Free-space quantum key distribution to a moving receiver.
Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Higgins, Brendon L; Gigov, Nikolay; Holloway, Catherine; Pugh, Christopher J; Kaiser, Sarah; Cranmer, Miles; Jennewein, Thomas
2015-12-28
Technological realities limit terrestrial quantum key distribution (QKD) to single-link distances of a few hundred kilometers. One promising avenue for global-scale quantum communication networks is to use low-Earth-orbit satellites. Here we report the first demonstration of QKD from a stationary transmitter to a receiver platform traveling at an angular speed equivalent to a 600 km altitude satellite, located on a moving truck. We overcome the challenges of actively correcting beam pointing, photon polarization and time-of-flight. Our system generates an asymptotic secure key at 40 bits/s. PMID:26832008
Coherent-state quantum key distribution without random basis switching
Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Ralph, Timothy C.
2006-02-15
The random switching of measurement bases is commonly assumed to be a necessary step of quantum key distribution protocols. In this paper we present a no-switching protocol and show that switching is not required for coherent-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution. Further, this protocol achieves higher information rates and a simpler experimental setup compared to previous protocols that rely on switching. We propose an optimal eavesdropping attack against this protocol, assuming individual Gaussian attacks. Finally, we investigate and compare the no-switching protocol applied to the original Bennett-Brassard 1984 scheme.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas
2015-04-07
Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.
Lu Hua; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma Xiongfeng; Cai Qingyu
2011-10-15
In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD protocol with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD protocol against general attacks.
Experimental quantum-key distribution with an untrusted source.
Peng, Xiang; Jiang, Hao; Xu, Bingjie; Ma, Xiongfeng; Guo, Hong
2008-09-15
The photon statistics of a quantum-key-distribution (QKD) source are crucial for security analysis. We propose a practical method, with only a beam splitter and a photodetector, to monitor the photon statistics of a QKD source. By implementing in a plug and play QKD system, we show that the method is highly practical. The final secure key rate is 52 bit/s, compared to 78 bit/s when the source is treated as a trusted source.
Authenticated semi-quantum key distributions without classical channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chuan-Ming; Yu, Kun-Fei; Kao, Shih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-07-01
Yu et al. have proposed the first authenticated semi-quantum key distribution (ASQKD) without using an authenticated classical channel. This study further proposes two advanced ASQKD protocols. Compared to Yu et al.'s schemes, the proposed protocols ensure better qubit efficiency and require fewer pre-shared keys. Security analyses show that the proposed ASQKD protocols also can be secure against several well-known outside eavesdropper's attacks.
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-04-01
A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.
Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan
2016-05-01
We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.
Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue
2016-05-01
We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system
Grice, Warren P
2015-02-24
An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.
Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue
2016-10-01
We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
Discrete rotational symmetry and quantum-key-distribution protocols
Shirokoff, David; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2007-03-15
We study the role of discrete rotational symmetry in the quantum key distribution by generalizing the well-known Bennett-Brassard 1984 and Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocols. We observe that discrete rotational symmetry results in the protocol's invariance to continuous rotations, thus leading to a simplified relation between bit and phase error rates and consequently a straightforward security proof.
Two-way quantum key distribution at telecommunication wavelength
Kumar, Rupesh; Lucamarini, Marco; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Natali, Riccardo; Mancini, Giorgio; Tombesi, Paolo
2008-02-15
We report on a quantum key distribution effected with a two-way deterministic protocol over a standard telecommunication fiber. Despite the common belief of a prohibitive loss rate for such a scheme, our results show its feasibility on distances of few tenths of kilometers.
Fundamental rate-loss tradeoff for optical quantum key distribution.
Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat; Wilde, Mark M
2014-01-01
Since 1984, various optical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols have been proposed and examined. In all of them, the rate of secret key generation decays exponentially with distance. A natural and fundamental question is then whether there are yet-to-be discovered optical QKD protocols (without quantum repeaters) that could circumvent this rate-distance tradeoff. This paper provides a major step towards answering this question. Here we show that the secret key agreement capacity of a lossy and noisy optical channel assisted by unlimited two-way public classical communication is limited by an upper bound that is solely a function of the channel loss, regardless of how much optical power the protocol may use. Our result has major implications for understanding the secret key agreement capacity of optical channels-a long-standing open problem in optical quantum information theory-and strongly suggests a real need for quantum repeaters to perform QKD at high rates over long distances. PMID:25341406
Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey
2016-08-01
We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.
Trustworthiness of detectors in quantum key distribution with untrusted detectors
Qi, Bing
2015-02-25
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been demonstrated as a viable solution to detector side-channel attacks. One of the main advantages of MDI-QKD is that the security can be proved without making any assumptions about how the measurement device works. The price to pay is the relatively low secure key rate comparing with conventional quantum key distribution (QKD), such as the decoy-state BB84 protocol. Recently a new QKD protocol, aiming at bridging the strong security of MDI-QKD with the high e ciency of conventional QKD, has been proposed. In this protocol, the legitimate receiver employs a trusted linear opticsmore » network to encode information on photons received from an insecure quantum channel, and then performs a Bell state measurement (BSM) using untrusted detectors. One crucial assumption made in most of these studies is that the untrusted BSM located inside the receiver's laboratory cannot send any unwanted information to the outside. Here in this paper, we show that if the BSM is completely untrusted, a simple scheme would allow the BSM to send information to the outside. Combined with Trojan horse attacks, this scheme could allow Eve to gain information of the quantum key without being detected. Ultimately, to prevent the above attack, either countermeasures to Trojan horse attacks or some trustworthiness to the "untrusted" BSM device is required.« less
Trustworthiness of detectors in quantum key distribution with untrusted detectors
Qi, Bing
2015-02-25
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been demonstrated as a viable solution to detector side-channel attacks. One of the main advantages of MDI-QKD is that the security can be proved without making any assumptions about how the measurement device works. The price to pay is the relatively low secure key rate comparing with conventional quantum key distribution (QKD), such as the decoy-state BB84 protocol. Recently a new QKD protocol, aiming at bridging the strong security of MDI-QKD with the high e ciency of conventional QKD, has been proposed. In this protocol, the legitimate receiver employs a trusted linear optics network to encode information on photons received from an insecure quantum channel, and then performs a Bell state measurement (BSM) using untrusted detectors. One crucial assumption made in most of these studies is that the untrusted BSM located inside the receiver's laboratory cannot send any unwanted information to the outside. Here in this paper, we show that if the BSM is completely untrusted, a simple scheme would allow the BSM to send information to the outside. Combined with Trojan horse attacks, this scheme could allow Eve to gain information of the quantum key without being detected. Ultimately, to prevent the above attack, either countermeasures to Trojan horse attacks or some trustworthiness to the "untrusted" BSM device is required.
Improvement on "Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with Maximally Entangled States"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Song-Kong; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2011-06-01
Recently, Hsueh and Chen [in Proceedings of the 14th Information Security Conference, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, pp. 236-242, 2004] proposed a quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol with maximally entangled states. Their protocol allows two users to negotiate a secret key in such a way that no one can predetermine the shared key alone. This study points out two security flaws in their protocol: (1) a legitimate but malicious user can fully control the shared key alone; (2) an eavesdropper can obtain the shared key without being detected. A possible solution is presented to avoid these attacks and also Tsai et al.'s CNOT attack [in Proceedings of the 20th Cryptology and Information Security Conference, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, pp. 210-213, 2010] on Hsueh and Chen protocol to obtain the shared key without being detected.
Key rate for calibration robust entanglement based BB84 quantum key distribution protocol
Gittsovich, O.; Moroder, T.
2014-12-04
We apply the approach of verifying entanglement, which is based on the sole knowledge of the dimension of the underlying physical system to the entanglement based version of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol. We show that the familiar one-way key rate formula holds already if one assumes the assumption that one of the parties is measuring a qubit and no further assumptions about the measurement are needed.
Counterfactual Thought Experiments: A Necessary Teaching Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lebow, Richard Ned
2007-01-01
Counterfactuals are routinely used in physical and biological sciences to develop and evaluate sophisticated, non-linear models. They have been used with telling effect in the study of economic history and American politics. For some historians, counterfactual arguments have no scholarly standing. They consider them flights of fancy, fun over a…
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source.
Koashi, Masato; Preskill, John
2003-02-01
We prove the security of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol for an arbitrary source whose averaged states are basis independent, a condition that is automatically satisfied if the source is suitably designed. The proof is based on the observation that, to an adversary, the key extraction process is equivalent to a measurement in the sigma(x) basis performed on a pure sigma(z)-basis eigenstate. The dependence of the achievable key length on the bit error rate is the same as that established by Shor and Preskill [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000)
Secret key generation via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, A. M.; Evans, P. G.; Lawrie, B.; Legré, M.; Lougovski, P.; Ray, W.; Williams, B. P.; Qi, B.; Grice, W. P.
2015-05-01
We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over ~6km of telecom. fiber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and significantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-27
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758
Secret Key Generation via a Modified Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol
Smith IV, Amos M; Evans, Philip G; Lawrie, Benjamin J; Legre, Matthieu; Lougovski, Pavel; Ray, William R; Williams, Brian P; Qi, Bing; Grice, Warren P
2015-01-01
We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over 6km of telecom. ber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N > 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and signicantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.
Long-distance quantum key distribution with imperfect devices
Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen
2014-12-04
Quantum key distribution over probabilistic quantum repeaters is addressed. We compare, under practical assumptions, two such schemes in terms of their secure key generation rate per memory, R{sub QKD}. The two schemes under investigation are the one proposed by Duan et al. in [Nat. 414, 413 (2001)] and that of Sangouard et al. proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 76, 050301 (2007)]. We consider various sources of imperfections in the latter protocol, such as a nonzero double-photon probability for the source, dark count per pulse, channel loss and inefficiencies in photodetectors and memories, to find the rate for different nesting levels. We determine the maximum value of the double-photon probability beyond which it is not possible to share a secret key anymore. We find the crossover distance for up to three nesting levels. We finally compare the two protocols.
Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-01
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexed Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A.
2015-12-01
We propose orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), as a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, for quantum key distribution (QKD) at the core of trustednode quantum networks. Two main schemes are proposed and analyzed in detail, considering system imperfections, specifically, time misalignment issues. It turns out that while multiple service providers can share the network infrastructure using the proposed multiplexing techniques, no gain in the total secret key generation rate is obtained if one uses conventional all-optical passive OFDM decoders. To achieve a linear increase in the key rate with the number of channels, an alternative active setup for OFDM decoding is proposed, which employs an optical switch in addition to conventional passive circuits. We show that by using our proposed decoder the bandwidth utilization is considerably improved as compared to conventional wavelength division multiplexing techniques.
Long-distance quantum key distribution with imperfect devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen
2014-12-01
Quantum key distribution over probabilistic quantum repeaters is addressed. We compare, under practical assumptions, two such schemes in terms of their secure key generation rate per memory, RQKD. The two schemes under investigation are the one proposed by Duan et al. in [Nat. 414, 413 (2001)] and that of Sangouard et al. proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 76, 050301 (2007)]. We consider various sources of imperfections in the latter protocol, such as a nonzero double-photon probability for the source, dark count per pulse, channel loss and inefficiencies in photodetectors and memories, to find the rate for different nesting levels. We determine the maximum value of the double-photon probability beyond which it is not possible to share a secret key anymore. We find the crossover distance for up to three nesting levels. We finally compare the two protocols.
Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yong-Gang
2016-10-01
The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve’s illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD.
Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test
Tan, Yong-gang
2016-01-01
The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve’s illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD. PMID:27733771
Min-entropy and quantum key distribution: Nonzero key rates for ''small'' numbers of signals
Bratzik, Sylvia; Mertz, Markus; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar
2011-02-15
We calculate an achievable secret key rate for quantum key distribution with a finite number of signals by evaluating the quantum conditional min-entropy explicitly. The min-entropy for a classical random variable is the negative logarithm of the maximal value in its probability distribution. The quantum conditional min-entropy can be expressed in terms of the guessing probability, which we calculate for d-dimensional systems. We compare these key rates to previous approaches using the von Neumann entropy and find nonzero key rates for a smaller number of signals. Furthermore, we improve the secret key rates by modifying the parameter estimation step. Both improvements taken together lead to nonzero key rates for only 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} signals. An interesting conclusion can also be drawn from the additivity of the min-entropy and its relation to the guessing probability: for a set of symmetric tensor product states, the optimal minimum-error discrimination (MED) measurement is the optimal MED measurement on each subsystem.
Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems.
Cerf, Nicolas J; Bourennane, Mohamed; Karlsson, Anders; Gisin, Nicolas
2002-03-25
We consider two quantum cryptographic schemes relying on encoding the key into qudits, i.e., quantum states in a d-dimensional Hilbert space. The first cryptosystem uses two mutually unbiased bases (thereby extending the BB84 scheme), while the second exploits all d+1 available such bases (extending the six-state protocol for qubits). We derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper applying a cloning-based individual attack, along with an upper bound on the error rate that ensures unconditional security against coherent attacks. PMID:11909502
Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.
2016-07-01
We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu
2015-10-01
Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.
Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Brif, Constantin; Coles, Patrick J.; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Camacho, Ryan M.; Urayama, Junji; Sarovar, Mohan
2015-10-21
Here, we introduce a new continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocol, self-referenced CV-QKD, that eliminates the need for transmission of a high-power local oscillator between the communicating parties. In this protocol, each signal pulse is accompanied by a reference pulse (or a pair of twin reference pulses), used to align Alice’s and Bob’s measurement bases. The method of phase estimation and compensation based on the reference pulse measurement can be viewed as a quantum analog of intradyne detection used in classical coherent communication, which extracts the phase information from the modulated signal. We present a proof-of-principle, fiber-based experimental demonstration of the protocol and quantify the expected secret key rates by expressing them in terms of experimental parameters. Our analysis of the secret key rate fully takes into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the quantum nature of the reference pulse(s) and quantifies the limit at which the theoretical key rate approaches that of the respective conventional protocol that requires local oscillator transmission. The self-referenced protocol greatly simplifies the hardware required for CV-QKD, especially for potential integrated photonics implementations of transmitters and receivers, with minimum sacrifice of performance. As such, it provides a pathway towards scalable integrated CV-QKD transceivers, a vital step towards large-scale QKD networks.
Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Brif, Constantin; Coles, Patrick J.; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Camacho, Ryan M.; Urayama, Junji; Sarovar, Mohan
2015-10-21
Here, we introduce a new continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocol, self-referenced CV-QKD, that eliminates the need for transmission of a high-power local oscillator between the communicating parties. In this protocol, each signal pulse is accompanied by a reference pulse (or a pair of twin reference pulses), used to align Alice’s and Bob’s measurement bases. The method of phase estimation and compensation based on the reference pulse measurement can be viewed as a quantum analog of intradyne detection used in classical coherent communication, which extracts the phase information from the modulated signal. We present a proof-of-principle, fiber-based experimental demonstration ofmore » the protocol and quantify the expected secret key rates by expressing them in terms of experimental parameters. Our analysis of the secret key rate fully takes into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the quantum nature of the reference pulse(s) and quantifies the limit at which the theoretical key rate approaches that of the respective conventional protocol that requires local oscillator transmission. The self-referenced protocol greatly simplifies the hardware required for CV-QKD, especially for potential integrated photonics implementations of transmitters and receivers, with minimum sacrifice of performance. As such, it provides a pathway towards scalable integrated CV-QKD transceivers, a vital step towards large-scale QKD networks.« less
One-way quantum key distribution: Simple upper bound on the secret key rate
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos
2006-11-15
We present a simple method to obtain an upper bound on the achievable secret key rate in quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use only unidirectional classical communication during the public-discussion phase. This method is based on a necessary precondition for one-way secret key distillation; the legitimate users need to prove that there exists no quantum state having a symmetric extension that is compatible with the available measurements results. The main advantage of the obtained upper bound is that it can be formulated as a semidefinite program, which can be efficiently solved. We illustrate our results by analyzing two well-known qubit-based QKD protocols: the four-state protocol and the six-state protocol.
Nieuwland, Mante S.
2016-01-01
Abstract Cognitive and linguistic theories of counterfactual language comprehension assume that counterfactuals convey a dual meaning. Subjunctive‐counterfactual conditionals (e.g., ‘If Tom had studied hard, he would have passed the test’) express a supposition while implying the factual state of affairs (Tom has not studied hard and failed). The question of how counterfactual dual meaning plays out during language processing is currently gaining interest in psycholinguistics. Whereas numerous studies using offline measures of language processing consistently support counterfactual dual meaning, evidence coming from online studies is less conclusive. Here, we review the available studies that examine online counterfactual language comprehension through behavioural measurement (self‐paced reading times, eye‐tracking) and neuroimaging (electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging). While we argue that these studies do not offer direct evidence for the online computation of counterfactual dual meaning, they provide valuable information about the way counterfactual meaning unfolds in time and influences successive information processing. Further advances in research on counterfactual comprehension require more specific predictions about how counterfactual dual meaning impacts incremental sentence processing. PMID:27512408
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution using Polarization Entangled Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtsiefer, Christian
2007-06-01
We report on a complete experimental implementation of a quantum key distribution protocol through a free space link using polarization-entangled photon pairs from a compact parametric down-conversion source [1]. Based on a BB84-equivalent protocol, we generated without interruption over 10 hours a secret key free-space optical link distance of 1.5 km with a rate up to 950 bits per second after error correction and privacy amplification. Our system is based on two time stamp units and relies on no specific hardware channel for coincidence identification besides an IP link. For that, initial clock synchronization with an accuracy of better than 2 ns is achieved, based on a conventional NTP protocol and a tiered cross correlation of time tags on both sides. Time tags are used to servo a local clock, allowing a streamed measurement on correctly identified photon pairs. Contrary to the majority of quantum key distribution systems, this approach does not require a trusted large-bandwidth random number generator, but integrates that into the physical key generation process. We discuss our current progress of implementing a key distribution via an atmospherical link during daylight conditions, and possible attack scenarios on a physical timing information side channel to a entanglement-based key distribution system. [1] I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).
Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2011-11-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-17
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-01
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies. PMID:22252558
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-01
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies. PMID:22252558
Detector-decoy high-dimensional quantum key distribution.
Bao, Haize; Bao, Wansu; Wang, Yang; Chen, Ruike; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Musheng; Li, Hongwei
2016-09-19
The decoy-state high-dimensional quantum key distribution provides a practical secure way to share more private information with high photon-information efficiency. In this paper, based on detector-decoy method, we propose a detector-decoy high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol. Employing threshold detectors and a variable attenuator, we can promise the security under Gsussian collective attacks with much simpler operations in practical implementation. By numerical evaluation, we show that without varying the source intensity, our protocol performs much better than one-decoy-state protocol and as well as the two-decoy-state protocol in the infinite-size regime. In the finite-size regime, our protocol can achieve better results. Specially, when the detector efficiency is lower, the advantage of the detector-decoy method becomes more prominent. PMID:27661950
Near-field turbulence effects on quantum-key distribution
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2003-02-01
Bounds on average power transfer over a near-field optical path through atmospheric turbulence are used to deduce bounds on the sift and error probabilities of a free-space quantum-key distribution system that uses the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. It is shown that atmospheric turbulence imposes at most a modest decrease in the sift probability and a modest increase in the conditional probability of error given that a sift event has occurred.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise
Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2011-05-15
Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.
Security of quantum key distribution using a simplified trusted relay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stacey, William; Annabestani, Razieh; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2015-01-01
We propose a QKD protocol for trusted node relays. Our protocol shifts the communication and computational weight of classical postprocessing to the end users by reassigning the roles of error correction and privacy amplification, while leaving the exchange of quantum signals untouched. We perform a security analysis for this protocol based on the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol on the level of infinite key formulas, taking into account weak coherent implementations involving decoy analysis.
Two-party quantum key agreement against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-09-01
In this paper, two two-party quantum key agreement protocols are proposed with logical χ -states and logical Bell states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. They make full use of the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. This ensures that two participants can exchange the secret keys of each other and fairly establishes a shared key. There is no information leakage problem when establishing a shared key. The use of the delayed measurement technique and the decoy state technology makes the two protocols resist against both participant and outsider attacks. Furthermore, the two protocols are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks and have high qubit efficiency.
Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.
2014-11-01
The rate of secure key generation (SKG) in quantum key distribution (QKD) is adversely affected by optical noise and loss in the quantum channel. In a free-space atmospheric channel, the scattering of sunlight into the channel can lead to quantum bit error ratios (QBERs) sufficiently large to preclude SKG. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence limits the degree to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. A system simulation quantifies the potential benefit of tracking and higher-order adaptive optics (AO) technologies to SKG rates in a daytime satellite engagement scenario. The simulations are performed assuming propagation from a low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes an AO system comprised of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (SHWFS) and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror (DM). The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain waveoptics hardware emulator. Secure key generation rates are then calculated for the decoy state QKD protocol as a function of the receiver field of view (FOV) for various pointing angles. The results show that at FOVs smaller than previously considered, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and even enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of either background optical noise or signal loss due to turbulence effects.
Statistical Quadrature Evolution for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2016-05-01
We propose a statistical quadrature evolution (SQE) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The SQE framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. We define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of our method. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125, and by the COST Action MP1006.
Floodlight quantum key distribution: A practical route to gigabit-per-second secret-key rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Dove, Justin; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2016-07-01
The channel loss incurred in long-distance transmission places a significant burden on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems: they must defeat a passive eavesdropper who detects all the light lost in the quantum channel and does so without disturbing the light that reaches the intended destination. The current QKD implementation with the highest long-distance secret-key rate meets this challenge by transmitting no more than one photon per bit [M. Lucamarini et al., Opt. Express 21, 24550 (2013), 10.1364/OE.21.024550]. As a result, it cannot achieve the Gbps secret-key rate needed for one-time pad encryption of large data files unless an impractically large amount of multiplexing is employed. We introduce floodlight QKD (FL-QKD), which floods the quantum channel with a high number of photons per bit distributed over a much greater number of optical modes. FL-QKD offers security against the optimum frequency-domain collective attack by transmitting less than one photon per mode and using photon-coincidence channel monitoring, and it is completely immune to passive eavesdropping. More importantly, FL-QKD is capable of a 2-Gbps secret-key rate over a 50-km fiber link, without any multiplexing, using available equipment, i.e., no new technology need be developed. FL-QKD achieves this extraordinary secret-key rate by virtue of its unprecedented secret-key efficiency, in bits per channel use, which exceeds those of state-of-the-art systems by two orders of magnitude.
Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with source flaws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Can; Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Lin-Mei
2015-10-01
Compared with the traditional protocols of quantum key distribution (QKD), the reference-frame-independent (RFI)-QKD protocol has been generally proved to be very useful and practical, since its experimental implementation can be simplified without the alignment of a reference frame. In most RFI-QKD systems, the encoding states are always taken to be perfect, which, however, is not practical in realizations. In this paper, we consider the security of RFI QKD with source flaws based on the loss-tolerant method proposed by Tamaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 052314 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.052314]. As the six-state protocol can be realized with four states, we show that the RFI-QKD protocol can also be performed with only four encoding states instead of six encoding states in its standard version. Furthermore, the numerical simulation results show that the source flaws in the key-generation basis (Z basis) will reduce the key rate but are loss tolerant, while the ones in X and Y bases almost have no effect and the key rate remains almost the same even when they are very large. Hence, our method and results will have important significance in practical experiments, especially in earth-to-satellite or chip-to-chip quantum communications.
Multi-client quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing
Grice, Warren P; Bennink, Ryan S; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G; Humble, Travis S; Pooser, Raphael C; Schaake, Jason; Williams, Brian P
2011-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) exploits the rules of quantum mechanics to generate and securely distribute a random sequence of bits to two spatially separated clients. Typically a QKD system can support only a single pair of clients at a time, and so a separate quantum link is required for every pair of users. We overcome this limitation with the design and characterization of a multi-client entangled-photon QKD system with the capacity for up to 100 clients simultaneously. The time-bin entangled QKD system includes a broadband down-conversion source with two unique features that enable the multi-user capability. First, the photons are emitted across a very large portion of the telecom spectrum. Second, and more importantly, the photons are strongly correlated in their energy degree of freedom. Using standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) hardware, the photons can be routed to different parties on a quantum communication network, while the strong spectral correlations ensure that each client is linked only to the client receiving the conjugate wavelength. In this way, a single down-conversion source can support dozens of channels simultaneously--and to the extent that the WDM hardware can send different spectral channels to different clients, the system can support multiple client pairings. We will describe the design and characterization of the down-conversion source, as well as the client stations, which must be tunable across the emission spectrum.
Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2006-01-15
The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack.
Establishing security of quantum key distribution without monitoring disturbance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koashi, Masato
2015-10-01
In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, the information leak to an eavesdropper is estimated through the basic principle of quantum mechanics dictated in the original version of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The amount of leaked information on a shared sifted key is bounded from above essentially by using information-disturbance trade-off relations, based on the amount of signal disturbance measured via randomly sampled or inserted probe signals. Here we discuss an entirely different avenue toward the private communication, which does not rely on the information disturbance trade-off relations and hence does not require a monitoring of signal disturbance. The independence of the amount of privacy amplification from that of disturbance tends to give it a high tolerance on the channel noises. The lifting of the burden of precise statistical estimation of disturbance leads to a favorable finite-key-size effect. A protocol based on the novel principle can be implemented by only using photon detectors and classical optics tools: a laser, a phase modulator, and an interferometer. The protocol resembles the differential-phase-shift QKD protocol in that both share a simple binary phase shift keying on a coherent train of weak pulses from a laser. The difference lies in the use of a variable-delay interferometer in the new protocol, which randomly changes the combination of pulse pairs to be superposed. This extra randomness has turned out to be enough to upper-bound the information extracted by the eavesdropper, regardless of how they have disturbed the quantum signal.
The Functional Theory of Counterfactual Thinking
Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.
2008-01-01
Counterfactuals are thoughts about alternatives to past events, that is, thoughts of what might have been. This article provides an updated account of the functional theory of counterfactual thinking, suggesting that such thoughts are best explained in terms of their role in behavior regulation and performance improvement. The article reviews a wide range of cognitive experiments indicating that counterfactual thoughts may influence behavior by either of two routes: a content-specific pathway (which involves specific informational effects on behavioral intentions, which then influence behavior) and a content-neutral pathway (which involves indirect effects via affect, mind-sets, or motivation). The functional theory is particularly useful in organizing recent findings regarding counterfactual thinking and mental health. The article concludes by considering the connections to other theoretical conceptions, especially recent advances in goal cognition. PMID:18453477
Intensity modulation and direct detection quantum key distribution based on quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikuta, Takuya; Inoue, Kyo
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been studied for achieving perfectly secure cryptography based on quantum mechanics. This paper presents a novel QKD scheme that is based on an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system. Two slightly intensity-modulated pulses are sent from a transmitter, and a receiver determines key bits from the directly detected intensity. We analyzed the system performance for two typical eavesdropping methods, a beam splitting attack and an intercept-resend attack, with an assumption that the transmitting and receiving devices are fully trusted. Our brief analysis showed that short- or middle-range QKD systems are achievable with a simple setup.
Cognitive neuroscience of human counterfactual reasoning.
Van Hoeck, Nicole; Watson, Patrick D; Barbey, Aron K
2015-01-01
Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand) provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame). Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease. PMID:26257633
Cognitive neuroscience of human counterfactual reasoning
Van Hoeck, Nicole; Watson, Patrick D.; Barbey, Aron K.
2015-01-01
Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand) provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame). Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease. PMID:26257633
Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shams Mousavi, S. H.; Gallion, P.
2009-07-01
In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.
Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols
Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R
2008-01-01
Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.
Verifiable Quantum ( k, n)-threshold Secret Key Sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Teng, Yi-Wei; Chai, Hai-Ping; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2011-03-01
Based on Lagrange interpolation formula and the post-verification mechanism, we show how to construct a verifiable quantum ( k, n) threshold secret key sharing scheme. Compared with the previous secret sharing protocols, ours has the merits: (i) it can resist the fraud of the dealer who generates and distributes fake shares among the participants during the secret distribution phase; Most importantly, (ii) It can check the cheating of the dishonest participant who provides a false share during the secret reconstruction phase such that the authorized group cannot recover the correct secret.
Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components.
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2016-01-01
Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states. PMID:27383014
Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components.
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2016-07-07
Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states.
Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2016-01-01
Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states. PMID:27383014
Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2016-07-01
Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states.
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice
Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng
2013-01-01
We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-23
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-01
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.
Eigenchannel decomposition for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.
2015-03-01
We develop a singular layer transmission model for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). In CVQKD, the transmit information is carried by continuous-variable (CV) quantum states, particularly by Gaussian random distributed position and momentum quadratures. The reliable transmission of the quadrature components over a noisy link is a cornerstone of CVQKD protocols. The proposed singular layer uses the singular value decomposition of the Gaussian quantum channel, which yields an additional degree of freedom for the phase space transmission. This additional degree of freedom can further be exploited in a multiple-access scenario. The singular layer defines the eigenchannels of the Gaussian physical link, which can be used for the simultaneous reliable transmission of multiple user data streams. We demonstrate the results through the adaptive multicarrier quadrature division-multiuser quadrature allocation (AMQD-MQA) CVQKD multiple-access scheme. We define the singular model of AMQD-MQA and characterize the properties of the eigenchannel interference. The singular layer transmission provides improved simultaneous transmission rates for the users with unconditional security in a multiple-access scenario, particularly in crucial low signal-to-noise ratio regimes.
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.
2005-10-15
The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks.
FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu
2015-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with a leaky source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Curty, Marcos; Lucamarini, Marco
2016-06-01
In recent years, there has been a great effort to prove the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) with a minimum number of assumptions. Besides its intrinsic theoretical interest, this would allow for larger tolerance against device imperfections in the actual implementations. However, even in this device-independent scenario, one assumption seems unavoidable, that is, the presence of a protected space devoid of any unwanted information leakage in which the legitimate parties can privately generate, process and store their classical data. In this paper we relax this unrealistic and hardly feasible assumption and introduce a general formalism to tackle the information leakage problem in most of existing QKD systems. More specifically, we prove the security of optical QKD systems using phase and intensity modulators in their transmitters, which leak the setting information in an arbitrary manner. We apply our security proof to cases of practical interest and show key rates similar to those obtained in a perfectly shielded environment. Our work constitutes a fundamental step forward in guaranteeing implementation security of quantum communication systems.
Sifting attacks in finite-size quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfister, Corsin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Wehner, Stephanie; Coles, Patrick J.
2016-05-01
A central assumption in quantum key distribution (QKD) is that Eve has no knowledge about which rounds will be used for parameter estimation or key distillation. Here we show that this assumption is violated for iterative sifting, a sifting procedure that has been employed in some (but not all) of the recently suggested QKD protocols in order to increase their efficiency. We show that iterative sifting leads to two security issues: (1) some rounds are more likely to be key rounds than others, (2) the public communication of past measurement choices changes this bias round by round. We analyze these two previously unnoticed problems, present eavesdropping strategies that exploit them, and find that the two problems are independent. We discuss some sifting protocols in the literature that are immune to these problems. While some of these would be inefficient replacements for iterative sifting, we find that the sifting subroutine of an asymptotically secure protocol suggested by Lo et al (2005 J. Cryptol. 18 133–65), which we call LCA sifting, has an efficiency on par with that of iterative sifting. One of our main results is to show that LCA sifting can be adapted to achieve secure sifting in the finite-key regime. More precisely, we combine LCA sifting with a certain parameter estimation protocol, and we prove the finite-key security of this combination. Hence we propose that LCA sifting should replace iterative sifting in future QKD implementations. More generally, we present two formal criteria for a sifting protocol that guarantee its finite-key security. Our criteria may guide the design of future protocols and inspire a more rigorous QKD analysis, which has neglected sifting-related attacks so far.
Sifting attacks in finite-size quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfister, Corsin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Wehner, Stephanie; Coles, Patrick J.
2016-05-01
A central assumption in quantum key distribution (QKD) is that Eve has no knowledge about which rounds will be used for parameter estimation or key distillation. Here we show that this assumption is violated for iterative sifting, a sifting procedure that has been employed in some (but not all) of the recently suggested QKD protocols in order to increase their efficiency. We show that iterative sifting leads to two security issues: (1) some rounds are more likely to be key rounds than others, (2) the public communication of past measurement choices changes this bias round by round. We analyze these two previously unnoticed problems, present eavesdropping strategies that exploit them, and find that the two problems are independent. We discuss some sifting protocols in the literature that are immune to these problems. While some of these would be inefficient replacements for iterative sifting, we find that the sifting subroutine of an asymptotically secure protocol suggested by Lo et al (2005 J. Cryptol. 18 133-65), which we call LCA sifting, has an efficiency on par with that of iterative sifting. One of our main results is to show that LCA sifting can be adapted to achieve secure sifting in the finite-key regime. More precisely, we combine LCA sifting with a certain parameter estimation protocol, and we prove the finite-key security of this combination. Hence we propose that LCA sifting should replace iterative sifting in future QKD implementations. More generally, we present two formal criteria for a sifting protocol that guarantee its finite-key security. Our criteria may guide the design of future protocols and inspire a more rigorous QKD analysis, which has neglected sifting-related attacks so far.
Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2013-06-01
The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.
Novel classical post-processing for quantum key distribution-based quantum private query
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Cao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-09-01
Existing classical post-processing (CPP) schemes for quantum key distribution (QKD)-based quantum private queries (QPQs) including the kN→ N, N→ N, and rM→ N ones have been found imperfect in terms of communication efficiency and security. In this paper, we propose a novel CPP scheme for QKD-based QPQs. The proposed CPP scheme reduces the communication complexity and improves the security of QKD-based QPQ protocols largely. Furthermore, the proposed CPP scheme can provide a multi-bit query efficiently.
The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peev, M.; Pacher, C.; Alléaume, R.; Barreiro, C.; Bouda, J.; Boxleitner, W.; Debuisschert, T.; Diamanti, E.; Dianati, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fasel, S.; Fossier, S.; Fürst, M.; Gautier, J.-D.; Gay, O.; Gisin, N.; Grangier, P.; Happe, A.; Hasani, Y.; Hentschel, M.; Hübel, H.; Humer, G.; Länger, T.; Legré, M.; Lieger, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Lorünser, T.; Lütkenhaus, N.; Marhold, A.; Matyus, T.; Maurhart, O.; Monat, L.; Nauerth, S.; Page, J.-B.; Poppe, A.; Querasser, E.; Ribordy, G.; Robyr, S.; Salvail, L.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.; Stucki, D.; Suda, M.; Tamas, C.; Themel, T.; Thew, R. T.; Thoma, Y.; Treiber, A.; Trinkler, P.; Tualle-Brouri, R.; Vannel, F.; Walenta, N.; Weier, H.; Weinfurter, H.; Wimberger, I.; Yuan, Z. L.; Zbinden, H.; Zeilinger, A.
2009-07-01
In this paper, we present the quantum key distribution (QKD) network designed and implemented by the European project SEcure COmmunication based on Quantum Cryptography (SECOQC) (2004-2008), unifying the efforts of 41 research and industrial organizations. The paper summarizes the SECOQC approach to QKD networks with a focus on the trusted repeater paradigm. It discusses the architecture and functionality of the SECOQC trusted repeater prototype, which has been put into operation in Vienna in 2008 and publicly demonstrated in the framework of a SECOQC QKD conference held from October 8 to 10, 2008. The demonstration involved one-time pad encrypted telephone communication, a secure (AES encryption protected) video-conference with all deployed nodes and a number of rerouting experiments, highlighting basic mechanisms of the SECOQC network functionality. The paper gives an overview of the eight point-to-point network links in the prototype and their underlying technology: three plug and play systems by id Quantique, a one way weak pulse system from Toshiba Research in the UK, a coherent one-way system by GAP Optique with the participation of id Quantique and the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (formerly ARCAustrian Research Centers GmbH—ARC is now operating under the new name AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH following a restructuring initiative.), an entangled photons system by the University of Vienna and the AIT, a continuous-variables system by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and THALES Research and Technology with the participation of Université Libre de Bruxelles, and a free space link by the Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich connecting two nodes situated in adjacent buildings (line of sight 80 m). The average link length is between 20 and 30 km, the longest link being 83 km. The paper presents the architecture and functionality of the principal networking agent—the SECOQC node module, which enables the authentic
Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources
Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2015-09-09
In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called 'rejected data analysis', and showed that its security in the limit of infinitely long keys is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.
Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources
Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2015-09-09
In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called 'rejected data analysis', and showed that its security in the limit of infinitelymore » long keys is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.« less
Counterfactual reasoning: From childhood to adulthood
Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions (Child Development, 2010, Vol. 81, pp. 376–389). By continuing to use the same method, the main result of the current Study 1 was that performance of the 9- to 11-year-olds was comparable to that of the 6-year-olds, whereas the 12- to 14-year-olds approximated adult performance. Study 2, using an intuitively simpler task based on Harris and colleagues (Cognition, 1996, Vol. 61, pp. 233–259), resulted in a similar conclusion, specifically that the ability to apply counterfactual reasoning is not fully developed in all children before 12 years of age. We conclude that children who failed our tasks seem to lack an understanding of what needs to be changed (events that are causally dependent on the counterfactual assumption) and what needs to be left unchanged and so needs to be kept as it actually happened. Alternative explanations, particularly executive functioning, are discussed in detail. PMID:23219156
Free-space quantum key distribution at night
Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.
1998-09-01
An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approximately} 1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; in this paper, the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined, and the effectiveness of privacy amplification procedures is discussed. The conclusions are that free-space QKD is both effective and secure; possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.
Counterfactual Thinking in the History of Psychology Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, David W.
2013-01-01
History of psychology students wrote essays about historical figures and counterfactual events. A linguistic analysis of the essays revealed that counterfactual assignments included more auxiliary verbs and more references to tentativeness and the future. More important, scores on the counterfactual assignments but not the historical figure…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yi; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2008-10-01
Quantum-key-distribution (QKD) systems can send quantum signals over more than 100km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally a technologically feasible attack—namely, the time-shift attack—against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (˜4%) to break the security of the system. Eve’s success is due to the well-known detection efficiency loophole in the experimental testing of Bell’s inequalities. Therefore, the detection efficiency loophole plays a key role not only in fundamental physics, but also in technological applications such as QKD systems.
Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2015-09-01
In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called ‘rejected data analysis’, and showed that its security—in the limit of infinitely long keys—is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.
Simultaneous classical communication and quantum key distribution using continuous variables
Qi, Bing
2016-10-26
Currently, classical optical communication systems employing strong laser pulses and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems working at single-photon levels are very different communication modalities. Dedicated devices are commonly required to implement QKD. In this paper, we propose a scheme which allows classical communication and QKD to be implemented simultaneously using the same communication infrastructure. More specially, we propose a coherent communication scheme where both the bits for classical communication and the Gaussian distributed random numbers for QKD are encoded on the same weak coherent pulse and decoded by the same coherent receiver. Simulation results based on practical system parameters showmore » that both deterministic classical communication with a bit error rate of 10–9 and secure key distribution could be achieved over tens of kilometers of single-mode fibers. It is conceivable that in the future coherent optical communication network, QKD will be operated in the background of classical communication at a minimal cost.« less
Nieuwland, Mante S; Martin, Andrea E
2012-01-01
Propositional truth-value can be a defining feature of a sentence's relevance to the unfolding discourse, and establishing propositional truth-value in context can be key to successful interpretation. In the current study, we investigate its role in the comprehension of counterfactual conditionals, which describe imaginary consequences of hypothetical events, and are thought to require keeping in mind both what is true and what is false. Pre-stored real-world knowledge may therefore intrude upon and delay counterfactual comprehension, which is predicted by some accounts of discourse comprehension, and has been observed during online comprehension. The impact of propositional truth-value may thus be delayed in counterfactual conditionals, as also claimed for sentences containing other types of logical operators (e.g., negation, scalar quantifiers). In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we investigated the impact of propositional truth-value when described consequences are both true and predictable given the counterfactual premise. False words elicited larger N400 ERPs than true words, in negated counterfactual sentences (e.g., "If N.A.S.A. had not developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon would have been Russia/America") and real-world sentences (e.g., "Because N.A.S.A. developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon was America/Russia") alike. These indistinguishable N400 effects of propositional truth-value, elicited by opposite word pairs, argue against disruptions by real-world knowledge during counterfactual comprehension, and suggest that incoming words are mapped onto the counterfactual context without any delay. Thus, provided a sufficiently constraining context, propositional truth-value rapidly impacts ongoing semantic processing, be the proposition factual or counterfactual.
Nieuwland, Mante S; Martin, Andrea E
2012-01-01
Propositional truth-value can be a defining feature of a sentence's relevance to the unfolding discourse, and establishing propositional truth-value in context can be key to successful interpretation. In the current study, we investigate its role in the comprehension of counterfactual conditionals, which describe imaginary consequences of hypothetical events, and are thought to require keeping in mind both what is true and what is false. Pre-stored real-world knowledge may therefore intrude upon and delay counterfactual comprehension, which is predicted by some accounts of discourse comprehension, and has been observed during online comprehension. The impact of propositional truth-value may thus be delayed in counterfactual conditionals, as also claimed for sentences containing other types of logical operators (e.g., negation, scalar quantifiers). In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we investigated the impact of propositional truth-value when described consequences are both true and predictable given the counterfactual premise. False words elicited larger N400 ERPs than true words, in negated counterfactual sentences (e.g., "If N.A.S.A. had not developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon would have been Russia/America") and real-world sentences (e.g., "Because N.A.S.A. developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon was America/Russia") alike. These indistinguishable N400 effects of propositional truth-value, elicited by opposite word pairs, argue against disruptions by real-world knowledge during counterfactual comprehension, and suggest that incoming words are mapped onto the counterfactual context without any delay. Thus, provided a sufficiently constraining context, propositional truth-value rapidly impacts ongoing semantic processing, be the proposition factual or counterfactual. PMID:21962826
Counterfactual thinking affects the excitability of the motor cortex.
Vicario, Carmelo M; Rafal, Robert D; Avenanti, Alessio
2015-04-01
Evidence suggests that monetary reward and affective experiences induce activity in the cortical motor system. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether counterfactual thinking related to wrong choices that lead to monetary loss and regret affects motor excitability. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex, we measured corticospinal excitability of 2 groups of healthy humans asked to actively guess the winning key among two possible alternatives (choice group); or passively assist to monetary outcomes randomly selected by the computer program (follow group). Results document a selective increment of the corticospinal excitability when a monetary loss outcome followed the key selection (i.e., in the choice group). On the other hand, no change in corticospinal excitability was found when participants passively assisted to a monetary loss randomly selected by the computer program (i.e., follow group). These findings suggest that counterfactual thinking and the negative emotional experiences arising from choices causing monetary loss--i.e., "I would have won instead of lost money if I'd made a different choice"--are mapped in the motor system.
Quantum exhaustive key search with simplified-DES as a case study.
Almazrooie, Mishal; Samsudin, Azman; Abdullah, Rosni; Mutter, Kussay N
2016-01-01
To evaluate the security of a symmetric cryptosystem against any quantum attack, the symmetric algorithm must be first implemented on a quantum platform. In this study, a quantum implementation of a classical block cipher is presented. A quantum circuit for a classical block cipher of a polynomial size of quantum gates is proposed. The entire work has been tested on a quantum mechanics simulator called libquantum. First, the functionality of the proposed quantum cipher is verified and the experimental results are compared with those of the original classical version. Then, quantum attacks are conducted by using Grover's algorithm to recover the secret key. The proposed quantum cipher is used as a black box for the quantum search. The quantum oracle is then queried over the produced ciphertext to mark the quantum state, which consists of plaintext and key qubits. The experimental results show that for a key of n-bit size and key space of N such that [Formula: see text], the key can be recovered in [Formula: see text] computational steps. PMID:27652067
Quantum exhaustive key search with simplified-DES as a case study.
Almazrooie, Mishal; Samsudin, Azman; Abdullah, Rosni; Mutter, Kussay N
2016-01-01
To evaluate the security of a symmetric cryptosystem against any quantum attack, the symmetric algorithm must be first implemented on a quantum platform. In this study, a quantum implementation of a classical block cipher is presented. A quantum circuit for a classical block cipher of a polynomial size of quantum gates is proposed. The entire work has been tested on a quantum mechanics simulator called libquantum. First, the functionality of the proposed quantum cipher is verified and the experimental results are compared with those of the original classical version. Then, quantum attacks are conducted by using Grover's algorithm to recover the secret key. The proposed quantum cipher is used as a black box for the quantum search. The quantum oracle is then queried over the produced ciphertext to mark the quantum state, which consists of plaintext and key qubits. The experimental results show that for a key of n-bit size and key space of N such that [Formula: see text], the key can be recovered in [Formula: see text] computational steps.
Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rips, Lance J.; Edwards, Brian J.
2013-01-01
This article reports results from two studies of how people answer counterfactual questions about simple machines. Participants learned about devices that have a specific configuration of components, and they answered questions of the form "If component X had not operated [failed], would component Y have operated?" The data from these…
Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain
2016-07-01
We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.
Subcarrier Wave Quantum Key Distribution in Telecommunication Network with Bitrate 800 kbit/s
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleim, A. V.; Nazarov, Yu. V.; Egorov, V. I.; Smirnov, S. V.; Bannik, O. I.; Chistyakov, V. V.; Kynev, S. M.; Anisimov, A. A.; Kozlov, S. A.; Vasiliev, V. N.
2015-09-01
In the course of work on creating the first quantum communication network in Russia we demonstrated quantum key distribution in metropolitan optical network infrastructure. A single-pass subcarrier wave quantum cryptography scheme was used in the experiments. BB84 protocol with strong reference was chosen for performing key distribution. The registered sifted key rate in an optical cable with 1.5 dB loss was 800 Kbit/s. Signal visibility exceeded 98%, and quantum bit error rate value was 1%. The achieved result is a record for this type of systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yi; Fung, Chi-Hang F.; Qi, Bing; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2009-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can send signals over more than 100 km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally for the first time a technologically feasible attack, namely the time-shift attack, against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (˜4%) to break the security of the system. Eve's success is due to the well-known detection efficiency loophole in the experimental testing of Bell inequalities. Therefore, the detection efficiency loophole plays a key role not only in fundamental physics, but also in technological applications such as QKD. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 78:042333 (2008).
Implementation of decoy states in a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaidash, A.; Kozubov, A.; Egorov, V.; Gleim, A.
2016-08-01
Subcarrier wave quantum key distribution systems demonstrate promising capabilities for secure quantum networking. However for this class of devices no implementation of secure decoy states protocol was developed. It leaves them potentially vulnerable to photon-number splitting attacks on quantum channel and limiting the key distribution distance. We propose a practical solution to this problem by calculating the required parameters of light source and modulation indices for signal and decoy states in a subcarrier wave system and describing the corresponding experimental scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco
2016-06-01
Temporal steering, which is a temporal analog of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, refers to temporal quantum correlations between the initial and final state of a quantum system. Our analysis of temporal steering inequalities in relation to the average quantum bit error rates reveals the interplay between temporal steering and quantum cloning, which guarantees the security of quantum key distribution based on mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks. The key distributions analyzed here include the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the six-state 1998 protocol by Bruss. Moreover, we define a temporal steerable weight, which enables us to identify a kind of monogamy of temporal correlation that is essential to quantum cryptography and useful for analyzing various scenarios of quantum causality.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise.
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise.
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-13
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Two-party quantum key agreement based on four-particle GHZ states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-04-01
Based on four-particle GHZ states, the double CNOT operation and the delayed measurement technique, a two-party quantum key agreement (QKA) protocols is proposed. The double CNOT operation makes each four-particle GHZ state collapse into two independent quantum states without any entanglement. Furthermore, one party can directly know the two quantum states and the other party can be aware of the two quantum states by using the corresponding measurement. According to the initial states of the two quantum states, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Then the protocol achieves the fair establishment of a shared key. The security analysis shows that the new protocol can resist against participant attacks, the Trojan horse attacks and other outsider attacks. Furthermore, the new protocol also has no information leakage problem and has high qubit efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states
Filip, Radim
2008-02-15
An excess noise in coherent-state preparation can prevent secure key distribution through lossy channel. The feasible single-copy and multicopy linear optical methods are proposed to purify the prepared state. The single-copy method always sufficiently reduces the excess noise to obtain the key secure against both the individual and collective attacks even through any lossy channel. To increase the secure key rate, two feasible applications of the multicopy linear optical purification are proposed. As a result, maximal secure key rate achievable through a given lossy channel can be approached.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen
2015-01-06
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen
2013-07-09
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states
Izumi, Shuro; Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio
2014-12-04
We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.
Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izumi, Shuro; Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2014-12-01
We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.
Comment on ''Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states''
Boyer, Michel; Mor, Tal
2011-04-15
For several decades it was believed that information-secure key distribution requires both the sender and receiver to have the ability to generate and/or manipulate quantum states. Earlier, we showed that quantum key distribution in which one party is classical is possible [Boyer, Kenigsberg, and Mor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)]. A surprising and very nice extension of that result was suggested by Zou, Qiu, Li, Wu, and Li [Phys. Rev. A 79, 052312 (2009)]. Their paper suggests that it is sufficient for the originator of the states (the person holding the quantum technology) to generate just one state. The resulting semiquantum key distribution, which we call here 'quantum key distribution with classical Alice' is indeed completely robust against eavesdropping. However, their proof (that no eavesdropper can get information without being possibly detected) is faulty. We provide here a fully detailed and direct proof of their very important result.
A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu
1996-01-01
The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.
Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi
2015-05-01
To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.
Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna
2015-12-01
The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.
Counterfactual Thinking as a Mechanism in Narrative Persuasion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tal-Or, Nurit; Boninger, David S.; Poran, Amir; Gleicher, Faith
2004-01-01
Two experiments examined the impact of counterfactual thinking on persuasion. Participants in both experiments were exposed to short video clips in which an actor described a car accident that resulted in serious injury. In the narrative description, the salience of a counterfactual was manipulated by either explicitly including the counterfactual…
The day after an electoral defeat: counterfactuals and collective action.
Milesi, Patrizia; Catellani, Patrizia
2011-12-01
An intriguing question for scholars of collective action is how participants of unsuccessful actions become re-engaged in future collective activities. At an individual level, previous research has shown that after negative outcomes counterfactual thoughts ('if only … ') may serve to prepare for future action. In the current research, we investigated whether counterfactuals may also prepare for future action at a collective level. After a defeat of their party at the regional elections, 163 political activists rated their agreement with abstract (as opposed to concrete) and party-focused (as opposed to other-focused) counterfactuals about how the elections outcome might have been better. Results showed that abstract counterfactuals, dealing with the core elements of the elections, supported collective action intention better than concrete ones. Consistent with the recent developments of dual-pathway models of collective action, counterfactuals predicted collective action intention through the mediation of group efficacy and group identification. In particular, while both party- and other-focused abstract counterfactuals increased group efficacy, only other-focused abstract counterfactuals increased group identification. Discussion focuses on how the investigation of counterfactuals can enlarge our knowledge of the socio-cognitive antecedents of collective action.
Procrastination and counterfactual thinking: avoiding what might have been.
Sirois, Fuschia M
2004-06-01
The possible negative consequences of counterfactuals were explored in the current study by examining the relationship between counterfactual direction and trait procrastination, a self-defeating behavioural style. Eighty participants generated counterfactuals in response to two experimental anxiety inductions. Trait procrastination was overall related to avoiding thoughts about how things could have been better (making more downward and relatively fewer upward counterfactuals) in response to the two anxiety-provoking scenarios, suggesting the involvement of a self-enhancement motive (mood repair). Evidence for the involvement of this self-motive in procrastinating behaviour also emerged, as procrastination was more related to making more downward counterfactuals for a delay-specific anxiety scenario than for a general anxiety scenario. The pattern of results supports the proposal that downward counterfactuals may be associated with negative behavioural styles such as procrastination and implicates self-enhancement motives in this relationship. The behavioural and motivational consequences of downward counterfactuals are discussed and possible connections between downward counterfactuals and other self-defeating behaviours are presented.
Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.
2011-01-01
To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…
Entanglement-based quantum key distribution with biased basis choice via free space.
Cao, Yuan; Liang, Hao; Yin, Juan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Zhou, Fei; Wu, Yu-Ping; Ren, Ji-Gang; Li, Yu-Huai; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Yang, Tao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-11-01
We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob's basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication. PMID:24216948
Entanglement-based quantum key distribution with biased basis choice via free space.
Cao, Yuan; Liang, Hao; Yin, Juan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Zhou, Fei; Wu, Yu-Ping; Ren, Ji-Gang; Li, Yu-Huai; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Yang, Tao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-11-01
We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob's basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.
Counterfactuals in Action: An fMRI Study of Counterfactual Sentences Describing Physical Effort
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Urrutia, Mabel; Gennari, Silvia P.; de Vega, Manuel
2012-01-01
Counterfactual statements such as "if Mary had cleaned the room, she would have moved the sofa" convey both actual and hypothetical actions, namely, that Mary did not clean the room or move the sofa, but she would have done so in some possible past situation. Such statements are ubiquitous in daily life and are involved in critical cognitive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nieuwland, Mante S.; Martin, Andrea E.
2012-01-01
Propositional truth-value can be a defining feature of a sentence's relevance to the unfolding discourse, and establishing propositional truth-value in context can be key to successful interpretation. In the current study, we investigate its role in the comprehension of counterfactual conditionals, which describe imaginary consequences of…
Depressive states amplify both upward and downward counterfactual thinking.
Feng, Xue; Gu, Ruolei; Liang, Fucheng; Broster, Lucas S; Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yue-jia
2015-08-01
Depression has been linked to counterfactual thinking in many behavioral studies, but the direction of this effect remains disputed. In the current study, the relationship between depression and counterfactual thinking was examined using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. In a binary choice gambling task, outcome feedback of the chosen option and that of the alternative option were both provided, so as to elicit the process of counterfactual comparison. By investigating ERP signals in response to outcome presentation, we discovered that when the fictive outcome was better or worse than the factual outcome, the amplitude of the P3 component was positively correlated with individual levels of depression, but not levels of anxiety. These results indicate that depression strengthens both upward counterfactual thinking and downward counterfactual thinking. The implication of this finding to clinical research is discussed.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution in the presence of Raman noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution (OFDM-QKD) in an integrated quantum-classical wavelength-division-multiplexing system. The presence of an intense classical signal alongside the quantum one generates Raman background noise. Noise reduction techniques should, then, be carried out at the receiver to suppress this crosstalk noise. In this work, we show that OFDM-QKD enables eﬃcient filtering, in time and frequency domains, making it an attractive solution for the high-rate links at the core of quantum-classical networks.
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi
2016-10-01
The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.
Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi
2016-07-01
The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.
Quantum-locked key distribution at nearly the classical capacity rate.
Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2014-10-17
Quantum data locking is a protocol that allows for a small secret key to (un)lock an exponentially larger amount of information, hence yielding the strongest violation of the classical one-time pad encryption in the quantum setting. This violation mirrors a large gap existing between two security criteria for quantum cryptography quantified by two entropic quantities: the Holevo information and the accessible information. We show that the latter becomes a sensible security criterion if an upper bound on the coherence time of the eavesdropper's quantum memory is known. Under this condition, we introduce a protocol for secret key generation through a memoryless qudit channel. For channels with enough symmetry, such as the d-dimensional erasure and depolarizing channels, this protocol allows secret key generation at an asymptotic rate as high as the classical capacity minus one bit.
Quantum-locked key distribution at nearly the classical capacity rate.
Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2014-10-17
Quantum data locking is a protocol that allows for a small secret key to (un)lock an exponentially larger amount of information, hence yielding the strongest violation of the classical one-time pad encryption in the quantum setting. This violation mirrors a large gap existing between two security criteria for quantum cryptography quantified by two entropic quantities: the Holevo information and the accessible information. We show that the latter becomes a sensible security criterion if an upper bound on the coherence time of the eavesdropper's quantum memory is known. Under this condition, we introduce a protocol for secret key generation through a memoryless qudit channel. For channels with enough symmetry, such as the d-dimensional erasure and depolarizing channels, this protocol allows secret key generation at an asymptotic rate as high as the classical capacity minus one bit. PMID:25361242
Two-party quantum key agreement protocol with four-particle entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yefeng; Ma, Wenping
2016-09-01
Based on four-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique, a two-party quantum key agreement protocol is proposed in this paper. In the protocol, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states in terms of the measurement correlation property of four-particle entangled states. According to the corresponding initial quantum states deduced by themselves, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. This guarantees the fair establishment of a shared key. Since each particle in quantum channel is transmitted only once, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The security analysis shows that the protocol not only can resist against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.
Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio
2005-01-01
Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.
Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I
2008-12-10
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2014-01-01
We present a model on the simulation of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with phase randomized general sources. It can be used to predict experimental observations of a MDI-QKD with linear channel loss, simulating corresponding values for the gains, the error rates in different basis, and also the final key rates. Our model can be applicable to the MDI-QKDs with arbitrary probabilistic mixture of different photon states or using any coding schemes. Therefore, it is useful in characterizing and evaluating the performance of the MDI-QKD protocol, making it a valuable tool in studying the quantum key distributions. PMID:24728000
Interactive identification protocol based on a quantum public-key cryptosystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2014-11-01
We propose two interactive identification protocols based on a general construction of quantum public-key cryptosystem. Basic protocol contains set-up phase and authentication phase. Participants do operation with quantum computing of Boolean function in two-round transmission of authentication phase. Basic one only ensures completeness and soundness, but leaks information about private-key. We modify basic protocol with random string and random Boolean permutation. After modification, both transmitted states in two-round transmission can be proved to be ultimate mixed states. No participant or attacker will get useful information about private-key by measuring such states. Modified protocol achieves property of zero-knowledge.
Quantum key distribution for security guarantees over QoS-driven 3D satellite networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik
2014-06-01
In recent years, quantum-based communication is emerging as a new technique for ensuring secured communications because it can guarantee absolute security between two different remote entities. Quantum communication performs the transmission and exchange of quantum information among distant nodes within a network. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a methodology for generating and distributing random encryption keys using the principles of quantum physics. In this paper, we investigate the techniques on how to efficiently use QKD in 3D satellite networks and propose an effective method to overcome its communications-distance limitations. In order to implement secured and reliable communications over wireless satellite links, we develop a free-space quantum channel model in satellite communication networks. To enlarge the communications distances over 3D satellite networks, we propose to employ the intermediate nodes to relay the unconditional keys and guarantee the Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER) for security requirement over 3D satellite networks. We also propose the communication model for QKD security-Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee and an adaptive cooperative routing selection scheme to optimize the throughput performance of QKD-based satellite communications networks. The obtained simulation results verify our proposed schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan
2014-10-01
In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].
Processing counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals: an fMRI investigation.
Kulakova, Eugenia; Aichhorn, Markus; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Perner, Josef
2013-05-15
Counterfactual thinking is ubiquitous in everyday life and an important aspect of cognition and emotion. Although counterfactual thought has been argued to differ from processing factual or hypothetical information, imaging data which elucidate these differences on a neural level are still scarce. We investigated the neural correlates of processing counterfactual sentences under visual and aural presentation. We compared conditionals in subjunctive mood which explicitly contradicted previously presented facts (i.e. counterfactuals) to conditionals framed in indicative mood which did not contradict factual world knowledge and thus conveyed a hypothetical supposition. Our results show activation in right occipital cortex (cuneus) and right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus) during counterfactual sentence processing. Importantly the occipital activation is not only present under visual presentation but also with purely auditory stimulus presentation, precluding a visual processing artifact. Thus our results can be interpreted as reflecting the fact that counterfactual conditionals pragmatically imply the relevance of keeping in mind both factual and supposed information whereas the hypothetical conditionals imply that real world information is irrelevant for processing the conditional and can be omitted. The need to sustain representations of factual and suppositional events during counterfactual sentence processing requires increased mental imagery and integration efforts. Our findings are compatible with predictions based on mental model theory. PMID:23380169
Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security. PMID:27539654
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-08-01
A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security.
Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security. PMID:27539654
High Speed Quantum Key Distribution Over Optical Fiber Network System1
Ma, Lijun; Mink, Alan; Tang, Xiao
2009-01-01
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a number of complete fiber-based high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD) systems that includes an 850 nm QKD system for a local area network (LAN), a 1310 nm QKD system for a metropolitan area network (MAN), and a 3-node quantum network controlled by a network manager. This paper discusses the key techniques used to implement these systems, which include polarization recovery, noise reduction, frequency up-conversion detection based on a periodically polled lithium nitrate (PPLN) waveguide, custom high-speed data handling boards and quantum network management. Using our quantum network, a QKD secured video surveillance application has been demonstrated. Our intention is to show the feasibility and sophistication of QKD systems based on current technology. PMID:27504218
Multiplexing scheme for simplified entanglement-based large-alphabet quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dada, Adetunmise C.
2015-05-01
We propose a practical quantum cryptographic scheme which combines high information capacity, such as provided by high-dimensional quantum entanglement, with the simplicity of a two-dimensional Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell test for security verification. By applying a state combining entanglement in a two-dimensional degree of freedom, such as photon polarization, with high-dimensional correlations in another degree of freedom, such as photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) or path, the scheme provides a considerably simplified route towards security verification in quantum key distribution (QKD) aimed at exploiting high-dimensional quantum systems for increased secure key rates. It also benefits from security against collective attacks and is feasible using currently available technologies.
Plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Yujun; Kwon, Osung; Woo, Minki; Oh, Kyunghwan; Han, Sang-Wook; Kim, Yong-Su; Moon, Sung
2016-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) guarantees unconditional communication security based on the laws of quantum physics. However, practical QKD suffers from a number of quantum hackings due to the device imperfections. From the security standpoint, measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is in the limelight since it eliminates all the possible loopholes in detection. Due to active control units for mode matching between the photons from remote parties, however, the implementation of MDI-QKD is highly impractical. In this paper, we propose a method to resolve the mode matching problem while minimizing the use of active control units. By introducing the plug-and-play (P&P) concept into MDI-QKD, the indistinguishability in spectral and polarization modes between photons can naturally be guaranteed. We show the feasibility of P&P MDI-QKD with a proof-of-principle experiment.
Counterfactual Consent and the Use of Deception in Research.
Wilson, Alan T
2015-09-01
The use of deception for the purposes of research is a widespread practice within many areas of study. If we want to avoid either absolute acceptance or absolute rejection of this practice then we require some method of distinguishing between those uses of deception which are morally acceptable and those which are not. In this article I discuss the concept of counterfactual consent, and propose a related distinction between counterfactual-defeating deception and counterfactual-compatible deception. The aim is to show that this proposed distinction will be useful in furthering the debate regarding the use of deception for the purposes of research.
Three-particle hyper-entanglement: teleportation and quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu; Abdul Rahim, Aadhi; Salla, Gangi Reddy; Prabhakar, Shashi; Samanta, Goutam Kumar; Paul, Goutam; Singh, Ravindra Pratap
2015-10-01
We present a scheme to generate three-particle hyper-entanglement utilizing polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons. We show that the generated state can be used to teleport a two-qubit state described by the polarization and the OAM. The proposed quantum system has also been used to describe a new efficient quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol. We give a sketch of the experimental arrangement to realize the proposed teleportation and the QKD.
Quantum key distribution over an installed multimode optical fiber local area network.
Namekata, Naoto; Mori, Shigehiko; Inoue, Shuichiro
2005-12-12
We have investigated the possibility of a multimode fiber link for a quantum channel. Transmission of light in an extremely underfilled mode distribution promises a single-mode-like behavior in the multimode fiber. To demonstrate the performance of the fiber link we performed quantum key distribution, on the basis of the BB84 four-state protocol, over 550 m of an installed multimode optical fiber local area network, and the quantum-bit-error rate of 1.09 percent was achieved. PMID:19503207
Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol
Molotkov, S. N.
2008-07-15
In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper's capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determined for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency ({eta} {approx} 20%) and dark count probability (p{sub dark} {approx} 10{sup -7})
An improved scheme on decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Wang, Dong; Li, Mo; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin
2015-01-01
Quantum key distribution involving decoy-states is a significant application of quantum information. By using three-intensity decoy-states of single-photon-added coherent sources, we propose a practically realizable scheme on quantum key distribution which approaches very closely the ideal asymptotic case of an infinite number of decoy-states. We make a comparative study between this scheme and two other existing ones, i.e., two-intensity decoy-states with single-photon-added coherent sources, and three-intensity decoy-states with weak coherent sources. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the advantages of our scheme in secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate. PMID:26463580
Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B
2014-09-15
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case. PMID:26466295
Faked state attacks on realistic round robin DPS quantum key distribution systems and countermeasure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwakoshi, T.
2015-05-01
In May 2014, a new quantum key distribution protocol named "Round Robin Differential-Phase-Shift Quantum Key Distribution (RR DPS QKD)" was proposed. It has a special feature that the key consumption via privacy amplification is a small constant because RR DPS QKD guarantees its security by information causality, not by information-disturbance trade-off. Therefore, the authors claimed that RR DPS QKD systems does not need to monitor the disturbance by an attacker in the quantum channel. However, this study shows that a modified Faked-State Attack (or so-called bright illumination attack) can hack a RR DPS QKD system almost perfectly if it is implemented with realistic detectors even information-causality guarantees the security of RR DPS QKD protocol. Therefore, this study also proposes a possible Measurement-Device-Independent RR DPS QKD system to avoid the modified Faked-State Attack.
Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol
Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo
2011-02-15
Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.
Heralded-qubit amplifiers for practical device-independent quantum key distribution
Curty, Marcos; Moroder, Tobias
2011-07-15
Device-independent quantum key distribution does not need a precise quantum mechanical model of employed devices to guarantee security. Despite its beauty, it is still a very challenging experimental task. We compare a recent proposal by Gisin et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)] to close the detection loophole problem with that of a simpler quantum relay based on entanglement swapping with linear optics. Our full-mode analysis for both schemes confirms that, in contrast to recent beliefs, the second scheme can indeed provide a positive key rate which is even considerably higher than that of the first alternative. The resulting key rates and required detection efficiencies of approximately 95% for both schemes, however, strongly depend on the underlying security proof.
Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun
2016-08-01
We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).
Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun
2016-08-01
We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).
Simple Proof of Security of the BB84 Quantum Key Distribution Protocol
Shor, Peter W.; Preskill, John
2000-07-10
We prove that the 1984 protocol of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) for quantum key distribution is secure. We first give a key distribution protocol based on entanglement purification, which can be proven secure using methods from Lo and Chau's proof of security for a similar protocol. We then show that the security of this protocol implies the security of BB84. The entanglement purification based protocol uses Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, and properties of these codes are used to remove the use of quantum computation from the Lo-Chau protocol. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol
Shor; Preskill
2000-07-10
We prove that the 1984 protocol of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) for quantum key distribution is secure. We first give a key distribution protocol based on entanglement purification, which can be proven secure using methods from Lo and Chau's proof of security for a similar protocol. We then show that the security of this protocol implies the security of BB84. The entanglement purification based protocol uses Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, and properties of these codes are used to remove the use of quantum computation from the Lo-Chau protocol. PMID:10991303
Waveguide polarization decoding module for free-space quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xuejun; Zhang, Xuping
2008-01-01
We present a promising integrated single photon receiver module based on an electro-optic waveguide polarization decoder and a TM pass polarizer. Linear and circular detection bases can be selected with a low control voltage of ~1.5V. A TM pass waveguide polarizer was fabricated with an extinction ratio of greater than 40dB. Low quantum key error rate can be expected due to the reduced optical background scattering noise using the index-matched integration approach. The proposed receiver module is promising for free space quantum key distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz
2016-06-01
The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.
Performance of two quantum-key-distribution protocols
Fung, C.-H. Fred; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2006-01-15
We compare the performance of Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) and Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocols, the latter of which was proposed by V. Scarani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004)]. Specifically, in this paper, we investigate the SARG04 protocol with two-way classical communications and the SARG04 protocol with decoy states. In the first part of the paper, we show that the SARG04 scheme with two-way communications can tolerate a higher bit error rate (19.4% for a one-photon source and 6.56% for a two-photon source) than the SARG04 one with one-way communications (10.95% for a one-photon source and 2.71% for a two-photon source). Also, the upper bounds on the bit error rate for the SARG04 protocol with two-way communications are computed in a closed form by considering an individual attack based on a general measurement. In the second part of the paper, we propose employing the idea of decoy states in the SARG04 scheme to obtain unconditional security even when realistic devices are used. We compare the performance of the SARG04 protocol with decoy states and the BB84 one with decoy states. We find that the optimal mean-photon number for the SARG04 scheme is higher than that of the BB84 one when the bit error rate is small. Also, we observe that the SARG04 protocol does not achieve a longer secure distance and a higher key generation rate than the BB84 one, assuming a typical experimental parameter set.
Counterfactual reasoning: developing a sense of "nearest possible world".
Rafetseder, Eva; Cristi-Vargas, Renate; Perner, Josef
2010-01-01
This study investigated at what point in development 3- to 6-year-old children begin to demonstrate counterfactual reasoning by controlling for fortuitously correct answers that result from basic conditional reasoning. Basic conditional reasoning occurs when one applies typical regularities (such as "If 'whenever' it doesn't rain the street is dry") to counterfactual questions (such as "If it had not rained, would the street be wet or dry?") without regard to actual events (e.g., if street cleaners had just been washing the street). In counterfactual reasoning, however, the conditional reasoning must be constrained by actual events (according to the "nearest possible world"). In situations when counterfactual reasoning and basic conditional reasoning would yield the same answers, even the youngest children gave mostly correct answers. However, tasks in which the 2 reasoning strategies resulted in different answers proved unusually difficult even for the older children.
Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning
Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef
2014-01-01
Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults’ Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed “Basic Conditional Reasoning” (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent. PMID:25729114
Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum-key-distribution systems
Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2007-03-15
Quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to generate secret keys between two distant parties. Even though QKD has been proven unconditionally secure against eavesdroppers with unlimited computation power, practical implementations of QKD may contain loopholes that may lead to the generated secret keys being compromised. In this paper, we propose a phase-remapping attack targeting two practical bidirectional QKD systems (the 'plug-and-play' system and the Sagnac system). We showed that if the users of the systems are unaware of our attack, the final key shared between them can be compromised in some situations. Specifically, we showed that, in the case of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with ideal single-photon sources, when the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is between 14.6% and 20%, our attack renders the final key insecure, whereas the same range of QBER values has been proved secure if the two users are unaware of our attack; also, we demonstrated three situations with realistic devices where positive key rates are obtained without the consideration of Trojan horse attacks but in fact no key can be distilled. We remark that our attack is feasible with only current technology. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of our attack in order to ensure absolute security. In finding our attack, we minimize the QBER over individual measurements described by a general POVM, which has some similarity with the standard quantum state discrimination problem.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-23
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767
Four-state quantum key distribution exploiting maximum mutual information measurement strategy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hong-Rong; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li
2016-02-01
We propose a four-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme using generalized measurement of nonorthogonal states, the maximum mutual information measurement strategy. Then, we analyze the eavesdropping process in intercept-resend and photon number splitting attack scenes. Our analysis shows that in the intercept-resend and photon number splitting attack eavesdropping scenes, our scheme is more secure than BB84 protocol and has higher key generation rate which may be applied to high-density QKD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Bao, Wan-Su; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2011-10-01
Quantum key distribution is the art of sharing secret keys between two distant parties, and has attracted a lot of attention due to its unconditional security. Compared with other quantum key distribution protocols, the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol has higher efficiency and simpler apparatus. Unfortunately, the unconditional security of differential phase shift quantum key distribution has not been proved. Utilizing the sharp continuity of the von Neuman entropy and some basic inequalities, we estimate the upper bound for the eavesdropper Eve's information. We then prove the lower bound for the security of the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol against a one-pulse attack with Devatak—Winter's secret key rate formula.
W-state Analyzer and Multi-party Measurement-device-independent Quantum Key Distribution
Zhu, Changhua; Xu, Feihu; Pei, Changxing
2015-01-01
W-state is an important resource for many quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on W-state. With linear optics, we design a W-state analyzer in order to distinguish the four-qubit W-state. This analyzer constructs the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Moreover, we derived a complete security proof of the four-party MDI-QKD, and performed a numerical simulation to study its performance. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 150 km standard telecom fiber with off-the-shelf single photon detectors. This work takes an important step towards multi-party quantum communication and a quantum network. PMID:26644289
Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hui; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Huang, Ming-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Zhang, Lu; You, Li-Xing; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Lu, Chao-Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.
Kochen-Specker theorem as a precondition for secure quantum key distribution
Nagata, Koji
2005-07-15
We show that (1) the violation of the Ekert 1991 inequality is a sufficient condition for certification of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, and (2) the violation of the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) inequality is, also, a sufficient condition for certification of the KS theorem. Therefore the success in each quantum key distribution protocol reveals the nonclassical feature of quantum theory, in the sense that the KS realism is violated. Further, it turned out that the Ekert inequality and the BBM inequality are depictured by distillable entanglement witness inequalities. Here, we connect the success in these two key distribution processes into the no-hidden-variables theorem and into witness on distillable entanglement. We also discuss the explicit difference between the KS realism and Bell's local realism in the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei
2015-07-01
A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272057, 61170270, and 61309029), Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, China (Grant Nos. YETP0475 and YETP0477), and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation, China (Grant No. CX201441).
Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons.
Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Sponselli, Anna; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo
2014-08-01
"Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network.
Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with segmented pulse trains
Kawahara, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo
2011-06-15
We present a modified scheme of differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) for improving its performance. A transmitter sends a weak coherent pulse train segmented with vacant pulses. Then, a receiver can find eavesdropping by monitoring the photon detection rate at particular time slots. Simulations show that the proposed scheme is robust against a sequential attack and a general individual attack.
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-15
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-25
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
High speed prototype quantum key distribution system and long term field trial.
Dixon, A R; Dynes, J F; Lucamarini, M; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Plews, A; Tam, S; Yuan, Z L; Tanizawa, Y; Sato, H; Kawamura, S; Fujiwara, M; Sasaki, M; Shields, A J
2015-03-23
Securing information in communication networks is an important challenge in today's world. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) can provide unique capabilities towards achieving this security, allowing intrusions to be detected and information leakage avoided. We report here a record high bit rate prototype QKD system providing a total of 878 Gbit of secure key data over a 34 day period corresponding to a sustained key rate of around 300 kbit/s. The system was deployed over a standard 45 km link of an installed metropolitan telecommunication fibre network in central Tokyo. The prototype QKD system is compact, robust and automatically stabilised, enabling key distribution during diverse weather conditions. The security analysis includes an efficient protocol, finite key size effects and decoy states, with a quantified key failure probability of ε = 10⁻¹⁰.
Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144km
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G.; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald
2007-01-01
We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites.
Nonlocal quantum field theory without acausality and nonunitarity at quantum level: Is SUSY the key?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addazi, Andrea; Esposito, Giampiero
2015-05-01
The realization of a nonlocal quantum field theory without losing unitarity, gauge invariance and causality is investigated. It is commonly retained that such a formulation is possible at tree level, but at quantum level acausality is expected to reappear at one loop. We suggest that the problem of acausality is, in a broad sense, similar to the one about anomalies in quantum field theory. By virtue of this analogy, we suggest that acausal diagrams resulting from the fermionic sector and the bosonic one might cancel each other, with a suitable content of fields and suitable symmetries. As a simple example, we show how supersymmetry can alleviate this problem in a simple and elegant way, i.e. by leading to exact cancellations of harmful diagrams, to all orders of perturbation theory. An infinite number of divergent diagrams cancel each other by virtue of the nonrenormalization theorem of supersymmetry. However, supersymmetry is not enough to protect a theory from all acausal divergences. For instance, acausal contributions to supersymmetric corrections to D-terms are not protected by supersymmetry. On the other hand, we show in detail how supersymmetry also helps in dealing with D-terms: divergences are not canceled but they become softer than in the nonsupersymmetric case. The supergraphs' formalism turns out to be a powerful tool to reduce the complexity of perturbative calculations.
Zhang, Zheshen; Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk; Wong, Franco N C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H
2014-03-28
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and show that it is secure against collective attacks. Its security rests upon visibility data-obtained from Franson and conjugate-Franson interferometers-that probe photon-pair frequency correlations and arrival-time correlations. From these measurements, an upper bound can be established on the eavesdropper's Holevo information by translating the Gaussian-state security analysis for continuous-variable quantum key distribution so that it applies to our protocol. We show that visibility data from just the Franson interferometer provides a weaker, but nonetheless useful, secure-key rate lower bound. To handle multiple-pair emissions, we incorporate the decoy-state approach into our protocol. Our results show that over a 200-km transmission distance in optical fiber, time-energy entanglement HDQKD could permit a 700-bit/sec secure-key rate and a photon information efficiency of 2 secure-key bits per photon coincidence in the key-generation phase using receivers with a 15% system efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas
2015-11-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.
Continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution protocols with a non-Gaussian modulation
Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe
2011-04-15
In this paper, we consider continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols which use non-Gaussian modulations. These specific modulation schemes are compatible with very efficient error-correction procedures, hence allowing the protocols to outperform previous protocols in terms of achievable range. In their simplest implementation, these protocols are secure for any linear quantum channels (hence against Gaussian attacks). We also show how the use of decoy states makes the protocols secure against arbitrary collective attacks, which implies their unconditional security in the asymptotic limit.
High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution
Dixon, A. R.; Sato, H.
2014-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90–94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0–80 km. PMID:25450416
Fast implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification in quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun-Mei; Li, Mo; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Patcharapong, Treeviriyanupab; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Chuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Keattisak, Sripimanwat; Han, Zhen-Fu
2014-09-01
Post-processing is indispensable in quantum key distribution (QKD), which is aimed at sharing secret keys between two distant parties. It mainly consists of key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is used for sharing the same keys and for distilling unconditional secret keys. In this paper, we focus on speeding up the privacy amplification process by choosing a simple multiplicative universal class of hash functions. By constructing an optimal multiplication algorithm based on four basic multiplication algorithms, we give a fast software implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification. “Length-adaptive” indicates that the implementation of privacy amplification automatically adapts to different lengths of input blocks. When the lengths of the input blocks are 1 Mbit and 10 Mbit, the speed of privacy amplification can be as fast as 14.86 Mbps and 10.88 Mbps, respectively. Thus, it is practical for GHz or even higher repetition frequency QKD systems.
Collusive attacks to "circle-type" multi-party quantum key agreement protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Jia, Heng-Yue; Liu, Run-Zong
2016-05-01
We find that existing multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocols designed for fairness of the key are, in fact, unfair. Our analysis shows that these protocols are sensitive to collusive attacks; that is, dishonest participants can collaborate in predetermining the key without being detected. In fact, the transmission structures of the quantum particles in those unfair MQKA protocols, three of which have already been analyzed, have much in common. We call these unfair MQKA protocols circle-type MQKA protocols. Likewise, the transmission structures of the quantum particles in MQKA protocols that can resist collusive attacks are also similar. We call such protocols complete-graph-type MQKA protocols. A MQKA protocol also exists that can resist the above attacks but is still not fair, and we call it the tree-type MQKA protocol. We first point out a common, easily missed loophole that severely compromises the fairness of present circle-type MQKA protocols. Then we show that two dishonest participants at special positions can totally predetermine the key generated by circle-type MQKA protocols. We anticipate that our observations will contribute to secure and fair MQKA protocols, especially circle-type protocols.
Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion to Create a Quantum Key Distribution System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salgado, Erik; Aragoneses, Andres, , Dr.
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) aims to share a secret key between two parties in a secure manner. It provides security benefits over classical communication systems. We have constructed a QKD system that uses quantum entanglement to ensure security against eavesdroppers. We use polarization to encode the binary information of an encryption key. This key is secure due to the quantum properties of light. We use the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) to create entangled photon pairs. Experimentally, we fire pump (laser) photons through a nonlinear crystal, where there exists a probability of them being annihilated and spontaneously generating two entangled photons of lower energies. A coincidence measurement between two entangled photons indicates the successful transfer of one bit of information, and a coincidence measurement between two disparate photons indicates an error in data transfer. We aim to optimize data transfer rate and reduce error rate. The project is still in development and we look forward to collecting data in the near future.
High-capacity quantum key distribution via hyperentangled degrees of freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, David S.; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2014-06-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has long been a promising area for the application of quantum effects in solving real-world problems. However, two major obstacles have stood in the way of its widespread application: low secure key generation rates and short achievable operating distances. In this paper, a new physical mechanism for dealing with the first of these problems is proposed: the interplay between different degrees of freedom in a hyperentangled system (parametric down-conversion) is used to increase the Hilbert space dimension available for key generation while maintaining security. Polarization-based Bell tests provide security checking, while orbital angular momentum (OAM) and total angular momentum (TAM) provide a higher key generation rate. Whether to measure TAM or OAM is decided randomly in each trial. The concurrent noncommutativity of TAM with OAM and polarization provides the physical basis for quantum security. TAM measurements link polarization to OAM, so that if the legitimate participants measure OAM while the eavesdropper measures TAM (or vice-versa), then polarization entanglement is lost, revealing the eavesdropper. In contrast to other OAM-based QKD methods, complex active switching between OAM bases is not required; instead, passive switching by beam splitters combined with much simpler active switching between polarization bases makes implementation at high OAM more practical.
Security of a semi-quantum protocol where reflections contribute to the secret key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawec, Walter O.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we provide a proof of unconditional security for a semi-quantum key distribution protocol introduced in a previous work. This particular protocol demonstrated the possibility of using X basis states to contribute to the raw key of the two users (as opposed to using only direct measurement results) even though a semi-quantum participant cannot directly manipulate such states. In this work, we provide a complete proof of security by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we are able to find an error threshold value such that for all error rates less than this threshold, it is guaranteed that A and B may distill a secure secret key; for error rates larger than this threshold, A and B should abort. We demonstrate that this error threshold compares favorably to several fully quantum protocols. We also comment on some interesting observations about the behavior of this protocol under certain noise scenarios.
Molotkov, S. N.
2012-05-15
The fundamental quantum mechanics prohibitions on the measurability of quantum states allow secure key distribution between spatially remote users to be performed. Experimental and commercial implementations of quantum cryptography systems, however, use components that exist at the current technology level, in particular, one-photon avalanche photodetectors. These detectors are subject to the blinding effect. It was shown that all the known basic quantum key distribution protocols and systems based on them are vulnerable to attacks with blinding of photodetectors. In such attacks, an eavesdropper knows all the key transferred, does not produce errors at the reception side, and remains undetected. Three protocols of quantum key distribution stable toward such attacks are suggested. The security of keys and detection of eavesdropping attempts are guaranteed by the internal structure of protocols themselves rather than additional technical improvements.
Phase-Reference-Free Experiment of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Wang, Chao; Song, Xiao-Tian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-10-16
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) is a substantial step toward practical information-theoretic security for key sharing between remote legitimate users (Alice and Bob). As with other standard device-dependent quantum key distribution protocols, such as BB84, MDI QKD assumes that the reference frames have been shared between Alice and Bob. In practice, a nontrivial alignment procedure is often necessary, which requires system resources and may significantly reduce the secure key generation rate. Here, we propose a phase-coding reference-frame-independent MDI QKD scheme that requires no phase alignment between the interferometers of two distant legitimate parties. As a demonstration, a proof-of-principle experiment using Faraday-Michelson interferometers is presented. The experimental system worked at 1 MHz, and an average secure key rate of 8.309 bps was obtained at a fiber length of 20 km between Alice and Bob. The system can maintain a positive key generation rate without phase compensation under normal conditions. The results exhibit the feasibility of our system for use in mature MDI QKD devices and its value for network scenarios. PMID:26550855
Phase-Reference-Free Experiment of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Wang, Chao; Song, Xiao-Tian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-10-16
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) is a substantial step toward practical information-theoretic security for key sharing between remote legitimate users (Alice and Bob). As with other standard device-dependent quantum key distribution protocols, such as BB84, MDI QKD assumes that the reference frames have been shared between Alice and Bob. In practice, a nontrivial alignment procedure is often necessary, which requires system resources and may significantly reduce the secure key generation rate. Here, we propose a phase-coding reference-frame-independent MDI QKD scheme that requires no phase alignment between the interferometers of two distant legitimate parties. As a demonstration, a proof-of-principle experiment using Faraday-Michelson interferometers is presented. The experimental system worked at 1 MHz, and an average secure key rate of 8.309 bps was obtained at a fiber length of 20 km between Alice and Bob. The system can maintain a positive key generation rate without phase compensation under normal conditions. The results exhibit the feasibility of our system for use in mature MDI QKD devices and its value for network scenarios.
Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia.
Mullally, Sinéad L; Maguire, Eleanor A
2014-11-01
We often engage in counterfactual (CF) thinking, which involves reflecting on "what might have been." Creating alternative versions of reality seems to have parallels with recollecting the past and imagining the future in requiring the simulation of internally generated models of complex events. Given that episodic memory and imagining the future are impaired in patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia, we wondered whether successful CF thinking also depends upon the integrity of the hippocampus. Here using two nonepisodic CF thinking tasks, we found that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia performed comparably with matched controls. They could deconstruct reality, add in and recombine elements, change relations between temporal sequences of events, enabling them to determine plausible alternatives of complex episodes. A difference between the patients and control participants was evident, however, in the patients' subtle avoidance of CF simulations that required the construction of an internal spatial representation. Overall, our findings suggest that mental simulation in the form of nonepisodic CF thinking does not seem to depend upon the hippocampus unless there is the added requirement for construction of a coherent spatial scene within which to play out scenarios.
Experimental demonstration on the deterministic quantum key distribution based on entangled photons
Chen, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Zangana, Alaa Jabbar Jumaah; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Han, Yun-Guang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Tawfeeq, Shelan Khasro; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu
2016-01-01
As an important resource, entanglement light source has been used in developing quantum information technologies, such as quantum key distribution(QKD). There are few experiments implementing entanglement-based deterministic QKD protocols since the security of existing protocols may be compromised in lossy channels. In this work, we report on a loss-tolerant deterministic QKD experiment which follows a modified “Ping-Pong”(PP) protocol. The experiment results demonstrate for the first time that a secure deterministic QKD session can be fulfilled in a channel with an optical loss of 9 dB, based on a telecom-band entangled photon source. This exhibits a conceivable prospect of ultilizing entanglement light source in real-life fiber-based quantum communications. PMID:26860582
Principle of Quantum Key Distribution on an Optical Fiber Based on Time Shifts of TB Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadorin, A. S.; Makhorin, D. A.
2016-07-01
The possibility of the physical realization of a quantum key distribution scheme in an optical-fiber communication channel based on time coding of two- and three-level single-photon quantum states is demonstrated. It is proposed to employ shifts of TB qubits (time-bin qubits) as protected code combinations, transmitted over a quantum channel, and for registering individual photons - the corresponding qutrits prepared in unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The possibility of enhancing the level of protection of the code combinations as a result of taking into account information about qubit basis states and their statistics is indicated. A computer model of the time coding of TB qubits based on the BB84 protocol is developed, and results of calculations confirming the realizability of the indicated principle are presented.
Counterfactual choice and learning in a neural network centered on human lateral frontopolar cortex.
Boorman, Erie D; Behrens, Timothy E; Rushworth, Matthew F
2011-06-01
Decision making and learning in a real-world context require organisms to track not only the choices they make and the outcomes that follow but also other untaken, or counterfactual, choices and their outcomes. Although the neural system responsible for tracking the value of choices actually taken is increasingly well understood, whether a neural system tracks counterfactual information is currently unclear. Using a three-alternative decision-making task, a Bayesian reinforcement-learning algorithm, and fMRI, we investigated the coding of counterfactual choices and prediction errors in the human brain. Rather than representing evidence favoring multiple counterfactual choices, lateral frontal polar cortex (lFPC), dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC), and posteromedial cortex (PMC) encode the reward-based evidence favoring the best counterfactual option at future decisions. In addition to encoding counterfactual reward expectations, the network carries a signal for learning about counterfactual options when feedback is available-a counterfactual prediction error. Unlike other brain regions that have been associated with the processing of counterfactual outcomes, counterfactual prediction errors within the identified network cannot be related to regret theory. Furthermore, individual variation in counterfactual choice-related activity and prediction error-related activity, respectively, predicts variation in the propensity to switch to profitable choices in the future and the ability to learn from hypothetical feedback. Taken together, these data provide both neural and behavioral evidence to support the existence of a previously unidentified neural system responsible for tracking both counterfactual choice options and their outcomes.
Two-Party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol
Grice, Warren P.; Evans, Philip G.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Legré, M.; Lougovski, P.; Ray, William R.; Williams, Brian P.; Qi, B.; Smith, A. M.
2015-01-01
We present and demonstrate a method of distributing secret information based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) in a modied plug-and-play two-party Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system with N 2 intermediate nodes and compare it to both standard QSS and QKD. Our setup is based on the Clavis2 QKD system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N 2 parties. This method signicantly reduces the number of resources (singlemore » photon detectors, lasers and dark ber connections) needed to implement QKD on the grid.« less
Two-Party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol
Grice, Warren P.; Evans, Philip G.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Legré, M.; Lougovski, P.; Ray, William R.; Williams, Brian P.; Qi, B.; Smith, A. M.
2015-01-01
We present and demonstrate a method of distributing secret information based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) in a modied plug-and-play two-party Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system with N 2 intermediate nodes and compare it to both standard QSS and QKD. Our setup is based on the Clavis2 QKD system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N 2 parties. This method signicantly reduces the number of resources (single photon detectors, lasers and dark ber connections) needed to implement QKD on the grid.
Heralded single-photon sources for quantum-key-distribution applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Ticozzi, Francesco; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-01-01
Single-photon sources (SPSs) are a fundamental building block for optical implementations of quantum information protocols. Among SPSs, multiple crystal heralded single-photon sources seem to give the best compromise between high pair production rate and low multiple photon events. In this work, we study their performance in a practical quantum-key-distribution experiment, by evaluating the achievable key rates. The analysis focuses on the two different schemes, symmetric and asymmetric, proposed for the practical implementation of heralded single-photon sources, with attention on the performance of their composing elements. The analysis is based on the protocol proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 and on its improvement exploiting decoy state technique. Finally, a simple way of exploiting the postselection mechanism for a passive, one decoy state scheme is evaluated.
An enhanced proposal on decoy-state measurement device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Luo, Shunlong; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-09-01
By employing pulses involving three-intensity, we propose a scheme for the measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources. We make a comparative study of this scheme with the standard three-intensity decoy-state scheme using weak coherent sources or heralded single-photon sources. The advantage of this scheme is illustrated through numerical simulations: It can approach very closely the asymptotic case of using an infinite number of decoy-states and exhibits excellent behavior in both the secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate.
Pitkanen, David; Ma Xiongfeng; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Wickert, Ricardo; Loock, Peter van
2011-08-15
We present an efficient way of heralding photonic qubit signals using linear optics devices. First, we show that one can obtain asymptotically perfect heralding and unit success probability with growing resources. Second, we show that even using finite resources, we can improve qualitatively and quantitatively over earlier heralding results. In the latter scenario, we can obtain perfect heralded photonic qubits while maintaining a finite success probability. We demonstrate the advantage of our heralding scheme by predicting key rates for device-independent quantum key distribution, taking imperfections of sources and detectors into account.
Blandino, Rémi; Etesse, Jean; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Barbieri, Marco; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa
2014-12-04
We show that the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution in presence of a Gaussian noisy lossy channel can be arbitrarily increased using a heralded noiseless linear amplifier. We explicitly consider a protocol using amplitude and phase modulated coherent states with reverse reconciliation. Assuming that the secret key rate drops to zero for a line transmittance T{sub lim}, we find that a noiseless amplifier with amplitude gain g can improve this value to T{sub lim}/g{sup 2}, corresponding to an increase in distance proportional to log g. We also show that the tolerance against noise is increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Liang, Lin-Mei
2012-08-01
Phase randomization is a very important assumption in the BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) system with weak coherent source; otherwise, eavesdropper may spy the final key. In this Letter, a stable and monitored active phase randomization scheme for the one-way and two-way QKD system is proposed and demonstrated in experiments. Furthermore, our scheme gives an easy way for Alice to monitor the degree of randomization in experiments. Therefore, we expect our scheme to become a standard part in future QKD systems due to its secure significance and feasibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Lv, Geli; Zeng, Guihua
2015-11-01
We show that the tolerable excess noise can be dynamically balanced in source preparation while inserting a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) for balancing the secret key rate and the maximal transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). The intensities of source noise are sensitive to the tunable LOCM and can be stabilized to the suitable values to eliminate the impact of channel noise and defeat the potential attacks even in the case of the degenerated linear optics amplifier (LOA). The LOCM-additional noise can be elegantly employed by the reference partner of reconciliation to regulate the secret key rate and the transmission distance. Simulation results show that there is a considerable improvement in the secret key rate of the LOCM-based CVQKD while providing a tunable LOCM for source preparation with the specified parameters in suitable ranges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-02-01
Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.
Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mélen, Gwenaelle; Vogl, Tobias; Rau, Markus; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Weinfurter, Harald
2016-03-01
Unlike currently implemented encryption schemes, Quantum Key Distribution provides a secure way of generating and distributing a key among two parties. Although a multitude of research platforms has been developed, the integration of QKD units within classical communication systems remains a tremendous challenge. The recently achieved maturity of integrated photonic technologies could be exploited to create miniature QKD add-ons that could extend the primary function of various existing systems such as mobile devices or optical stations. In this work we report on an integrated optics module enabling secure short-distance communication for, e.g., quantum access schemes. Using BB84-like protocols, Alice's mobile low-cost device can exchange secure key and information everywhere within a trusted node network. The new optics platform (35×20×8mm) compatible with current smartphone's technology generates NIR faint polarised laser pulses with 100MHz repetition rate. Fully automated beam tracking and live basis-alignment on Bob's side ensure user-friendly operation with a quantum link efficiency as high as 50% stable over a few seconds.
Distillation of secret-key from a class of compound memoryless quantum sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boche, H.; Janßen, G.
2016-08-01
We consider secret-key distillation from tripartite compound classical-quantum-quantum (cqq) sources with free forward public communication under strong security criterion. We design protocols which are universally reliable and secure in this scenario. These are shown to achieve asymptotically optimal rates as long as a certain regularity condition is fulfilled by the set of its generating density matrices. We derive a multi-letter formula which describes the optimal forward secret-key capacity for all compound cqq sources being regular in this sense. We also determine the forward secret-key distillation capacity for situations where the legitimate sending party has perfect knowledge of his/her marginal state deriving from the source statistics. In this case regularity conditions can be dropped. Our results show that the capacities with and without the mentioned kind of state knowledge are equal as long as the source is generated by a regular set of density matrices. We demonstrate that regularity of cqq sources is not only a technical but also an operational issue. For this reason, we give an example of a source which has zero secret-key distillation capacity without sender knowledge, while achieving positive rates is possible if sender marginal knowledge is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, Florian; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian; Horwath, Joachim; Rau, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald
2012-10-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), either fiber based or free-space, allows for provably secure key distribution solely based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Feasibility of QKD systems in aircraft-ground links was demonstrated with a successful key exchange. Experiment flights were undertaken during night time at the site of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The aircraft was a Dornier 228 equipped with a laser communication terminal, originally designed for optical data downlinks with intensity modulation and direct detection. The counter terminal on ground was an optical ground station with a 40 cm Cassegrain type receiver telescope. Alice and Bob, as the transmitter and receiver systems usually are called in QKD, were integrated in the flight and ground terminals, respectively. A second laser source with 1550 nm wavelength was used to transmit a 100 MHz signal for synchronization of the two partners. The so called BB84 protocol, here implemented with faint polarization encoded pulses at 850nm wavelength, was applied as key generation scheme. Within two flights, measurements of the QKD and communication channel could be obtained with link distance of 20 km. After link acquisition, the tracking systems in the aircraft and on ground were able to keep lock of the narrow QKD beam. Emphasis of this paper is put on presentation of the link technology, i.e. link design and modifications of the communication terminals. First analysis of link attenuation, performance of the QKD system and scintillation of the sync signal is also addressed.
Xu Fangxing; Zhang Yang; Zhou Zheng; Chen Wei; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan
2009-12-15
In a practical quantum-key-distribution system, photon source and small operational errors cause intensity fluctuations inevitably, which cannot be ignored for a precise estimation on the single-photon fraction. In this paper, we demonstrated an efficient three-intensity decoy method scheme on top of the one-way Faraday-Michelson Interferometric system, combining an active monitoring with existing commercial apparatus to inspect fluctuations instantly. With this faithful detection for the upper bound of the fluctuation, the secure quantum key distribution is unconditionally realized with whatever type of intensity errors, which declares the utility and potential of decoy theory and active monitoring for quantum key distribution in practical use.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
The NanoQEY mission: ground to space quantum key and entanglement distribution using a nanosatellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennewein, T.; Grant, C.; Choi, E.; Pugh, C.; Holloway, C.; Bourgoin, JP.; Hakima, H.; Higgins, B.; Zee, R.
2014-10-01
The NanoQEY (Nano Quantum Encryption) Satellite is a proposed nanosatellite mission concept developed by the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo and the Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) that would demonstrate long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) between two distant ground stations on Earth using an optical uplink. SFL's existing and proven NEMO (Nanosatellite for Earth Monitoring and Observation) bus forms the baseline spacecraft for NanoQEY, with a QKD receiver payload designed by IQC. The primary objective of the NanoQEY mission would be to successfully distribute at least 10 kbit of secure key between two optical ground stations, where the satellite acts as a trusted node. The secondary mission objective would be to perform Bell tests for entangled photons between ground and space. We designed a compact QKD receiver payload that would be compatible with the mass, volume, power and performance constraints of a low-cost nanosatellite platform. The low-cost rapid schedule "microspace" approach of UTIAS/SFL would allow for the proposed NanoQEY mission to be developed in 2.5 years from project kick-off to launch of the spacecraft, followed by a one-year on-orbit mission.
Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.
2016-02-01
In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.
Geometric discord: A resource for increments of quantum key generation through twirling
Wu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Tao
2015-01-01
In the present work, we consider a scenario where an arbitrary two-qubit pure state is applied for the quantum key generation (QKG). Using the twirling procedure to convert the pure state into a Werner state, the error rate of the key can be reduced by a factor of 2/3. This effect indicates that entanglement is not the sufficient resource of QKG protocol since it is not increased in the twirling procedure. Based on the fact that the geometric discord is increased in the twirling procedure, we argue that the geometric discord should be taken as a necessary resource for the QKG task. Besides the pure state, we also give other two types of mixtures where twirling may increase the discord and reduce the error rate of the generated key. PMID:26306717
Experimental study on discretely modulated continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Shen Yong; Zou Hongxin; Chen Pingxing; Yuan Jianmin; Tian Liang
2010-08-15
We present a discretely modulated continuous-variable quantum key distribution system in free space by using strong coherent states. The amplitude noise in the laser source is suppressed to the shot-noise limit by using a mode cleaner combined with a frequency shift technique. Also, it is proven that the phase noise in the source has no impact on the final secret key rate. In order to increase the encoding rate, we use broadband homodyne detectors and the no-switching protocol. In a realistic model, we establish a secret key rate of 46.8 kbits/s against collective attacks at an encoding rate of 10 MHz for a 90% channel loss when the modulation variance is optimal.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a Gaussian modulation
Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sebastien; Leverrier, Anthony
2011-12-15
We designed high-efficiency error correcting codes allowing us to extract an errorless secret key in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) protocol using a Gaussian modulation of coherent states and a homodyne detection. These codes are available for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios on an additive white Gaussian noise channel with a binary modulation and can be combined with a multidimensional reconciliation method proven secure against arbitrary collective attacks. This improved reconciliation procedure considerably extends the secure range of a CVQKD with a Gaussian modulation, giving a secret key rate of about 10{sup -3} bit per pulse at a distance of 120 km for reasonable physical parameters.
Finite-size analysis of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe
2010-06-15
The goal of this paper is to extend the framework of finite-size analysis recently developed for quantum key distribution to continuous-variable protocols. We do not solve this problem completely here, and we mainly consider the finite-size effects on the parameter estimation procedure. Despite the fact that some questions are left open, we are able to give an estimation of the secret key rate for protocols which do not contain a postselection procedure. As expected, these results are significantly more pessimistic than those obtained in the asymptotic regime. However, we show that recent continuous-variable protocols are able to provide fully secure secret keys in the finite-size scenario, over distances larger than 50 km.
Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km.
Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald
2007-01-01
We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8 bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites. PMID:17358463
Estimation of output-channel noise for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thearle, Oliver; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas
2016-04-01
Estimation of channel parameters is important for extending the range and increasing the key rate of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols. We propose an estimator for the channel noise parameter based on the method-of-moments. The method-of-moments finds an estimator from the moments of the output distribution of the protocol. This estimator has the advantage of being able to use all of the states shared between Alice and Bob. Other estimators are limited to a smaller publicly revealed subset of the states. The proposed estimator has a lower variance for the high-loss channel than what has previously been proposed. We show that the method-of-moments estimator increases the key rate by up to an order of magnitude at the maximum transmission of the protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan
2016-08-01
We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.
Giving Yourself a Good Beating: Appraisal, Attribution, Rumination, and Counterfactual Thinking
Uphill, Mark A.; Dray, Katie
2009-01-01
How individuals respond to adversity is one component of mental toughness and athletes may manage the adversity of a defeat in very different ways. In this article we focus on four types of cognition (appraisal, attribution, counterfactual thinking, and rumination) that athletes may exhibit in the immediate aftermath of a competitive defeat. In particular we define each of these terms and present a “caricature ”of each of the respective literatures, focussing on the prevailing trends and substantive findings. These caricatures assist in the identification of several areas in which literature on athletes’ retrospective cognition about defeat may be advanced. We use combat sports as a vehicle to illustrate our propositions. Key Points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the paper. Little is known about how athletes psychologically manage adversity, a key component of mental toughness. There is a great deal of conceptual overlap between four types of retrospective cognition (appraisal, attribution, rumination and counterfactual thinking) athletes may exhibit after defeat. Rather than continue of examine these retrospective cognitions in isolation, there appears to be value in consideration of these constructs collectively to enhance theoretical parsimony. PMID:24474879
Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; King, Brayden G
2010-10-01
Four studies examined the relationship between counterfactual origins--thoughts about how the beginning of organizations, countries, and social connections might have turned out differently--and increased feelings of commitment to those institutions and connections. Study 1 found that counterfactually reflecting on the origins of one's country increases patriotism. Study 2 extended this finding to organizational commitment and examined the mediating role of poignancy. Study 3 found that counterfactual reflection boosts organizational commitment even beyond the effects of other commitment-enhancing appeals and that perceptions of fate mediate the positive effect of counterfactual origins on commitment. Finally, Study 4 temporally separated the counterfactual manipulation from a behavioral measure of commitment and found that counterfactual reflection predicted whether participants e-mailed social contacts 2 weeks later. The robust relationship between counterfactual origins and commitment was found across a wide range of companies and countries, with undergraduates and M.B.A. students, and for attitudes and behaviors.
Attacks on practical quantum key distribution systems (and how to prevent them)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Nitin; Stiller, Birgit; Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-07-01
With the emergence of an information society, the idea of protecting sensitive data is steadily gaining importance. Conventional encryption methods may not be sufficient to guarantee data protection in the future. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is an emerging technology that exploits fundamental physical properties to guarantee perfect security in theory. However, it is not easy to ensure in practice that the implementations of QKD systems are exactly in line with the theoretical specifications. Such theory-practice deviations can open loopholes and compromise security. Several such loopholes have been discovered and investigated in the last decade. These activities have motivated the proposal and implementation of appropriate countermeasures, thereby preventing future attacks and enhancing the practical security of QKD. This article introduces the so-called field of quantum hacking by summarising a variety of attacks and their prevention mechanisms.
Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution
Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas
2011-07-15
By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.
Photon-monitoring attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source in middle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yijun; Huang, Peng; Guo, Ying; Huang, Dazu
2014-12-01
Motivated by a fact that the non-Gaussian operation may increase entanglement of an entangled system, we suggest a photon-monitoring attack strategy in the entanglement-based (EB) continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) using the photon subtraction operations, where the entangled source originates from the center instead of one of the legal participants. It shows that an eavesdropper, Eve, can steal large information from participants after intercepting the partial beams with the photon-monitoring attach strategy. The structure of the proposed CVQKD protocol is useful in simply analyzing how quantum loss in imperfect channels can decrease the performance of the CVQKD protocol. The proposed attack strategy can be implemented under current technology, where a newly developed and versatile no-Gaussian operation can be well employed with the entangled source in middle in order to access to mass information in the EB CVQKD protocol, as well as in the prepare-and-measure (PM) CVQKD protocol.
Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leverrier, Anthony
2013-03-01
We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.
Practical Security Bounds Against the Trojan-Horse Attack in Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Ward, M. B.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.
2015-07-01
In the quantum version of a Trojan-horse attack, photons are injected into the optical modules of a quantum key distribution system in an attempt to read information direct from the encoding devices. To stop the Trojan photons, the use of passive optical components has been suggested. However, to date, there is no quantitative bound that specifies such components in relation to the security of the system. Here, we turn the Trojan-horse attack into an information leakage problem. This allows us to quantify the system security and relate it to the specification of the optical elements. The analysis is supported by the experimental characterization, within the operation regime, of reflectivity and transmission of the optical components most relevant to security.
Experimental asymmetric plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Guang-Zhao; Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Chen, Huan; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2016-09-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all security loopholes on detection. Previous experiments on MDI-QKD required spatially separated signal lasers and complicated stabilization systems. In this paper, we perform a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of plug-and-play MDI-QKD over an asymmetric channel setting with a single signal laser in which the whole system is automatically stabilized in spectrum, polarization, arrival time, and phase reference. Both the signal laser and the single-photon detectors are in the possession of a common server. A passive timing-calibration technique is applied to ensure the precise and stable overlap of signal pulses. The results pave the way for the realization of a quantum network in which the users only need the encoding devices.
Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.
Jofre, M; Gardelein, A; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; San Juan, J L; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V
2011-02-28
A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14×10⁻² while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication.
Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.
Jofre, M; Gardelein, A; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; San Juan, J L; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V
2011-02-28
A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14×10⁻² while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication. PMID:21369207
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing
2012-04-01
In this paper, we study the unconditional security of the so-called measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the basis-dependent flaw in the context of phase encoding schemes. We propose two schemes for the phase encoding: The first one employs a phase locking technique with the use of non-phase-randomized coherent pulses, and the second one uses conversion of standard Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) phase encoding pulses into polarization modes. We prove the unconditional security of these schemes and we also simulate the key generation rate based on simple device models that accommodate imperfections. Our simulation results show the feasibility of these schemes with current technologies and highlight the importance of the state preparation with good fidelity between the density matrices in the two bases. Since the basis-dependent flaw is a problem not only for MDIQKD but also for standard quantum key distribution (QKD), our work highlights the importance of an accurate signal source in practical QKD systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.
2014-02-01
The two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) systems allow higher key rates and improved transmission distances over standard telecommunication networks in comparison to the one-way CVQKD protocols. To exploit the real potential of two-way CVQKD systems a robust reconciliation technique is needed. It is currently unavailable, which makes it impossible to reach the real performance of a two-way CVQKD system. The reconciliation process of correlated Gaussian variables is a complex problem that requires either tomography in the physical layer that is intractable in a practical scenario, or high-cost calculations in the multidimensional spherical space with strict dimensional limitations. To avoid these issues, we propose an efficient logical layer-based reconciliation method for two-way CVQKD to extract binary information from correlated Gaussian variables. We demonstrate that by operating on the raw-data level, the noise of the quantum channel can be corrected in the scalar space and the reconciliation can be extended to arbitrary high dimensions. We prove that the error probability of scalar reconciliation is zero in any practical CVQKD scenario, and provides unconditional security. The results allow to significantly improve the currently available key rates and transmission distances of two-way CVQKD. The proposed scalar reconciliation can also be applied in oneway systems as well, to replace the existing reconciliation schemes.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with imperfect sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhiyuan; Wei, Kejin; Bedroya, Olinka; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2016-04-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), which is immune to all detector side-channel attacks, is the most promising solution to the security issues in practical quantum key distribution systems. Although several experimental demonstrations of MDI-QKD have been reported, they all make one crucial but not yet verified assumption, that is, there are no flaws in state preparation. Such an assumption is unrealistic and security loopholes remain in the source. Here we present a MDI-QKD experiment with the modulation error taken into consideration. By applying the loss-tolerant security proof by Tamaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 052314 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.052314, we distribute secure keys over fiber links up to 40 km with imperfect sources, which would not have been possible under previous security proofs. By simultaneously closing loopholes at the detectors and a critical loophole—modulation error in the source, our work shows the feasibility of secure QKD with practical imperfect devices.
The Effect of Causal Chain Length on Counterfactual Conditional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beck, Sarah R.; Riggs, Kevin J.; Gorniak, Sarah L.
2010-01-01
We investigated German and Nichols' finding that 3-year-olds could answer counterfactual conditional questions about short causal chains of events, but not long. In four experiments (N = 192), we compared 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on short and long causal chain questions, manipulating whether the child could draw on general knowledge to…
Counterfactual thinking in Tourette's syndrome: a study using three measures.
Zago, Stefano; Delli Ponti, Adriana; Mastroianni, Silvia; Solca, Federica; Tomasini, Emanuele; Poletti, Barbara; Inglese, Silvia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Porta, Mauro
2014-01-01
Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of frontostriatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS) and cognitive abnormalities have been detected in tasks sensitive to cognitive deficits associated with prefrontal damage (verbal fluency, planning, attention shifting, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social reasoning). A disorder in counterfactual thinking (CFT), a behavioural executive process linked to the prefrontal cortex functioning, has not been investigated in TS. CFT refers to the generation of a mental simulation of alternatives to past factual events, actions, and outcomes. It is a pervasive cognitive feature in everyday life and it is closely related to decision-making, planning, problem-solving, and experience-driven learning-cognitive processes that involve wide neuronal networks in which prefrontal lobes play a fundamental role. Clinical observations in patients with focal prefrontal lobe damage or with neurological and psychiatric diseases related to frontal lobe dysfunction (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia) show counterfactual thinking impairments. In this work, we evaluate the performance of CFT in a group of patients with Tourette's syndrome compared with a group of healthy participants. Overall results showed no statistical differences in counterfactual thinking between TS patients and controls in the three counterfactual measures proposed. The possible explanations of this unexpected result are discussed below.
Counterfactual Thinking in Tourette's Syndrome: A Study Using Three Measures
Zago, Stefano; Delli Ponti, Adriana; Inglese, Silvia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Porta, Mauro
2014-01-01
Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of frontostriatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS) and cognitive abnormalities have been detected in tasks sensitive to cognitive deficits associated with prefrontal damage (verbal fluency, planning, attention shifting, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social reasoning). A disorder in counterfactual thinking (CFT), a behavioural executive process linked to the prefrontal cortex functioning, has not been investigated in TS. CFT refers to the generation of a mental simulation of alternatives to past factual events, actions, and outcomes. It is a pervasive cognitive feature in everyday life and it is closely related to decision-making, planning, problem-solving, and experience-driven learning—cognitive processes that involve wide neuronal networks in which prefrontal lobes play a fundamental role. Clinical observations in patients with focal prefrontal lobe damage or with neurological and psychiatric diseases related to frontal lobe dysfunction (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia) show counterfactual thinking impairments. In this work, we evaluate the performance of CFT in a group of patients with Tourette's syndrome compared with a group of healthy participants. Overall results showed no statistical differences in counterfactual thinking between TS patients and controls in the three counterfactual measures proposed. The possible explanations of this unexpected result are discussed below. PMID:25525296
Using Counterfactual History to Enhance Students' Historical Understanding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Scott L.
2011-01-01
The question "what if?" has been asked by historians for generations. This article explains how history teachers can use students' own what-if questions to enhance their historical knowledge and understanding by offering educators a step-by-step plan for utilizing counterfactual history into their classrooms. Additionally, the author offers a…
Counterfactuals and Causal Models: Introduction to the Special Issue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sloman, Steven A.
2013-01-01
Judea Pearl won the 2010 Rumelhart Prize in computational cognitive science due to his seminal contributions to the development of Bayes nets and causal Bayes nets, frameworks that are central to multiple domains of the computational study of mind. At the heart of the causal Bayes nets formalism is the notion of a counterfactual, a representation…
Counterfactual Reasoning: Developing a Sense of "Nearest Possible World"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rafetseder, Eva; Cristi-Vargas, Renate; Perner, Josef
2010-01-01
This study investigated at what point in development 3- to 6-year-old children begin to demonstrate counterfactual reasoning by controlling for fortuitously correct answers that result from basic conditional reasoning. "Basic conditional reasoning" occurs when one applies typical regularities (such as "If 'whenever' it doesn't rain the street is…
Expectations in Counterfactual and Theory of Mind Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferguson, Heather J.; Scheepers, Christoph; Sanford, Anthony J.
2010-01-01
During language comprehension, information about the world is exchanged and processed. Two essential ingredients of everyday cognition that are employed during language comprehension are the ability to reason counterfactually, and the ability to understand and predict other peoples' behaviour by attributing independent mental states to them…
Finding Fault: Causality and Counterfactuals in Group Attributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zultan, Ro'i; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Lagnado, David A.
2012-01-01
Attributions of responsibility play a critical role in many group interactions. This paper explores the role of causal and counterfactual reasoning in blame attributions in groups. We develop a general framework that builds on the notion of pivotality: an agent is pivotal if she could have changed the group outcome by acting differently. In three…
Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi
2009-01-01
The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…
Counterfactual Thinking and False Belief: The Role of Executive Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drayton, Stefane; Turley-Ames, Kandi J.; Guajardo, Nicole R.
2011-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine further the relationship between counterfactual thinking and false belief (FB) as examined by Guajardo and Turley-Ames ("Cognitive Development, 19" (2004) 53-80). More specifically, the current research examined the importance of working memory and inhibitory control in understanding the relationship…
Security proof of a three-state quantum-key-distribution protocol without rotational symmetry
Fung, C.-H.F.; Lo, H.-K.
2006-10-15
Standard security proofs of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols often rely on symmetry arguments. In this paper, we prove the security of a three-state protocol that does not possess rotational symmetry. The three-state QKD protocol we consider involves three qubit states, where the first two states |0{sub z}> and |1{sub z}> can contribute to key generation, and the third state |+>=(|0{sub z}>+|1{sub z}>)/{radical}(2) is for channel estimation. This protocol has been proposed and implemented experimentally in some frequency-based QKD systems where the three states can be prepared easily. Thus, by founding on the security of this three-state protocol, we prove that these QKD schemes are, in fact, unconditionally secure against any attacks allowed by quantum mechanics. The main task in our proof is to upper bound the phase error rate of the qubits given the bit error rates observed. Unconditional security can then be proved not only for the ideal case of a single-photon source and perfect detectors, but also for the realistic case of a phase-randomized weak coherent light source and imperfect threshold detectors. Our result in the phase error rate upper bound is independent of the loss in the channel. Also, we compare the three-state protocol with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. For the single-photon source case, our result proves that the BB84 protocol strictly tolerates a higher quantum bit error rate than the three-state protocol, while for the coherent-source case, the BB84 protocol achieves a higher key generation rate and secure distance than the three-state protocol when a decoy-state method is used.
Wavelength-division-multiplexed InGaAs/InP avalanched photodiodes for quantum key distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Moon Hyeok; Ha, Changkyun; Jeong, Heung-Sun; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seoung Hun; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Kyong Hon
2016-02-01
We demonstrate improved single photon detection efficiencies of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) scheme for high-capacity plug-and-play-type two-way quantum key distributions (QKDs). Single-photon detectors (SPDs) combined in the WDM APD scheme can be used to overcome the detection speed limit of a single SPD which is caused mainly by the afterpulse effect. The multiple SPDs combined in the parallel WDM scheme can increase the single photon detection capacity, although additional optical losses resulted from the WDM MUX and deMUX devices induce limited increases.
Some physics and system issues in the security analysis of quantum key distribution protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, Horace P.
2014-10-01
In this paper, we review a number of issues on the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that bear directly on the relevant physics or mathematical representation of the QKD cryptosystem. It is shown that the cryptosystem representation itself may miss out many possible attacks, which are not accounted for in the security analysis and proofs. Hence, the final security claims drawn from such analysis are not reliable, apart from foundational issues about the security criteria that are discussed elsewhere. The cases of continuous-variable QKD and multi-photon sources are elaborated upon.
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-13
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.
Tanaka, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Nam, Sae W; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Seigo; Maeda, Wakako; Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Miki, Shigehito; Baek, Burm; Wang, Zhen; Tajima, Akio; Sasaki, Masahide; Tomita, Akihisa
2008-07-21
We demonstrated ultra fast BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) transmission at 625 MHz clock rate through a 97 km field-installed fiber using practical clock synchronization based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). We succeeded in over-one-hour stable key generation at a high sifted key rate of 2.4 kbps and a low quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 2.9%. The asymptotic secure key rate was estimated to be 0.78- 0.82 kbps from the transmission data with the decoy method of average photon numbers 0, 0.15, and 0.4 photons/pulse. PMID:18648454
Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin
2014-01-01
Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each ai contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary. PMID:25518810
Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin
2014-01-01
Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message a1a2···al from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each a(i) contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary. PMID:25518810
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution for Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 04 protocol.
Mizutani, Akihiro; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2014-01-01
The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) was proposed to make BB84 completely free from any side-channel in detectors. Like in prepare & measure QKD, the use of other protocols in MDI setting would be advantageous in some practical situations. In this paper, we consider SARG04 protocol in MDI setting. The prepare & measure SARG04 is proven to be able to generate a key up to two-photon emission events. In MDI setting we show that the key generation is possible from the event with single or two-photon emission by a party and single-photon emission by the other party, but the two-photon emission event by both parties cannot contribute to the key generation. On the contrary to prepare & measure SARG04 protocol where the experimental setup is exactly the same as BB84, the measurement setup for SARG04 in MDI setting cannot be the same as that for BB84 since the measurement setup for BB84 in MDI setting induces too many bit errors. To overcome this problem, we propose two alternative experimental setups, and we simulate the resulting key rate. Our study highlights the requirements that MDI QKD poses on us regarding with the implementation of a variety of QKD protocols. PMID:24913431
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution for Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 04 protocol
Mizutani, Akihiro; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2014-01-01
The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) was proposed to make BB84 completely free from any side-channel in detectors. Like in prepare & measure QKD, the use of other protocols in MDI setting would be advantageous in some practical situations. In this paper, we consider SARG04 protocol in MDI setting. The prepare & measure SARG04 is proven to be able to generate a key up to two-photon emission events. In MDI setting we show that the key generation is possible from the event with single or two-photon emission by a party and single-photon emission by the other party, but the two-photon emission event by both parties cannot contribute to the key generation. On the contrary to prepare & measure SARG04 protocol where the experimental setup is exactly the same as BB84, the measurement setup for SARG04 in MDI setting cannot be the same as that for BB84 since the measurement setup for BB84 in MDI setting induces too many bit errors. To overcome this problem, we propose two alternative experimental setups, and we simulate the resulting key rate. Our study highlights the requirements that MDI QKD poses on us regarding with the implementation of a variety of QKD protocols. PMID:24913431
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongxin; Jiang, Haodong; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Chuangui; Wang, Wei
2015-12-01
The statistical fluctuation problem is a critical factor in all quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols under finite-key conditions. The current statistical fluctuation analysis is mainly based on independent random samples, however, the precondition cannot always be satisfied because of different choices of samples and actual parameters. As a result, proper statistical fluctuation methods are required to solve this problem. Taking the after-pulse contributions into consideration, this paper gives the expression for the secure key rate and the mathematical model for statistical fluctuations, focusing on a decoy-state QKD protocol [Z.-C. Wei et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2453 (2013), 10.1038/srep02453] with a biased basis choice. On this basis, a classified analysis of statistical fluctuation is represented according to the mutual relationship between random samples. First, for independent identical relations, a deviation comparison is made between the law of large numbers and standard error analysis. Second, a sufficient condition is given that the Chernoff bound achieves a better result than Hoeffding's inequality based on only independent relations. Third, by constructing the proper martingale, a stringent way is proposed to deal issues based on dependent random samples through making use of Azuma's inequality. In numerical optimization, the impact on the secure key rate, the comparison of secure key rates, and the respective deviations under various kinds of statistical fluctuation analyses are depicted.
Practical round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution.
Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhou, Chun; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng
2016-09-01
Recently, a novel protocol named round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution [Nature 509, 475(2014)] has been proposed. It can estimate information leakage without monitoring bit error rate. In this paper, we study the performance of RRDPS using heralded single photon source (HSPS) without and with decoy-state method, then compare it with the performance of weak coherent pulses (WCPs). From numerical simulation, we can see that HSPS performs better especially for shorter packet and higher bit error rate. Moreover, we propose a general theory of decoy-state method for RRDPS protocol based on only three decoy states and one signal state. Taking WCPs as an example, the three-intensity decoy-state protocol can distribute secret keys over a distance of 128 km when the length of pulses packet is 32, which confirms great practical interest of our method. PMID:27607679
Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-01-01
We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550
The enhanced measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with two-intensity decoy states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Feng; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Wang, Qin
2016-09-01
We put forward a new scheme for implementing the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) with weak coherent source, while using only two different intensities. In the new scheme, we insert a beam splitter and a local detector at both Alice's and Bob's side, and then all the triggering and non-triggering signals could be employed to process parameter estimations, resulting in very precise estimations for the two-single-photon contributions. Besides, we compare its behavior with two other often used methods, i.e., the conventional standard three-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent QKD and the passive measurement-device-independent QKD. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our new approach can exhibit outstanding characteristics not only in the secure transmission distance, but also in the final key generation rate.
Long distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources
Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Liao, Zhongfa; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2013-08-05
We present a feasible method that can make quantum key distribution (QKD), both ultra-long-distance and immune, to all attacks in the detection system. This method is called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) with entangled photon sources in the middle. By proposing a model and simulating a QKD experiment, we find that MDI-QKD with one entangled photon source can tolerate 77 dB loss (367 km standard fiber) in the asymptotic limit and 60 dB loss (286 km standard fiber) in the finite-key case with state-of-the-art detectors. Our general model can also be applied to other non-QKD experiments involving entanglement and Bell state measurements.
Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim
2016-03-01
The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.
Simple proof of the unconditional security of the Bennett 1992 quantum key distribution protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Zhang; Chaojing, Tang
2002-06-01
It is generally accepted that quantum key distribution (QKD) could supply legitimate users with unconditional security during their communication. Quite a lot of satisfactory efforts have been achieved on experimentations with quantum cryptography. However, when the eavesdropper has extra-powerful computational ability, has access to a quantum computer, for example, and can carry into execution any eavesdropping measurement that is allowed by the laws of physics, the security against such attacks has not been widely studied and rigorously proved for most QKD protocols. Quite recently, Shor and Preskill proved concisely the unconditional security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Their method is highly valued for its clarity of concept and concision of form. In order to take advantage of the Shor-Preskill technique in their proof of the unconditional security of the BB84 QKD protocol, we introduced in this paper a transformation that can translate the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol into the BB84 protocol. By proving that the transformation leaks no more information to the eavesdropper, we proved the unconditional security of the B92 protocol. We also settled the problem proposed by Lo about how to prove the unconditional security of the B92 protocol with the Shor-Preskill method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubenok, A.; Slater, J. A.; Chan, P.; Lucio-Martinez, I.; Tittel, W.
2013-09-01
Several vulnerabilities of single-photon detectors have recently been exploited to compromise the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) systems. In this Letter, we report the first proof-of-principle implementation of a new quantum-key-distribution protocol that is immune to any such attack. More precisely, we demonstrated this new approach to QKD in the laboratory over more than 80 km of spooled fiber, as well as across different locations within the city of Calgary. The robustness of our fiber-based implementation, together with the enhanced level of security offered by the protocol, confirms QKD as a realistic technology for safeguarding secrets in transmission. Furthermore, our demonstration establishes the feasibility of controlled two-photon interference in a real-world environment and thereby removes a remaining obstacle to realizing future applications of quantum communication, such as quantum repeaters and, more generally, quantum networks.
Necessary detection efficiencies for secure quantum key distribution and bound randomness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acín, Antonio; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Passaro, Elsa; Pironio, Stefano; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-01-01
In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.
Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system
Sun Shihai; Jiang Musheng; Liang Linmei
2011-06-15
The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.
Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei
2011-06-01
The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve’s attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman
2015-01-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman
2015-10-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman
2015-01-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman
2015-10-30
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.
Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2016-07-01
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices.
Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors.
Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2016-01-01
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610
Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.
Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors
Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2016-01-01
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610
Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors.
Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2016-07-22
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices.
Weak-coherent-state-based time-frequency quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Neifeld, Mark A.
2015-11-01
We study large-alphabet quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the use of weak-coherent states and the time-frequency uncertainty relation. The large alphabet is achieved by dividing time and spectrum into M bins resulting in a frame similar to traditional pulse-position modulation (in time domain). However, the non-uniform occurrence of a photon prepared in a time/frequency bin creates the space for eavesdropping. By analysis, we show that a new intercept-resend attack strategy exists, which is stronger than that has been reported in the literature and hence the secret key rate of time-frequency QKD (TF-QKD) can be more tightly bounded. We then analyse the secret key rates of TF-QKD under various practical issues, such as channel loss, background noise, jitter and atmospheric turbulence in order to better understand the applicability of TF-QKD. Further, we discuss the information reconciliation for TF-QKD. Specifically, we investigate the layered coding scheme for TF-QKD based on quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check codes against jitter and atmospheric turbulence. By simulation, we demonstrate that information reconciliation can be efficiently achieved.
Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with practical light sources
Curty, Marcos; Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Moroder, Tobias
2010-02-15
Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. Although active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty et al., Opt. Lett. 34, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this article we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photodetectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase-randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photodetectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photodetectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret key rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.
Counterfactuals, control, and causation: why knowledgeable people get blamed more.
Gilbert, Elizabeth A; Tenney, Elizabeth R; Holland, Christopher R; Spellman, Barbara A
2015-05-01
Legal and prescriptive theories of blame generally propose that judgments about an actor's mental state (e.g., her knowledge or intent) should remain separate from judgments about whether the actor caused an outcome. Three experiments, however, show that, even in the absence of intent or immorality, actors who have knowledge relevant to a potential outcome will be rated more causal of that outcome than their ignorant counterparts, even when their actions were identical. Additional analysis revealed that this effect was mediated by counterfactual thinking--that is, by imagining ways the outcome could have been prevented. Specifically, when actors had knowledge, participants generated more counterfactuals about ways the outcome could have been different that the actor could control, which in turn increased causal assignment to the actor. These results are consistent with the Crediting Causality Model, but conflict with some legal and moral theories of blame. PMID:25758707
Practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution without finite sampling bandwidth effects.
Li, Huasheng; Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Guihua
2016-09-01
In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, finite sampling bandwidth of the employed analog-to-digital converter at the receiver's side may lead to inaccurate results of pulse peak sampling. Then, errors in the parameters estimation resulted. Subsequently, the system performance decreases and security loopholes are exposed to eavesdroppers. In this paper, we propose a novel data acquisition scheme which consists of two parts, i.e., a dynamic delay adjusting module and a statistical power feedback-control algorithm. The proposed scheme may improve dramatically the data acquisition precision of pulse peak sampling and remove the finite sampling bandwidth effects. Moreover, the optimal peak sampling position of a pulse signal can be dynamically calibrated through monitoring the change of the statistical power of the sampled data in the proposed scheme. This helps to resist against some practical attacks, such as the well-known local oscillator calibration attack. PMID:27607653
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in non-Markovian channels
Vasile, Ruggero; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, MatteoG. A.; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2011-04-15
We address continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) in non-Markovian lossy channels and show how the non-Markovian features may be exploited to enhance security and/or to detect the presence and the position of an eavesdropper along the transmission line. In particular, we suggest a coherent-state QKD protocol which is secure against Gaussian individual attacks based on optimal 1{yields}2 asymmetric cloning machines for arbitrarily low values of the overall transmission line. The scheme relies on specific non-Markovian properties, and cannot be implemented in ordinary Markovian channels characterized by uniform losses. Our results give a clear indication of the potential impact of non-Markovian effects in QKD.
Practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution without finite sampling bandwidth effects.
Li, Huasheng; Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Guihua
2016-09-01
In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, finite sampling bandwidth of the employed analog-to-digital converter at the receiver's side may lead to inaccurate results of pulse peak sampling. Then, errors in the parameters estimation resulted. Subsequently, the system performance decreases and security loopholes are exposed to eavesdroppers. In this paper, we propose a novel data acquisition scheme which consists of two parts, i.e., a dynamic delay adjusting module and a statistical power feedback-control algorithm. The proposed scheme may improve dramatically the data acquisition precision of pulse peak sampling and remove the finite sampling bandwidth effects. Moreover, the optimal peak sampling position of a pulse signal can be dynamically calibrated through monitoring the change of the statistical power of the sampled data in the proposed scheme. This helps to resist against some practical attacks, such as the well-known local oscillator calibration attack.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagamatsu, Yuichi; Mizutani, Akihiro; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2016-04-01
Although quantum key distribution (QKD) is theoretically secure, there is a gap between the theory and practice. In fact, real-life QKD may not be secure because component devices in QKD systems may deviate from the theoretical models assumed in security proofs. To solve this problem, it is necessary to construct the security proof under realistic assumptions on the source and measurement unit. In this paper, we prove the security of a QKD protocol under practical assumptions on the source that accommodate fluctuation of the phase and intensity modulations. As long as our assumptions hold, it does not matter at all how the phase and intensity distribute or whether or not their distributions over different pulses are independently and identically distributed. Our work shows that practical sources can be safely employed in QKD experiments.
Clinical applications of counterfactual thinking during memory reactivation.
De Brigard, Felipe; Hanna, Eleanor
2015-01-01
The Integrative Memory Model offers a strong foundation upon which to build successful strategies for clinical intervention. The next challenge is to figure out which cognitive strategies are more likely to bring about successful and beneficial modifications of reactivated memories during therapy. In this commentary we suggest that exercising emotional regulation during episodic counterfactual thinking is likely to be a successful therapeutic strategy to bring about beneficial memory modifications. PMID:26050696
A Defence of the Counterfactual Account of Harm.
Purshouse, Craig
2016-05-01
In order to determine whether a particular course of conduct is ethically permissible it is important to have a concept of what it means to be harmed. The dominant theory of harm is the counterfactual account, most famously proposed by Joel Feinberg. This determines whether harm is caused by comparing what actually happened in a given situation with the 'counterfacts' i.e. what would have occurred had the putatively harmful conduct not taken place. If a person's interests are worse off than they otherwise would have been, then a person will be harmed. This definition has recently faced challenges from bioethicists such as John Harris, Guy Kahane and Julian Savulescu who, believing it to be severely flawed, have proposed their own alternative theories of the concept. In this article I will demonstrate that the shortcomings Harris, Kahane and Savulescu believe are present in Feinberg's theory are illusory and that it is their own accounts of harm that are fraught with logical errors. I maintain that the arguments presented to refute Feinberg's theory not only fail to achieve this goal and can be accommodated within the counterfactual account but that they actually undermine the theories presented by their respective authors. The final conclusion will be that these challenges are misconceived and fail to displace the counterfactual theory.
Curty, Marcos; Ma Xiongfeng; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2010-11-15
Most experimental realizations of quantum key distribution are based on the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (the so-called BB84) protocol. In a typical optical implementation of this scheme, the sender uses an active source to produce the required BB84 signal states. While active state preparation of BB84 signals is a simple and elegant solution in principle, in practice passive state preparation might be desirable in some scenarios, for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates. Passive schemes might also be more robust against side-channel attacks than active sources. Typical passive devices involve parametric down-conversion. In this paper, we show that both coherent light and practical single-photon sources are also suitable for passive generation of BB84 signal states. Our method does not require any externally driven element, but only linear optical components and photodetectors. In the case of coherent light, the resulting key rate is similar to the one delivered by an active source. When the sender uses practical single-photon sources, however, the distance covered by a passive transmitter might be longer than that of an active configuration.
Comparison between Two Practical Methods of Light Source Monitoring in Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gan; Chen, Ziyang; Xu, Bingjie; Li, Zhengyu; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong
2016-05-01
The practical security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) is a critical issue due to the loopholes opened by the imperfections of practical devices. The untrusted source problem is a fundamental issue that exists in almost every protocol, including the loss-tolerant protocol and the measurement-device-independent protocol. Two practical light source monitoring methods were proposed, i.e., two-threshold detector scheme and photon-number-resolving (PNR) detector scheme. In this work, we test the fluctuation level of different gain-switched pulsed lasers, i.e., the ratio between the standard deviation and the mean of the pulse energy (noted as γ) changes from 1% to 7%. Moreover, we propose an improved practical PNR detector scheme, and discuss in what circumstances one should use which light source monitoring method, i.e., generally speaking when the fluctuation is large the PNR detector method performs better. This provides an instruction of selecting proper monitoring module for different practical systems. This work is supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 61225003), the State Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61531003).
Security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato
2016-08-01
One of the simplest methods for implementing quantum key distribution over fiber-optic communication is the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with phase encoding (PE-BB84 protocol), in which the sender uses phase modulation over double pulses from a laser and the receiver uses a passive delayed interferometer. Using essentially the same setup and by regarding a train of many pulses as a single block, one can carry out the so-called differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol, which is a variant of differential-phase-shift (DPS) protocols. Here we prove the security of the DQPS protocol based on an adaptation of proof techniques for the BB84 protocol, which inherits the advantages arising from the simplicity of the protocol, such as accommodating the use of threshold detectors and simple off-line calibration methods for the light source. We show that the secure key rate of the DQPS protocol in the proof is eight-thirds as high as the rate of the PE-BB84 protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2016-09-01
The decoy-state method could effectively enhance the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) with a practical phase randomized weak coherent source. Although active modulation of the source intensity is effective and has been implemented in many experiments, passive preparation of decoy states is also an important addition to the family of decoy-state QKD protocols. In this paper, following the theory of Curty et al. [Phys. Rev. A 81, 022310 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.022310], we experimentally demonstrate the phase-encoding passive-decoy-state QKD with only linear optical setups and threshold single-photon detectors. In our experiment, two homemade independent pulsed lasers, with visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference 0.53 (±0.003 ) , have been implemented and used to passively generate the different decoy states. Finally, a secret key rate of 1.5 ×10-5 /pulse is obtained with 10-km commercial fiber between Alice and Bob.
Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; Boso, Gianluca; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-08-01
One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant "time-reversal" QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. However, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) has been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. Here, we analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find that DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.
2011-10-15
Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.
Aerospace laser communications technology as enabler for worldwide quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, Florian; Weinfurter, Harald; Rau, Markus; Schmidt, Christopher; Melén, Gwen; Vogl, Tobias; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian
2016-04-01
A worldwide growing interest in fast and secure data communications pushes technology development along two lines. While fast communications can be realized using laser communications in fiber and free-space, inherently secure communications can be achieved using quantum key distribution (QKD). By combining both technologies in a single device, many synergies can be exploited, therefore reducing size, weight and power of future systems. In recent experiments we demonstrated quantum communications over large distances as well as between an aircraft and a ground station which proved the feasibility of QKD between moving partners. Satellites thus may be used as trusted nodes in combination with QKD receiver stations on ground, thereby enabling fast and secure communications on a global scale. We discuss the previous experiment with emphasis on necessary developments to be done and corresponding ongoing research work of German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU). DLR is performing research on satellite and ground terminals for the high-rate laser communication component, which are enabling technologies for the QKD link. We describe the concept and hardware of three generations of OSIRIS (Optical High Speed Infrared Link System) laser communication terminals for low Earth orbiting satellites. The first type applies laser beam pointing solely based on classical satellite control, the second uses an optical feedback to the satellite bus and the third, currently being in design phase, comprises of a special coarse pointing assembly to control beam direction independent of satellite orientation. Ongoing work also targets optical terminals for CubeSats. A further increase of beam pointing accuracy can be achieved with a fine pointing assembly. Two ground stations will be available for future testing, an advanced stationary ground station and a transportable ground station. In parallel the LMU QKD source size will be reduced by more than an
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Hughes, David H.; Malowicki, John; Bedi, Vijit
2015-05-01
Free-space optical communication channels offer secure links with low probability of interception and detection. Despite their point-to-point topology, additional security features may be required in privacy-critical applications. Encryption can be achieved at the physical layer by using quantized values of photons, which makes exploitation of such quantum communication links extremely difficult. One example of such technology is keyed communication in quantum noise, a novel quantum modulation protocol that offers ultra-secure communication with competitive performance characteristics. Its utilization relies on specific coherent measurements to decrypt the signal. The process of measurements is complicated by the inherent and irreducible quantum noise of coherent states. This problem is different from traditional laser communication with coherent detection; therefore continuous efforts are being made to improve the measurement techniques. Quantum-based encryption systems that use the phase of the signal as the information carrier impose aggressive requirements on the accuracy of the measurements when an unauthorized party attempts intercepting the data stream. Therefore, analysis of the secrecy of the data becomes extremely important. In this paper, we present the results of a study that had a goal of assessment of potential vulnerability of the running key. Basic results of the laboratory measurements are combined with simulation studies and statistical analysis that can be used for both conceptual improvement of the encryption approach and for quantitative comparison of secrecy of different quantum communication protocols.
The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2016-01-01
Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…
The Influence of Counterfactual Thinking and Regret on Ethical Decision Making
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl; Oeding, Jill
2015-01-01
The authors explore the influence of counterfactual thoughts in triggering the emotions of regret and disappointment in ethical decision making. Counterfactual thinking involves examining possible outcomes to events and is often explored in what-if scenarios. Findings support that subjects were able to transfer regret (but not disappointment)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla
2016-01-01
This study explores reflective practice through the lens of counterfactual thinking and examines its role in encouraging student teachers to reflect on negative "critical incidents". The study posits that reflections on critical incidents are often not "critical" in nature. They more frequently result in counterfactual thinking…
Device-independent quantum key distribution with generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Marshall, Kevin; Weedbrook, Christian; Howell, John C.
2015-11-01
We show how weak nonlinearities can be used in a device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol using generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states. The QKD protocol is therefore shown to be secure against collective attacks and for some coherent attacks. We derive analytical formulas for the optimal values of the Bell parameter, the quantum bit error rate, and the device-independent secret key rate in the noiseless lossy bosonic channel. Additionally, we give the filters and measurements which achieve these optimal values. We find that, over any distance in this channel, the quantum bit error rate is identically zero, in principle, and the states in the protocol are always able to violate a Bell inequality. The protocol is found to be superior in some regimes to a device-independent QKD protocol based on polarization entangled states in a depolarizing channel. Finally, we propose an implementation for the optimal filters and measurements.
Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong
2003-02-01
We discuss a long code problem in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum-key-distribution protocol and describe how it can be overcome by concatenation of the protocol. Observing that concatenated modified Lo-Chau protocol finally reduces to the concatenated BB84 protocol, we give the unconditional security of the concatenated BB84 protocol.
Namiki, Ryo; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2006-03-15
We investigate the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and reverse reconciliation against Gaussian individual attacks based on an optimal Gaussian 1{yields}2 cloning machine. We provide an implementation of the optimal Gaussian individual attack. We also find a Bell-measurement attack which works without delayed choice of measurements and has better performance than the cloning attack.
Performance of a quantum key distribution protocol with dual-rail displaced photon states
Podoshvedov, S. A.
2010-04-15
We propose a scheme for a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with dual-rail displaced photon states. Displaced single-photon states with different amplitudes carry bit values of code that may be extracted, while coherent states carry nothing and only provide an inconclusive outcome. A real resource of single photons is used, involving imperfections associated with experimental technique that result in a photon state with an admixture of the vacuum state. The protocol is robust against the loss of a single photon and the inefficiency of the detectors. Pulses with large amplitudes, unlike the conventional QKD relying on faint laser pulses, are used that may approximate it to standard telecommunication and may show resistance to eaves-dropping even in settings with high attenuation. Information leakage to the eavesdropper is determined from comparison of the output distributions of the outcomes with ideal ones that are defined by two additional parameters accessible to only those send the pulses. Robustness to some possible eavesdropping attacks is shown.
Fujiwara, M.; Waseda, A.; Nojima, R.; Moriai, S.; Ogata, W.; Sasaki, M.
2016-01-01
Distributed storage plays an essential role in realizing robust and secure data storage in a network over long periods of time. A distributed storage system consists of a data owner machine, multiple storage servers and channels to link them. In such a system, secret sharing scheme is widely adopted, in which secret data are split into multiple pieces and stored in each server. To reconstruct them, the data owner should gather plural pieces. Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold scheme, in which the data are split into n pieces (shares) for storage and at least k pieces of them must be gathered for reconstruction, furnishes information theoretic security, that is, even if attackers could collect shares of less than the threshold k, they cannot get any information about the data, even with unlimited computing power. Behind this scenario, however, assumed is that data transmission and authentication must be perfectly secure, which is not trivial in practice. Here we propose a totally information theoretically secure distributed storage system based on a user-friendly single-password-authenticated secret sharing scheme and secure transmission using quantum key distribution, and demonstrate it in the Tokyo metropolitan area (≤90 km). PMID:27363566
Fujiwara, M; Waseda, A; Nojima, R; Moriai, S; Ogata, W; Sasaki, M
2016-01-01
Distributed storage plays an essential role in realizing robust and secure data storage in a network over long periods of time. A distributed storage system consists of a data owner machine, multiple storage servers and channels to link them. In such a system, secret sharing scheme is widely adopted, in which secret data are split into multiple pieces and stored in each server. To reconstruct them, the data owner should gather plural pieces. Shamir's (k, n)-threshold scheme, in which the data are split into n pieces (shares) for storage and at least k pieces of them must be gathered for reconstruction, furnishes information theoretic security, that is, even if attackers could collect shares of less than the threshold k, they cannot get any information about the data, even with unlimited computing power. Behind this scenario, however, assumed is that data transmission and authentication must be perfectly secure, which is not trivial in practice. Here we propose a totally information theoretically secure distributed storage system based on a user-friendly single-password-authenticated secret sharing scheme and secure transmission using quantum key distribution, and demonstrate it in the Tokyo metropolitan area (≤90 km). PMID:27363566
Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Länger, Thomas; Lenhart, Gaby
2009-05-01
In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been the object of intensive research activities and of rapid progress, and it is now developing into a competitive industry with commercial products. Once QKD systems are transferred from the controlled environment of physical laboratories into a real-world environment for practical use, a number of practical security, compatibility and connectivity issues need to be resolved. In particular, comprehensive security evaluation and watertight security proofs need to be addressed to increase trust in QKD. System interoperability with existing infrastructures and applications as well as conformance with specific user requirements have to be assured. Finding common solutions to these problems involving all actors can provide an advantage for the commercialization of QKD as well as for further technological development. The ETSI industry specification group for QKD (ISG-QKD) offers a forum for creating such universally accepted standards and will promote significant leverage effects on coordination, cooperation and convergence in research, technical development and business application of QKD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujiwara, M.; Waseda, A.; Nojima, R.; Moriai, S.; Ogata, W.; Sasaki, M.
2016-07-01
Distributed storage plays an essential role in realizing robust and secure data storage in a network over long periods of time. A distributed storage system consists of a data owner machine, multiple storage servers and channels to link them. In such a system, secret sharing scheme is widely adopted, in which secret data are split into multiple pieces and stored in each server. To reconstruct them, the data owner should gather plural pieces. Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold scheme, in which the data are split into n pieces (shares) for storage and at least k pieces of them must be gathered for reconstruction, furnishes information theoretic security, that is, even if attackers could collect shares of less than the threshold k, they cannot get any information about the data, even with unlimited computing power. Behind this scenario, however, assumed is that data transmission and authentication must be perfectly secure, which is not trivial in practice. Here we propose a totally information theoretically secure distributed storage system based on a user-friendly single-password-authenticated secret sharing scheme and secure transmission using quantum key distribution, and demonstrate it in the Tokyo metropolitan area (≤90 km).
Fujiwara, M; Waseda, A; Nojima, R; Moriai, S; Ogata, W; Sasaki, M
2016-07-01
Distributed storage plays an essential role in realizing robust and secure data storage in a network over long periods of time. A distributed storage system consists of a data owner machine, multiple storage servers and channels to link them. In such a system, secret sharing scheme is widely adopted, in which secret data are split into multiple pieces and stored in each server. To reconstruct them, the data owner should gather plural pieces. Shamir's (k, n)-threshold scheme, in which the data are split into n pieces (shares) for storage and at least k pieces of them must be gathered for reconstruction, furnishes information theoretic security, that is, even if attackers could collect shares of less than the threshold k, they cannot get any information about the data, even with unlimited computing power. Behind this scenario, however, assumed is that data transmission and authentication must be perfectly secure, which is not trivial in practice. Here we propose a totally information theoretically secure distributed storage system based on a user-friendly single-password-authenticated secret sharing scheme and secure transmission using quantum key distribution, and demonstrate it in the Tokyo metropolitan area (≤90 km).
Method and apparatus for free-space quantum key distribution in daylight
Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Lamoreaux, Steve K.; Morgan, George L.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, C. Glen; Kwiat, Paul G.
2004-06-08
A quantum cryptography apparatus securely generates a key to be used for secure transmission between a sender and a receiver connected by an atmospheric transmission link. A first laser outputs a timing bright light pulse; other lasers output polarized optical data pulses after having been enabled by a random bit generator. Output optics transmit output light from the lasers that is received by receiving optics. A first beam splitter receives light from the receiving optics, where a received timing bright light pulse is directed to a delay circuit for establishing a timing window for receiving light from the lasers and where an optical data pulse from one of the lasers has a probability of being either transmitted by the beam splitter or reflected by the beam splitter. A first polarizer receives transmitted optical data pulses to output one data bit value and a second polarizer receives reflected optical data pulses to output a second data bit value. A computer receives pulses representing receipt of a timing bright timing pulse and the first and second data bit values, where receipt of the first and second data bit values is indexed by the bright timing pulse.
On conclusive eavesdropping and measures of mutual information in quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastegin, Alexey E.
2016-03-01
We address the question of quantifying eavesdropper's information gain in an individual attack on systems of quantum key distribution. It is connected with the concept of conclusive eavesdropping introduced by Brandt. Using the BB84 protocol, we examine the problem of estimating a performance of conclusive entangling probe. The question of interest depends on the choice of a quantitative measure of eavesdropper's information about the error-free sifted bits. The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt probe realizes a very powerful individual attack on the BB84 scheme. In the usual formulation, Eve utilizes the Helstrom scheme in distinguishing between the two output probe states. In conclusive eavesdropping, the unambiguous discrimination is used. Comparing these two versions allows to demonstrate serious distinctions between widely used quantifiers of mutual information. In particular, the so-called Rényi mutual information does not seem to be a completely legitimate measure of an amount of mutual information. It is brightly emphasized with the example of conclusive eavesdropping.
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2011-09-15
The effect of scintillation, arising from propagation through atmospheric turbulence, on the sift and error probabilities of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system that uses the weak-laser-pulse version of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is evaluated. Two earth-space scenarios are examined: satellite-to-ground and ground-to-satellite transmission. Both lie in the far-field power-transfer regime. This work complements previous analysis of turbulence effects in near-field terrestrial BB84 QKD [J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 67, 022309 (2003)]. More importantly, it shows that scintillation has virtually no impact on the sift and error probabilities in earth-space BB84 QKD, something that has been implicitly assumed in prior analyses for that application. This result contrasts rather sharply with what is known for high-speed laser communications over such paths, in which deep, long-lived scintillation fades present a major challenge to high-reliability operation.
Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking.
De Brigard, Felipe; Nathan Spreng, R; Mitchell, Jason P; Schacter, Daniel L
2015-04-01
Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking-i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one's life experiences could have occurred-engages the brain's default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals. PMID
Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking
De Brigard, Felipe; Spreng, R. Nathan; Mitchell, Jason P.; Schacter, Daniel L.
2016-01-01
Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking—i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one’s life experiences could have occurred—engages the brain’s default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals
25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel
Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua
2015-01-01
In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions. PMID:26419413
25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel.
Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua
2015-01-01
In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaidash, A. A.; Egorov, V. I.; Gleim, A. V.
2016-08-01
Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols.
25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua
2015-09-01
In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions.
A high-speed multi-protocol quantum key distribution transmitter based on a dual-drive modulator.
Korzh, Boris; Walenta, Nino; Houlmann, Raphael; Zbinden, Hugo
2013-08-26
We propose a novel source based on a dual-drive modulator that is adaptable and allows Alice to choose between various practical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols depending on what receiver she is communicating with. Experimental results show that the proposed transmitter is suitable for implementation of the Bennett and Brassard 1984 (BB84), coherent one-way (COW) and differential phase shift (DPS) protocols with stable and low quantum bit error rate. This could become a useful component in network QKD, where multi-protocol capability is highly desirable. PMID:24105505
Zhang, P; Aungskunsiri, K; Martín-López, E; Wabnig, J; Lobino, M; Nock, R W; Munns, J; Bonneau, D; Jiang, P; Li, H W; Laing, A; Rarity, J G; Niskanen, A O; Thompson, M G; O'Brien, J L
2014-04-01
We demonstrate a client-server quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme. Large resources such as laser and detectors are situated at the server side, which is accessible via telecom fiber to a client requiring only an on-chip polarization rotator, which may be integrated into a handheld device. The detrimental effects of unstable fiber birefringence are overcome by employing the reference-frame-independent QKD protocol for polarization qubits in polarization maintaining fiber, where standard QKD protocols fail, as we show for comparison. This opens the way for quantum enhanced secure communications between companies and members of the general public equipped with handheld mobile devices, via telecom-fiber tethering.
Measuring disaster recovery: bouncing back or reaching the counterfactual state?
Cheng, Shaoming; Ganapati, Emel; Ganapati, Sukumar
2015-07-01
How should one measure the recovery of a locale from a disaster? The measurement is crucial from a public policy and administration standpoint to determine which places should receive disaster assistance, and it affects the performance evaluation of disaster recovery programmes. This paper compares two approaches to measuring recovery: (i) bouncing back to pre-disaster conditions; and (ii) attaining the counterfactual state. The former centres on returning to normalcy following disaster-induced losses, whereas the latter focuses on attaining the state, using quasi-experimental design, which would have existed if the disaster had not occurred. Both are employed here to assess two housing recovery indicators (total new units and their valuations) in Hurricane Katrina-affected counties (rural and urban). The examination reveals significantly different outcomes for the two approaches: counties have not returned to their pre-disaster housing conditions, but they do exhibit counterfactual recovery. Moreover, rural counties may not be as vulnerable as assumed in the disaster recovery literature. PMID:25581221
Measuring disaster recovery: bouncing back or reaching the counterfactual state?
Cheng, Shaoming; Ganapati, Emel; Ganapati, Sukumar
2015-07-01
How should one measure the recovery of a locale from a disaster? The measurement is crucial from a public policy and administration standpoint to determine which places should receive disaster assistance, and it affects the performance evaluation of disaster recovery programmes. This paper compares two approaches to measuring recovery: (i) bouncing back to pre-disaster conditions; and (ii) attaining the counterfactual state. The former centres on returning to normalcy following disaster-induced losses, whereas the latter focuses on attaining the state, using quasi-experimental design, which would have existed if the disaster had not occurred. Both are employed here to assess two housing recovery indicators (total new units and their valuations) in Hurricane Katrina-affected counties (rural and urban). The examination reveals significantly different outcomes for the two approaches: counties have not returned to their pre-disaster housing conditions, but they do exhibit counterfactual recovery. Moreover, rural counties may not be as vulnerable as assumed in the disaster recovery literature.
Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed. Here we present…
Gerlach, Kathy D.; Dornblaser, David W.; Schacter, Daniel L.
2013-01-01
People frequently engage in counterfactual thinking: mental simulations of alternative outcomes to past events. Like simulations of future events, counterfactual simulations serve adaptive functions. However, future simulation can also result in various kinds of distortions and has thus been characterized as an adaptive constructive process. Here we approach counterfactual thinking as such and examine whether it can distort memory for actual events. In Experiments 1a/b, young and older adults imagined themselves experiencing different scenarios. Participants then imagined the same scenario again, engaged in no further simulation of a scenario, or imagined a counterfactual outcome. On a subsequent recognition test, participants were more likely to make false alarms to counterfactual lures than novel scenarios. Older adults were more prone to these memory errors than younger adults. In Experiment 2, younger and older participants selected and performed different actions, then recalled performing some of those actions, imagined performing alternative actions to some of the selected actions, and did not imagine others. Participants, especially older adults, were more likely to falsely remember counterfactual actions than novel actions as previously performed. The findings suggest that counterfactual thinking can cause source confusion based on internally generated misinformation, consistent with its characterization as an adaptive constructive process. PMID:23560477
Thinking within the box: The relational processing style elicited by counterfactual mind-sets.
Kray, Laura J; Galinsky, Adam D; Wong, Elaine M
2006-07-01
By comparing reality to what might have been, counterfactuals promote a relational processing style characterized by a tendency to consider relationships and associations among a set of stimuli. As such, counterfactual mind-sets were expected to improve performance on tasks involving the consideration of relationships and associations but to impair performance on tasks requiring novel ideas that are uninfluenced by salient associations. The authors conducted several experiments to test this hypothesis. In Experiments 1a and 1b, the authors determined that counterfactual mind-sets increase mental states and preferences for thinking styles consistent with relational thought. Experiment 2 demonstrated a facilitative effect of counterfactual mind-sets on an analytic task involving logical relationships; Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that counterfactual mind-sets structure thought and imagination around salient associations and therefore impaired performance on creative generation tasks. In Experiment 5, the authors demonstrated that the detrimental effect of counterfactual mind-sets is limited to creative tasks involving novel idea generation; in a creative association task involving the consideration of relationships between task stimuli, counterfactual mind-sets improved performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione
2016-07-01
We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2016-03-01
Using the simplest possible quantum system—the qubit—the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous TPT article and in a separate paper posted online, we introduced catchy visualizations of the qubit based on the Bloch sphere or just the unit circle (see also Refs. 3-8 for other approaches highlighting the importance of the qubit). These visualizations open the way to understand basic ideas of quantum physics even without knowledge of the underlying mathematical formalism. In addition, simple mathematics can be introduced to describe the qubit as an abstract object and basic unit of quantum information. This generalizes the digital bit as a basic unit of classical information. The proposed visualizations can be used even at the high school level, while the mathematical explanations are of importance when teaching quantum physics at the undergraduate university level. This approach provides a unified framework to introduce common features of all quantum systems, such as the stochastic behavior and state change of a superposition state under measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Heasin; Lim, Kyongchun; Oh, Junsang; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin
2016-07-01
Quantum channel loopholes due to imperfect implementations of practical devices expose quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to potential eavesdropping attacks. Even though QKD systems are implemented with optical devices that are highly selective on spectral characteristics, information theory-based analysis about a pertinent attack strategy built with a reasonable framework exploiting it has never been clarified. This paper proposes a new type of trojan horse attack called hidden pulse attack that can be applied in a plug-and-play QKD system, using general and optimal attack strategies that can extract quantum information from phase-disturbed quantum states of eavesdropper's hidden pulses. It exploits spectral characteristics of a photodiode used in a plug-and-play QKD system in order to probe modulation states of photon qubits. We analyze the security performance of the decoy-state BB84 QKD system under the optimal hidden pulse attack model that shows enormous performance degradation in terms of both secret key rate and transmission distance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Heasin; Lim, Kyongchun; Oh, Junsang; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin
2016-10-01
Quantum channel loopholes due to imperfect implementations of practical devices expose quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to potential eavesdropping attacks. Even though QKD systems are implemented with optical devices that are highly selective on spectral characteristics, information theory-based analysis about a pertinent attack strategy built with a reasonable framework exploiting it has never been clarified. This paper proposes a new type of trojan horse attack called hidden pulse attack that can be applied in a plug-and-play QKD system, using general and optimal attack strategies that can extract quantum information from phase-disturbed quantum states of eavesdropper's hidden pulses. It exploits spectral characteristics of a photodiode used in a plug-and-play QKD system in order to probe modulation states of photon qubits. We analyze the security performance of the decoy-state BB84 QKD system under the optimal hidden pulse attack model that shows enormous performance degradation in terms of both secret key rate and transmission distance.
Liu, Mao Tong; Lim, Han Chuen
2014-09-22
When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.
Symul, Thomas; Alton, Daniel J.; Lance, Andrew M.; Lam, Ping Koy; Assad, Syed M.; Weedbrook, Christian; Ralph, Timothy C.
2007-09-15
In realistic continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols, an eavesdropper may exploit the additional Gaussian noise generated during transmission to mask her presence. We present a theoretical framework for a post-selection-based protocol which explicitly takes into account excess Gaussian noise. We derive a quantitative expression of the secret key rates based on the Levitin and Holevo bounds. We experimentally demonstrate that the post-selection-based scheme is still secure against both individual and collective Gaussian attacks in the presence of this excess noise.
Wang, Qin; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
In this paper, we put forward a new approach towards realizing measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with passive heralded single-photon sources. In this approach, both Alice and Bob prepare the parametric down-conversion source, where the heralding photons are labeled according to different types of clicks from the local detectors, and the heralded ones can correspondingly be marked with different tags at the receiver’s side. Then one can obtain four sets of data through using only one-intensity of pump light by observing different kinds of clicks of local detectors. By employing the newest formulae to do parameter estimation, we could achieve very precise prediction for the two-single-photon pulse contribution. Furthermore, by carrying out corresponding numerical simulations, we compare the new method with other practical schemes of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. We demonstrate that our new proposed passive scheme can exhibit remarkable improvement over the conventional three-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with either heralded single-photon sources or weak coherent sources. Besides, it does not need intensity modulation and can thus diminish source-error defects existing in several other active decoy-state methods. Therefore, if taking intensity modulating errors into account, our new method will show even more brilliant performance. PMID:27759085
Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2015-09-25
Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features. PMID:26194028
Ernst, Florian
2015-03-01
Thought Experiments in Historiographic Function: Max Weber on Eduard Meyer and the Question of Counterfactuality. Max Weber's remarks on his colleague Eduard Meyer regarding counterfactual reasoning in history reflects a significant shift during the Methodenstreit around 1900. The question of attributing historical change strictly to either individual causes or abstract general laws has been tackled in a new way: By counterfactual reasoning a historian should be able to detect the most significant (and therefore meaningful) cause, event, or action for a certain historical outcome. Following Fritz Ringer, this paper argues that given the predominating methods of the natural sciences, scholars of the humanities conducted historical research by counterfactual thought experiments. This way, Weber pried open contemporary narratives (e.g. historicism), and by employing a unique historical causal analysis he made way for refined concepts to offer a model of interpretation that gave hope for a more feasible, practice-oriented approach to historical research than the epistemological discussions had hitherto offered.
Examining the cognitive costs of counterfactual language comprehension: Evidence from ERPs.
Ferguson, Heather J; Cane, James E
2015-10-01
Recent empirical research suggests that understanding a counterfactual event (e.g. 'If Josie had revised, she would have passed her exams') activates mental representations of both the factual and counterfactual versions of events. However, it remains unclear when readers switch between these models during comprehension, and whether representing multiple 'worlds' is cognitively effortful. This paper reports two ERP studies where participants read contexts that set up a factual or counterfactual scenario, followed by a second sentence describing a consequence of this event. Critically, this sentence included a noun that was either consistent or inconsistent with the preceding context, and either included a modal verb to indicate reference to the counterfactual-world or not (thus referring to the factual-world). Experiment 2 used adapted versions of the materials used in Experiment 1 to examine the degree to which representing multiple versions of a counterfactual situation makes heavy demands on cognitive resources by measuring individuals' working memory capacity. Results showed that when reference to the counterfactual-world was maintained by the ongoing discourse, readers correctly interpreted events according to the counterfactual-world (i.e. showed larger N400 for inconsistent than consistent words). In contrast, when cues referred back to the factual-world, readers showed no difference between consistent and inconsistent critical words, suggesting that they simultaneously compared information against both possible worlds. These results support previous dual-representation accounts for counterfactuals, and provide new evidence that linguistic cues can guide the reader in selecting which world model to evaluate incoming information against. Crucially, we reveal evidence that maintaining and updating a hypothetical model over time relies upon the availability of cognitive resources.
Examining the cognitive costs of counterfactual language comprehension: Evidence from ERPs.
Ferguson, Heather J; Cane, James E
2015-10-01
Recent empirical research suggests that understanding a counterfactual event (e.g. 'If Josie had revised, she would have passed her exams') activates mental representations of both the factual and counterfactual versions of events. However, it remains unclear when readers switch between these models during comprehension, and whether representing multiple 'worlds' is cognitively effortful. This paper reports two ERP studies where participants read contexts that set up a factual or counterfactual scenario, followed by a second sentence describing a consequence of this event. Critically, this sentence included a noun that was either consistent or inconsistent with the preceding context, and either included a modal verb to indicate reference to the counterfactual-world or not (thus referring to the factual-world). Experiment 2 used adapted versions of the materials used in Experiment 1 to examine the degree to which representing multiple versions of a counterfactual situation makes heavy demands on cognitive resources by measuring individuals' working memory capacity. Results showed that when reference to the counterfactual-world was maintained by the ongoing discourse, readers correctly interpreted events according to the counterfactual-world (i.e. showed larger N400 for inconsistent than consistent words). In contrast, when cues referred back to the factual-world, readers showed no difference between consistent and inconsistent critical words, suggesting that they simultaneously compared information against both possible worlds. These results support previous dual-representation accounts for counterfactuals, and provide new evidence that linguistic cues can guide the reader in selecting which world model to evaluate incoming information against. Crucially, we reveal evidence that maintaining and updating a hypothetical model over time relies upon the availability of cognitive resources. PMID:26119912
Liu Weitao; Sun Shihai; Liang Linmei; Yuan Jianmin
2011-04-15
Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper to collect information about the key without being discovered. We propose a modified photon-number-splitting attack scheme against QKD systems based on weak laser pulses taking advantage of possible multiphoton pulses. Proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. The results show that the eavesdropper can get information about the key generated between the legitimate parties without being detected. Since the equivalent attenuation introduced by the eavesdropper for pulses of different average photon numbers are different, the decoy-state method is effective in fighting against this kind of attack. This has also been proven in our experiments.
Schacter, Daniel L.; Benoit, Roland G.; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.
2014-01-01
This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. PMID:24373942
Altered behavioral and neural responsiveness to counterfactual gains in the elderly.
Tobia, Michael J; Guo, Rong; Gläscher, Jan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Brassen, Stefanie; Büchel, Christian; Obermayer, Klaus; Sommer, Tobias
2016-06-01
Counterfactual information processing refers to the consideration of events that did not occur in comparison to those actually experienced, in order to determine optimal actions, and can be formulated as computational learning signals, referred to as fictive prediction errors. Decision making and the neural circuitry for counterfactual processing are altered in healthy elderly adults. This experiment investigated age differences in neural systems for decision making with knowledge of counterfactual outcomes. Two groups of healthy adult participants, young (N = 30; ages 19-30 years) and elderly (N = 19; ages 65-80 years), were scanned with fMRI during 240 trials of a strategic sequential investment task in which a particular strategy of differentially weighting counterfactual gains and losses during valuation is associated with more optimal performance. Elderly participants earned significantly less than young adults, differently weighted counterfactual consequences and exploited task knowledge, and exhibited altered activity in a fronto-striatal circuit while making choices, compared to young adults. The degree to which task knowledge was exploited was positively correlated with modulation of neural activity by expected value in the vmPFC for young adults, but not in the elderly. These findings demonstrate that elderly participants' poor task performance may be related to different counterfactual processing. PMID:26864879
Ferguson, Heather J
2012-01-01
Imagining a counterfactual world using conditionals (e.g., If Joanne had remembered her umbrella . . .) is common in everyday language. However, such utterances are likely to involve fairly complex reasoning processes to represent both the explicit hypothetical conjecture and its implied factual meaning. Online research into these mechanisms has so far been limited. The present paper describes two eye movement studies that investigated the time-course with which comprehenders can set up and access factual inferences based on a realistic counterfactual context. Adult participants were eye-tracked while they read short narratives, in which a context sentence set up a counterfactual world (If . . . then . . .), and a subsequent critical sentence described an event that was either consistent or inconsistent with the implied factual world. A factual consistent condition (Because . . . then . . .) was included as a baseline of normal contextual integration. Results showed that within a counterfactual scenario, readers quickly inferred the implied factual meaning of the discourse. However, initial processing of the critical word led to clear, but distinct, anomaly detection responses for both contextually inconsistent and consistent conditions. These results provide evidence that readers can rapidly make a factual inference from a preceding counterfactual context, despite maintaining access to both counterfactual and factual interpretations of events. PMID:22313036
Gleim, A V; Egorov, V I; Nazarov, Yu V; Smirnov, S V; Chistyakov, V V; Bannik, O I; Anisimov, A A; Kynev, S M; Ivanova, A E; Collins, R J; Kozlov, S A; Buller, G S
2016-02-01
A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters. PMID:26906834
How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas
2011-12-15
Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2014-03-01
The two-way Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) systems allow higher key rates and improved transmission distances over standard telecommunication networks in comparison to the one-way CVQKD protocols. To exploit the real potential of two-way CVQKD systems a robust reconciliation technique is needed. It is currently unavailable, which makes it impossible to reach the real performance of a two-way CVQKD system. We propose an efficient logical layer-based reconciliation method for two-way CVQKD to extract binary information from correlated Gaussian variables. We demonstrate that by operating on the raw-data level, the noise of the quantum channel can be corrected in the scalar space and the reconciliation can be extended to arbitrary high dimensions. The results allow to significantly improve the currently available key rates and transmission distances of two-way CVQKD. We show that by exploiting the proposed adaptive multicarrier modulation scheme, two-way CVQKD can be extended to a range of 160 km over optical fiber with improved tolerable loss and excess noise. The proposed scalar reconciliation can also be applied in one-way systems as well, and can be extended for multiuser communication.
Petrocelli, John V.
2013-01-01
Background Counterfactual thinking involves mentally simulating alternatives to reality. The current article reviews literature pertaining to the relevance counterfactual thinking has for the quality of medical decision making. Although earlier counterfactual thought research concluded that counterfactuals have important benefits for the individual, there are reasons to believe that counterfactual thinking is also associated with dysfunctional consequences. Of particular focus is whether or not medical experience, and its influence on counterfactual thinking, actually informs or improves medical practice. It is hypothesized that relatively more probable decision alternatives, followed by undesirable outcomes and counterfactual thought responses, can be abandoned for relatively less probable decision alternatives. Design and Methods Building on earlier research demonstrating that counterfactual thinking can impede memory and learning in a decision paradigm with undergraduate students, the current study examines the extent to which earlier findings can be generalized to practicing physicians (N=10). Participants were asked to complete 60 trials of a computerized Monty Hall Problem simulation. Learning by experience was operationalized as the frequency of switch-decisions. Results Although some learning was evidenced by a general increase in switch-decision frequency across block trials, the extent of learning demonstrated was not ideal, nor practical. Conclusions A simple, multiple-trial, decision paradigm demonstrated that doctors fail to learn basic decision-outcome associations through experience. An agenda for future research, which tests the functionality of reference points (other than counterfactual alternatives) for the purposes of medical decision making, is proposed. Significance for public health The quality of healthcare depends heavily on the judgments and decisions made by doctors and other medical professionals. Findings from this research indicate
Wang, Jindong; Qin, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Liwei; Zhao, Feng; Wei, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiming
2016-04-18
A proof-of-principle demonstration of a one-way polarization encoding quantum key distribution (QKD) system is demonstrated. This approach can automatically compensate for birefringence and phase drift. This is achieved by constructing intrinsically stable polarization-modulated units (PMUs) to perform the encoding and decoding, which can be used with four-state protocol, six-state protocol, and the measurement-device-independent (MDI) scheme. A polarization extinction ratio of about 30 dB was maintained for several hours over a 50 km optical fiber without any adjustments to our setup, which evidences its potential for use in practical applications. PMID:27137268
Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Tuned Linear Optics Cloning Machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Qiu, Deli; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua
2015-09-01
We show that the tolerable excess noise can be elegantly controlled while inserting a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) for continuous-variable key distribution (CVQKD). The LOCM-tuned noise can be stabilized to an optimal value by the reference partner of reconciliation to guarantee the high secret key rate. Simulation results show that there is a considerable improvement of the performance for the LOCM-based CVQKD protocol in terms of the secret rate while making a fine balance between the secret key rate and the transmission distance with the dynamically tuned parameters in suitable ranges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2015-06-01
The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security.
Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia
Albacete, Auria; Contreras, Fernando; Bosque, Clara; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Ángela; Menchón, José M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa
2016-01-01
Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia (Hooker et al., 2000; Contreras et al., 2016). At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N = 43), in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 44). A series of tests that assessed the “causal order effect” in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgments of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Due to the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies. PMID:27242583
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirota, Osamu; Iwakoshi, Takehisa; Sohma, Masaki; Futami, Fumio
2010-08-01
The security in the next generation optical network which realizes "Cloud Computing System Service with data center" is one of the most important problems. In such a network, the encryption in physical layer which provide super security and small delay is a preferable. It has to be applicable, however, to very high speed data because the basic link is operated at 2.5 Gbit/sec ~ 10 Gbit/sec. The quantum stream cipher by Yuen-2000 protocol (Y00) is a completely new type of random cipher, which can exceed the Shannon limit of the symmetric key cipher. This paper extends some theoretical results on the security for quantum stream cipher such as Y00 protocol and generalized Y00. First, the conditions to exceed the Shannon limit are summarized. We formulate a generalized secret capacity in the sense of wire tap channel supported by secret key to clarify a cipher exceeding the Shannon limit. The generalized secret capacities for space communication and fiber communication based on the generalized Y00 are given. When the relaxation of physical constraint or device limit of the eavesdropper is allowed, we point out that a cipher scheme exceeding the Shannon limit can be realized only by the conventional optical system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Gan
2015-08-01
Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song’s encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song’s schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205115), the Program for Academic Leader Reserve Candidates in Tongling University (Grant No. 2014tlxyxs30), and the 2014-year Program for Excellent Youth Talents in University of Anhui Province, China.
Collective Attacks and Unconditional Security in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosshans, Frédéric
2005-01-01
We present here an information theoretic study of Gaussian collective attacks on the continuous variable key distribution protocols based on Gaussian modulation of coherent states. These attacks, overlooked in previous security studies, give a finite advantage to the eavesdropper in the experimentally relevant lossy channel, but are not powerful enough to reduce the range of the reverse reconciliation protocols. Secret key rates are given for the ideal case where Bob performs optimal collective measurements, as well as for the realistic cases where he performs homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We also apply the generic security proof of Christiandl et al. to obtain unconditionally secure rates for these protocols.
Finding fault: Causality and counterfactuals in group attributions
Zultan, Ro’i; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Lagnado, David A.
2012-01-01
Attributions of responsibility play a critical role in many group interactions. This paper explores the role of causal and counterfactual reasoning in blame attributions in groups. We develop a general framework that builds on the notion of pivotality: an agent is pivotal if she could have changed the group outcome by acting differently. In three experiments we test successive refinements of this notion – whether an agent is pivotal in close possible situations and the number of paths to achieve pivotality. In order to discriminate between potential models, we introduced group tasks with asymmetric structures. Some group members were complements (for the two to contribute to the group outcome it was necessary that both succeed) whereas others were substitutes (for the two to contribute to the group outcome it was sufficient that one succeeds). Across all three experiments we found that people’s attributions were sensitive to the number of paths to pivotality. In particular, an agent incurred more blame for a team loss in the presence of a successful complementary peer than in the presence of a successful substitute. PMID:22959289
Begeer, Sander; De Rosnay, Marc; Lunenburg, Patty; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum
2014-04-01
The understanding of emotions based on counterfactual reasoning was studied in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (n = 71) and in typically developing children (n = 71), aged 6-12 years. Children were presented with eight stories about two protagonists who experienced the same positive or negative outcome, either due to their own action or by default. Relative to the comparison group, children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder were poor at explaining emotions based on downward counterfactual reasoning (i.e. contentment and relief). There were no group differences in upward counterfactual reasoning (i.e. disappointment and regret). In the comparison group, second-order false-belief reasoning was related to children's understanding of second-order counterfactual emotions (i.e. regret and relief), while children in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group relied more on their general intellectual skills. Results are discussed in terms of the different functions of counterfactual reasoning about emotion and the cognitive style of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.
Padrón, Iván; Rodrigo, María Jose; de Vega, Manuel
2016-01-01
We report a study that examined the existence of a cognitive developmental paradox in the counterfactual evaluation of decision-making outcomes. According to this paradox adolescents and young adults could be able to apply counterfactual reasoning and, yet, their counterfactual evaluation of outcomes could be biased in a salient socio-emotional context. To this aim, we analyzed the impact of health and social feedback on the counterfactual evaluation of outcomes in a laboratory decision-making task involving short narratives with the presence of peers. Forty risky (e.g., taking or refusing a drug), forty neutral decisions (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog), and emotions felt following positive or negative outcomes were examined in 256 early, mid- and late adolescents, and young adults, evenly distributed. Results showed that emotional ratings to negative outcomes (regret and disappointment) but not to positive outcomes (relief and elation) were attenuated when feedback was provided. Evidence of development of cognitive decision-making capacities did also exist, as the capacity to perform faster emotional ratings and to differentially allocate more resources to the elaboration of emotional ratings when no feedback information was available increased with age. Overall, we interpret these findings as challenging the traditional cognitive developmental assumption that development necessarily proceeds from lesser to greater capacities, reflecting the impact of socio-emotional processes that could bias the counterfactual evaluation of social decision-making outcomes. PMID:27152127
Decision-Making Dysfunctions of Counterfactuals in Depression: Who Might I have Been?
Howlett, Jonathon R; Paulus, Martin P
2013-01-01
Cognitive neuroscience enables us now to decompose major depressive disorder into dysfunctional component processes and relate these processes to specific neural substrates. This approach can be used to illuminate the biological basis of altered psychological processes in depression, including abnormal decision-making. One important decision-related process is counterfactual thinking, or the comparison of reality to hypothetical alternatives. Evidence suggests that individuals with depression experience exaggerated emotional responses due to focusing on counterfactual decision outcomes in general and regret, i.e., the emotion associated with focus on an alternative superior outcome, in particular. Regret is linked to self-esteem in that it involves the evaluation of an individual's own decisions. Alterations of self-esteem, in turn, are a hallmark of depression. The literature on the behavioral and neural processes underlying counterfactual thinking, self-esteem, and depression is selectively reviewed. A model is proposed in which unstable self-representation in depression is more strongly perturbed when a different choice would have produced a better outcome, leading to increased feelings of regret. This approach may help unify diverse aspects of depression, can generate testable predictions, and may suggest new treatment avenues targeting distorted counterfactual cognitions, attentional biases toward superior counterfactual outcomes, or increased affective response to regretted outcomes. PMID:24265620
Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future
Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank
2013-01-01
Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155
Decision-Making Dysfunctions of Counterfactuals in Depression: Who Might I have Been?
Howlett, Jonathon R.; Paulus, Martin P.
2013-01-01
Cognitive neuroscience enables us now to decompose major depressive disorder into dysfunctional component processes and relate these processes to specific neural substrates. This approach can be used to illuminate the biological basis of altered psychological processes in depression, including abnormal decision-making. One important decision-related process is counterfactual thinking, or the comparison of reality to hypothetical alternatives. Evidence suggests that individuals with depression experience exaggerated emotional responses due to focusing on counterfactual decision outcomes in general and regret, i.e., the emotion associated with focus on an alternative superior outcome, in particular. Regret is linked to self-esteem in that it involves the evaluation of an individual’s own decisions. Alterations of self-esteem, in turn, are a hallmark of depression. The literature on the behavioral and neural processes underlying counterfactual thinking, self-esteem, and depression is selectively reviewed. A model is proposed in which unstable self-representation in depression is more strongly perturbed when a different choice would have produced a better outcome, leading to increased feelings of regret. This approach may help unify diverse aspects of depression, can generate testable predictions, and may suggest new treatment avenues targeting distorted counterfactual cognitions, attentional biases toward superior counterfactual outcomes, or increased affective response to regretted outcomes. PMID:24265620
"It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.
Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert
2016-08-01
In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy. PMID:27156177
"It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.
Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert
2016-08-01
In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy.
Padrón, Iván; Rodrigo, María Jose; de Vega, Manuel
2016-01-01
We report a study that examined the existence of a cognitive developmental paradox in the counterfactual evaluation of decision-making outcomes. According to this paradox adolescents and young adults could be able to apply counterfactual reasoning and, yet, their counterfactual evaluation of outcomes could be biased in a salient socio-emotional context. To this aim, we analyzed the impact of health and social feedback on the counterfactual evaluation of outcomes in a laboratory decision-making task involving short narratives with the presence of peers. Forty risky (e.g., taking or refusing a drug), forty neutral decisions (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog), and emotions felt following positive or negative outcomes were examined in 256 early, mid- and late adolescents, and young adults, evenly distributed. Results showed that emotional ratings to negative outcomes (regret and disappointment) but not to positive outcomes (relief and elation) were attenuated when feedback was provided. Evidence of development of cognitive decision-making capacities did also exist, as the capacity to perform faster emotional ratings and to differentially allocate more resources to the elaboration of emotional ratings when no feedback information was available increased with age. Overall, we interpret these findings as challenging the traditional cognitive developmental assumption that development necessarily proceeds from lesser to greater capacities, reflecting the impact of socio-emotional processes that could bias the counterfactual evaluation of social decision-making outcomes. PMID:27152127
Magnetic quantum tunneling: key insights from multi-dimensional high-field EPR.
Lawrence, J; Yang, E-C; Hendrickson, D N; Hill, S
2009-08-21
Multi-dimensional high-field/frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy is performed on single-crystals of the high-symmetry spin S = 4 tetranuclear single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Ni(hmp)(dmb)Cl](4), where hmp(-) is the anion of 2-hydroxymethylpyridine and dmb is 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol. Measurements performed as a function of the applied magnetic field strength and its orientation within the hard-plane reveal the four-fold behavior associated with the fourth order transverse zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction, (1/2)B(S + S), within the framework of a rigid spin approximation (with S = 4). This ZFS interaction mixes the m(s) = +/-4 ground states in second order of perturbation, generating a sizeable (12 MHz) tunnel splitting, which explains the fast magnetic quantum tunneling in this SMM. Meanwhile, multi-frequency measurements performed with the field parallel to the easy-axis reveal HFEPR transitions associated with excited spin multiplets (S < 4). Analysis of the temperature dependence of the intensities of these transitions enables determination of the isotropic Heisenberg exchange constant, J = -6.0 cm(-1), which couples the four spin s = 1 Ni(II) ions within the cluster, as well as a characterization of the ZFS within excited states. The combined experimental studies support recent work indicating that the fourth order anisotropy associated with the S = 4 state originates from second order ZFS interactions associated with the individual Ni(II) centers, but only as a result of higher-order processes that occur via S-mixing between the ground state and higher-lying (S < 4) spin multiplets. We argue that this S-mixing plays an important role in the low-temperature quantum dynamics associated with many other well known SMMs.
De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.; Schacter, Daniel L.
2013-01-01
When people revisit previous experiences they often engage in episodic counterfactual thinking: mental simulations of alternative ways in which personal past events could have occurred. The present study employs a novel experimental paradigm to examine the influence of repeated simulation on the perceived plausibility of upward, downward and neutral episodic counterfactual thoughts. Participants were asked to remember negative, positive, and neutral autobiographical memories. One week later, they re-simulated self-generated upward, downward, and neutral counterfactual alternatives to those memories either once or four times. The results indicate that repeated simulation of upward, downward and neutral episodic counterfactual events decreases their perceived plausibility while increasing ratings of ease, detail, and valence. This finding suggests differences between episodic counterfactual thoughts and other kinds of self-referential simulations. Possible implications of this finding for pathological and non-pathological anxiety are discussed. PMID:23673994
Trojan Horse Attack Free Fault-Tolerant Quantum Key Distribution Protocols Using GHZ States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-09-01
Recently, Yang and Hwang (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(3): 781-794, 19) proposed two fault-tolerant QKD protocols based on their proposed coding functions for resisting the collective noise, and their QKD protocols are free from Trojan horse attack without employing any specific detecting devices (e.g., photon number splitter (PNS) and wavelength filter). By using four-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and four-particle GHZ-like state in their proposed coding functions, Yang and Hwang's QKD protocols can resist each kind of the collective noise-collective-dephasing noise, collective-rotation noise. However, their proposed coding function can be improved by the utilization of three-particle GHZ state (three-particle GHZ-like state) instead of four-particle GHZ state (four-particle GHZ-like state) that will eventually reduce the consumption of the qubits. As a result, this study proposed the improved version of Yang and Hwang's coding functions to enhance the qubit efficiency of their schemes from 20 % to 22 %.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-01-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson’s configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Zeghuzi, A. Schmeckebier, H.; Stubenrauch, M.; Bimberg, D.; Meuer, C.; Schubert, C.; Bunge, C.-A.
2015-05-25
Error-free generation of 25-Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals via direct modulation of InAs quantum-dot (QD) based semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is experimentally demonstrated with an input power level of −5 dBm. The QD SOAs emit in the 1.3-μm wavelength range and provide a small-signal fiber-to-fiber gain of 8 dB. Furthermore, error-free DPSK modulation is achieved for constant optical input power levels from 3 dBm down to only −11 dBm for a bit rate of 20 Gbit/s. Direct phase modulation of QD SOAs via current changes is thus demonstrated to be much faster than direct gain modulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Dong-Xiao; Zhu, Chang-Hua; Liu, Shi-Quan; Pei, Chang-Xing
2015-05-01
We construct a circuit based on PBS and CNOT gates, which can be used to determine whether the input pulse is empty or not according to the detection result of the auxiliary state, while the input state will not be changed. The circuit can be treated as a pre-detection device. Equipping the pre-detection device in the front of the receiver of the quantum key distribution (QKD) can reduce the influence of the dark count of the detector, hence increasing the secure communication distance significantly. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can reach 516 km and 479 km for QKD with perfect single photon source and decoy-state QKD with weak coherent photon source, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372076), the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B08038), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. K5051201021).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the
Deconstructing the smoking-preeclampsia paradox through a counterfactual framework.
Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Zoega, Helga; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Williams, Michelle A
2016-06-01
Although smoking during pregnancy may lead to many adverse outcomes, numerous studies have reported a paradoxical inverse association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia. Using a counterfactual framework we aimed to explore the structure of this paradox as being a consequence of selection bias. Using a case-control study nested in the Icelandic Birth Registry (1309 women), we show how this selection bias can be explored and corrected for. Cases were defined as any case of pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia occurring after 20 weeks' gestation and controls as normotensive mothers who gave birth in the same year. First, we used directed acyclic graphs to illustrate the common bias structure. Second, we used classical logistic regression and mediation analytic methods for dichotomous outcomes to explore the structure of the bias. Lastly, we performed both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the amount of bias due to an uncontrolled confounder and corrected for it. The biased effect of smoking was estimated to reduce the odds of preeclampsia by 28 % (OR 0.72, 95 %CI 0.52, 0.99) and after stratification by gestational age at delivery (<37 vs. ≥37 gestation weeks) by 75 % (OR 0.25, 95 %CI 0.10, 0.68). In a mediation analysis, the natural indirect effect showed and OR > 1, revealing the structure of the paradox. The bias-adjusted estimation of the smoking effect on preeclampsia showed an OR of 1.22 (95 %CI 0.41, 6.53). The smoking-preeclampsia paradox appears to be an example of (1) selection bias most likely caused by studying cases prevalent at birth rather than all incident cases from conception in a pregnancy cohort, (2) omitting important confounders associated with both smoking and preeclampsia (preventing the outcome to develop) and (3) controlling for a collider (gestation weeks at delivery). Future studies need to consider these aspects when studying and interpreting the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mueller, Christoph Emanuel; Gaus, Hansjoerg; Rech, Joerg
2014-01-01
This article proposes an innovative approach to estimating the counterfactual without the necessity of generating information from either a control group or a before-measure. Building on the idea that program participants are capable of estimating the hypothetical state they would be in had they not participated, the basics of the Roy-Rubin model…
Evidence-Based Practices in a Changing World: Reconsidering the Counterfactual in Education Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lemons, Christopher J.; Fuchs, Douglas; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
2014-01-01
Experimental and quasi-experimental designs are used in educational research to establish causality and develop effective practices. These research designs rely on a counterfactual model that, in simple form, calls for a comparison between a treatment group and a control group. Developers of educational practices often assume that the population…
Counterfactual Thinking and Anticipated Emotions Enhance Performance in Computer Skills Training
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Amy Y. C.; Caputi, Peter; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Browne, Jessica L.
2013-01-01
The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating "what if" and "if only" thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Begeer, Sander; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Lunenburg, Patty; Stegge, Hedy
2009-01-01
The development of additive ("If only I had done...") and subtractive ("If only I had not done....") counterfactual reasoning was examined in children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD) (n = 72) and typically developing controls (n = 71), aged 6-12 years. Children were presented four stories where they could generate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nieuwland, Mante S.
2013-01-01
People can establish whether a sentence is hypothetically true even if what it describes can never be literally true given the laws of the natural world. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments examined electrophysiological responses to sentences about unrealistic counterfactual worlds that require people to construct novel conceptual…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crutchley, Alison
2013-01-01
Children start producing ["necessary and sufficient"] conditionals relatively late. Past counterfactuals (PCFs), for example "If she had shut the cage, the rabbit wouldn't have escaped", are particularly problematic for children; despite evidence of comprehension in the preschool years, children aged eleven are still…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caputi, Peter; Chan, Amy; Jayasuriya, Rohan
2011-01-01
This paper examined the impact of training strategies on the types of errors that novice users make when learning a commonly used spreadsheet application. Fifty participants were assigned to a counterfactual thinking training (CFT) strategy, an error management training strategy, or a combination of both strategies, and completed an easy task…
Pretense, Counterfactuals, and Bayesian Causal Models: Why What Is Not Real Really Matters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weisberg, Deena S.; Gopnik, Alison
2013-01-01
Young children spend a large portion of their time pretending about non-real situations. Why? We answer this question by using the framework of Bayesian causal models to argue that pretending and counterfactual reasoning engage the same component cognitive abilities: disengaging with current reality, making inferences about an alternative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Habib, M.; Cassotti, M.; Borst, G.; Simon, G.; Pineau, A.; Houde, O.; Moutier, S.
2012-01-01
Regret and relief are related to counterfactual thinking and rely on comparison processes between what has been and what might have been. In this article, we study the development of regret and relief from late childhood to adulthood (11.2-20.2 years), and we examine how these two emotions affect individuals' willingness to retrospectively…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl
2013-01-01
The present study extends understanding of the self-regulatory aspects of ethical decision making by integrating and exploring relationships among counterfactual thinking, attribution, anticipatory emotions, and ethical decision-making constructs and processes. Specifically, we examine the effects of a manipulation designed to stimulate a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Hyun Sik
2015-01-01
Drawing on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class 1998-1999 of the United States, this article evaluates teacher expectancy effects on achievement growth in kindergarten. We attempt to disentangle teacher expectancy effects from omitted variable bias or predictive validity by exploiting counterfactual predictions in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chau, H. F.; Cai, Qing-Yu
2012-03-01
Privacy amplification (PA) is an essential postprocessing step in quantum key distribution (QKD) for removing any information an eavesdropper may have on the final secret key. In this paper, we consider delaying PA of the final key after its use in one-time pad encryption and prove its security. We prove that the security and the key generation rate are not affected by delaying PA. Delaying PA has two applications: it serves as a tool for significantly simplifying the security proof of QKD with a two-way quantum channel, and also it is useful in QKD networks with trusted relays. To illustrate the power of the delayed PA idea, we use it to prove the security of a qubit-based two-way deterministic QKD protocol which uses four states and four encoding operations.
The effects of belief in good luck and counterfactual thinking on gambling behavior
Kim, So-Ra; Kwon, Young-Sil; Hyun, Myoung-Ho
2015-01-01
Background and Aims One’s belief in good luck, and belief that it is a personal trait, could play a crucial role in gambling behavior, and can lead gamblers to have an irrational anticipation to win and to over-generalize their subjective sense of control. And upward counterfactual thinking has been considered to be a factor that offsets those irrational beliefs. This study examined the effects of belief in good luck and of upward counterfactual thinking on gambling behavior. Methods The subjects of the study were 52 college students who had been classified as non-problematic and non-pathological gamblers. They were assigned into one of two groups, distinguished by having either high (n = 25) or low (n = 27) levels of self-perception of luck, as determined by their scores on the Belief in Good Luck (BIGL) Scale. The subjects were assigned to different groups according to their reported experience of upward counterfactual thinking. Results We found that those who had high BIGL scores spent more money on gambling than those who had low BIGL scores. Moreover, after taking into account the upward counterfactual thinking, the subjects with high BIGL scores showed a dramatic decrease in their expectations of winning. Discussion The results indicate that to perceive luck as a personal and internal trait could affect gambling, which is one of the cognitive errors for gambling addiction. On the other hand, given that upward counterfactual thinking plays an important role in reducing cognitive errors, it could act as a protective factor against gambling addiction. PMID:26690618
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel
2016-05-01
Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.
Petrocelli, John V; Dowd, Keith
2009-09-01
Punitive responses to crime have been linked to a relatively low need for cognition (NFC). Sargent's (2004) findings suggest that this relationship is due to a relatively complex attributional system, employed by high-NFC individuals, which permits them to recognize potential external or situational causes of crime. However, high-NFC individuals may also be more likely to engage in counterfactual thinking, which has been linked to greater judgments of blame and responsibility. Three studies examine the relationship between trait and state NFC and punitiveness in light of counterfactual thinking. Results suggest that the ease of generating upward counterfactuals in response to an unfortunate crime moderates the NFC-punitiveness relationship, such that high-NFC individuals are less punitive than low-NFC individuals only when counterfactual thoughts are relatively difficult to generate. These findings are discussed in light of punishment theory and their possible implications with regard to the legal system.
Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.
Hesketh, Ian
2016-08-01
This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. PMID:26791094
Campaner, Raffaella
2011-12-01
Current epidemiological and statistical theory about research methods and how to elicit causation from epidemiological studies is strongly influenced by counterfactual-manipulative thinking. However, thinking about how disease states develop is rooted in mechanistic 'webs of causes'. After a tremendous growth of research in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics, attention has increasingly been paid to environmental and socioeconomic factors as determinants of diseases. This led to conceiving of most pathologies as caused by multilevel mechanical systems. The nature of 'mechanisms' has been the subject of extensive philosophical reflection over the past couple of decades. The present paper will first present some of today's philosophical insights in what are called biologic or other 'mechanisms' and thereafter show how these concepts can be linked to counterfactual-manipulative views.
Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.
Hesketh, Ian
2016-08-01
This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency.
Mechanism of bystander-blaming: defensive attribution, counterfactual thinking, and gender.
Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah
2015-01-01
Contemporary victimology recognizes that an understanding of the mechanism of blaming requires a comprehensive approach that includes the victim, the offender, and the bystander. However, most of the existing research on blaming focuses on the victim and the offender, ignoring the issue of bystander-blaming. This study highlights the bystander and investigates bystander-blaming by exploring some theoretical explanations, including counterfactual thinking, defensive attribution, and gender differences. The study included 363 young male and female participants, who read vignettes describing the behavior of the victim and the bystander in a rape scenario and answered questions regarding bystander-blaming. The results show that both counterfactual thinking and defensive attribution play a role in bystander-blaming. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.